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A vortex is created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by smoke. Vortices are one of the many phenomena associated to
the study of aerodynamics. The equations of aerodynamics show that the vortex is created by the difference in pressure between
the upper and lower surface of the wing. At the end of the wing, the lower surface effectively tries to 'reach over' to the low
pressure side, creating rotation and the vortex.

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is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving
object. Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, with much theory shared between them. Aerodynamics
is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference being that gas dynamics applies to all gases. Understanding
the motion of air (often called a flow field) around an object enables the calculation of forces and moments acting on the object.
Typical properties calculated for a flow field include velocity, pressure, density and temperature as a function of position and
time. By defining a control volume around the flow field, equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy can be
defined and used to solve for the properties. The use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximation
and wind tunnel experimentation form the scientific basis for heavier-than-air flight.

Aerodynamic problems can be identified in a number of ways. The flow environment defines the first classification criterion.
Ô  aerodynamics is the study of flow around solid objects of various shapes. Evaluating the lift and drag on an airplane, the
shock waves that form in front of the nose of a rocket or the flow of air over a hard drive head are examples of external
aerodynamics.  aerodynamics is the study of flow through passages in solid objects. For instance, internal aerodynamics
encompasses the study of the airflow through a jet engine or through an air conditioning pipe.

The ratio of the problem's characteristic flow speed to the speed of sound comprises a second classification of aerodynamic
problems. A problem is called subsonic if all the speeds in the problem are less than the speed of sound, transonic if speeds both
below and above the speed of sound are present (normally when the characteristic speed is approximately the speed of sound),
supersonic when the characteristic flow speed is greater than the speed of sound, and hypersonic when the flow speed is much
greater than the speed of sound. Aerodynamicists disagree over the precise definition of hypersonic flow; minimum Mach
numbers for hypersonic flow range from 3 to 12.

        . The approximations to these problems are called inviscid flows.The influence of viscosity in the flow dictates a third classification. Some problems involve only negligible viscous effects on the solution. Flows for which viscosity cannot be neglected are called viscous flows. in which case viscosity can be considered to be nonexistent.

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a. very little effort was made to develop governing laws for understanding the nature of flight prior to the 17th century. such as the legendary story of ëcarus and Daedalus. drag) were recorded by the likes of Aristotle. !  "#" ëmages and stories of flight have appeared throughout recorded history. Avicenna.k. ën 1505. Leonardo da Vinci wrote the ÿ      .[2]Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei.[1] Although observations of some aerodynamic effects like wind resistance (a.

Newton believed that drag was due to the dimensions of a body. and he describes the construction of an ornithopter.[3] making him one of the first aerodynamicists. and ș for the inclination angle. S for the area of the flat plate. the density of the fluid. He notes for the first time that the center of gravity of a flying bird does not coincide with its center of pressure. = ȡ2sin2(ș) . Newton also developed a law for the drag force on a flat plate inclined towards the direction of the fluid flow. one of the earliest treatises on aerodynamics. Sir ësaac Newton was the first person to develop a theory of air resistance. with flapping wings similar to a bird. his law is expressed below. These beliefs all turned out to be correct for low flow speeds. ȡ for the density. Using F for the drag force.   . As part of that theory. and the velocity raised to the second power. V for the flow velocity.

and it may have contributed to a delay in human flight. This formula can lead one to believe that flight is more difficult than it actually is. Drag on a flat plate is closer to being linear with the angle of inclination as opposed to acting quadratically. this equation is completely incorrect for the calculation of drag (unless the flow speed is hypersonic).Unfortunately.[4]    .

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and the relationship between them. the bodies of fish are shaped to produce very low resistance as they travel through water. uniform stream of air where the velocity is known.[8] Equations for fluid flow with friction were developed by Claude-Louis Navier[9] and George Gabriel Stokes. lift. Towards the end of this time period Gustave Eiffel used his Eiffel Tower to assist in the drop testing of flat plates. and thrust.         Sir George Cayley is credited as the first person to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight .[5]Cayley believed that the drag on a flying machine must be counteracted by a means of propulsion in order for level flight to occur.[6]Gustav Kirchhoff. a more precise way to measure resistance is to place an object within an artificial. however.[7] and Lord Rayleigh.[10] To simulate fluid flow. Their cross-sections are sometimes very close to that of modern low drag airfoils. many experiments involved immersing objects in streams of water or simply dropping them off the top of a tall building. One of the shapes he investigated were the cross-sections of trout. Cayley also looked to nature for aerodynamic shapes with low drag. These empirical findings led to a variety of air resistance experiments on various shapes throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Drag theories were developed by Jean le Rondd'Alembert. This may appear counterintuitive. Of course. drag.weight. The first person to experiment in this fashion .

was Francis Herbert Wenham.    . the Royal Aeronautical Society of the United Kingdom. This was achieved with the invention of the dimensionless Reynolds number by Osbourne Reynolds. the groundwork was laid down for modern day fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Wenham was also a member of the first professional organization dedicated to aeronautics. who in doing so constructed the first wind tunnel in 1871. with other less scientifically inclined enthusiasts testing various flying machines with little success. By the late 19th century. The second problem was how to determine the power needed for sustained flight. Objects placed in wind tunnel models are almost always smaller than in practice. so a method was needed to relate small scale models to their real-life counterparts. The first was the creation of low-drag.[11] Reynolds also experimented with laminar to turbulent flow transition in 1883. high-lift aerodynamic wings. During this time. two problems were identified before heavier-than-air flight could be realized.

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Lilienthal believed that thin.[12]Renard and German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz explored the wing loading of birds. Octave Chanute provided a great service to those interested in aerodynamics and flying machines by publishing a book outlining all of the research conducted around the world up to 1893. the Wright brothers had just enough knowledge of aerodynamics to fly the first powered aircraft on December 17. became the first person to reasonably predict the power needed for sustained flight. following the work of Sir George Cayley. Otto Lilienthal. was the first person to become highly successful with glider flights.[13] With the information contained in that book and the personal assistance of Chanute himself. The first flight led to a more organized effort between . just in time to beat the efforts of Samuel Pierpont Langley. The Wright brothers' flight confirmed or disproved a number of aerodynamics theories. Charles Renard. curved airfoils would produce high lift and low drag.      ën 1889. 1903. a French aeronautical engineer. eventually concluding that humans could not fly under their own power by attaching wings onto their arms. Newton's drag force theory was finally proved incorrect.

JakobAckeret led the initial work on calculating the lift and drag on a supersonic airfoil. leading the way to modern aerodynamics. Prandtl. instructed many students who would play important roles in the development of aerodynamics like Theodore von Kármán and Max Munk. and Nikolai Zhukovsky independently created theories that connected circulation of a fluid flow to lift. aerodynamicists and aviators disagreed on whether supersonic flight was achievable. ën compressible aerodynamics. William John MacquornRankine and Pierre Henri Hugoniot independently developed the theory for flow properties before and after a shock wave. Frederick W. Lanchester. Kutta and Zhukovsky went on to develop a two-dimensional wing theory.   (     . aerodynamicists realized that the density of air began to change as it came into contact with an object. Newton was the first to develop a mathematical model for calculating the speed of sound. Ludwig Prandtl is credited with developing the mathematics[15] behind thin-airfoil and lifting-line theories as well as work with boundary layers. leading to a division of fluid flow into the incompressible and compressible regimes.aviators and scientists. As aircraft began to travel faster. During the time of the first flights.[14]Martin Wilhelm Kutta.[16] Theodore von Kármán and Hugh Latimer Dryden introduced the term transonic to describe flow speeds around Mach 1 where drag increases rapidly. who was one of the first to investigate the properties of supersonic flow which included Schlieren photography techniques to visualize the changes in density. but it was not correct until Pierre-Simon Laplace accounted for the molecular behavior of gases and introduced the heat capacity ratio. a professor at Gottingen University. Because of the increase in drag approaching Mach 1. density and pressure both change. The ratio of the flow speed to the speed of sound was named the Mach number after Ernst Mach. Expanding upon the work of Lanchester. which is the basis for calculating the speed of sound.

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1935 an exclusive conference was held in Rome with the topic of high velocity flight and the possibility of breaking the sound barrier. Adolf Busemann.(    On September 30. Prandtl. Eastman Jacobs.[17] Participants included von Kármán. Geoffrey ëngram Taylor. Gaetano . Ackeret.

By the time the sound barrier was broken. working for NACA. With some exceptions. Supersonic propulsion was also discussed. the knowledge of hypersonic aerodynamics has matured between the 1960s and the present decade. [     |   | D | m . The sound barrier was broken using the Bell X-1 aircraft twelve years later. the goals of an aerodynamicist have shifted from understanding the behavior of fluid flow to understanding how to engineer a vehicle to interact appropriately with the fluid flow. building a scramjet aircraft to fly at hypersonic speeds has seen very limited success. presented his optimized airfoils for high subsonic speeds which led to some of the high performance American aircraft during World War ëë. Computational fluid dynamics was started as an effort to solve for flow properties around complex objects and has rapidly grown to the point where entire aircraft can be designed using a computer. thanks in part to those individuals. The Cold War fueled an ever evolving line of high performance aircraft. much of the subsonic and low supersonic aerodynamics knowledge had matured. and Enrico Pistolesi.Arturo Crocco. the desire to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of current aircraft and propulsion systems will continue to fuel new research in aerodynamics. Eastman Jacobs. Therefore. The new research presented was impressive. For example. Ackeret presented a design for a supersonic wind tunnel. Along with building a successful scramjet aircraft. while the behavior of hypersonic flow is understood. Busemann gave perhaps the best presentation on the need for aircraft with swept wings for high speed flight.

ën these cases. [     Aerodynamic problems are often solved using conservation laws as applied to a fluid continuum. ëf density and velocity are taken to be well-defined at infinitely small points. and are assumed to vary continuously from one point to another. . The Knudsen number can be used to guide the choice between statistical mechanics and the continuous formulation of aerodynamics. (  | /(  [    Gases are composed of molecules which collide with one another and solid objects. the discrete molecular nature of a gas is ignored. The continuity assumption becomes less valid as a gas becomes more rarefied. statistical mechanics is a more valid method of solving the problem than continuous aerodynamics.

ën many basic problems. three conservation principles are used: | ( 12     .

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The problem is then an incompressible low-speed aerodynamics problem.3. [    Subsonic (or low-speed) aerodynamics is the study of inviscid. Compressibility is a description of the amount of change of density in the problem. A flow can be considered incompressible as long as its speed is low. The Mach number is used to distinguish between incompressible and compressible flows. When the density is allowed to vary. When the effects of compressibility on the solution are small. one decision to be made by the aerodynamicist is whether to incorporate the effects of compressibility.[18]. [     /.   *       [      An incompressible flow is characterized by a constant density despite flowing over surfaces or inside ducts. ën air. compressibility effects are usually ignored when the Mach number in the flow does not exceed 0. the problem is called a compressible problem. For higher speeds. the flow will begin to compress as it comes into contact with surfaces. incompressible and irrotational aerodynamics where the differential equations used are a simplified version of the governing equations of fluid dynamics. ët is a special case of Subsonic aerodynamics. the aerodynamicist may choose to assume that density is constant. ën solving a subsonic problem. the problem should be solved by using compressible aerodynamics. Above 0.3 (about 335 feet (102m) per second or 228 miles (366km) per hour at 60oF).

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 According to the theory of aerodynamics.3 value is rather arbitrary. . supersonic. Furthermore. and hypersonic flows are all compressible.unlike incompressible flow . a flow is considered to be compressible if its change in density with respect to pressure is non-zero along a streamline. This means that .changes in density must be considered.3. but it is used because gas flows with a Mach number below that value demonstrate changes in density with respect to the change in pressure of less than 5%. The Mach . Transonic. this is the case where the Mach number in part or all of the flow exceeds 0. ën general. that maximum 5% density change occurs at the stagnation point of an object immersed in the gas flow and the density changes around the rest of the object will be significantly lower.

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[     /.2. Between these speeds some of the airflow is supersonic. when some parts of the airflow over an aircraft become supersonic. and a higher speed. when all of the airflow is supersonic. typically near Mach 1. ët is defined as the range of speeds between the critical Mach number. and some is not. 1  The term Transonic refers to a range of velocities just below and above the local speed of sound (generally taken as Mach 0.2).8±1.

along with the compressibility effects of high-velocity (see Reynolds number) fluids. in a supersonic flow. the pressure disturbance cannot propagate upstream. density. the speed of sound in that fluid can be considered the fastest speed that "information" can travel in the flow. ën front of that object. Calculating the lift on the Concorde during cruise can be an example of a supersonic aerodynamic problem. changing the flow pattern ahead of the object and giving the impression that the fluid "knows" the object is there and is avoiding it. 1\$(   Supersonic aerodynamic problems are those involving flow speeds greater than the speed of sound. when the fluid finally does strike the object. pressure changes are how a fluid is "told" to respond to its environment. since sound is in fact an infinitesimal pressure difference propagating through a fluid. Fluids react to differences in pressure. ën fluid traveling at subsonic speed. pressure.temperature. However. this pressure disturbance can propagate upstream. Supersonic flow behaves very differently from subsonic flow.in an extremely violent and irreversible fashion called a shock wave. the fluid builds up a stagnation pressure as impact with the object brings the moving fluid to rest. The presence of shock waves. This difference most obviously manifests itself in the case of a fluid striking an object. and Mach number -. is the central difference between supersonic and subsonic aerodynamics problems. Therefore. [     /. it is forced to change its properties -. Thus.

The hypersonic regime is a subset of the supersonic regime. hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. such . Hypersonic flow is characterized by high temperature flow behind a shock wave. 14    ën aerodynamics. the term generally came to refer to speeds of Mach 5 (5 times the speed of sound) and above. viscous interaction. ën the 1970s. and chemical dissociation of gas. [ c      The incompressible and compressible flow regimes produce many associated phenomena.

[     /.as boundary layers and turbulence.

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The viscosity and fluid friction in the air is approximated as being significant only in this thin layer. This principle makes aerodynamics much more tractable mathematically. [   /.  The concept of a boundary layer is important in many aerodynamic problems.

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high momentum convection.   ën aerodynamics. [ c       à    . stochastic property changes in the flow. and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time. Flow that is not turbulent is called laminar flow. This includes low momentum diffusion. turbulence is characterized by chaotic.

The field of environmental aerodynamics studies the ways atmospheric circulation and flight mechanics affect ecosystems. to calculate wind loads in the design of large buildings and bridges. Urban aerodynamics seeks to help town planners and designers improve comfort in outdoor spaces. and in automotive engines where detailed flow patterns strongly affect the performance of the engine. create urban microclimates and reduce the effects of urban pollution. gas piping. ët is used in the design of large components such as hard drive heads. ët is a significant factor in any type of vehicle design. including automobiles. Structural engineers also use aerodynamics.        . and particularly aeroelasticity. ët is important in the prediction of forces and moments in sailing.      Aerodynamics is important in a number of applications other than aerospace engineering. The aerodynamics of internal passages is important in heating/ventilation.

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    @(1*  There are thousands of designs and ideas about aircraft which have been developed through aviation history. As fix-wing aircrafts are the most common aircrafts they will be the most studied.   [ 5 |   -    Ê  ( . Despite this some main components became permanent in every aircraft dessing.

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landing gear.! "      Although airplanes are designed for a variety of purposes. The overall characteristics are largely determined by the original design objectives. wings. and a powerplant. an empennage. Most airplane structures include a fuselage. most of them have the same major components.  . There are many other parts as well.

ën addition. .   The fuselage includes the cabin and/or cockpit. Some aircraft utilize an open truss structure. which contains seats for the occupants and the controls for the airplane. the fuselage may also provide room for cargo and attachment points for the other major airplane components. Strength and rigidity is achieved by welding the tubing together into a series of triangular shapes. The truss-type fuselage is constructed of steel or aluminum tubing. called trusses.

Fix-wing aircrafts have control surfaces for each one of these dimensions. rudder and elevator as many other components...jpeg As aircraft move in three dimensions we need various control devices to control it.... as in some three-engine airplanes (with the third engine in the fuselage). ën fighter jets it may be constructed around the exhaust nozzle... Cockpit Voice Recorder and the pressure out-flow valve.. D [  ÷  [    u [  ´   [  ÷  [  Wing-Tip Effect à  [      Airplane control.. ën commercial aircrafts the empennage is built from the cabin pressure-cone and may contain the Flight Data Recorder ("black box")... u     Ô [  The empennage (also called tail) is the rear part of the aircraft. Usually these are placed in the . Usually it includes the stabilizers.

The rudder controls the Y-axis or Yaw of the plane and it is controled from the cockpit with the pedals.     [  The vertical stabilizer functions with the same principle a wing does. There can be multiple vertical stabilizers (in large aircrafts usually). creating V-tail aircrafts. but being symmetrical. Obviously. but you can use rudder only to 'slide' the aircraft. Some rudders are mixed with elevators in the same control surface. it has a vertical position. ët is a main control surface of airplanes (fix-wing aircrafts). The vertical stabilizer has a moving part which is called Rudder.extremes of the aircraft (tail and wings) to get the maximmun strength and response using small moving parts thanks to the lever concept. This acts as an aileron does in the wing. Note that an airplane is easier to maneuver as more unstable it is. Stability can be provided by stabilizers and fuselage and wing dessing. u  . usually in the tail of the aircraft. ën a coordinated turn. When it is moved to one or other side it produces a pressure difference over the stabilizer since it's movement is equal to change the angle of attack of this 'wing'. rudder and ailerons must be coordinated.

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or divided in two parts crossing the vertical stabilizer. ët can be on top of the vertical stabilizer (T-tail aircraft). ëts function is not to provide more lift but to control the Pitch of the aircraft (by modifying the angle of attack of the wing). ët functions as a wing does. the horizontal stabilizer has a horizontal position. creating V-tail aircrafts. elevators are mixed with rudders in the same control surface. creating a second point of lift along the fuselage which provides stability to the aircraft in the Z-axis. Rudder        [  The horizontal stabilizer is the main control surface of the aircraft. mainly in delta-wing planes. This is thanks to a moving part or parts called Elevators. and are controlled by the longitudinal axis of the joystick or wheel. which act like an aileron. since it has a better aerodynamic performance). . Some horizontal stabilizers have no elevators but are a whole elevator (mainly in gliders. ët also can be combined with ailerons. the horizontal stabilizer is positioned not in the tail but in the nose of the aircraft (note that its movement to reduce or increase pitch will be inverted from the one it does when it's placed in the tail). mainly of airplanes (fixed- wing aircraft). usually in the tail of the aircraft. Sometimes. ën Canard-configuration planes. Obviously.

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with the lateral axis of the joystick. so if one moves the other will move on the other direction in the same proportion. ën some planes ailerons are just divided elevators.  Elevator c  [  Ailerons are moving surfaces usually placed near the tips of the wings. This change in the aerodynamic is due to the modiffication of relative curve of the airfoil. sinking or lifting it. Ailerons control the X-axis or roll movement of the aircraft. Aileron ë  [  u . The function of an aileron is simple. by moving upwards or downwards it modifies the angle of attack of that section of the wing. To make coordinated turns they movement must be combined with rudder in the same direction. This improves the effect as one wing is lifted and the other sunk. Note that ailerons are complementary. being possible to use the same surface as aileron or elevator (delta-wing airplanes). Ailerons are controled by the pilot form the cockpit.

mainly during landings and take offs. They are very used on low speed operations. There are several types of flaps: | 9. These act on the aerodynamics of the wing. there are some devices which make possible to modify the lift produced by the wing. à[  Flaps increase the wing surface or curve generating more lift with the same speed. mainly on the boundary layer.  Trim       As well as speed and pitch (angle of attack).

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but it's objective is not to produce lift but to generate the circulation needed for it. Slat circulation will be opposite to wing circulation reducing the highest speed of the boundary layer. in a manner analogous to rotating a screw through a solid. u . This acts as a new little wing. u u  http://en.Speedbird 19:20. Usually. or submarine though a fluid such as water or air. but allowing the boundary layer to detach later (by reducing the adverse pressure generated in the trailing edge). generating a difference in pressure between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped bladesss. by rotating two or more twisted blades about a central shaft. ship.org/wiki/Leading-edge-device u [  Spoilers are not used for generating lift but for reducing it. slats are used with flaps during take off and landing operations as both produce extra lift at low speed.  Flap u[  A slat is a thin airfoil deployed form the leading edge of the wing. The blades of a propeller act as rotating wings. These devices are not very common in piston engine or turboprop airplanes but in turbojet airplanes and gliders. This produces the detachment of the boundary layer before than usual as an adverse pressure is generated. This reduces the maximun lift also. making its distribution along the wing softer. They are moving surfaces which are placed vertically across the airfoil.wikiversity. 1 April 2007 (UTC)SaifArafa ë         [  A propeller is a device which transmits power by converting it into thrust for propulsion of a vehicle such as an airplane.  Spoilers are used mainly after touch down (landing) and rarely used during the decend and approach. and produce force through application of both Bernoulli's principle and Newton's third law.

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discharge into turbines and release. u . but essentially an aircraft jet engine is composed of an intake chamber or valve. The process the air suffers through a jet engine begins with the intake and initial compression. @ [  A jet engine produces thrust by compressing air and releasing it through a directed pipe or nozzle. a much higher compression.   [  Piston engines are common four-stroke cycle engines. one or several compressors. so they use aviation gas and have special characteristics. but their function is very similar to a car engine. one or several turbines and an exhaust nozzle. | (@  | (  ë   [  A TurboProp engine consists in a jet engine which drives a propeller. The result of this is that we have a much more reliable engine than a piston engine (as much as a jet engine) but not as complicated and big as a jet engine since we don't need the jet-blast for generating thrust but the propeller. combustion. Transmission of these engines is connected to a propeller so they can provide thrust. Of course they are dessigned in particular for airplanes. ët is common to see jet engines with one more step which is to afterburn the mixture while being released. We will study more deeply this subject in Chapter 3. a fan. a combustion chamber.

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1 April 2007 (UTC)SaifArafa  [     .  · [  also used for turns during taxingSpeedbird 19:27.

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with the third wheel under the nose. An optional component is the wing. and one under the tail. As with fixed wing aircraft. Early autogyros. and several models of gyroplanes. composite. A combination of construction methods may also be employed. which has been in use for a number of years. The tricycle configuration also uses two mains.  à  [   m"      ---     %  Although gyroplanes are designed in a variety of configurations. Conventional gear consists of two main wheels. The airframes with the greatest strength-to-weight ratios are a carbon fiber material or the welded tube structure. a rotor system. sheet metal. for the most part the basic components are the same. and landing gear. . c [  The airframe provides the structure to which all other components are attached. º  [  The landing gear provides the mobility while on the ground and may be either conventional or tricycle. which is incorporated into some designs for specific performance objectives. tail surfaces. use conventional gear. The minimum components required for a functional gyroplane are an airframe. while most of the later gyroplanes incorporate tricycle landing gear. Airframes may be welded tube. a powerplant. or simply tubes bolted together. the gyroplane landing gear provides the ground mobility not found in most helicopters.

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The cost of a new certificated aircraft engine is greater than the cost of nearly any other new engine. and certificated aircraft engines have all been used in various gyroplane designs. marine. This added cost is the primary reason other types of engines are selected for use in amateur built gyroplanes. Automotive. º . a wide variety of engine types have been adapted to the gyroplane. and is independent of the rotor system while in flight. While on the ground. the engine may be used as a source of power to prerotate the rotor system. ATV. Certificated gyroplanes are required to use FAA certificated engines. Over the many years of gyroplane development.[  The powerplant provides the thrust necessary for forward flight.

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On some gyroplanes. especially those with an enclosed cockpit. With sufficient blade inertia and collective pitch change. This system may also employ a collective control to change the pitch of the rotor blades. Gyroplanes are under development with wings that are capable of almost completely unloading the rotor system and carrying the entire weight of the aircraft. An aft mounted duct enclosing the propeller and rudder has also been used. the yaw stability is marginal due to the large fuselage side area located ahead of the center of gravity. stabilizer and elevator. The teeter blade with hub tilt control is most common in homebuilt gyroplanes. Some gyroplane designs incorporate multiple vertical stabilizers and rudders to add additional yaw stability. ÷  Wings may or may not comprise a component of the gyroplane. jump takeoffs can be accomplished. ]       . The fully articulated and semi-rigid teetering rotor systems are the most common.[  m   The rotor system provides lift and control for the gyroplane. When used. and increased stability. These are explained in-depth in Chapter 5²Main Rotor System. These tail surfaces are similar to an airplane empennage and may be comprised of a fin and rudder. Ô [  The tail surfaces provide stability and control in the pitch and yaw axes. Many gyroplanes do not incorporate a horizontal tail surface. This will allow rotary wing takeoff performance with fixed wing cruise speeds. they provide increased performance. increased storage capacity. The additional vertical tail surface necessary to compensate for this instability is difficult to achieve as the confines of the rotor tilt and high landing pitch attitude limits the available area.

 . gliders and other kind of aircraft have specific components in their desings.Airships. hot-air balloons. all these should be studied. They can also use airplane components (renamed or non) or even devices wich do the same function but are different. Anyway.