Aamer Syed, Senior Product Manager, Sika

Corporation, Lyndhurst, NJ.

Field Guide to Concrete Repair
Application Procedures
ACI Fall 2011 Convention
October 16 – 20, Cincinnati, OH


Purpose of Epoxy Injection
1. To restore structural integrity to
concrete constructions
Structural Crack 2. To resist the penetration of moisture in
Repair by Epoxy concrete elements

ACI RAP Bulletin 1
Aamer Syed
Vertical Cracks Horizontal Cracks

How Epoxy Works Properties
• Epoxies (Thermosetting Resins) have
Epoxy Too Thick Cured • Modulus of Elasticity
to Use Material
Resin A • Viscosity
– Water = 1 centipoise
– Syrup = 3000 centipoise
Pot Life Gels Hardens Solid • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Mix A with B
• Exothermic Reaction
• Produces Heat
Liquid Semi-Solid
Hardener • Mixing time is critical
B • Manage the working time


use an LV epoxy (500 cps  Horizontal. Remove Ports & Cap Seal 2 . Port Installation with unwanted dust  Remove contaminants with “oil-free” 2. Inject the Epoxy “V-Groove” the crack until sound concrete is reached. Install the Cap Seal compressed air or vacuums  If concrete adjacent to crack is deteriorated. Vertical & Overhead Cracks or less)  For wider cracks or one where conventional repair methods sided injection medium viscosity or gel can be do not work used  Other specs to consider:  Structural Crack Repair • Rigidity (MOE) • Working Life  Static Cracks • Moisture Tolerance • Color • Compressive. grinders fill crack 1.  Moving cracks are not typically injected & Tensile Strengths Equipment Safety For high or low pressure systems: • MSDS for all materials used  Injection Ports • Protective Clothing. 3. Choosing the Right Epoxy When to Use Injection Method?  Crack width <. Eyewear & Gloves  Wire Brush or Grinder • Eye wash station / Ventilation  Air Guns • Special Precautions for flammable/combustible material  Hand-Actuated Delivery System • Necessary cleaning equipment  Spring Actuated Capsules • Notify occupants of pending repairs  Balloon-Actuated Capsules Preparation Repair Procedure  Clean surface ½” wide on each side of crack  Wire brush recommended . 4. Flexural.02” .

chipping or grinding  Start at widest point  Can be left if appearance is not of importance  Vertical cracks are done from the bottom up  Continue injection until refusal  If hairline crack try increasing pressure and time (This must be managed to prevent blowout)  When injection into port is complete cap immediately Verification  Penetration .Core samples • Fine Cracks – Epoxy glows under Black Light • Structural Compressive & Tensile • ASTM 42  Non-Destructive • Impact Echo • Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity • Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves 3 . wax or silicone assume 4” travel of caulk material in one direction  Manifold system can be used for simultaneous injection Inject the Epoxy Remove Ports and Cap Seal  Epoxy must be batched and mixed properly  Can remove by heat. Port Installation Install the Cap Seal  Properly installed this contains  Two types of Ports the epoxy as it is injected under • Surface Mounted – pressure into the crack mainly used  If not done right leaks will occur • Socket Mounted –  Consistent application is a must: used when crack inconsistencies = failure point is blocked  Capseal can be epoxies as well  Spacing is typically 8” – as polyester.