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TURBINE

The turbine is a machine tool or prime movers, in which the working fluid energy directly used to
rotate the turbine wheel through the nozzle forwarded to the blade-sudunya. Thus, in contrast to
what happened in the piston engine, the turbine there is no moving part of the machine translation.
Rotating turbine section rotor or turbine wheels named, while the rotating part called the stator or
turbine housing. Turbine wheel located inside the turbine housing and turbine wheel rotating shaft
power that drives or rotate the load (electric generators, pumps, compressors, propellers or other
machines).
The working fluid in the turbine undergoing a process of expansion, namely the pressure drop and
flow continuously. Working fluid can be water, steam or gas.
there are 3 types of turbines are:
Water Turbine
Steam Turbine
Gas Turbines
Water Turbine ** **
Examples of a water turbine can be seen in the image below.

A water turbine (KAPLAN)


KAPLAN: A propeller turbine generally has a runner with blades 3-6 where all the water contact
blades constantly. Figure propellers running in the pipes. Through the pipe, the pressure is constant,
if not, the runners will be balanced. The pitch of the blades may be fixed or adjustable, allowing for a
wider operating range .. The main component in addition to runner is a scroll case, wicket gates, and
draft tube.
Kaplan turbines with a flat efficiency curve can - without utilization losses in the partial load range -
is designed for a large nominal flow. Final design could incorporate:
* Each turbine installation plan.
* Large stream.
* Small civil requirements in the case of new buildings.
* Optimal with frontal entry and discharge.
* For maximum flow in river power plants.
* Direct-flow horizontal and pit-vertical water turbine.
* Runner blades are made of bronze or stainless steel.
* Excellent efficiency is also achieved thanks to the partial load with the use of a two-level control.
* Control drive through the high-pressure hydraulic unit.
* Emergency closure guide apparatus by gravity, by closing weights.
* Mechanism crossing closes the turbine to full, therefore, no need to install a cover plate.
* Compact structure with minimized space requirements.
* Thanks to the simple installation mode to a modular structure.
* Design with a front gearbox and generator located in the pit or with flat belt drive.
* The possibility of a connection to the inlet pipe or concrete.
* Shaft sealing against water is maintenance-free thanks to ceramic packaging.
* The inlet casing and drafttube made of metal or cast concrete.
Well if you had ane dah KAPLAN water turbine acquainted with his name, now I kenalin agan with a
steam turbine or language bataknya (Steam Turbine) .. :) please note .. !!
TurbinUap ** **
Example of a steam turbine (Steam Turbine) see picture below.

Back Pressure Steam Turbine Industrial


Steam turbine (steam turbine) is an early mover that converts the potential energy of steam into
kinetic energy and kinetic energy is then converted into mechanical energy in the form of a turbine
shaft rotation. The turbine shaft, directly or with the aid of a reduction gear, connected with a
mechanism that will be moved. Depending on the type of mechanism used, the steam turbine can
be used in various fields such as industry, for power generation and for transport. In the process of
change of potential energy into mechanical energy in the form of a round shaft made dengna
various ways.
The first modern steam turbine developed by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. In its development, the
steam turbine is able to replace the role of the working piston reciprocating steam engine. This is
because the steam turbine has the advantage of a large thermal efficiency and the weight ratio of
the power generated is quite high. In the process of steam turbine generating rotational motion, so
it is very suitable used to drive an electric generator. At this time, it's almost 80% of power plants
throughout the world have been using a steam turbine.
In general, the steam turbine can be classified into three kinds of impulse turbines, reaction and
combined. This classification is based on how to get a change of potential energy into kinetic energy
of bursts of steam.
The impulse turbine converts the potential energy into kinetic energy in the steam nozzle (which is
formed by the blades of adjacent silent). The nozzle is directed to the blade motion. In the blades of
motion, kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy. The potential energy in the form of
steam vapor expansion, which is obtained from pressure changes beginning to end in a pressure
nozzle or nozzles in one group were placed in front of the blades of a spinning disc. Decrease in
vapor pressure within the nozzle followed by a decline that occurred in the calorific content of the
nozzle. This causes a rise in the speed of the steam coming out of the nozzle (kinetic energy). Then
the speed energy bursts of steam coming out of the nozzle is directed to the motion of the blade
(blade disc rotates) exerts a force on the impulse-on blade motion causing the blades rotating
motion (do mechanical work).
Or it could simply dafahami pronsip work of the impulse turbine is complete turbine steam
expansion process occurs only in silent channel (nozzle) course and speed energy is converted into
mechanical work on the turbine blades. Speed steam coming from the turbine of this type can reach
1200 / sec. Turbine of this type was first made by de Laval, in which the turbine is capable of
operating on 30.000rpm round. On the application of impulse turbine is equipped with a reduction
gear to move the torque to be actuated mechanism such as an electric generator.
Namely reaction turbine steam turbine expansion not only in pass-pass vane steering (nozzles) are
fixed, but also happens to pass the motion of the blade (blade disc rotates), resulting in a decrease in
the overall heat content at all levels so distributed uniform. Umumnyan turbines of this type are
used for industrial purposes. Speed steam flowing to the turbine (which biasanyan nekatingkat)
lower at approximately 100-200 m / sec.

Gas Turbine ** **
Example of a Gas Turbine, see in the image below.

gas turbine image


Gas turbine is a turbine which uses gas as a fluid-producing potential energy to rotate the turbine
shaft. Maybe you've heard of the steam turbine. Almost most of the plant or power plant using coal,
natural gas, oil or nuclear reactor to produce steam / steam. The steam turbine will be channeled
through the terraced with a very large size and with intricate designs, to rotate the output shaft
turbine shaft where it is used to rotate the generator.
Hydroelectric turbines used water using a principle similar to a steam turbine to generate
electricity. Water turbine design or shape is different from what is seen on the steam turbine,
because the working fluid in the form of water has a density greater (slower moving) than steam,
but in working principle is the same.
While wind turbines use wind as a driving force. Well, if the turbine is a completely different one
with two wind turbines on top because of the use of natural wind that moves very slowly, lightly, but
once again the wind turbines also use the same principle.
In a gas turbine, high pressure gas turbine rotate. In the modern gas turbine engines today, the
machine was able to produce its own pressurized gas by burning materials such as propane, natural
gas, kerosene or jet fuel. Heat generated from the combustion air tersebuat will develop so that hot
air at high speed sangatta is capable of rotating the turbine.
Have you ever wondered why the M-1 tank vehicle does not use diesel engines but instead wears a
gas-powered turbine of 1,500 horsepower? There are two main things is the reason at the same
time is an advantage rather than gas turbines:
Gas turbine engine has a ratio of power-to-weight compared with reciprocating diesel engine. Of
course, this is very useful for meminimaliskan weights than M-1 tank but still have great power.
Gas turbine engine having a relatively smaller size compared with reciprocating engines with the
same power.
But that does not mean the gas turbine does not have a weakness compared to reciprocating
engines, these weaknesses are still high cost of the raft and material components. This is reasonable
considering that the gas turbine operates at a speed and on a very high temperature so that the
necessary planning is complicated at the same time the production process is not easy. In addition
the gas turbine is also tend to spend more fuel when the engine is idle because it operates on a load
more cash than volatile. Things - things I have said before making gas turbines why more like jet
engines used on aircraft and also the power plant. Now you might make the answer why under the
hood of your car is not wearing a gas turbine alone? :)
Process Brief In Gas Turbines
Gas turbines in theory is not so complicated to explain. There are 3 main components or parts,
namely:
1. Compressor
raising the pressure of the air entering
2. Combustion Area
Burning fuel coming and generate very high pressure as well as speed.
3. Turbine
Converting the energy of the gas with high pressure and velocity of the combustion area results into
mechanical energy in the form of rotation of the turbine shaft.

COMPRESSOR

COMBUSTION AREA

TURBINE

At Turbine Engine as above, normal-pressure air is sucked olehcompressor entry that usually
cylindrical cone with some fan mounted bladeyang march (8 lines or more). The air is then subjected
to compression-rise, in some turbine engine pressure rise could reach a factor of 30. There are 2
kinds of compressors used are axial flow and radial flow.

radial-compressor
RADIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR
axial-compressor
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR

RADIAL FLOW

AXIAL FLOW
BENEFITS

Efficient
High compression ratio (20: 1)

Simple and inexpensive


Relatively light weight.
WEAKNESSES

Design complex
Expensive

Less efficient
Great Frontal Area
Limited compression ratio (4: 1)
-areaUdara combustion pressure generated by the compressor before he went to the ring
dimanasebuah Area bagianCombustian fuel inject fuel at a constant flow. Fuel used here is karosene,
jet fuel, propane and natural gas. If you think it very easy to put out the fire from the candle to blow
it, then that's the problem in the design of this combustion area. The air that enters this area is a
high-pressure air and has a speed of almost 100 miles per hour, while we still want to maintain a
continuous flame in the area. Components of the solution to these problems is a flame holder or a
can. This can be a fire protective components made of heavy steel shaped holes. Half of the images
can be seen in cross section view of the above, where Injector on the right. High-pressure air in
through holes can. Gas exit on the left and entering the turbine. This is a set of turbine / compressor
and one unit with the shaft.
turbines1
At the far left alone in the picture above is called the turbine final stage. The turbine is rotating the
output shaft / output. The second part of the latter is not connected to anything, so the unit is free,
is not associated with other turbine components. Whereas in the case of the use of turbines on tank
combat vehicles or a power plant, exhaust gases are useless so that it will be disposed of through a
waste pipeline. But sometimes the exhaust gas heat energy can be useful for a heat exchanger or for
preheating the air before entering the compressor.
My explanation of the above gas turbine is actually only a brief and simple explanation. Not to be
discussed on the cushions, lubrication systems, internal support structure of the machine, the stator
vane and so on. All topics it becomes a serious problem for planners considering turbine gas turbine
operating at a pressure, temperature, and speed is very high.