May Zyra V.

Cuevas PA 203- Human Behavior in Organizations
June 29, 2017 Dr. Anna Kathrina Watin

1. Explain the importance of individual differences for understanding behavior in organizations.

Individual differences matter significantly in organizations. Organizations, being an
aggregation of people, are naturally affected by the combination of distinct traits and
personalities of those comprising them.

In a commercial setting, companies are mostly interested in assessing two types of fit:
Person-organization fit, and Person-Job fit1. Person–organization fit pertains to the degree to
which a person’s values, personality, goals, and other characteristics match those of the
organization. To illustrate, an individual who is creative may be an ideal for a company in the
high-tech sector that would benefit from risk-taking individuals, but may not be suitable for
a company that rewards routine and predictable behavior, such as accountants.

On the other hand, Person–job fit is the degree to which a person’s skill, knowledge,
abilities, and other characteristics match the job demands. For example, a person may be a
good fit for a scientist position but he or she may not do so well in a routine office job.

The fit most commonly sought by recruiters is the person–job fit, considering that this
is related to a number of positive work attitudes such as satisfaction with the work
environment, identification with the organization, job satisfaction, and work behaviors such
as job performance.

Companies are often also interested in hiring candidates who will fit into the company
culture (those with high person–organization fit). When people fit into their organization,
they tend to be more satisfied with their jobs, more committed to their companies, and more
influential in their company, and they remain longer in their company2.

It is important to note however, that some individuals may choose to fit in with the
culture of the organization in making their decisions.3 When a member builds good
relationships with members of the organization, being a misfit does not necessarily lead to
job dissatisfaction.4

To sum, a person’s individual characteristics may affect their attitudes towards
performing inside an organization and their level of commitment towards it. While it may
seem that individual differences would promote divisiveness, such variegation may serve the
ends of an organization. Furthermore, addressing these individual differences, like response
to positive or negative stress, would help the organization in identifying factors which impact
maximum productivity of its operations.

1
Bauer & Erdogan, “An Introduction to Organizational Behaviour”, Creative Commons (2012)
2
Anderson, C., Spataro, S. E., & Flynn, F. J., “Personality and organizational culture as determinants of influence”
Journal of Applied Psychology, (2008)
3
Kristof-Brown, A. L., Jansen, K. J., & Colbert, A. E., “A policy-capturing study of the simultaneous effects of fit with
jobs, groups, and organizations”. Journal of Applied Psychology, (2002)
4
Erdogan, B., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. “Work value congruence and intrinsic career success”, Personnel
Psychology, (2004).

Aside from providing rewards. This may be done by including such individuals in reviews or imposing ethical behavior as a condition for future raise in salary. When people are exposed to role models who display self-regulatory behaviors. Jr.6 This goes to say that it is only when leaders show their personal mindfulness of ethics that they may become models for positive learning by others. It would also be prudent to conduct workshops and seminars on ethical standards to clearly set the expectations of the organization. or the enriched awareness among organizational members of risk potentials and personal responsibility to prevent its occurrence. 2. By acknowledging those who have met or exceeded ethical standards of an organizations. In conclusion. there may be a natural reluctance to report complaints. to lead by example or to subject managers and employees to operant conditioning…all to hopefully create an organizational climate wherein following ethical standards is a norm. Hence. 5 Schermerhorn. they also learn and subsequently display such behaviors. Since most organizations have a hierarchical structure in place. corrective feedback should be given to reinforce the demand for ethical behavior in the workplace. A venue to air out complaints without the fear of retaliation may be provided to maintain accountability and sustain ethical culture in the workplace. & Dienhart. This turns into a form of self-regulation that causes one to behave with ethical consciousness in making decisions or responding to an event. In this context. it is essential to establish a written code of ethics and standards such as a handbook which would lay down rules and guidelines with respect to conduct required of the members within the organization.. Suggest some specific actions that organizations may take to encourage ethical behavior by managers and employees. this may become an incentive for other managers and employees in the organization. there must also be a system in place to quash unethical behavior. “ Strategic leadership of ethical behavior in business”. One way of encouraging ethical behavior is by promoting “ethics leadership” and “ethics mindfulness”5. Ethics mindfulness calls into mind the Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory wherein self-regulation is highly responsive to learning from one’s social context. Ideally. (2004) 6 Ibid . ethical behavior may be encouraged by using strategies which aim to educate. Another means of promoting ethical behavior is by rewarding it. it would be highly beneficiary for the organization to provide training in ethics for executives and managers so that may lead by example.