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SECTION 1

GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY

Chapter-1

General Action of Drugs

INTRODUCTION Pharmacokinetics deals with the altera-
Pharmacology (derived from Greek words, tions of the drug by the body which includes
pharmacon-drug; logos-discourse in) consists absorption, distribution, binding/storage,
of detailed study of drugs–its source, phy- biotransformation and excretion of drugs.
sical and chemical properties, compounding (ADME studies). We can also say that “What
biochemical and physiological effects, the body does to the administered drug”.
pharmacodynamics (its mechanism of action), Toxicology deals with the side/adverse
pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, effects and other poisonous effects of drugs,
biotransformation and excretion), therapeutic since the same drug can be a poison, depen-
and other uses of drugs. ding on the dose.
According to WHO definition ‘Drug is Clinical Pharmacology deals with the
any substance or product that is used or clinical evaluations of new drug molecules in
intended to be used to modify or explore volunteers and patients. It includes the metho-
physiological system or pathological states dology of standard operating procedures
for the benefit of the recipient’.
(SOP’s) of different phases of clinical trials.
Pharmacology has some major sub-
Chemotherapy deals with the effects of
divisions:
drugs upon microorganisms and parasites
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the without destroying the host cells.
biochemical and physiological effects of the
Pharmacology also includes certain allied
drugs and their mechanism of action.
fields as:
Pharmacotherapeutics deals with the use
of drugs in the prevention and treatment of Pharmacy is the science of preparation,
diseases and it utilizes or depends upon the compounding and dispensing of drugs. It is
information of drug obtained by pharma- concerned with collection, identification,
codynamic studies. And, in short we can say purification, isolation, synthesis and stan-
that “What a administered drug does to the dardization of medicinal/pharmaceutical
body”. substances.

Final printout after inhouse reading / 6 July - 2009

purity and potency and with thin etc. the non-sugar (physical and chemical properties) and component called aglycone or genin. hydrocarbon terpene. z Opium (Papaver somniferum): Morphine z Oil of clove is mainly useful in relieving group. vegetable drugs are: z Lemon oil (from Citrus limon). from species of pines. palmitic Pharmacopoeia (USP). the United States a. used The pharmacologically active components in as a counterirritant. European Pharma. sources. z Coca (Erythroxylum coca): Cocaine. z Cinchona (Cinchona officinalis): Quinine facture of drugs and pharmaceuticals. etc. z Pilocarpus sp. Oils Indian pharmacopoeia (IP). Drugs are obtained mainly z Cod liver oil and shark liver oil: Rich from plants. copoeia and other reference books are the iii. preparations with their description.2 Essentials of Pharmacology Pharmaceutics deals with the manu. The important alkaloids z Peppermint. . animals. animal origin. Glycosides are ether like organic structure and deals with the source. systems (NDDS). Mostly fixed oils are copoeia. means a dry herb. cardamom and fennel used are obtained from: as carminative and flavouring agent. z Senna (Cassia acutifolia): Sennoside etc. the British Pharmacopoeia (BP). A few famous pharma. the National Formulary (NF) i. The fixed (BPC). tests for z Stropanthus (Stropanthus kombe): Stropan- their identity. Volatile oil or essential oil contains the therapeutically are from synthetic or semi. oils used as drug are: British National Formulary (BNF) and z Castor (Ricinus communis): Castor oil. microbes and mineral source of vitamin A and D.: Pilocarpine. National Formulary (NF) of India. used as i. of new dosage forms and new drug delivery z Rauwolfia serpentina (root): Reserpine. Fixed oils are glycerides of oleic. The preparation of drugs. their average doses. but a majority of them that are used b. z Coca butter (Theobroma cacao): Theo- SOURCES OF DRUGS broma oil used as emollient in skin cream ‘Drug’ is derived from French word ‘drogue’ and making suppositories. important glycosides are: Pharmacopoeia is an official reference z Digitalis (Digitalis purpurea. The important synthetic products. z Olive (Olea europaea): Olive oil. Materia-medica: This is an older term ii. Pharmacognosy deals with the study of z Belladonna (Atropa belladonna): Atropine the sources of drugs derived from plants and group. cyclic nitrogen. Biopharmaceutics deals the development z Vinca (Vinca rosea): Vincristine. pain in toothache. description combined with sugars. the British Pharmaceutical Codex edible and used for cooking. volatile oils are: Plant Origin z Turpentine oil. Alkaloids are basic substances containing flavouring agent. vinblastine. and stearic acids.e. Digitalis containing a selected drugs/medicinal lanata): Digoxin etc.

Tannins are generally microorganisms. used as carmi- From Microorganisms native and antispasmodic. an enzyme from gram contains tannins are: Amla. they yield simple sugar z Chloramphenicol: Streptomyces venezuelae like polysaccharides. (in combination form ‘Triphala’). z Oleo gum resin: Myrrh. Human insulin. used as stimulating mycetes). interferon etc. The widely used preparations are gum z Nystatin: Streptomyces nouresi. it has a local The different classes of drugs obtained/ stimulant and antiseptic properties and isolated from microbes are: generally used in mouthwash. Animal Sources Genetically Engineered Drugs The different animal products after This involve the discoveries of new purification in a suitable dosage form for the molecules using recombinant DNA techno- treatment of disease are listed in table 1. z Gum resins: Asafoetida. They are pharma. (Actinomycetes). logy. expectorant. Black Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin): Streptomy- catechu and Ashoka bark. DNA alteration and immunology. Chemically they are phenolic obtained from microorganisms.1. They are: employed in the treatment of diarrhoea and burns. The z Placental extract: From placenta. Behera. z Erythromycin: Streptomyces erythreus v. (Actinomycetes). On hydrolysis. z Bacitracin: Bacillus subtilis. used internally as notatum (Fungus). ces griseus. Oral polio vaccine) and obtained from human being e. products.g. acacia and tragacanth. Tannins are nonnitrogenous constituents Apart from various other antibiotics of plant. z Penicillin: Penicillium chrysogenum and z Balsams: Benzoin. polymerization of volatile oils. vi. expectorant and externally as astringent. tapeworm infestation. Gums are the secretory products of plants. cologically inert substances and mainly z Tetracyclines: Streptomyces aureofaciens and employed as suspending and emulsifying rimosus (Actinomycetes).. The recent development in this field are From Human Being genetically engineered vaccines (e. The important plants which Streptokinase.g. different types of resins are: z Chorionic gonadotropin: From urine of z Oleoresins: Male fern extract used for pregnant women. . agent in various pharmaceutical z Polymyxin B: Bacillus polymyxa. Hirda positive cocci (Streptococcus pyogenes). z Streptomycin: Streptomyces griseus (Actino- z Balsam Tolu. Resins are produced by oxidation and z Immunoglobulins: From blood. There are certain products which are Hepatitis-B vaccine. there are derivatives and are characterized by their other products that are also produced by astringent action. z Griseofulvin: Penicillium griseofulvum. General Action of Drugs 3 iv. z Growth hormone: From pituitary gland.

drug is applied in the form The drugs can be administered by a variety of ointment. urethra. aerosols (in the creams. treated with inhalations. vagina and rectum. or mucous membranes. plaster. eye. They are used form of fine powder with the help of for their antiseptic. mmatory and other related conditions which Due to the rich blood and lymph supply increase the cutaneous blood flow also to rectum the unionised and lipid soluble enhance absorption of drugs. cream. ointments. ear. administration. The dermis layer ches for vagina and suppositories for rectal is freely permeable to many fluids.1: Classification of different animal products used as drug and surgicals. Infla. the drug rectally. jellies for urethra. Absorption substances are readily absorbed from the through the skin can be enhanced by rectum. The dosage forms applied locally to the skin The bronchial mucosa and lungs are are powders. In case of mouth and pharynx. salbutamol (Asthalin) inhaler.4 Essentials of Pharmacology Table 1. tendons of animals. of routes. in unconscious and vomiting of ointments. gastric irritation is avoided and easy adminis- paration into the skin) also. To produce systemic bronchi. The advantages of this route are that induction (rubbing the oily vehicle pre. effects drugs are administered orally. vaginal tablets. lotions. drops). To produce local The topical application is also used on the effects. paste. Drug Category Animal source Insulin Hormone Pancreas of beef or pig Thyroid extract/thyroxine Hormone Thyroid gland Shark liver oil Vitamin A Livers of shark and allied species Cod liver oil Vitamin A and D Livers of Gadus species Antisnake venom Immune serum Blood of horse Hyaluronidase Enzyme Testis of bull Pepsin Enzyme Stomach of beef and pig Surgical ligatures and sutures Used in surgery Intestinal tissues. Drugs may also be administered locally The absorption of drug through the skin in the form of bougies. parenterally or by inhalation route. rectum. the drug may penetrate state). is proportional to the surface area covered pessaries. tration by the patient himself.e. drugs are applied topically to the skin mucous membranes i. is used in the form of throat paints. and urgency of treatment (whether the anterior chamber and affect the ciliary the routine treatment or in emergency muscle. analgesic. either locally or administered powder etc. antipruritic. depends upon the drug and the patient’s In case of corneal application (in the form condition (e. throat. ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION On the skin. The choice of the route in a given situation gargles or mouth washes. The nasal mucosa is treated with condition).g. orally and by injection.g. drug solution in the form of spray or irri- Local Routes gation. creams and dou- and to their lipid solubility. . lozenges. local anaesthetic and other related effects. plasters and jellies. lotion. nose. nebulizer) e. paste.

some limitation of this route: z To some extent decreased incidence of undesired effects. z Drugs. which in: may be soap water or glycerine-vegetable oil. It is also the safest. z Rapid onset of action. z Preventing gastric irritation and alteration It is used to remove the faecal matter and of the drug in the stomach. due to their physical characteristics i. isoprenaline. there are longer time. nitroglycerine. General Action of Drugs 5 Administration of drug in the form of intestinal juice (alkaline) only. and ing systemic effects also (e. but are dissolved in the operative patients. The highly lipid soluble and nonirritating z Unpalatable and other irritant drugs can drugs (i. Sublingual Administration polarity of the drug.. aminophylline. drug in intestine. The advantage of this z May not be useful in the presence of routes are: vomiting and diarrhoea. nitroglycer- ine) can not be administered orally. But. This is the most commonly used route for z Maintenance of therapeutic effect for drug administration. most convenient and economical. substances are not dissolved by the acid juice z Can be employed in unconscious/unco- of the stomach. The administration of drugs by injection Enteric Coated Tablets directly into the tissue fluid or blood without having to cross the intestinal mucosa. enteral = intestinal) gible e.g. Certain z To get the desired concentration of the drugs are administered rectally for produc. penicillin G) drugs in the stomach and liver is avoided or in liver (i. Parenteral Routes z The absorption of certain drugs is negli. z Drug action is slow. indomethacin. The drugs which are destroyed by the gastric The advantages of parenteral routes are: juices in the stomach.) Time Release/Sustained Release Capsules Systemic Routes It is a useful solid dosage form of drug. are coated with keratin. streptomycin. which is useful liquid into the rectum is called enema. where they uncooperative patient. is absorbed different time intervals. lives (less than 4 hours). The drug administered through systemic where the particles of the drug dissolve at routes (orally or parenterally). distributed along through the The advantages of time-release prepara- circulation and produce their desired effects. (par = beyond. paraldehyde etc. z To delay the absorption of the drug.g. thus not suitable for z Appropriate for drugs with short half emergencies.e. testosterone. rapidly dissolve and are absorbed quickly in the general circulation.e. These z Rapid action of drug. shellac and cellulose acid phosphate. insulin. methyltestosterone) in the form of tablets or z Can not be used for unconscious and pellet is placed under the tongue. flatus and is used in constipation.e. not be administered.e. z Incapability to absorb some drugs. . which can be destroyed by z The degradation and metabolism of the digestive juices (i. into the blood. tions are: Oral Route z Reduction in the frequency of administra- tion of drug.

testosterone). So. Small volumes (up For local and rapid effect of drugs on the to 2 ml) are injected into the deltoid muscle. triceps. It is also useful for certain irritant and z Less safe. The rate of absorption of drug of administration. drugs are and small or large volumes (up to 10 ml) are injected directly into the spinal subarachnoid injected into the gluteal mass. more expensive. z Drugs. which are modified by alimentary The rate of absorption is reasonably uni- juices and liver can be given by this route. so irritant Intrathecal or Intraspinal solutions can be injected. months e. slowly directly into a vein to produce rapid Disadvantages are: action. hypertonic solutions. Drugs in an oily vehicle z Self medication is difficult. These arterial perfusion in localised malignancies. space. drug is projected from The drug is injected into the skin raising a a microfine orifice using a high velocity jet) bleb. by The soluble substances. or front of the thigh. which are not absorbed in small Intravenous intestine or irritate the stomach can be The drug is injected as a bolus or infused administered by this route. The important parenteral routes are: Intravenous route is the most rapidly effective and the desired blood concentration Subcutaneous can be obtained with a definite dose but at The non-irritant substances can be injected the same time it is the most dangerous route by this route. meninges or cerebrospinal axis. toxic compounds are administered by intra- gluteus maximus. medication (e. Self and with constant monitoring of the patient.g. The other related subcutaneous routes Intradermal are dermojet (by which. rectus femoris etc.g. For once the drug is is constant and slow to provide a sustained injected there is no retreat. The site of injection is usually the outer injection must usually be performed slowly surface of the arm. BCG vaccine and for testing the sensi- tained release of the drug over weeks and tivity e. mild irritants and which arterial blood sample may be with- suspensions can be injected by this route in drawn for blood gas studies. can not take food/fluids orally. penicillin injection. as they are rapidly z Inconvenient (painful) for the patient.). morphine and certain hormonal dration or to supply nutrition to patients who preparations. diluted by the blood. or those which precipitate blood constituents z Chances of local injury at the site of or haemolyze erythrocytes should not be injection. given by this route. Intra-arterial Intramuscular This route is useful in diagnostic studies. This is also used to produce spinal . insulin) is possible because This route is usually reserved for emergencies deep penetration is not needed.6 Essentials of Pharmacology z Drugs. intravenous effect. Other drugs when a rapid action is required and infusion which are administered subcutaneously are of large amounts of fluids to overcome dehy- adrenaline.g. Certain cyto- the large skeletal muscles (deltoid. This route is employed for vaccination and pellet implantation (which provides sus- e.g. form and the onset of action is rapid. muscles are less richly supplied with sensory nerves and are more vascular.

e. or for introduction of a radio. The targeted drug delivery system have Intracardiac recently been developed with the objective of patient compliance. The drug is observed but it is seldom employed clinically in infants through percentaneous circulation and for giving fluids like glucose saline. estradiol. stabilizers are used in the treatment and opaque contrast-medium into the subarach. duration or action. the drug is introduced into TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS the bone marrow of the sternum or tibia. Intra-articular scopolamine. Transdermal patches Intraperitoneal They are adhesive patches in which drug is incorporated into a polymer which is usually This route is a common laboratory procedure. carbon constant role for a specific period of time. prophylaxis of bronchial asthma i. Nonvolatile substances have to be broken DOSAGE FORMS down into small particles. It includes: ted into the heart by a long needle in the left fourth intercostal space close to the sternum. transdermal patches are of nitroglycrine. the adrenaline is directly injec. amyl nitrite and vapours of liquid uterus where it releases progesterone at a anaesthetics. as nebulized particles from Progestaserts solutions or in the form of vapours. polyisobutylene. salbuta- noid space for visualising the spinal cord. specially designed for administration to the Drugs given by this route are quickly patient for the diagnosis and treatment of absorbed. mol (ASTHALIN) and sodium cromoglycate Intramedullary (FINTAL) inhaler. liquid dosage form and . gases like oxygen. which contains the active drug in a reservoir Inhalation Route form and the drug is released by diffusion The volatile liquids and gases are given by through a membrane at a steady rate. Clinically used absorption. dioxide and helium. surface of alveoli and produce rapid action. General Action of Drugs 7 anaesthesia. The dosage form is broadly divided into Various bronchodilators and mast cell solid dosage form. solid particles. inhalation route. which takes place from the vast disease. glucocorticoids) can be clonidine etc. and then inhaled A dosage form is a medicated product as aerosols. ketorolac and Certain drugs (i. Blood is occasionally given by this route.e.e. administered directly into a joint space for Ocuserts the treatment of local condition i. The drugs may be given as Example are pilocerpine ocusert in glaucoma. The It is intrauterine contraceptive containing volatile substances include gaseous anaes. By this method. rheuma- These are very thin elliptical microunits toid arthritis. drug delivery at the In sudden cardiac arrest and other cardiac site where it required and having prolonged emergencies. progesterone and to be inserted into the thetics. as the provide smooth plasma concentration for a peritoneum offers a large surface for larger period of time.

vitamins A.e.g. garlic pearls. capsules ampicillin. The powders are of different The dosage form is broadly divided into types: solid dosage form. In SULF. liniments. drops.e. A & D. (Para-amino salicyclic acid) granules. Soft Capsules are used for oils and solution of active drugs i. Powder use after reconstitution e. lotions. paste. ointments. possess an unpleasant taste. jellies. Simple or compound powder—The inhalations which are used both internally simple powder containing just one active as well as externally. sugar and some flavouring moulded into different shapes. Example: A dosage form is a medicated product ENO powder used for indigestion. seven seas etc.Granules are the capsules. Mercury with chalk) used as purgative.e. Effervascent granules: It is a mixture of paints. cap.e. Effervascent Powder Hard Capsules are used for powdered .e. Syr. theo- phylline). enema gargles. ORS powder) and in capsules Capsules are of two type—hard & soft (e. which gradually release the drug be classified under this group. certain sustained released powder. Zinc oxide hard capsules. granules. syrups. tooth powder may also substance. agents(saccharin or glucose) may be added. eye aplicaps of chloromy. NEBA- drugs i. The powder granules should be dissolved DOSAGE FORMS AND ROUTES OF DRUG with a prescribed amount of water and taken ADMINISTRATION when it produce effervascene. in the respiratory tract. flatulence specially designed for administration and heartburn etc. ALCOPAR. These are .g. These are the most extensively used solid cetein. tetracycline. mouth washes. Boric acid powder.g. unusual means of administering drug that powders. Powder with metal (e.g. solutions. Acetylsalicylic acid Solid Dosage Form: (Internal Use) powder) and compound powder con- taining more than one active ingredients. citric and tartaric acids with sodium Inhalation forms include aerosols. Talc etc. . These are small gelatin containes shells. . Powder for external use—e. creams.8 Essentials of Pharmacology inhalation which are used both internally as agent and then moistened to produce a well as externally. Powders enclosed in cachets (e. effervescent granules. Example: PAS applications. E. Ampicillin powder) capsules. liquid dosage form and . dried form. sprays biocarbonate and usually some sweatening etc. cap. Ampicillin for paediatric use Soft capsules are also used for semisolid Tablets (ointment) i. tinctures. inguedients (i. . dosage form containing granulated or Granules: These are mixture of active powdered drugs that are compressed or medicament. (i. poultices etc. cohernt mass which is then passes through a Solid and liquid dosage forms includes sieve to form a granule.g. depending upon the routes to the patient for Powder: Powder are medicaments in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Capsules .

directly.Depot Tablets are compressed tablets used for sustained systemic action e. Tab Aspirin. The vehicle of ceutical preparation to mask the disagrable collodion are volatile (e. Pessaries are the same as suppositories . Ear cone for ear administration. ethyl alcohol) in taste of drug e. Deoxycortone acetone (for contraception) Bougies used for nasal and uretheral administration.Buccal or Sublingual are chewed under for introduction into vagina. form solution for internal and external use It is generally used for small cuts and (gargles) e.Chewable Tablets are chewed in the insertion into the rectum. Mustard plaster. tab. Insufflations are dusting powder Analgin) consisting medicaments that are blown by an insufflator (Similar to automiser) into various . Asmapax Depot for asthmatic patients.Implants are tablets use for sustained . dissolve in the stomach and only dissolve Capsicum plaster. mouth for systemic action e. where it release of medicaments and generally used would be difficult to apply the powder for local action-cough remedies e. . Tab.g.g.Pastilles are solid medicated preparation solid preparation made up of fat (cocoa intended to dissolve slowly in the mouth butter oil or theobroma oil). .g peppermint water. e. nose. producing agent is pyroxylin (nitrocellulose) .g.g. protective film. throat.Compressed pessaries–in different shapes.Moulded passaries (as suppositories). glycerine-gelatin gelly. Tab. The film e. peadiatric use) etc. Suppositories are conical or ovoid shape . Mebendazole (for local as well as systemic. dissolve and disperse and exert their action- vitamin C (Suckcee). They are used for . shape and uses: brush or rod) evaporates to the skin and .g. . . tablets and two type: extert their action e. Digene.Soluble Tablets are dissolved in water to and for flexibility colour oil is added. . General Action of Drugs 9 different types of tablets according to their nature and when applied on the skin (with size. ear etc.Lozenges are solid preparation consisting mainly of sugar and gum and ensures slow body cavities.. in alkaline juice of the intestine where the drug is liberated. Strepcils. Nitroglycerine. Pessaries are of the tongue when it dissolved. e. Erythromycin.Scored Tablets may be easily divided if smaller doses are required (e.g.g. very fine in nature for external use. where they melt. Tab. Atropine sulphate tablets.Enteric-coated are coated keratin. Plasters are solid adhesive (with cloth) . tablets which do not sooth and lessen pain e. Semi Solid/Liquid dosage form (Internal use) Solid dosage form (Externally used) Aqua are aquous solution of volatile sub- Collodions: These are the fluid preparation stance used as solvent in certain pharma- intended for external use. action and implented under the skin. also used or abrasions.g.g.g. Tab.Simple Tablets are disintegrated readily leaving a flexible. a wax or a and softer than lozenges. parenteral administration called hypoder- Dusting Powder are free flowing and mic tablets e. cellulose preparation applied to the skin to protect acetate phthalate.g. Vocacil.g. Tab Disprin.

There are other type of solutions that are Jellies are transparent or translucent. Solution are aquous solution containing one Gargels are aqueous solution used to prevent or more drugs. Applications are liquid or semi-liquid Linctus are viscous.g. which are in concentrated sugar solution. Tr. Gum maceration process. bladder irrigation and certain trating nauseous or disagreable powder dermatological solution intended for in a tasteless form. Mixture are generally that are instilled into a ear. e. solution. Cod lemon) used in different pharmaceutical liver oil emulsion for internal use.g. Mixture are liquid oral preparation. mainly for pleasantly flavoured and coloured with paediatric use and for drugs which are suitable agents. Tr. non- used for peritoneal dialysis. Tragacanth) e. such emulsion are also used externally— is used externally.g. solutions. Parenteral Solution are sterile liquid or vulcanite (for vagina) which are made up suspensions packaged in sterile containers. vagina and less often the use. eye and nose not formulated for a long life and with a dropper. anticoagulant greasy medicated semi-solid preparation . They are administering peroxide solution. Tr. and are usually containing high proportions of syrup emulsion or suspension in nature (e. soft rubber or plastic tube.10 Essentials of Pharmacology Cachets are providing a means of adminis. of thin. Emulsions are suspensions of fats or oils in Tinctures are the concentrated alcoholic water with the inclusion of an suitable preparation of vegetable drugs made by emulsifying agent (e. Strong iodine solution. unpleasant in taste. liquid oral preparation preparation to the skin. Gels are the aqueous colloidal suspension of SEMI SOLID/LIQUID DOSAGE FORM insoluble medicaiments (e. application to broken surface. suspension or emulsion of small dose giving by a calibrated (o/w type) of medicaiment intended for dropper intended for paediatric use. where Ear/eye/nasal drops are solution of drugs the medicaments are in solution or suspension form. Hydrogen nose infections. rectal administration. The intended for parenteral administration.g Gum acacia. Castor oil emulsion. oral preparation of potent Syrups are the liquid oral preparation made or nauseous medicaments. (sugar) and glycerin (for viscosity and its Antiparasitics application) sweat nature) which produce a demuls- Creams are semi solid preparation (usually cent affect on the mucous membrane of emulsion) for external use. They are divided into and treatment of throat infections. They are oily the throat.g. Benzion Co.g. Elixir are liquid. with a help of catheter (in bladder). different categories: Irrigators are medicated solution used to treat Solution in dosage form for oral use/external urinary bladder. One preparation for oral use. nose irrigator is made up of glass. Paediatric Drops are liquid oral preparation Enema are solution. opium. and non-greasy in nature. (e. Benzyl Benzoate emulsion. Aluminium (EXTERNAL USE) hydroxide as antacid – in Digene Gel). The eye drops are sterile prepared freshly.

e. Lignocaine high proportion of finely powdered jelly. . bag. which being sticky and adhere to the amyl or octyl nitrite) and protected by affected site and prolings the action of the absorbant cotton wool and an outer silk drug. actions e. medicaments. Aerosols are suspension of fine. Throat paints are more viscous in nature Vitrellae are thin walled glass capsules (due to the high proportion of glycerine) containing volatile substance (drops) (e. They are applied to the to leave a dry and resinous film of mucosae of nose or throat.g.g.g. the preparation is spread Lotions are liquid preparation applied to skin thickly on a dressing gauze and applied without friction. patients. Lotions are used for as hot as patient can bear it to the affected soothing. e. Inhalation form Mouth washes are liquid preparation similar to gargles but are use for oral hygiene. astringent and antipruritic area. General Action of Drugs 11 used externally.e. rectum and administered with the help of and mucous membrane also. chlomycetin eye ointment.g liniment turpentine. solid or liquid Ointments are semi-solid greasy preparation particles in a medium like air or oxygen for local application to the skin. The sometimes semi-solid preparation used base may be anhydrous or water soluble. sometime containing products (i. e. and external application to reduce infla- must not be applied to the broken skin mmation due to its heat retaining capacity. After heating.g. usually administered by automizer volatile solvent which quickly evaporates or nebulizer.g. Zinc oxide paste. This capsule is crushed and the Pastes are semi-solid preparation for external vapours are inhaled in the treatment of application that differ from similar angina. externally on the skin.g. Asthalin (salbutamol) sion. Spray. semi-liquid and protection and are more absorptive. antiseptic and other selected inhaler.g. They afford greater Liniments are liquid. ointment) in containing a local anaesthetic agent also e. They are used to apply drugs base is usually anhydrous and contains to the respiratory tract in asthmatic the medicaments in solution or suspen. Tyrothricin medicaments on the skin. calamine lotion. affects e. The ointment nebulizers. Fintal (sodium chromoglycate) astringent. counter-irritant and stimulating type and Poultices are paste like preparation for are massaged or rubbed into the skin. Liniments are e. Ointments are used for its soothing. inhaler. Sprays are preparation of drugs in oil or Paints are liquid preparation containing water.