Gill Sans Bold

Engineering Studies
Preliminary Course
Stage 6

Braking systems

ES/S6 – Prelim 41082 P0021884

Acknowledgments
This publication is copyright Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network –
Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, however it may contain material from
other sources which is not owned by Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production
would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used.
Board of Studies, NSW

All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in
good faith.

Materials development: Peter Martin
Coordination: Jeff Appleby
Edit: Jeff Appleby, Stephen Russell
Illustrations: Tom Brown, David Evans
DTP: Matthew Britt, Carolina Barbieri

Copyright in this material is reserved to the Crown in the right of the State of New South Wales.
Reproduction or transmittal in whole, or in part, other than in accordance with provisions of the
Copyright Act, is prohibited without the written authority of Learning Materials Production.

© Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network – Distance Education,
NSW Department of Education and Training, 1999. 51 Wentworth Rd. Strathfield NSW 2135.

Revised 2002

Module contents

Subject overview ................................................................................ iii

Module overview................................................................................ vii
Module components ................................................................ viii

Module outcomes ...................................................................... ix

Indicative time ............................................................................x

Resource requirements.............................................................. xi

Icons ................................................................................................... xiii

Glossary.............................................................................................. xv

Directive terms.................................................................................xxiii

Part 1: Development of braking systems and
engineering materials application – 1 .......................... 1–49

Part 2: Development of braking systems and
engineering materials application – 2 .......................... 1–33

Part 3: Engineering mechanics, hydraulics
and communications in braking systems – 1.............. 1–57

Part 4: Engineering mechanics, hydraulics
and communications in braking systems – 2.............. 1–47

Part 5: Engineering report for braking systems....................... 1–27

Bibliography........................................................................................29

Module evaluation .............................................................................31

i

ii

Subject overview

Stage 6 Engineering Studies Preliminary Course and HSC Course each
have five modules.

Engineering Studies Preliminary Course
Household appliances examines common appliances
found in the home. Simple appliances are analysed
to identify materials and their applications.
Electrical principles, researching methods and
techniques to communicate technical information are
introduced. The first student engineering report is
completed undertaking an investigation of materials
used in a household appliance.

Landscape products investigates engineering
principles by focusing on common products, such as
lawnmowers and clothes hoists. The historical
development of these types of products demonstrates
the effect materials development and technological
advancements have on the design of products.
Engineering techniques of force analysis are
described. Orthogonal drawing methods are
explained. An engineering report is completed that
analyses lawnmower components.

Braking systems uses braking components and
systems to describe engineering principles. The
historical changes in materials and design are
investigated. The relationship between internal
structure of iron and steel and the resulting
engineering properties of those materials is detailed.
Hydraulic principles are described and examples
provided in braking systems. Orthogonal drawing
techniques are further developed. An engineering
report is completed that requires an analysis of a
braking system component.

iii

Engineers as managers and ethical issues confronted by the bio-engineer are considered.engineered product and describes the related issues that the bio-engineer would need to consider before. Careers and current issues in this field are explored. An engineering report on an irrigation system is completed. Hydraulic analysis of irrigation systems is explained. Bio-engineering examines both engineering principles and also the scope of the bio-engineering profession. Irrigation systems is the elective topic for the preliminary modules. during and after this product development. An engineering report is completed that investigates a current bio. The historical development of irrigation systems is described and the impact of these systems on society discussed. The effect on irrigation product range that has occurred with the introduction of is detailed. iv .

A series of industrial manufacturing processes is described. and modifying material properties are examined. Lifting devices investigates the social impact that devices raging from complex cranes to simple car jacks. The historical development of cars is used to demonstrate the developing material list available to the engineer. including the hydraulic concepts often used in lifting apparatus. v . The mechanical analysis of mechanisms involves the effect of friction. motor vehicles and trains as examples to explain engineering concepts. Methods of testing materials. are detailed are introduced. The use of freehand technical sketches. Material properties and application are explained with reference to a variety of civil structures.HSC Engineering Studies modules Civil structures examines engineering principles as they relate to civil structures. The historical influences of engineering. have had on our society. such as power distribution. Technical communication skills described in this module include assembly drawing. The industrial processes used to form metals and the methods used to control physical properties are explained. such as bridges and buildings. Energy and power relationships are explained. Electrical concepts. Electrical requirements for many devices are detailed. and environmental implications are discussed with reference to bridges. The mechanical concepts are explained. The engineering report requires a comparison of two engineering solutions to solve the same engineering situation. Personal and public transport uses bicycles. The engineering report is based on a comparison of two lifting devices. The technical rules for sectioned orthogonal drawings are demonstrated. The impact on society of these developments is discussed. Mechanical analysis of bridges is used to introduce concepts of truss analysis and stress/strain. the impact of engineering innovation.

current projects and issues. The engineering report is based on the telecommunication profession. such as analogue and digital. Technologies unique to this engineering field are described. is used to reinforce mechanical concepts. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer-aided drawing is required. related to telecommunication products. The materials section concentrates on specialised testing. Mechanical analysis includes aeronautical flight principles and fluid mechanics. current projects and issues. Electronic systems. as well as ethical issues related to the profession. copper and its alloys.1 Modules vi . Ethical issues and current technologies are described. The engineering report is based on the aeronautical profession. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer-aided drawing is required. Figure 0. The corrosion process is explained and preventative techniques listed. Aeronautical engineering explores the scope of the aeronautical engineering profession. semiconductors and fibre optics. are explained and an overview of a variety of other technologies in this field is presented. Analysis. Telecommunications engineering examines the history and impact on society of this field. Career opportunities are considered. Materials and material processes concentrate on their application to aeronautics.

compressive strength and hardness. energy. including Pascal’s Principle. CAD is also developed. modification of properties and uses as applied to braking systems. steel and composites. Communications concentrates on visualisation and sketching of objects using pictorial drawing. including the application of AS1100 to braking systems and components. hydraulics and Archimedes’ Principle. This report requires a detailed investigation of one braking component. pressure. power. Detail drawings of components that give a full shape and size description are provided. Engineering mechanics and hydraulics analyses friction in braking systems. Historical developments provides an overview of developments in technology and society over time. The last part of this module involves an engineering report. strain. Orthogonal drawing is further extended. fluid mechanics. vii . manufacturing methods. stress. work. wrought iron. analyses the structure. the modulus of elasticity. with coordinate methods fully explained. properties. Engineering materials examines. and investigates materials testing of tensile strength.Module overview This module will build upon the material covered in Household appliances and introduce new concept relating to Braking systems. Isometric projection is extensively covered and isometric circles explained.

the teaching/learning section and additional resources. the preliminary pages.4 Additional materials Support materials such as audiotapes. Figure 0. Figure 0.3 Teaching/learning section • The additional information may include: Additional resources – module appendix – bibliography – module evaluation. • The preliminary pages include: – module contents – subject overview – module overview – icons – glossary – directive terms. Module components Each module contains three components. video cassettes and computer disks will sometimes accompany a module. viii .2 Preliminary pages • The teaching/learning parts may include: – part contents – introduction – teaching/learning text and tasks – exercises – check list. Figure 0.

2). you should be working towards being able to: • identify the scope of engineering and recognise current innovations (P1. oral and presentation skills and apply these to engineering reports (P3. © Board of Studies.1) • use mathematical.2) • demonstrate the ability to work both individually and in teams (P5.1) • develop written.boardofstudies. NSW. synthesis and experimentation related to engineering (P6.1) • describe the influence of technological change on engineering and its effect on people (P4.au> for original and current documents.1) • apply skills in analysis.edu. scientific and graphical methods to solve problems of engineering practice (P3.3) • describe developments in technology and their impact on engineering products (P4.2) • apply graphics as a communication tool (P3. ix . Refer to <http://www.1) • explain the relationship between properties. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus.Module outcomes At the end of this module. uses and applications of materials in engineering (P2. 1999.nsw.

x . Preliminary modules Percentage of time Number of hours Household appliances 20% 24 hr Landscape products 20% 24 hr Braking systems 20% 24 hr Bio-engineering 20% 24 hr Elective: Irrigation systems 20% 24 hr HSC modules Percentage of time Number of hours Civil structures 20% 24 hr Personal and public transport 20% 24 hr Lifting devices 20% 24 hr Aeronautical engineering 20% 24 hr Telecommunications engineering 20% 24 hr There are five parts in Braking systems. Each part will require about four to five hours of work. Indicative time The Preliminary course is 120 hours (indicative time) and the HSC course is 120 hours (indicative time). The following table shows the approximate amount of time you should spend on this module. You should aim to complete the module within 20 to 25 hours.

set of compasses. 0. • Board of Studies approved calculator • access to resource materials including textbooks.Resource requirements You will need the following equipment for this module: • technical drawing equipment – rule. protractor. If you access information from sites that are reputable. xi . the information can be used confidently and quoted. circle template and radius curves. drawing board. eraser.5 mm pencil with B lead. 60º-30º and 45º set squares. tee-square. newspapers and the Internet • access to a computer with a CAD program • brick or ream or paper • glue • fabric or sheet of garnet paper • 2 large PET drink bottles • drill/skeawer/nail • cotton • bucket/wash tub Note: The validity of some information provided on the Internet is questionable.

xii .

Computer This icon indicates tasks such as researching using an electronic database or calculating using a spreadsheet. Examine This icon indicates tasks such as reading an article or watching a video. Danger This icon indicates tasks which may present a danger and to proceed with care. Think This icon indicates tasks such. The purpose of these icons is to gain your attention and to indicate particular types of tasks you need to complete in this module. xiii . Hands on This icon indicates tasks such as collecting data or conducting experiments. Respond This icon indicates the need to write a response or draw an object.Icons As you work through this module you will see symbols known as icons. The list below shows the icons and outlines the types of tasks for Stage 6 Engineering studies. Discuss This icon indicates tasks such as discussing a point or debating an issue. as reflecting on your experience or picturing yourself in a situation.

xiv . Research This icon indicates you will need to do some investigative work. (OTEN OLP students will need to refer to their Learner's Guide for instructions on which exercises to return). Return This icon indicates exercises for you to return to your teacher when you have completed the part.

Glossary As you work through the module you will encounter a range of terms that have specific meanings. The list below explains the terms you will encounter in this module. The first time a term occurs in the text it will appear in bold. that take all coordinates measurements along the x and y axes from the origin alloy the addition of another element or elements to a metal used to change the properties of that metal angle of friction the angle that the resultant makes with the normal when the friction force and the normal reaction are replaced by a single force Archimedes’ when a body is wholly or partially immersed in a Principle fluid. survey and architectural drawings back pedal brake a common braking system for bicycles used in the 1950s requiring a freewheel system that enabled the pedals to be pushed backwards to apply the braking force to the rear wheel batching the combining or premixing of materials in preparation for forming or manufacturing components – used for composite or polymer based components xv . it is acted upon by an upthrust which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced AS1100 the drawing standards used in Australia for all technical drawings. anti-lock braking abbreviated to ABS prevents wheels from locking system during emergency braking situations absolute coordinates. such as mechanical and civil engineering. used in CAD.

must be equal to the weight of the floating body.8% carbon to 4. that is extremely hard and brittle coefficient of the ratio of the limiting frictional resistance to the friction normal reaction composite a composite material consists of two or more material materials combined to utilise the individual properties of those materials to give distinctly different service properties to the manufactured composite compression used in the manufacture of components that are moulding made from thermosetting polymers or from composites based upon thermosetting polymers.0% carbon cementite a phase in the microstructure of steel consisting of 6.67% carbon dissolved in BCC iron – it is an interstitial compound. forming a continuous phase throughout the structure. held in a gripping device and a gradually increasing axial load applied which shortens the specimen.2% carbon steel xvi . Brinell hardness a hardness test that uses a hardened steel or test tungsten carbide ball indentor pressed into the surface of a material for 10 to15 seconds – the loads used are 500. using a cable anchored to the chassis. it consists of compressing raw material into a mould or cavity of the desired shape. 1 500 and 3 000 kg buoyancy for a body to float in a fluid. the applied load is plotted against the compression. the upward thrust due to the weight of the displaced fluid. this upward thrust is buoyancy cable brakes a braking system introduced by Daimler in 1899. to produce a load-compression graph compressive stress the internal resistance of a body to a deforming force that is tending to shorten the body continuous a precipitation of a new phase that completely precipitation surrounds the existing equiaxed grains. and wound around a drum cast iron cast iron is a ferrous metal generally containing 1. and then applying heat and pressure compressive test a test conducted on a prepared specimen. an example is the continuous precipitation of cementite around the pearlite grains in a 1. Fe3C.

also a microstructural feature. consisting of carbon dissolved in Body Centred Cubic Structure (BCC) a iron. formed only when cooling an alloy from a liquid.8% carbon exploded an exploded isometric drawing is a pictorial isometric drawing of an assembly in which the components are drawn separated so that details of each component can be seen ferrite a phase in the microstructure of steel. it also includes the material from which the component is to be manufactured drum brakes a braking system introduced in 1902 by Louis Renault that operated on the principle of two hinged shoes being forced apart onto the inside of a rotating drum enlarging scale a drawing scale that is used to enable small objects to be drawn to a suitable scale on a piece of drawing paper (a scale of 2:1 means that you draw the object twice full size. whilst a scale of 10:1 means that you draw the object ten times full size) equiaxed grains a microstructural feature that shows grains that are ‘equiaxed’ or have equi-axes from the centre of the grain equilibrium the structure formed in a material as a result of a structure slow rate of cooling which enables all reactions to take place eutectoid steel a steel having a composition of 0. up to a maximum of 0.025% at 723∞ C. and consist of skeleton shaped grains which are drawn using curved lines detail drawing an orthogonal drawing which gives a full size and shape description of the component. it is an interstitial solid solution that is very soft. ductile and malleable full-section a standard method of drawing used to show interior details as visible outline xvii . visible in a microstructure. that have been squashed and deformed as a result of cold working dendrites the skeleton shaped grains formed during the solidification of many metals.contracting band a braking system developed in the 1890’s in brake response to the introduction of pneumatic tyres – the main type operated on the principle of a steel band acting externally on a hub or drum deformed grains the grains.

the resultant structure has graphite flakes in a pearlite or ferrite matrix – it is very strong in compression. if moving. a moderate cooling rate produces graphite rosettes in a pearlite matrix while a slow cooling rate produces graphite rosettes in a ferrite matrix – it has higher tensile properties than gray cast iron. and the exterior details on the other side of the symmetry line also as visible outline hidden outline lines that represent the edges of an object that cannot be seen as visible outline when viewed from the required direction. is slowly or moderately cooled in a mould. but weak in tension half-section a standard method of drawing used only with symmetrical components. to show the interior details on one side of the symmetry line as visible outline.25 mm thickness when using A4 size paper Hooke’s Law extension is proportional to the applied load in a tensile test hydraulic system a brake operating system using fluids to transfer pressure throughout the system by the application of Pascal’s Principle inertia the amount of matter in a body. it is also described as the tendency of a body to remain at rest or.0% carbon. remain in motion in a straight line isometric a three dimensional pictorial drawing that uses projection angles of 30∞-90∞-30∞ kinetic energy the energy a body possesses due to its motion limiting friction the frictional resistance acting when a body is on the point of moving leading shoe the shoe in a drum brake that tends to be pulled against the drum surface due to the rotation of the drum malleable cast a cast iron produced when white cast iron is iron reheated to 800∞C and soaked for 30 to 50 hours. usually 0.8% to 4. they are represented as thin dark dashed lines. and is also tougher xviii . friction the resistance to motion that occurs when two surfaces slide or tend to slide over each other grey cast iron a cast iron produced when molten iron. containing 2.

matrix the continuous phase in a material that holds the other constituents together mechanical a body’s capacity to do work energy mechanical work the work done when a force acts upon a body and produces a displacement is mechanical work. and sometimes size description of a component. then the pressure at all points in the liquid is changes by the same amount pearlite a microstructural constituent consisting of two phases. chemically homogeneous part of a material pictorial drawing a three dimensional drawing used to show the shape. it is drawn in a microstructure to give the appearance of a finger print phase a physically distinct. using the angle measured in a counterclockwise direction from the positive x axis xix . isometric projection is one method of drawing pictorials pneumatic tyres vulcanised rubber tubular tyres that use air to inflate the tyre or inner tube polar coordinates coordinates used in CAD that take radial measurements from the last point entered. is changed. ferrite and cementite. pearlite has a lamella or plate like structure. it is determined by the product of the force and the displacement of the point of application of that force nodules Carbon is deposited in nodular or spherical forms orthogonal a method of drawing utilising two dimensional drawing views and dimensions to give a shape and size description of components – orthogonal drawing must follow AS1100 Drawing Standards part-section a standard method of drawing used to show the relevant interior details of part of the component as visible outline Pascal’s Principle if the pressure at any point in a liquid that is enclosed and at rest. alternating between plates of ferrite and plates of cementite.

and is determined by the ratio of work done to the time taken to do the work pressure pressure is force per unit area reactive force a force that acts as a response to an applied force or applied forces. the indentor is initially pressed into the surface of the material by a minor load of 10 kg and the major load is then applied rosettes Carbon is deposited around a central core with radiating arms service properties the performance properties of a manufactured component when being used for its designed purpose servo-assisted the assistance in a drum brake of the rotating drum that tends to pull the brake shoe against the rotating surface of the drum servo-assisted drum brakes that are designed so the leading shoe brake or shoes are pulled in towards the braking surface and thus increase the braking force shape description a full definition of the shape of a component in technical drawing. whilst a scale of 1:10 means that you draw the object one tenth full size relative coordinates used in CAD that take actual coordinates measurements along the x and y directions from the last point entered – negative values are frequently used Rockwell a hardness test that uses a variety of indentors. Newton. in his third law said that to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction reducing scale a drawing scale that is used to enable large objects to be drawn to scale on a piece of drawing paper (a scale of 1:2 means that you draw the object half full size. it is determined by the amount of work required to lift a body through a vertical height power power is the time rate of doing work. potential energy the energy a body possesses due to its position. hardness test including an industrial diamond cone.5 mm and 3 mm hardened steel ball. using a drawing or a number of views of that component xx . and a 1.

4% strain the ratio of change in length of a body with respect to its original length.shear stress the internal resistance of a body to a deforming force that is tending to slide one part of the body across another part of the body size description a full definition of the size of a component in technical drawing.: it is calculated as deformation per unit length strain energy the energy a body possesses due to its deformation. held in a gripping device and a gradually increasing axial load applied which stretches the specimen – the applied load is plotted against the extension. to produce a load-extension graph trailing shoe shoe in a drum brake that tends to be pushed away from the drum surface due to the rotation of the drum Vickers hardness a hardness test that uses an industrial diamond test indentor in the shape of an inverted square pyramid which is pressed into the surface of a material for 15 seconds xxi . it is determined by the amount of work done in deforming the body stress a body’s internal resistance to an externally applied force that tends to deform a body. showing all the dimensions of that component solid solution an alloy system in which the atoms of one element (substitutional) replace the atoms of the other element in the lattice structure of the metal spheroidal abbreviated to SGCI. it is calculated as load per unit area tensile stress the internal resistance of a body to a deforming force that is tending to stretch the body tensile test a test conducted on a prepared specimen. a moderate cooling rate produces graphite nodules or spheroids in a pearlite matrix while a slow cooling rate produces graphite nodules or spheroids in a ferrite matrix steel ferrous metal that contains carbon of varying amounts generally from 0.05% to 1. is a cast iron alloyed with graphite cast iron magnesium to produce nodules of graphite in the cooling process.

they are represented as thick dark continuous lines. the resultant structure has dendrites of pearlite in a cementite matrix. containing 2.5 mm thickness when using A4 size paper vulcanisation a mechanism used to strengthen the mechanical properties of rubber by forming sulphur cross-links between the polymer chains white cast iron a cast iron produced when molten iron. it usually has slag inclusions which align in the direction of working Young’s Modulus also known as the modulus of elasticity where stress is proportional to strain within the elastic limit xxii . is rapidly cooled in a mould.0% carbon. it is extremely hard and brittle wrought iron a ferrous metal containing little or no carbon.8% to 4. visible outline lines that represent the edges of an object in a technical drawing. usually of 0.

outcomes. reflection and quality to (analysis/evaluation) deduce draw conclusions define state meaning and identify essential qualities demonstrate show by example xxiii . figures or information clarify make clear or plain classify arrange or include in classes/categories compare show how things are similar or different construct make. draw out and relate implications apply use. employ in a particular situation appreciate make a judgement about the value of assess make a judgement of value. build. give an account of: narrate a series of events or transactions analyse identify components and the relationship between them. report on. quality. knowledge (analyse/evaluate) and understanding. utilise. account account for: state reasons for. put together items or arguments contrast show how things are different or opposite critically add a degree or level of accuracy depth. logic. results or size calculate ascertain/determine from given facts. questioning.Directive terms The list below explains key words you will encounter in assessment tasks and examination questions.

edu. xxiv . determine the value of examine inquire into explain relate cause and effect. Refer to <http://www. © Board of Studies. suggestion) for consideration or action recall present remembered ideas. idea. indicate the main features of predict suggest what may happen based on available information propose put forward (for example a point of view. NSW. facts or experiences recommend provide reasons in favour recount retell a series of events summarise express. describe provide characteristics and features discuss identify issues and provide points for and/or against distinguish recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or different from. make the relationships between things evident. the relevant details synthesise putting together various elements to make a whole Extract from The New Higher School Certificate Assessment Support Document.nsw. argument. to note differences between evaluate make a judgement based on criteria. 1999.au> for original and current documents. provide why and/or how extract choose relevant and/or appropriate details extrapolate infer from what is known identify recognise and name interpret draw meaning from investigate plan.boardofstudies. concisely. inquire into and draw conclusions about justify support an argument or conclusion outline sketch in general terms.

Braking systems Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 .

..........................47 Exercise cover sheet.................................................................................................................32 Exercises .................................35 Progress check .....................................................................................23 Brakes............13 Steels and cast iron for braking systems ............ steels and engineers ............................... Part 1 contents Introduction.... 3 Early history of brakes ..11 Investigating materials................................... 3 The effect of engineering innovation .............................................49 Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 1 .........................................................13 Brakes...... cast irons and engineers.................................... 2 Development of braking systems........................................ 2 What will you learn?.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

NSW. and back pedal brakes.boardofstudies.edu. Introduction Think of all the different types of braking systems. 1999. What will you learn? You will learn about: • historical and societal influences – historical developments of braking systems – the effect of engineering innovations on people’s lives – environmental implications from the use of materials in braking systems • engineering materials – materials for braking systems. In this part you will examine the development of braking systems.au> for original and current documents. Refer to <http://www. in an emergency using your foot on the back wheel. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. You will learn to: • examine the changing applications of materials to components in braking systems • discuss the social implications of technological change in braking systems • investigate the structure and properties of appropriate materials used in braking systems. sliding the bike or ‘laying it down’ are also effective. © Board of Studies. or methods. that you could use to stop a bicycle – there are front and rear calliper brakes. 2 Braking systems .nsw.

This system was effective as it was used in conjunction with the horse when stopping the wagon. used the rider's feet to stop the bike. Early history of brakes In 1815. It consisted of a curved wooden block or shoe. You have probably used this ‘braking system’ to stop your bike. a large tree branch was used to slow his carriage as it descended a steep incline at Mount York. bicycles and many other machines or vehicles. Developing of braking systems A brake is a device used to slow down or stop a moving object. kinetic energy. designed to press against the wrought iron rim of the wheels when a force was applied through a system of levers and linkages. trains. usually heat energy. into some other form of energy. External shoe brake The earliest known type of mechanical braking system was a lever brake introduced on horse-drawn wagons in the 18th century. Today brakes are used in motor vehicles. It was mainly used as a parking brake. aircraft. It operates as a result of friction by converting the energy of motion. It is also used to hold a stationary vehicle or object at rest. The design of the first bicycle. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 3 . when Governor Macquarie was crossing the Blue Mountains. cranes. the Draisine. lifts. patented in 1818 by Freiherr Drais.

They were quite effective at low speeds but were not 4 Braking systems .2 Early model braking system From the 1830s. which operated automatically if the train separated. the application still being through linkages and levers to wrought iron brake shoes rubbing against cast iron wheels. Initially hand-operated lever brakes were used. Up until the 1870s hand-operated brakes were used on the tender and vans of steam-driven railway carriages. It was made compulsory on all trains in Britain in 1889. In 1875 Westinghouse developed a compressed air brake. similar to the contemporary horse drawn carriages.1 1850s Brake Figure 1. It was the advent of the motor vehicle that caused braking technology to develop. Figure 1. steam carriages used a hand operated braking system. operating directly onto the solid tyre tread.

The drum brake The next development in braking systems was the introduction of the drum brake. and the system had to be meticulously balanced to deliver equal. Dust seal Slave cylinder Brake shoe and lining Return spring Wheel hub Figure 1. The band brake would not operate when the vehicle was in reverse. safe braking forces to the brake shoes. The mechanical drum brake was inefficient due to frictional losses in the joints. The brake was less effective in wet weather. Severe wear of the moving parts required constant maintenance. The contracting band brake was developed. Contracting band brake In the late 1890s the use of pneumatic tyres made the external shoe brake obsolete. Dirt often became trapped between the lining and the hub reducing the braking effectiveness. Karl Friedrick Benz applied this system to his first internal combustion vehicle in 1885. It operated on the principle of a band acting on a hub. A mechanically operated drum brake was first used by Louis Renault in 1902.3 Hydraulic drum brake assembly Courtesy: Newgas Automotive Taren Point © LMP Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 5 . The drum brake was unaffected by dirt and weather since the brake shoes were enclosed in the brake drum. effective in wet weather and would damage the tyres.

the first a hand operated lever system. the Mutton Car Company heralded a revolution in braking technology when a hydraulic system was introduced to operate the rear brakes. By 1910 most motor vehicles were using two independent and separate brake operating mechanisms on the rear wheels. When brakes are applied on a motor vehicle. much of the weight force of the vehicle is thrown forward onto the front wheels.4 The brake drum fits over the brake assembly Courtesy: Newgas Automotive Taren Point © LMP Hydraulic braking systems In 1904.5 Front wheel brakes required 6 Braking systems . leaving the rear brakes relatively ineffective. The advantages of having brakes on all four wheels was that the stopping distance could be reduced. Figure 1. Front wheel brakes Around this time front wheel brakes also began to appear. Figure 1. the second either a pedal operated mechanical system or a pedal operated hydraulic system.

Figure 1. it was regarded as a ‘new invention’ at the London Motor Show in 1951. which are moulded into shape and cured. Previously disc brakes had only been used on motorcycles. aeroplanes and trucks but not motor cars. such as glass fibre. barytes. such as elastomers.6 Disc brake Brake linings and pads Along with the development of brake mechanisms. Anti-lock braking systems Another major development in recent years is the anti-lock braking system. such as phenol formaldehyde. Early brake pad liners were made by weaving an asbestos yarn into the desired shape. calcium carbonate. brass and zinc. that by the 1960s the use of disc brakes was widespread in British and European cars. Disc brakes The next major development in braking systems was the use of disc brakes. (ABS). This system prevents wheels from locking during Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 7 . steel wool and carbon fibres. fine metal and schist. fillers. binders. such as clay. in 1924 the ‘vacuum servo’. and. frictional material for brake linings also developed. During the 1930s hydraulic systems were gradually introduced to all braking systems in vehicles. This development revolutionised the braking industry. led to power assisted braking systems. Although originally developed in the early 1900s. Today the brake pad linings are produced from a combination of many materials: fibres. so much so. and friction modifiers. kevlar. The introduction of hydraulically assisted ‘servo-brakes’.

∑ cheap to ∑ worked only as drawn carts ∑ pressure produce a supplement applied to to the horses shoe. ‘pumping’ the brakes much more effectively than a driver can. and when an emergency situation is detected. Brake system Operation Advantages Disadvantages External shoe ∑ hand operated ∑ appropriate for ∑ needed a large brake by lever horse-drawn force to 18th –20th century vehicle operate ∑ uses linkages Used on horse. forced ∑ simple against metal technology ∑ not effective in rim available wet and dusty conditions ∑ mainly a ∑ materials parking brake cheap and ∑ safety problem easy to obtain due to exposed ∑ supplemented linkage the horse Contracting band ∑ contracting ∑ appropriate for ∑ would not brakes band acting on early model operate in Late 19th century a hub cars with reverse rubber tyres Early model cars ∑ hand operated ∑ not effective in ∑ new technology wet and dusty ∑ worked only in needed conditions forward motion ∑ steel industry ∑ not effective as developing parking brakes Drum brakes ∑ internal ∑ operated in all ∑ brake fade From 1902 expanding. ABS uses wheel speed sensors to detect rapid deceleration. types of shoes weather ∑ heat dissipation Cars and trucks problems ∑ mechanically/ ∑ servo-assisted hydraulically operated ∑ two independent systems 8 Braking systems . to prevent the wheels from locking. it activates an hydraulic unit with solenoid valves which build up and release pressure. The following table will be supplemented with more specific historical perspective throughout the module. enabling drivers to steer the vehicle while stopping. An electronic control unit constantly monitors the wheel speed information. along with related developments in areas of materials and technology. emergency braking situations.

which meant the eventual end of the external shoe brake. You will see why there was a need to develop a system to replace the hand operated lever brake. wooden wheels with wrought iron rims were used on horse drawn carriages. In 1895 the Michelin brothers had begun the move towards replacing steel- rimmed wheels with pneumatic rubber tyres and found that the old technology of applying a brake shoe directly to the tyre was unsatisfactory. Goodyear patented the vulcanisation of rubber which enabled the use in 1871 of solid rubber tyres on wheels. the contracting band system. References: to complete this case study. The lever brake used a wooden shoe and leather liner. They were quite effective at low speeds. steam carriages. The contracting band system – a case study In this section of work you will follow a case study of one braking system. both rail and road. From the 1830s. In the mid-nineteenth century simple hand operated lever brakes were used on horse drawn coaches. As a direct result. In 1888 Dunlop patented pneumatic tyres. These brakes operated on the principle of a band acting externally on a hub or drum. used cast iron wheels with wrought iron brake shoes. In 1841. From1800–1880. and look at the different engineering designed systems that were developed.1. Disc brakes ∑ calipers force ∑ more efficient ∑ special design 1930s in trucks pads against needed for the rotating ∑ improved heat parking brake From 1952 in cars disc dissipation ∑ power ∑ hydraulically ∑ lighter weight assistance operated with required ∑ easier pad power assistance design ∑ more expensive ∑ special design ∑ little or no fade required to operate the disc brake as a hand brake Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 1. contracting band brakes were developed. Two early devices attempted to apply the force of friction to the axle and to a drum Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 9 . Both systems used an external shoe brake. steam carriages and railway locomotives. along with the Repco-PBR Sound Filmstrip from the ‘Stop – Braking Systems for Cars’. were excellent as parking brakes but were not as effective in wet weather. the Historical Development of Braking Systems and the history from Materials for Braking Systems from this module were used.

The other shoe is pushed off by the effect of the rotating drum and its braking effect is reduced. In 1899. so that the braking effect is increased. on the axle. Both band brakes and cable brakes proved ineffective. The brake was unaffected by dirt and weather since the brake shoes were enclosed inside the brake drum. dirt often became trapped in-between the lining and the hub. This shoe is called the trailing shoe. The leading shoe wears more quickly as it does more work. and neither system would operate when the vehicle was in reverse. one shoe was self-energising and the other was not. This was called servo-assistance. the right hand shoe is tending to be pulled against the drum surface. with the two shoes pivoted separately at their lower end. contracting steel band. Daimler used a cable anchored to the chassis and wound around a drum. 10 Braking systems . The drum brake – a case study In this section of work you will follow a case study of another braking system. When the cable tightened while the car was moving forward. This is known as a servo-assisted brake and is the basis for the drum brakes used today. The introduction of the vulcanisation of rubber and the subsequent development of pneumatic tyres led to the demise of the externally applied shoe brake. Design advancement saw the introduction of a brake with the two shoes linked together thus giving the effect of two leading shoes. With band brakes. thus increasing braking efficiency. Initially. the drum brake. flexible. This shoe is called the leading shoe. They were considerably less effective in wet weather. the rotation of the drum increased the tightness and grip of the cable. The design solution was the development of the expanding shoe drum brake. It was also considerably less effective in wet weather. along with the materials used. and is still an important factor in the design of expanding shoe drum brakes. Neither system would operate when the vehicle was in reverse. reducing the braking effectiveness. If the drum is considered to be rotating clockwise. dirt often became trapped in-between the lining and the hub. Mechanically operated drum brakes were first used by Louis Renault in 1902. One used wooden blocks inside an external. The use of band brakes and cable brakes also proved ineffective as cars became heavier and faster. The design used two hinged shoes which were forced apart by an interposed arm pushing each shoe against the inside of a rotating drum. You will look at the different engineering designs that were developed.

Deliveries of bread. Transport around the towns was by bicycle. there were two systems in use. The brake shoe applied a force to the mild steel rim of the wooden wheel. A nickel-iron alloy was used in the 1920s. linkages and a brake shoe with a leather liner. Personal transport around the cities was also available by tram or train. Early drums were made from pressed. with the systems in place today. they were not strong enough to maintain their shape. rods and Bowden cables to a cam which pushed the shoes apart. The braking system on a moving cart was always the horse. Many bicycles did not have brakes. however. Hydraulics were introduced to improve the operation of the systems. Disc brakes have now replaced drum brakes on the front wheels in all new cars and on all four wheels in many models. the hand brake. or the conventional caliper brake on the rear wheel. or by applying a foot to the tyre. Brakes on bicycles were either a ‘back-pedal’ brake. SGCI. medium carbon steel. When the cart was stationary. Grey cast iron was found to be the best material for use in drums. Mechanical operation of the drum brake was through a series of levers. Cars had mechanical brake systems. and compare systems in place then. We will especially look at the effect that improved braking system technology had on the lives of people who have lived through this era. and hydraulically operated for the foot brake. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 11 . similar to today’s bicycles. they were easily scored and were poor conductors of heat. milk. During the 1940s not many families were not able to afford a car for personal transport. lever and cable operated for the hand brake. The trams and trains used a braking system that is still in use today – metal shoe brakes applied by an air-operated system. Bikes were stopped using the fixed wheel drive through the pedals. providing greater toughness. was applied. The effect of engineering innovation In this section of work we will examine the effect of engineering innovations on personal transport since 1940. fruit and vegetables. if a freewheel drive was used. consisting of a lever. and to provide equal. and of ice for the ice-chest. safe braking forces to the brake shoes. but this was replaced in the 1970s with spheroidal graphite cast iron. Like the cars of today. Cast aluminium alloys with cast iron liners were also used but were considered too expensive. it had greater rigidity and better friction properties. were made door to door by vendors using a horse and cart.

Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 1. and for travel to and from school and work. at the Royal Easter Show. Bicycles are used by many people for recreation. to describe some of these changes and the effect that the changes had on their lives. light-rail (tram). The braking systems for trains. plane. Social and economical conditions have changed dramatically since the 1940s. or that your family knows. Today personal transport is by car. or special events and are seldom used for personal transport. sport and fitness. The cars travel at much greater velocity than the cars of the 1940s and require far greater stopping power. and sometimes even by skate board. Most families have a car. Horse and sulkies are only seen at country shows. trams and bikes remain basically the same. 12 Braking systems . train or bus. cars have seen tremendous improvements.2. Ask your grandparents or people that you know. mono-rail. however.

8% – 4% carbon. Steels and cast irons for braking systems Steels and cast irons have been used in braking systems for many years. They are ferrous metals that contain varying amounts of carbon along with other alloying elements. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 13 . machining. toughness. hardenability. Investigating materials The selection of materials for braking systems is influence by: • mechanical properties – ductility. fatigue. For this course you will focus on plain carbon steels and cast irons. Commercial cast irons contain from 1. welding. elasticity and toughness • physical properties – density.4% carbon. Steels contain 0. corrosion resistance. casting. strength. hardness. environmental effects and safety are important selection criteria when considering the material for the product or component. thermal expansion and conductivity • chemical properties – oxidation and corrosion • comparative cost and availability of materials • manufacturing properties – critical when selecting methods of forming. hardness. surface treatment and heat treatment to be used • service properties – such as wear resistance.05% – 1.

slag inclusions aligned in the direction of rolling. increased. Wrought iron Historical perspective Between 1850 and 1870 the use of wrought iron produced by the ‘puddling’ process. 14 Braking systems . heat shrunk onto rim. malleable. Wrought Iron – used in wheel rims of carriages. Prior to this it was used as a supplement to wood and cast iron. The lever brake had a wooden shoe. From the 1830’s. ii Properties Very soft. ductile. In 1841. 1839. • Manufacturing technology – Hot rolled into strips. with slag inclusions. In London. In 1888 Dunlop patented pneumatic tyres. 1860s • Composition Iron. (due to the iron matrix). (produced in puddling furnace). Manufacturing technologies and the modification of properties are also included. wooden wheels with wrought iron rims were used on horse-drawn carriages. then specify manufacturing and service properties. 7417 tonne of wrought iron was used in the construction of the 300 m high Eiffel Tower. • Availability – Readily available. and leather liner. 1889. tough. and the end of wrought iron rims and shoes. The use of wrought iron braking systems From 1800 and 1880. They incorporate properties of the material. wrought iron was used for small trusses to span the roof of Euston station. In Paris. The summaries detail composition and structure. including the appropriate microstructures. which meant the end of the external shoe brake. shaped and hot welded by blacksmith. steam carriages used cast iron wheels with wrought iron brake shoes. Goodyear patented the vulcanisation of rubber which enabled the use in 1871 of solid rubber tyres on wheels. i Structure Equiaxed grains of iron.

Wrought Iron A microstructure A microstructure is a magnified view of portion of the material as seen under a reflecting light microscope. malleable. Interpretation of the structure and the drawing of the structure are vital for interpretation of the syllabus in terms of the properties of that material. • Modification of properties – Can be work hardened or alloyed. • Manufacturing properties – Easily formed. the grain structure is visible. a tilting furnace that allowed the air to be blasted through liquid pig iron to decarburise the molten metal to produce steel. good thermal expansion. Ferrite Slag Figure 1. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 15 . ductile. • Service Properties – Adequate hardness and toughness. The method of determining the structure is outside the scope of the syllabus. Magnification is usually between 150x and 500x. In the 1860s the Seimens open-hearth furnace was introduced.7 Microstructure. In 1856 Henry Bessemer announced the development of his Bessemer Converter. Steels Historical perspective Steel has been used for 2000 years but it was not until the1850s that the steel industry began to develop with the availability of cheaper steel. • Microstructure phases – Iron and slag inclusions. soft. When viewed using the reflecting light microscope.

1903 Henry Ford established the mass production technique. and technology enabled the US to produce three times the quantity of steel than England did by the end of the century. 16 Braking systems . ferrite and cementite. 1877 British Board of Trade authorised the use of steel in bridge construction. 1893 Benz produced his first four wheeled ‘car’. The world output of steel rose from 500 000 tonne in 1870 to 28 000 000 tonne in 1899. 1893 Henry Ford’s first automobile. Time line 1869 first transcontinental railway in US. Property/structure relationships Property/structure relationships is very important in understanding steel and its use by engineers. 1885 Rover ‘safety’ bicycle produced. The microstructure of steel The microstructures show only two phases. The microstructure of steels and how the structure affects the properties of the various steels must be known Equilibrium structure In steels. Cheaper steel and better quality control Pierre Martin. It is the amount of each phase and the distribution of the phases throughout the microstructure that determine the properties of the steel. therefore the type of structure shown must be specified. 1875 Westinghouse Brake developed for railways. in 1864 was able to produce steel in the open-hearth furnace by adding a large quantity of scrap metal to the pig iron. the equilibrium structure is very similar to the annealed structure and can be considered the same for this course. (adopted 1889) 1877 Reinforced concrete patented by Monier. Developments in mechanisation. The structure of steel can be modified by heat treatment. This enabled the recycling of scrap and better quality control of the steel produced. In 1880 Carnegie built the first big furnace in the United States. 1883 Brooklyn Bridge completed.

008% at room temperature to 0. Now consider the property/structure relationships of various steels. heat shrunk onto rim. Cementite Cementite is a very hard. • Manufacturing technology. Fe 3C.67% carbon dissolved in the iron.15%) – Equiaxed grains of ferrite. It appears in most steel equilibrium microstructures.025% at 723ºC. Dead mild steel – used in wheel rims. • Availability – Readily available. ductile phase comprising of BCC iron with a very small amount of carbon dissolved in the iron. Pearlite Pearlite is a mixture of the two phases. 1880 – Hot rolled into strips. (Pearlite is a lamella structure.05% to 0. 0. The amount of carbon dissolved varies with the temperature. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 17 . It is a compound and thus has a chemical formula. homogeneous part of a material. cementite is the other phase. tough (due to ferrite matrix). shaped and forge welded by blacksmith. A phase A phase is a chemically distinct. • Equilibrium Structure (0. Ferrite is one phase seen in the microstructure of steel. Ferrite Ferrite is a very soft. Pearlite is a lamella or plate-like structure with alternating thin plates of ferrite and cementite. It is a micro-constituent as it is a feature in the microstructure. ferrite and cementite and is therefore not a phase. ductile. small grains of pearlite (approximately 12%). produced in Bessemer or Open-hearth furnace. ranging from 0. alternate thin plates of ferrite and cementite) • Properties – Very soft. malleable. 1880s • Composition Iron. brittle phase comprising of Body Centred Cubic Structure (BBC) iron with 6.15% carbon.

• Manufacturing properties – Easily formed.1% C Mild steel – used in brake nuts and bolts. ductile.3% C) – Equiaxed grains of ferrite. • Microstructure – Phases. • Properties – Soft. 1920s • Composition – Iron. a lamella structure. • Manufacturing properties – Easily formed by hot working. • Manufacturing technology 1920 – Hot rolled into bars. hot forged to shape. • Service Properties – Good shear and tensile strength. tough. • Equilibrium Structure (0. tough (due to ferrite matrix). thread. • Modification of properties – Can be work–hardened or alloyed. malleable.15% to 0. • Service properties – Adequate hardness and toughness. (approximately 30%). malleable. 18 Braking systems . ductile. soft. 0. good machinability.3% carbon. • Availability – Readily available. machine formed. thin alternating plates of ferrite and cementite). ferrite and cementite (12% of the structure is in the form of grains of pearlite.8 Microstructure. small grains of pearlite. Ferrite Pearlite Figure 1. 0. Steel. high steel production.

3% to 0. Pearlite Ferrite Figure 1. • Microstructure – Phases. heat treatable to produce ‘spring’ properties.6% carbon. Steel. • Manufacturing technology 1950 – Hot rolled into rods. high elasticity. heat treatable. or alloyed. harden and temper the spring. (approximately 75%). thin alternating plates of ferrite and cementite). a lamella structure. very high steel production.3% C Medium carbon steel – used in brake springs. ferrite and cementite (30% of the structure in the form of grains of pearlite. draw into wire. • Modification of properties – Can be heat treated to produce different properties. 0. not corroded by brake fluid. hot drawn to wire shape. • Manufacturing properties – Good formability by hot working. good machinability. Methods of producing springs. • Equilibrium Structure (0. • Availability – Readily available. and large grains of pearlite.6% C) – Small equiaxed grains of ferrite. • Modification of properties – Can be work hardened or alloyed. • Service properties – Resilient.9 Microstructure. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 19 . • Properties – Tough. form the helical shape. hard. 1950s • Composition – Iron. 0.

• Availability – Readily available. • Manufacturing properties – Good formability by hot working. very high steel production. 20 Braking systems . • Microstructure – Phases. • Microstructure – Phases. • Modification of properties – Can be heat treated to produce different properties. 0. Steel. or alloyed. 1950s Note eutectoid steel is steel that contains 0. ferrite and cementite (75% of structure grains of pearlite).8% carbon • Composition – Iron. • Equilibrium Structure (0.10 Microstructure. ferrite and cementite in the form of grains of pearlite.6% C Eutectoid steel – used in brake cable wire. • Properties – Heat treatable. 0. • Manufacturing technology – 1950: hot rolled into rods. • Service properties – Good toughness and high tensile strength. Ferrite Pearlite Figure 1. hot drawn to wire. (100%).8 % carbon.8% C) – Grains of pearlite.

heat treatable. • Equilibrium Structure (0.8% C High carbon steel – used in brake cable wire.6% to 0. 0. hot drawn to wire. • Manufacturing technology 1950 Hot rolled into rods. surrounded by a continuous precipitation of cementite at the grain boundaries. very high steel production. Pearlite Figure 1. 0. poor machinability. Steel. • Properties – Heat treatable. • Microstructure – Phases. Steel. hard with low ductility. • Service properties – Good toughness and high tensile strength. or alloyed. • Manufacturing properties – Good formability by hot working. Cementite Pearlite Figure 1. 1950s • Composition – Iron. ferrite and cementite in the form of grains of pearlite.9% C) – Grains of pearlite surrounded by a continuous precipitation of cementite at the grain boundaries.9% C Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 21 . (brittle) high tensile strength. 0.12 Microstructure. • Modification of properties – Can be heat treated to produce different properties.11 Microstructure.9 % carbon. • Availability – Readily available.

1. • Availability – Readily available. • Manufacturing properties – Good formability by hot working. very poor machinability. • Modification of properties – Can be heat treated to produce different properties.3% C) Grains of pearlite surrounded by a greater continuous precipitation of cementite at the grain boundaries. 0. • Manufacturing technology 1950 – Hot worked into shape.3% C 22 Braking systems . very high steel production. • Service properties – Heat treatable for good toughness and tensile strength. heat treatable. surrounded by a greater continuous precipitation of cementite at the grain boundaries. (brittle) lower tensile strength. very hard wearing surface.13 Microstructure. Tool steel – used in cutting tools. very hard with very low ductility. or alloyed.9% to 1. Pearlite Cementite Figure 1. • Microstructure – Phases. ii Properties Heat treatable. 1950s • Composition – Iron. Steel. ferrite and cementite in the form of grains of pearlite.4 % carbon. i Equilibrium Structure (1. heat treated to obtain desired properties.

14 Steel microstructures Background i The micro-constituents.6%. Topic: Investigate the affect of micro-constituents on the properties of steel: Five steels are to be considered. 0. ferrite and cementite. Brakes. 0. Ferrite: is soft. 0.1%. 0. The five steels to be considered are. Pearlite. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 23 . The microstructures are shown for each of these five steels. Portions of that report are given in this example.8% and 1.1% C 0.2% carbon steels. 0. 0. malleable and ductile. They are. There are only two phases present. ii The properties of each of the phases. perlite cementite ferrite 0. 0.2% carbon steels.3%.1%. Cementite: is very hard and brittle. a lamella structure of alternating plates of ferrite and cementite phases is a micro-constituent of all of the microstructures.8% and 1. A report A materials engineer is required to prepare a report on the selection of plain carbon steels for use in the production of various components for a brake manufacturing company.8% C 1.3% C 0.2% C Figure 1. steels and engineers Let’s now consider how a materials engineer involved in the development of braking systems for a car manufacturer would use the study of steels and the relationships between the structure and properties of those steels. A report by a materials engineer Abstract: Steel used in braking systems.6% C 0.6%. 0.3%.

Due to the increased amount of cementite the UTS and hardness is higher than that of the 0. with a small amount of pearlite in the form of plates of ferrite and cementite. and appears in the microstructures as a ‘finger print’ pattern.1% C steel. and as the ferrite is the continuous phase. The ferrite is soft. The steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Pearlite is a micro-constituent of all of the microstructures. The ferrite is soft.3% carbon steel a Two mechanical properties – ductile and tough. Pearlite. b Microstructure/properties – the microstructure consists mainly of ferrite grains. and is still the continuous phase. c Modification of properties – the properties can be modified by cold working or alloying. d Use in brake systems – backing plate for discs. The steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. ductile and malleable. The steels Each of the five steels will be compared by: a listing two mechanical properties of the steel b explaining in terms of the microstructure why the steel possesses these properties c stating two methods that may be used to modify these properties d identifying one example of where the steel could be used in brakes. c Modification of properties – the properties can be modified by cold working or alloying. b Microstructure/properties – the microstructure consists mainly of ferrite grains. 24 Braking systems . iii The structure of pearlite and the phases that are present in pearlite. and the predominate phase. d Use in brake systems – nuts and bolts. is a lamella structure of alternating plates of ferrite and cementite phases.1% carbon steel a Two mechanical properties – malleable and ductile. ductile and malleable. with approximately 30% of pearlite in the form of plates of ferrite and cementite. 0. the mechanical properties are those of ferrite. 0.

Due to the increased amount of cementite the UTS and hardness are higher than that of the 0. b Microstructure/properties – the microstructure consists of ferrite grains. Due to the increased amount of cementite and its distribution throughout the microstructure. c Modification of properties – the properties can be modified by using heat treatment to harden and temper the steel. d Use in brake systems – brake cable wire.6% carbon steel a Two mechanical properties – hard and tough. that is. and ductility very low. The various applications are listed for each steel. The ferrite is soft.2% carbon steel a Two mechanical properties – very hard with very low ductility. with approximately 75% of pearlite in the form of plates of ferrite and cementite. ductile and malleable. Alloying can also be used. it is very brittle. b Microstructure/properties – the microstructure consists of pearlite in the form of plates of ferrite and cementite. d Use in brake systems – brake springs. It is recommended that the steels continue to be used for these applications. 0. surrounded by a continuous phase of cementite. 0. Due to the increased amount of cementite and its distribution throughout the microstructure as a continuous phase. the hardness is very high. b Microstructure/properties – the microstructure consists of pearlite grains in the form of plates of ferrite and cementite. Conclusion and recommendations The five steel all have applications for the braking systems being developed. the UTS and hardness are very high. Alloying can also be used. 1. d Use in brake systems – cutting tools.8% carbon steel (Eutectoid steel) a Two mechanical properties – very hard with a high tensile strength. c Modification of properties – the properties can be modified by using heat treatment to harden and temper the steel. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 25 . and is still the continuous phase. c Modification of properties – the properties can be modified by using heat treatment to harden and temper the steel. Alloying can also be used.3% C steel.

A materials engineer must be familiar with the structure of the cast irons and the relationship between the structure and the properties. 1767 Rails cast at Coalbrookdale. 1776 Watts Steam Engine invented. Timeline 1700 Coke-smelting iron developed and horse-drawn railway lines used in mining and canal transport. 1893 Red Flag Act repealed. Up until the 1870s hand-operated brakes were used on rail carriages. 1804 Trevithick produced a steam railway locomotive. By the fifteenth century the casting of iron. 1851 Great Exibition. In 1875 Westinghouse developed a compressed air brake. 26 Braking systems . automatic. Wrought iron shoe brakes were used on the cast iron wheels. Historical perspective Until the introduction of the blast furnace in the middle ages there was no means of producing molten iron in quantity for casting. 1819 McAdams published A practical Essay on Roads. especially in the development of artillery. with wrought iron used for tension components. made possible by higher furnace temperatures and the production of an iron having a relatively high carbon content. 1829 Stephenson produced the Rocket steam driven locomotive. In 1889. 1779 Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale opened. 1950s Spheroidal graphite cast iron developed. Crystal Palace built of cast iron. (limited the development of road steamers) enacted. 1801 Trevithick produced a steam road carriage. By 1700 the blast furnace had been progressively developed enabling the temperature to be raised sufficiently to allow the metal to be cast into pigs. The addition of silicon to the re-melted pig iron produces cast iron. 1805 Surrey railway opened. enabled cast iron to be used. 1865 Red Flag Act. Cast irons Another ferrous metal that has a wide ranging use in braking systems is cast iron. which operated automatically if the train separated. continuous power braking systems were made compulsory on all trains in Britain. 1830 Liverpool to Manchester railway.

ductile phase and cementite is a very hard. Under tensile loading stress concentration occurs at the sharp ends. The microstructure of cast iron Interpretation of the structure of cast iron and the drawing of the microstructure is vital to the interpretation of the syllabus in terms of the properties of that material. cementite and pearlite in the previous notes on steel. You have been given definitions of a phase. This stress concentration causes the cast iron to fracture at a low tensile loading. The flakes have sharp ends. ferrite. A reminder that ferrite is a very soft. the distribution of the phases throughout the microstructure and the shape of the graphite phase determines the properties of the cast iron. Except for white cast iron. The microstructure of cast irons and how the structure affects the properties of the various cast irons must be known. The matrix is often referred to as a ‘steel’ matrix to describe this occurrence. The microstructural shape of the graphite determines many of the properties of the cast iron. Steel matrix The matrix surrounding the graphite can be ferrite. It is the sharp ends of the graphite flakes that are responsible for the grey cast iron having a very low tensile strength. the microstructures show three phases. • Graphite flakes – Graphite exists as flakes in the microstructure of grey cast iron. Property/structure relationships The syllabus requirement of property/structure relationships is also very important in understanding cast iron. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 27 . cementite and graphite. ferrite. The amount of each phase. Graphite Graphite has little mechanical strength. • Graphite nodules and rosettes – Graphite exists as nodules in spheroidal graphite cast iron and as rosettes in malleable cast iron. These shapes do not cause stress concentration. brittle phase. pearlite or a combination of each.

1950s • Composition – Iron: 1. White Cast Iron 28 Braking systems . high production. zero ductility. • Properties – Very hard. • Modification of properties – Can be heat treated to produce pearlitic or ferritic malleable cast iron. 0. • Manufacturing properties – Excellent castability.5% to 2. rapid cooling. • Structure – Dendrites of pearlite in a matrix of cementite. • Microstructure – Phases. not machinable. • Service properties – Extremely hard. White cast iron – used in dies and wearing plates. • Production technology – Cast to shape. ferrite and cementite in the form of dendrites of pearlite. strong in compression. • Availability – Readily available. (extremely brittle).8% to 3.15 Microstructure.6% carbon.0% silicon. surrounded by a matrix of cementite. Pearlite Cementite Figure 1.

• Properties – Relatively soft and machinable. Strong in compression but weak in tension. strong in compression. phases.0% to 3. • Microstructure – Pearlitic grey cast iron.6% carbon. moderate cooling produces pearlitic grey cast iron. • Production technology – Cast to shape. graphite flakes in a matrix of ferrite and cementite in the form of pearlite.16 Pearlitic grey cast iron. phases. 2. 1. slow cooling produces ferritic grey cast iron. – Ferritic grey cast iron. • Availability – Readily available. graphite flakes in a matrix of ferrite. • Modification of properties – Pearlitic grey cast iron can be heat treated to produce a ferritic matrix. high production. • Manufacturing properties – Excellent castability. or a combination of both. Grey cast iron – used in brake master cylinders.0% silicon.4% to 3. ferritic grey cast iron Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 29 . excellent machinability • Service properties – Not corroded by brake fluid. Pearlite Graphite Ferrite matrix flakes matrix Pearlitic grey Ferretic grey cast iron cast iron Figure 1. • Structure – Graphite flakes in a ‘steel’ matrix of either pearlite or ferrite. 1970s • Composition – Iron.

0% silicon. graphite rosettes in a matrix of ferrite and cementite in the form of pearlite. or a combination of both. ferritic malleable cast iron 30 Braking systems . • Manufacturing properties – Good ductility. 1970s • Composition – Iron. 1. ii Properties Soft and ductile. strong in tension and compression.0% to 3. phases. i Structure Graphite ‘rosettes’ in a ‘steel matrix’ of either pearlite or ferrite. machinable. excellent machinability • Service properties – Tough. • Modification of properties – Pearlitic malleable cast iron can be heat treated to produce a ferritic matrix. • Production technology – White cast iron reheated to 800º C and soaked for 30 to 50 hours. Pearlite Graphite Ferrite matrix rosettes matrix Pearlitic malleable Ferretic malleable cast iron cast iron Figure 1.6% carbon. Moderate cooling produces pearlitic malleable cast iron. slow cooling produces ferritic malleable cast iron. – Ferritic malleable cast iron.17 Pearlitic malleable cast iron. graphite rosettes in a matrix of ferrite. tough. Malleable cast iron – used in brake shoes. • Microstructure – Pearlitic malleable cast iron. 1. phases. malleable. • Availability – Readily available.8% to 3.

graphite nodules or spheres in a matrix of ferrite and cementite in the form of pearlite. • Modification of properties – Pearlitic spheroidal graphite cast iron can be heat treated to produce a ferritic matrix. excellent machinability • Service properties – Tough. • Manufacturing properties – Good ductility. slow cooling produces ferritic spheroidal graphite cast iron. 1980s • Composition – Iron. • Availability – Readily available since the 1960s. • Properties – Soft and ductile. Graphite Pearlite spheroids Ferrite matrix or nodules matrix Pearlitic spheroidal graphite Ferretic spheroidal graphite cast iron cast iron Figure 1. Moderate cooling produces pearlitic spheroidal graphite CI.0% silicon. strong in tension and compression.8% to 3.0% carbon.18 Microstructure of cast irons Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 31 . • Structure – Graphite ‘spheroids’ in a ‘steel matrix’ of either pearlite or ferrite.0% to 4. or a combination of both. 3. graphite nodules or spheres in a matrix of ferrite. machinable. phases. – Ferritic spheroidal graphite cast iron. phases. • Microstructure – Pearlitic spheroidal graphite cast iron. • Production technology – Addition of magnesium produces nodules of graphite in a ‘steel’ matrix. tough. Spheroidal graphite cast iron – used in brake discs. malleable. 1.

cementite and graphite. Portions of that report are given in this example. A report A materials engineer is required to prepare a report on the selection of various cast irons for use in the production of discs. The three cast irons to be considered are white cast iron. grey cast iron and spheroidal graphite cast iron. a lamella structure of alternating plates of ferrite and cementite phases may possibly be a micro- constituent of all of the microstructures. 32 Braking systems . Grey and Spheroidal graphite cast iron Background i The micro-constituents. cast irons and engineers Now consider how a materials engineer involved in the development of braking systems for a car manufacturer would use the study of cast irons and the relationships between the structure and properties of those cast irons. Pearlite. There are possibly three phases present. Topic: The affect of micro-constituents on the properties of cast iron: Cementite Graphite flakes Graphite nodules Ferrite Pearlite matrix White cast iron Grey cast iron Spheroidal graphite cast iron Figure 1. however. brake drums and wheel cylinders for a brake manufacturing company. A report by a materials engineer Abstract: Cast iron in braking systems.19 White. ferrite. If the matrix is pearlitic it will be a part of the structure. then pearlite will not be part of the structure. Brakes. if the ‘steel’ matrix is ferritic.

malleable and ductile. The cementite is the continuous phase. ii The properties of each of the phases. Cementite: is very hard and brittle. b Microstructure/properties – the microstructure consists of pearlite grains in the form of dendrites surrounded by a matrix of cementite. drums or wheel cylinders. b Microstructure/properties – the microstructure consists of graphite flakes surrounded by a ‘steel’ matrix consisting of either pearlite (cementite and ferrite plates). a listing two mechanical properties of the cast iron b explaining in terms of the microstructure why the cast iron possesses these properties c stating two methods that may be used to modify these properties d recommending where the cast iron could be used in brakes. Usually the ‘steel’ matrix is a combination of both. Graphite: has little or no mechanical strength. White cast iron a Two mechanical properties – extremely hard and brittle. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 33 . but can be used to produce malleable cast iron for use in discs. or of ferrite. Grey cast iron a Two mechanical properties – very high compressive strength but poor tensile strength. Ferrite: is soft. The cast irons Each of the three cast irons will be compared by. c Modification of properties – the properties can be modified by heat treatment to produce a malleable cast iron. d Recommendation – cannot be used in brake systems as white cast iron. and the predominate phase. The mechanical properties are therefore those of cementite.

while the ‘steel’ matrix. The shape of the graphite spheroids results in the material having good tensile properties. c Modification of properties – pearlitic spheroidal graphite cast iron can be modified by heat treatment to produce ferritic spheroidal graphite cast iron. causes stress concentration to occur when the material is placed under tension. This results in the material having very poor tensile strength properties. Usually the ‘steel’ matrix is a combination of both. or of ferrite. Spheroidal graphite cast iron a Two mechanical properties – very high compressive strength and excellent toughness. Conclusion and recommendations The three cast irons all have applications for the braking systems being developed. b Microstructure/properties – the microstructure consists of graphite spheroids surrounded by a ‘steel’ matrix consisting of either pearlite (cementite and ferrite plates).6. due to its toughness. The various applications are listed for each cast iron. d Recommendation – can be used in brake systems in drums or wheel cylinders and is excellent in discs. due to better toughness. d Recommendation – can be used in brake systems for drums or wheel cylinders. Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercises 1. Previously used in discs but SGCI is now preferred. The shape of the graphite flakes.3 to 1. It is recommended that the cast irons continue to be used for these applications. c Modification of properties – pearlitic grey cast iron can be modified by heat treatment to produce ferritic grey cast iron. with points at each end. whether pearlitic or ferritic gives good compressive strength and excellent toughness. 34 Braking systems .

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Describe the braking system used to stop the first bicycle. Exercises Exercise 1. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ d Describe the earliest known type of mechanical braking system – the lever brake – used on horse-drawn wagons. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Describe the braking device the first horse-drawn carriage to cross the Blue Mountains used to descend the very rough and steep track down Mount York. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 35 .1 a Name four devices in which brakes are used.

the other in 1888. which greatly affected the design of tyres and led to the subsequent demise of the externally applied shoe brake. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ g Name the two developments. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 36 Braking systems . steam carriages and railway locomotives in the mid-nineteenth century. a direct result of Dunlop’s patent. one in 1841. e Name the materials used in brakes for steam carriages from the 1830s for the: i external shoes ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ii carriage wheels ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ f State two advantages of simple hand-operated lever brakes used on horse-drawn coaches. i 1841 _______________________________________________ ii 1888 _______________________________________________ h Describe the contracting band brake.

the resulting development in braking systems.2 Social and economical conditions have changed dramatically since the 1940s. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ j Identify the first person to introduce mechanically operated drum brakes first used in cars in 1902. Make reference to the development of cars and in particular. i Name the person who developed the cable brake. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 37 . list some of the changes and describe the effect that the changes had on their lives. In the space below. _______________________________________________________ k List two reasons why the introduction of front wheel brakes was an important development. You may submit this exercise as a computer generated word processed document and attach your work to this page. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ l What do the letters ABS stand for in braking systems? _______________________________________________________ Exercise 1. ___________________________________________________ ii State the main disadvantage of this brake. i In 1899. a cable anchored to the chassis and wound around a drum was used as a braking system. You should talk to people who lived through these changes.

3 a List three reasons pressed medium carbon steel. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Exercise 1. _______________________________________________________ 38 Braking systems . was not satisfactory. i ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ii ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iii ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ b Name three materials used for brake drums prior to the 1970s. i ___________________________________________________ ii ___________________________________________________ iii ___________________________________________________ c Until the 1970s grey cast iron was the main material used for brake drums and brake discs. used in early drum brakes. i Draw the microstructure of grey cast iron ii List the reasons for suitability as brake drum material: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ d Name the material that was used to manufacture brake drums after the 1970s.

0. why the steel possesses these properties _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iii write two methods that may be used to modify these properties _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 39 . and name the phases that are present in pearlite.1% carbon steels.15% C 0. Exercise 1. The report must be able to be interpreted by all of the directors. 0.8% C 1. 0.1% C c Outline the properties of both of the phases listed below.35% C 0. a Draw the microstructures for the following steels. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ e For each of the four steels nominated: i list two mechanical properties of the steel _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ii explain in terms of the microstructure.8% and. Assume that you are the engineer.15%. 0.35%. 1. Ferrite: _________________________________________________ Cementite: ______________________________________________ d Describe the structure of pearlite. b Label the phases present in each microstructure. complete the unfinished sections of the report.4 A materials engineer has to prepare a report on the selection of plain carbon steels for use in the production of various components for a brake manufacturing company.

iv give one example where the steel could be used in brakes.35% carbon steel i Two mechanical properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ii Microstructure/properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iii Modification of properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iv Use in brake systems: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 40 Braking systems . _______________________________________________________ 0.15% carbon steel i Two mechanical properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ii Microstructure/properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iii Modification of properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iv Use in brake systems: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 0.

8% carbon steel (Eutectoid steel) i Two mechanical properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ii Microstructure/properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iii Modification of properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iv Use in brake systems: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 1. 0.1% carbon steel i Two mechanical properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ii Microstructure/properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iii Modification of properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iv Use in brake systems: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 41 .

brake drums and wheel cylinders. The report must be able to be interpreted by all of the directors. Exercise 1. 42 Braking systems . White cast iron Grey cast iron Spheroidal graphite (ferritic) cast iron (pearlitic) b Name the micro-constituents for each given microstructure by labelling the phases present in each. brake drums and wheel cylinders for a brake manufacturing company. grey cast iron and spheroidal graphite cast iron. Assume that you are the engineer. c Outline the properties of each of the following phases: Graphite – ______________________________________________ Ferrite – _______________________________________________ Cementite – _____________________________________________ d For each of the three cast irons listed: i name two mechanical properties of the cast iron ii explain in terms of the microstructure. iii describe how the properties may be modified iv write your recommendation for use of the cast iron in the production of brake discs. why the cast iron possesses these properties.5 A materials engineer has to prepare a report on the selection of various cast irons for use in the production of brake discs. a Draw the microstructures for white cast iron. complete the unfinished sections of the report.

White cast iron i Two mechanical properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ii Microstructure/properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iii Modification of properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iv Recommendation: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Grey cast iron (ferritic) i Two mechanical properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ii Microstructure/properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iii Modification of properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ iv Recommendation: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 43 .

State. how ABS work and their application to current model cars. at least two sources of information you located. Spheroidal graphite cast iron (Pearlitic) a Two mechanical properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b Microstructure/properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Modification of properties: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ d Recommendation: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Exercise 1. You may submit this exercise as a computer generated word processed document and attach your work to the back of this page. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 44 Braking systems . in the bibliography.6 Visit a variety of web sites then explain why ABS are used on heavy vehicles.

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Bibliography 1 ___________________________________________________ 2 ___________________________________________________ Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 45 .

46 Braking systems .

au> for original and current documents. NSW. During the next part you will continue to explore the history of brakes. Refer to <http://www. and the relationship between properties and applications of materials. I have learnt to • examine the changing applications of materials to components in braking systems • discuss the social implications of technological change in braking systems • investigate the structure and properties of appropriate materials used in braking systems. 1999. and the relationship between properties and applications of materials.boardofstudies. Progress check In this part you explored the early history of brakes. Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 47 . Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best represents your level of achievement. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus.edu. ✓ ❏ Agree – well done ✓ Uncertain ❏ Disagree Disagree – revise your work Agree ✓ ❏ Uncertain – contact your teacher I have learnt about • historical and societal influences – historical developments of braking systems – the effect of engineering innovations on people’s lives – environmental implications from the use of materials in braking systems • engineering materials – materials for braking systems.nsw. © Board of Studies.

48 Braking systems .

Part 1: Development of braking systems and materials application – 1 49 . If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.6 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to the cover sheet.1 ❐ Exercise 1.3 ❐ Exercise 1.5 ❐ Exercise 1.2 ❐ Exercise 1. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education School/Centre (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheets and your responses at the completion of each part of a module. Exercise cover sheet Exercises 1.4 ❐ Exercise 1.1 to 1.6 Name: _____________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 1.

Braking systems Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 .

............. 4 Materials in braking systems............... 2 Development of disc brakes....................................................... 31 Exercise cover sheet........................................................................................................................................................... 3 Early history of disc brakes – a time line............... 13 Compression and tension testing ................................................................ 25 Progress check .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Part 2 contents Introduction ................. 6 Testing of materials .................... 19 Exercises..... 2 What will you learn?.... 6 Composite materials for braking systems ......................................... 13 Hardness testing..... 33 Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 1 ............................................................................................................................ 16 Investigation of a braking system: materials analysis............................................................................. 3 The effects on society ..............................................................

Students learn to: • examine the changing applications of materials to components in braking systems • discuss the social implications of technological change in braking systems • investigate the structure and properties of appropriate materials used in braking systems • conduct relevant mechanical tests on materials. 1999. the developments in Britain and Europe and the reason why the United States was so slow in adopting and developing this ‘new technology’. NSW. What will you learn? You will learn about: • historical and societal influences – historical developments of braking systems – the effect of engineering innovations on people’s lives – environmental implications from the use of materials in braking systems • engineering materials – materials for braking systems – testing of materials.boardofstudies. Introduction In this part of the module you will explore the early history of disc brakes. Refer to <http://www. You will also explore the relationship between properties and applications of materials in engineering. © Board of Studies. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus.nsw. 2 Braking systems .edu.au> for original and current documents.

front wheel disc car. This development ‘revolutionised’ the automobile braking industry. America. fitted mass- produced disc brakes to all models. 1958 All Indy 500 cars were fitted with 1919 AC used the auxiliary disc brake disc brakes. in 1951. first patents. They was used as a caliper disc brakes on its cars. Goodyear developed a disc brakes were gradually used in some brake with a ventilated disc for use mass produced cars. in Earls Court. England. Airheart. 1905 Lanchester installed disc brakes on 1956 Citroen. were regarded as a new invention. and became on aircrafts. supplied the replace the ineffective band brake. brakes. patented a Show. 1911 Metz. Development of disc brakes Although originally developed in the early 1900s. transmission brake. asked although a small West Coast Henry Ford to design a brake to company. behind the transmission. disc brakes for cars. racing industry. displayed at the London Motor Show. so that by the 1960s the use of disc brakes was widespread in British and European cars. not attached to the wheels. The prototype was patent of automotive disc brake. in France. England. During produced a sandwich disc of monel the 1980s four wheel disc braking metal. 1966 Bendix supplied disc brakes to Chrysler and Buick. 1965 Ford America fitted disc brakes to 1930s Girling in England and Lockheed its Galaxy. 1914 Autocarriers Ltd. Girling disc brakes. with its very big cars. England. used sliding a car. America. 1940s WW II disc brakes were used on the wheels of the Daimler armoured During the 1960s. car disc brakes under Dunlop Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 3 . 1961 Ford. exhibited at the London Motor 1904 W H Barrett. He designed an auxiliary system. A C cars. was slow to adopt the disc brake. while Sikorsky standard during the 1970s. Early history of disc brakes – a timeline 1902 F W Lanchester. used multiple discs inside the hub of each wheel. systems became more common. (giving twice as much braking 1955 All British racing cars used disc force). in America developed caliper type disc brakes for wheel installation. brake that pressed two external 1952 Jaguar won at Le Mans using discs onto a revolving inner disc. while today most cars use disc 1951 Girling bought a licence to produce brakes on all four wheels.

At the Le Mans race track in 1952 Jaguar fitted disc brakes to its C- type roadster racing team and easily defeated the Ferrari V12 coupes which had a much faster top speed. study methods can be used to highlight key phrases or techniques used. in the same year. a small west coast company. The effects on society Society is often affected by technology developments. in Earls Court. in England and in America. American cars were much bigger and heavier and travelled at a higher velocity. Prior to 1951 the use of disc brakes was restricted to the aviation industry and military vehicles. Again. In 1951. and the next year Chrysler and Buick used Bendix brakes. Girling bought a licence to produce car disc brakes under Dunlop patents. Two samples with written solutions are given below. This victory encouraged the use of disc brakes and in 1955 all British racing cars were fitted with disc brakes. In 1958 all Indy 500 cars were fitted with disc brakes. Sample 1 Briefly examine the contribution that the car racing industry had on the developments of the disc brake. For these reasons the adoption of the disc brakes was not used by the big companies. Consider some social implications and effects of various developments of the disc brakes. Ford America commenced using them on their Galaxy model. Even Ferrari fitted them in 1958. 4 Braking systems . and exhibited the prototype at the London Motor Show. The solutions have been researched and contain more detailed information on disc brakes. In 1965. The developments in both England and America were very much influence by the results of the racing cars using disc brakes. Airheart supplied the racing industry. and resulted in the adoption of this system to the mass produced family cars during the 1960s. however.

Car safety became a big issue during the 1960s. Sample 2 One reason that disc brake technology was developed was the need to slow and stop cars that were becoming much faster and more powerful each year. and poor safety awareness all contributed to the increase injury and death by car accidents. The government introduced restrictions on the permissible alcohol blood level that a driver had to obey. The improvements in brake system technology included the use of disc brakes. as well as the use of ABS. initially on the front wheels and later the rear wheels. All these improvements came about because of increased public awareness for the need to improve car safety and to decrease the ever rising fatality rate from car accidents. Poor braking. A gradual increase in public awareness lead to many changes that actually slowed the rate of increase in accidents and in the past few years dramatically reduced the road toll. the use of plain window glass in windscreens. Another reason was the changing attitude of society to car safety. improved brake technology. along with bad roads. Discuss the social implications that led to the development of improved braking technology and improved safety of cars from the 1960s.1. anti-lock braking systems. Each year the number of fatalities and injuries increased as a result of more accidents. Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 5 . Design engineers were involved in improved road design. Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercises 2. and in the introduction of laminated glass windscreens.

Materials in braking systems

In this section of work you will learn about composite materials and
how they can be used in braking systems.

Other composites are used in engineering, including cermets, asphalt,
glass reinforced polymers, timber laminates and plywood.

Composite materials for braking
systems
A composite material consists of two or more materials combined
to form the composite. The composite utilises the properties of the
individual materials to give distinctly different service properties to
the manufactured composite product.

When selecting materials to form a composite, the following must be
considered:
• properties of the individual materials
• cost of the materials
• manufacturing properties
• cost of production
• macrostructure or microstructure of the final composite
• service properties required of the component.

Composite material for a brake pad
The ultimate brake pad composite material is light, inexpensive, highly
effective, maintains its effectiveness under extreme conditions, requires
little or no maintenance, can last the life of the vehicle and is
environmental friendly.

6 Braking systems

Specific service properties for brake pads
• Uniform friction properties. The coefficient of friction should not
vary appreciably with variation of load, temperature, and velocity.
The brakes must stop the vehicle.
• High thermal stability; resistance to thermal shock and fatigue. The
material should not break down due to temperature variations.
• Low noise generation. Noise and brake-squealing must be kept to a
minimum.
• Adequate compressive and shear strength. The composite should not
shear or fail through compressive stress.
• Suitable hardness. Only minimal wearing or scoring of surfaces,
including the disc and the pads should occur.
• Suitable toughness. The pad must be able to withstand impact loads.

Materials used in brake liners and pads

Asbestos

Asbestos has been used in braking materials for most of this century
because of its friction properties, strength, low cost and good thermal
qualities. During the past 25 years, requirements for braking materials
have dramatically changed. There is a tendency towards smaller friction
elements operating at higher temperatures and pressure. Asbestos does
not fulfil the requirements needed for heat resistance at much higher
temperatures, higher coefficient of friction, nor the extended durability
required in today’s brakes.

Health and safety risk

As you may know, asbestos also represents a serious occupational health
and safety risk. It has been proved that exposure to asbestos can lead to
asbestosis, a form of lung cancer. For this reason many countries have
banned the use of asbestos.

Fibres – a replacement for asbestos

Research to find a replacement for asbestos fibres has included
investigation of steel wool, glass fibre, wool fibre, aramid (aromatic
polyamide polymer) fibre, kevlar and carbon fibre.

Required properties of fibres for brake pads includes:
• good friction properties
• good processing performance

Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 7

• high reinforcing effectiveness
• high shear and compressive strength
• good adhesion to binding matrix
• adequate heat resistance
• low specific gravity.

Research for replacement fibre

Let us consider two replacements; glass fibre and carbon fibre.

Glass fibre

Glass fibre is very hard and can abrade the drum or disc. It is brittle, and
thus requires care when mixing into the friction compound to prevent
breakage. It softens at high temperatures, acting as a lubricant,
producing a sudden loss of friction. It has excellent binding properties
with the matrix, is able to be produced in long and short fibres giving
good dimensional stability, rigidity and strength to the final product.

Carbon fibre

Carbon fibre has been around for more than a century, with Thomas
Edison utilised carbon filament in his newly invented electrical light
bulb. Up until the late seventies it was used in composits for brakes in
the aerospace industry, racing cars and high performance military
aircraft. In the early eighties it was used in the brakes of the Concorde.

In 1975 research was accelerated to find a relatively cheap multipurpose
carbon fibre similar to the fibre used in the aerospace and sporting goods
industries.

Properties of carbon fibre for brake pad materials

Carbon fibre properties as related to braking materials include:
• high strength, equal to or better than steel
• light weight, 20% that of steel
• high temperature resistance, MP greater than 3000º C
• resistance to oxidation, even at high temperature
• low thermal expansion, maintaining dimensional stability
• self lubricating
• good wear resistance
• excellent reinforcing properties, long and short fibres

8 Braking systems

• good coefficient of friction with cast iron
• still expensive.

Matrix for brake pads

The matrix is the continuous phase in the braking composite that holds or
‘glues’ the materials and fibres together. It must bind with the other
ingredients, be tough and strong in shear and compression, and have
good thermal shock resistance.

The most common matrix is phenol-formaldehyde or a modified
phenolic.

Fillers for brake pads

Fillers are generally low cost materials, such as clay or calcium
carbonate, that are added to extend the material in the composite, occupy
space and reduce costs. They usually influence wear properties of the
composite.

Friction modifiers

Friction modifiers are many and varied. Some are listed below.
• Metal chips, used to modify friction properties, and to control
cleanliness on the brake interface.
• Lead and zinc, low temperature frictional properties.
• Copper and brass, high temperature frictional properties.
• Lubricants, such as graphite and carbon black powder are added to
suppress noise and provide protection against disc wear.
• Friction ‘dust’ or powder, such as cross linked phenolic and
modified phenolic based polymers, are used to provide thermal
stability, reduce the wear factor and to provide even friction
properties under extreme conditions.
• Barium sulphate, used to improve the wear resistance of the friction
material at low temperatures, accelerate the curing of the binder and
improve compressive and shear strength.

Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 9

Manufacture of brake pads
Brake pads are manufactured by compression moulding. Compression
moulding consists of compressing raw material into a cavity or mould of
the desired shape and applying heat and pressure.

Batch formulation

Batching is the combining or premixing of the materials in preparation
for forming.

There are many combinations of these materials that may be used to form
braking materials. Batch formulas contain up to ten or even fifteen
materials, combined together. Generally the matrix or binder is 10–25%,
the fibre, 15–30%, non-organic fillers, 10–20%, metals 1–8%, friction
dust 3–10%, and other modifiers 3–15%.

Batching

During batching, the powdered phenolic and fillers are first blended,
modifiers are added and mixed. The fibres are added last to minimise
fracture in the mixing process.

Pre-forming

Pre-forming is used to economise in the use of materials. A
predetermined amount of the batched material is cold pressed into a pre-
form mould at a pressure of 7–15 MPa. This pre-formed shape is then
placed into the cavity of the compression moulding machine,

Compression moulding

The cavity and plunger of the mould are attached to a compression press.
The mould is heated to a temperature of 130–190º C, depending upon the
polymer. The pre-formed batched material is then placed into the hot
mould and put under pressure of 14–50 MPa. The material softens and is
compressed into the shape of the mould cavity.

Post-cured

The finished product is then post-cured in an air-forced oven, at
150–200º C for several hours. The cure time depends upon the thickness
of the product, the polymer used, its state of polymerisation when
charged into the mould, the mould temperature, and the moulding
pressure used

10 Braking systems

2. squaring and cutting to length. Finishing The brake pads then undergo thickness grinding. Brake liners require edge grinding to width. Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 2. Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 11 . and drilling where appropriate. inside and outside grinding to thickness.

12 Braking systems .

Engineering tests use resistance to indentation as a basis for hardness testing. and tensile and compressive testing. abrasion.Testing of materials In this section of work you will learn about mechanical testing of materials. They are used in industry to verify that the required properties have been produced following the heat treatment of components during production. Brinell. as well as for research. Brinell. including hardness testing. They are used for control or production line testing. 1 Brinell hardness test The Brinell hardness test was Introduced in 1900 by Swedish metallurgist J. All three use machines which apply a specified load to an indentor. Hardness testing Hardness is a measure of a material’s resistance to indentation. Hardness tests are non-destructive tests. The indentation is then measured to give the tested material a hardness number. In previous modules you studied the properties of materials and the modification of the properties. machining or scratching. 1 500 and 3 000 kg. Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 13 . and comparison testing You will learn about three standardised hardness tests. Vickers and Rockwell. The loads used are 500. A. Method A hardened steel or tungsten carbide ball indentor is pressed into the surface of a material for 10–15 seconds.

then by numbers indicating the diameter of the ball and the load used for the test. The numbers have been calculated by dividing the load by the surface area of the indentation. Method An industrial diamond indentor in the shape of an inverted square pyramid is pressed into the surface of a material for 15 seconds. Measured The diameter of the indentation is measured using a low-powered graduated microscope. 650 HV 30. due to the large indentor giving an ‘average’ hardness. Unsuitable for sheet metal. followed by the letters HV. indicates that a Brinell Hardness test number of 250 was obtained using a 10 mm diameter ball and a load of 3 000 kg. Recorded The hardness number is given. Sunderland. or for plated or hardened surfaces. Smith and G. and the Hardness Brinell number determined from a prepared table. for very hard material. For example 250 HB 10/3000. and the Hardness Vickers number read from prepared tables. then by a number indicating the load used for the test. For example. indicates a Vickers Hardness test number of 650 was obtained using a load of 30 kg. Recorded The hardness number is given. 14 Braking systems . Application Used for materials such as cast iron. Measured The surface area of the indentation is determined. 2 Vickers hardness test Vickers hardness test was introduced in 1922 in England by R. followed by the letters HB.

When the dial indicator is steady. Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 15 .1 Rockwell hardness tester Courtesy Picnic Point High School © LMP Method A variety of indentors are used. the major load is removed. Figure 2.5 mm and 3 mm hardened steel ball. The most common Rockwell tests are B and C. The indentor is initially pressed into the surface of the material by a minor load of 10 kg and the dial indicator is set to zero. for very hard material. Nine scales of hardness are available from A to K. It is used for sheet metal. P. 3 Rockwell hardness test The Rockwell hardness test was introduced in 1922 by American metallurgist S. The major load is then applied. including an industrial diamond cone. and a 1. and for case hardened surfaces. Rockwell. Application Used for a full range of materials with a wide range of hardness. having various indentors used with different major loads for various materials.

folding. 60 HRC indicates a test hardness number of 60 was obtained using the appropriate load and indentor for the Rockwell C hardness test. Measured The difference in depth of the indentation caused by the minor and major loadings is used as the measure of hardness. It is used for testing softer metals such as copper. modulus of elasticity. Recorded A number indicating the related hardness of the material for that scale. with a major load of 100 kg.5 mm hardened steel ball. In all of these processes the material is subjected to tensile. Two of the most important mechanical property tests are the tensile test and compressive test. and wire and rod drawing. Analysis of the curve produced during a load-deformation test can provide information essential to the mechanical engineer. is given. Yield stress. The relationship between a force and the deformation it produces is required knowledge for the engineer in manufacturing. This direct reading enables the Rockwell testing to be done quickly and accurately during the actual production of the component. The Rockwell C test uses an industrial diamond cone. compressive and shear forces. Compression and tension testing The manufacturing methods and techniques used to shape materials quite often depend upon plastic deformation. percentage 16 Braking systems . The hardness number is read directly from the dial using the appropriate scale for that test. malleable cast iron and grey cast iron. rolling. The Rockwell B test uses a 1. The test can also be automated. Application Used for a full range of materials with a wide range of hardness. aluminium. For example. followed by HR and the appropriate letter for the Rockwell Hardness test used. Sheetmetal processing. hardened and case hardened steel. These processes include forging. deep drawing and spinning also rely upon plastic deformation. pressing. extrusion. ultimate tensile stress (UTS). It is used for testing harder metals such as white cast iron. with a major load of 150 kg. brass.

a universal testing machine. and percentage reduction in area can be determined along with interpretation of properties such as ductility and toughness. or a specialised compression testing machine. The applied load is plotted. The load is usually applied until fracture occurs. or up to the yield point in some tests. elongation. usually of standardised size. usually automatically.2 Tensometer Courtesy Picnic Point High School © LMP Compressive tests Compressive tests can also be conducted using a tensometer. with a special adaptor. against the extension. Tensile tests Tensile tests are conducted using a tensometer or a universal testing machine. Figure 2. the middle has expanded while the ends have not. In ductile materials barreling usually occurs in the specimen. The resulting shape is similar to that of a barrel. This is due to the frictional forces existing between the ends of the specimen and the surface of the dies that retard the free flow or expansion of the material. A prepared specimen. Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 17 . The test is similar to the above except that a compressive load is applied. is held in a gripping device and a gradually increasing axial load applied to the specimen. alternatively. to produce a load-extension graph or curve. it may only be applied within the elastic limit.

Dowell Industries and Davies Kent do mechanical testing on aluminium alloys. University Engineering faculties have testing equipment. while in the Sutherland Shire. a visit may be able to be arranged. AIS in Wollongong has a very comprehensive testing lab. You need to conduct relevant mechanical tests on materials. compression and hardness testing. However. a standardised specimen is used. If you have access to a tensometer. Many industries have testing laboratories as part of their manufacturing. there are ways that you may be able to experience tensile. and polymers respectively.3. TAFE at Ultimo also has a testing laboratory. Load-deformation verses stress/strain curves To be able to compare different materials and similar or the same materials. This allows comparisons to be validly made. Your School of Distance Education or the associated TAFE collage may be able to organise a practical workshop day where the testing machines are available. or better still the load- deformation diagram is converted to a stress-strain diagram. Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 2. conduct a series of tests on a variety of specimens to assertain their comparative properties. This is very difficult for you to be able to do. or hardness testing equipment. Machines are available at many secondary schools. 18 Braking systems .

Investigation of a braking system: materials analysis In this section you will consider how a materials engineer would analyse the materials used in components for a braking system. the piston. Analysis of structure and properties The materials engineer will identify the main service properties of the selected component. and the properties of the materials determined. Both microstructure and lattice or molecular structure will be analysed where appropriate. for each of the components you will look at the analysis of an alternative material that could be used for that component. slave cylinder and the dust seal.3 Drum brake slave cylinder assembly Courtesy: Trinity College Auburn © LMP Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 19 . The components to be considered by the materials engineer are: the rivets used to secure the liner to the brake shoe. spring. and then proceed to analyse the structure of the materials. slave cylinder assembly Components from the drum brake slave cylinder assembly shown in figure 2. A recommendation as to the suitability of the materials for the component will then be given. Also. A recommendation will then be given based upon the analysis. Dust seal Piston seal Slave cylinder Spring Brake shoe Lining Figure 2. Drum brake.3 will be used for the analysis.

able to withstand impact forces. Suitability: very suitable for the rivets. all of the components would be moved along their line of centres. A structure such as this is called a substitutional solid solution. when in the annealed state. adequate toughness. deformed grains when cold worked. Microstructure: equiaxed grains of copper. Properties: high shear strength in the cold worked condition. Properties: high shear strength. into the slave cylinder. It is a non-ferrous metal. Could corrode in the ‘braking environment’. The zinc atoms take the place of some of the copper atoms in the original copper lattice structure. a pure. To assemble the components. work hardened. corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’. 20 Braking systems . An exploded isometric drawing An exploded isometric drawing is a pictorial drawing of the separated components in their relative position to each other. Analysis of slave cylinder assembly components 1 Component: rivets Service properties: high shear strength. Lattice structure: copper has a FCC structure. adequate toughness. does not corrode in the ‘braking environment’. Material used: copper. Microstructure: equiaxed grains of the solid solution when in the annealed state. an alloy of copper and 30% zinc. Recommendation: the recommendation is to retain the copper rivets. deformed grains when cold worked. Lattice structure: 70–30 brass has a FCC structure. The exploded drawing allows you to see the size and shape details of each of the components. able to absorb impact loads. tough. Suitability: suitable except in adverse corrosive conditions. non-ferrous metal. Alternative material: 70–30 brass. able to withstand impact forces.

a ferrous metal. good compressive strength. Inadequate compressive strength. tough corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’. Alternative material: aluminium. Suitability: not suitable due to its mechanical properties. deformed grains when cold worked. Microstructure: equiaxed grains of ferrite with areas of pearlite (50%) when in the annealed state. Does not corrode in the ‘braking environment. Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 21 . non-ferrous metal. tough corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’. Properties: good ‘spring’ properties in the cold worked condition. able to absorb impact loads. the aluminium is too soft. 3 Component: spring Service properties: good ‘spring’ properties. excellent toughness. Lattice structure: aluminium has a FCC structure. deformed grains when cold worked. adequate toughness. It is a pure. corrosion resistant in “braking environment” Material used: medium carbon steel. Properties: inadequate hardness. deformed grains when cold worked. Microstructure: equiaxed grains of ferrite with small areas of pearlite when in the annealed state. a ferrous metal. Microstructure: equiaxed grains of aluminium when in the annealed state. able to absorb impact loads. 0. Material used: mild steel. Suitability: very suitable for the piston. able to withstand impact forces. Lattice structure: ferrite has a BCC structure. Lattice structure: ferrite has a BCC structure. able to withstand impact forces and does not corrode in the ‘braking environment’. 2 Component: piston Service properties: adequate hardness. good compressive strength.2% carbon. Recommendation: the recommendation is to retain the mild steel pistons. able to absorb impact loads. Properties: adequate hardness. 0. tough.4% carbon.

Microstructure: nodules of graphite. Alternative material: aluminium alloy. Properties: good tensile strength. in a ‘steel’ matrix of equiaxed grains of ferrite with possibly some areas of pearlite. making it a good lubricant. a ferrous alloy. Suitability: suitable for the slave cylinder. Must be in the cold worked condition Alternative material: high carbon steel. Lattice structure: the ferrite has a BCC structure. then be heat treated to obtain the required properties. Properties: good ‘spring’ properties in the cold worked condition. 0. known as hoop tension). Corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’. deformed grains when cold worked. 22 Braking systems .7% carbon. with a small amount of ferrite grains. however it must be shaped by hot working. Suitability: suitable for the spring. able to absorb impact loads. Material used: spheroidal graphite cast iron. corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’. a non-ferrous alloy. does not corrode in the ‘braking environment’. Lattice structure: aluminium alloy has a FCC structure. which is outside the scope of the course). Microstructure: almost all pearlite. The graphite is a crystalline form of carbon that has a layered or plate like structure. A ferrous metal. Suitability: suitable for the piston.0% carbon and 2% silicon. Properties: adequate tensile strength. Lattice structure: ferrite has a BCC structure. tough corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’. Microstructure: equiaxed grains of aluminium (with areas of lamella magnesium silicide Mg2Si. 4 Component: cylinder Service properties: adequate tensile strength (the ability to withstand the internal pressure. 3. containing silicon and magnesium. Recommendation: The recommendation is to retain the medium carbon steel springs due to the greater cost in forming the high carbon steel springs.

Properties: soft PVC is flexible but not an elastomer. Elastomer. Molecular structure: chains of chloroprene. adequate tensile strength. Suitability: very suitable due to its properties and to its low weight. Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 23 . which has covalent bonding. able to be compressed repeatedly and return to its original shape. Recommendation: the recommendation is to retain the spheroidal graphite cast iron for the slave cylinder. excellent corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’.4. Suitability: suitable for the dust seal. but the comparative cost of changing to aluminium alloy should be further investigated. Properties: flexible and an elastomer. Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercises 2. Microstructure: is not applicable in polymers and rubbers. corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’. cross linked to form a network structure. Corrosion resistant in ‘braking environment’ not good as hardening occurs Suitability: not suitable for the dust seal. Microstructure: is not applicable in polymers and rubbers. 5 Component: dust seal Service properties: flexibility. polyvinyl chloride. Molecular structure: chain structure having covalent bonding. Material used: neoprene. a synthetic rubber. Secondary bonds between the chains. Alternative material: PVC.

24 Braking systems .

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 25 . ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ b One reason that disc brake technology was developed was the need to slow and stop cars which were becoming much faster and more powerful each year. Exercises Exercise 2. in England and in America. Discuss the social implications of this statement.1 a Outline the contribution that the car racing industry had on the developments of the disc brake.

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b When studying a composite material it is important to consider the individual materials that are combined to form that composite. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ c Service properties are the first consideration for the materials engineer when designing a composite for brake pads. such as zinc. Exercise 2. List three reasons why asbestos is no longer suitable for use in brake pads. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ e Carbon fibre is used in braking material in aircraft and high powered motor vehicles. Explain why this is important.2 a Define the term ‘composite material’. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ f Metal chips. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 26 Braking systems . State the specific reasons for using zinc. List three properties of carbon fibre that makes it suitable for use in brake composites. are used in brake pad composites. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ d Asbestos is now considered unsuitable to be used as a fibre in brake pad composites. List four of these service properties.

Explain the meaning of non-destructive test. i ___________________________________________________ ii ___________________________________________________ d Name and briefly describe three standardised hardness tests used in industry. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ c Name two areas where hardness tests are used in industry.3 a Define the term hardness. i ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 27 . ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ b Hardness testing is described as a non-destructive test. Explain the meaning of batching. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ h Name and briefly describe the method of manufacture used to shape brake pads. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Exercise 2. g The term batching is used when referring to composite materials.

ii ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iii ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ e Briefly describe the methods used for a tensile test and for a compressive test. i tensile ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ii compressive _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 28 Braking systems .

7% C steel have different hardness properties and different ductility. ferrous metals or polymers. a Classify each of the listed materials as pure non-ferrous metals. non- ferrous alloys. The materials considered are listed below.2% C steel 0.2% C steel and 0. copper 70-30 brass 0. Exercise 2.7% carbon steel spheroidal graphite aluminium cast iron alloy neoprene PVC b Draw and label the microstructures of 0.4 In the drum brake slave cylinder sample given in the previous notes. the structure and properties of ten materials were analysed to determine the suitability of the materials for various components of the slave cylinder. In terms of their microstructures explain the reasons for the difference in these properties of the two steels.7% C steel c The two steels.7% C steel 0.2% C steel and 0. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 29 .4% carbon steel 0. 0.2% carbon steel aluminium 0.

i Neoprene _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ ii PVC _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ 30 Braking systems . d Neoprene and PVC have different molecular structures and different bonding. For each material describe the molecular structure and name the bonding.

I have learnt to • examine the changing applications of materials to components in braking systems • discuss the social implications of technological change in braking systems • investigate the structure and properties of appropriate materials used in braking systems • conduct relevant mechanical tests on materials. NSW. Progress check During this part you explored the early history of disc brakes and the relationship between properties.nsw. uses and applications of materials in engineering. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. 1999.boardofstudies.edu.au> for original and current documents. Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 31 . Refer to <http://www. © Board of Studies. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box which best represents your level of achievement. ✓ ❏ Agree – well done ✓ Uncertain ❏ Disagree Disagree – revise your work Agree ✓ ❏ Uncertain – contact your teacher I have learnt about • Historical and societal influences – historical developments of braking systems – the effect of engineering innovations on people’s lives – environmental implications from the use of materials in braking systems • Engineering materials – materials for braking systems – testing of materials.

32 Braking systems . During the next part you will employ mathematical and graphical methods used to solve problems of engineering practice and also further develop your skills in isometric and orthogonal drawing.

Part 2: Development of braking systems and materials application – 2 33 . If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.1 ❐ Exercise 2.1 to 2. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses at the completion of each part of a module.2 ❐ Exercise 2.4 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet. Exercise cover sheet Exercises 2.4 Name: _____________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 2.3 ❐ Exercise 2.

hydraulics and communication – 1 .Braking systems Part 3: Engineering mechanics.

........................................................................................................................................... 3 Stress and strain .............. hydraulics and communication – 1 1 ...............................36 Exercises .................................................................... 2 Engineering mechanics and hydraulics .......................................23 Pictorial drawing.....................................................................39 Progress check .................................... Part 3 contents Introduction..................31 AS1100 standards.....................................55 Exercise cover sheet..................................................................................................................................................13 Communication ........ 2 What you will learn?.....................57 Part 3: Engineering mechanics..............................................................23 Orthogonal drawing ............................................................. 3 Friction ............................................................................................................................................

1999. Introduction In this part you will explore mathematical and graphical methods used to solve problems of engineering practice and also learn more about isometric and orthogonal drawing. © Board of Studies. What you will learn? You will learn about: • engineering mechanics and hydraulics – friction (without calculations) – stress and strain – stress (tensile and compression) – load/extension diagram – strain (tensile and compression) • communication – pictorial and orthogonal drawings – Australian Standard AS1100.au> for original and current documents. Refer to <http//ww. 2 Braking systems . Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. NSW. including dimensioning.edu.boardofstudies. stress and strain • produce pictorial and orthogonal drawings of braking systems and braking components applying appropriate Australian Standards (AS 1100).nsw. You will learn to: • distinguish between force.

but not to walk on ice. friction is used to allow you to make progress. 2 Very lightly push your finger across your palm. such as a footpath. but slightly increase the downward force. Part 3: Engineering mechanics. then try to walk on an ice rink there are two very different results. your computer keyboard. 3 Repeat. pushing your finger against various surfaces such as your desk top. the lack of friction allows you to iceskate. as well as looking at stress and strain. Friction is the resistance to motion that occurs when two bearing surfaces slide. where there is little or no friction. a TD set square and an eraser. To be able to walk on a rough surface such as the footpath. or tend to slide. Friction When you walk on a rough surface. Friction allows you to walk. Did you notice that as you increased the downward force. hydraulics and communication – 1 3 . over each other. 1 Place your right index finger. that the friction force increased? Did you also notice that your hand got hotter as the force increased? Were you able to apply a big enough downward force that prevented you moving your finger across your palm? Your palm has just applied a braking force to your finger. is almost impossible. a book cover. Engineering mechanics and hydraulics In this section we will examine the nature of friction. Repeat the activity. To try to walk on an ice rink. against the palm of your left hand. 4 Now really increase the downward force and try moving your finger.

1 Analysis of forces Friction forces in braking systems Friction forces occur in braking systems due to the reaction between the specially compounded materials of the brake linings/pads. it is actually the 4 Braking systems . F Applied force Pushing surfaces together Applied force P tending to move the body Frictional force (reactive) Normal reaction Opposing motion Figure 3. 1 KE = mv 2 2 From this formula. The friction force varies directly with the applied force that pushes the bearing surfaces together. and therefore with the normal reaction. Did you notice that the same results occurred as before? Did you also notice that the frictional resistance was different for the different materials used in the activity? Were you again able to apply a braking force? Did the braking force vary with the different material? Now you will see how these activities apply to friction forces. How brakes work Brakes are able to slow or stop a moving vehicle by retarding the rotation of the wheels through developing a ‘controlled’ friction that converts kinetic energy of the vehicle into heat (energy). A friction force is the reactive force opposing the movement of two touching surfaces. when brakes are applied a combination of the velocity of the vehicle and mass of the vehicle determine the amount of kinetic energy that must be converted to heat energy. The heat energy is then dissipated into the surrounding air through the brake drums or brake discs. and the cast iron or aluminium alloy metals of the brake drums/discs. However.

rolling friction between the tyres and the road surface that eventually
brings the vehicle to a stop.

Coefficient of friction

Coefficient of friction µ (Mu) is the ratio of the limiting frictional
resistance to the normal reaction. The coefficient of friction is a constant
for any two materials in contact.

FR
m =
N

Coefficient of friction in braking materials

If the coefficient of friction between the materials of the brake
liners/pads and the materials of the brake drums/discs is excessive, the
abrasion would quickly wear down both the liners/pads and the
drums/discs. A high coefficient would also cause the brakes to lock.
Brake materials are therefore manufactured with a range of coefficients
from low friction, 0.25–0.3 through to high friction, 0.4–0.45.

Part 3: Engineering mechanics, hydraulics and communication – 1 5

Analysis of friction problems

Friction force
Friction force is a reaction or a reactive force that opposes motion or
pending motion that occurs due to an applied force.

FR = mN

Force analysis
Analysis should commence with the determination of the direction of the
friction force. The friction force should then be drawn on the force
analysis diagram. All other forces acting on the body should then be
drawn on the analysis diagram. These forces should then be drawn as a
freebody diagram that shows only the previously analysed forces.

Note the friction force always opposes motion or pending motion.

mg N
P = Applied force
m = mass of body
P FR P g = 9.8 m/s2
N = Normal reaction
FR = Frictional resistance
FR
N mg
Force analysis Free body diagram

Figure 3.2 Force analysis, free body diagram

Solve, using the linear equilibrium equations;

SH = 0
SV = 0

Two important formulae which must be known.

Limiting friction
Limiting friction is the frictional resistance acting when a body is on the
point of moving.

6 Braking systems

Coefficient of friction µ (Mu) and friction formula
Coefficient of friction µ (Mu) is the ratio of the limiting frictional
resistance to the normal reaction.

FR
m =
N

Alternative method of writing formula
FR = mN

Note: this formula only applies when limiting friction is involved.

Worked example 1

In the following five examples different forces are being applied to a
body on a horizontal plane.

The problem is usually described in words accompanied by a diagram.
The diagram is called a space diagram. You will use this diagram for the
analysis of the problem and will refer to the diagram as an analysis
diagram.

To solve the problem:
1 Analysis diagram –
The analysis diagram is used to determine and show all of the forces
acting on the body. As the friction force opposes motion or pending
motion the first step must be to determine and show the friction force
on the analysis diagram. Having shown the friction force, show all
of the other forces acting on the body. Remember that if the body is
to be in equilibrium the two linear equilibrium equations, S H = 0,
S V = 0, must be satisfied.
2 Free body diagram –
The free body diagram is used to show only the forces acting on the
system. It is easier for analysis if the forces are drawn with the
arrows pointing away from the point of intersection as shown in the
solutions. This method uses the principle of transmissibility, and
thus does not alter the question.
3 Equation for FR –
Write an equilibrium equation for FR using the two linear equilibrium
equations, S H = 0, S V = 0 and F =µN.

Note: the friction force always opposes motion or pending motion.

Part 3: Engineering mechanics, hydraulics and communication – 1 7

Analysis diagram Free body diagram Equation for FR
Body at rest
mg
N
FR = 0
mg No horizontal force
is acting
N

Body at rest – force horizontal
mg

N (given)
P FR P FR = P
mg (given) (ÂH = 0)
FR
N

Body at point of moving – force horizontal
mg

N
P FR P FR = mN
= mmg
mg (given)
FR
N

Body at point of moving – force downward, 30∞
mg
N
P
30∞ FR P cos 30∞
FR = mN
mg = m(mg + P sin 30∞)
FR
N P sin 30∞

Body at point of moving – force upward, 30∞
mg
N
P
P sin 30∞ FR = mN
30∞
= m(mg - P sin 30∞)
P cos 30∞ FR
FR mg
N

Figure 3.3 Analysis diagrams

8 Braking systems

An alternative method, the angle of friction
Angle of friction f, (phi) also only applies to limiting friction.

If the friction force and normal reaction are replaced by a resultant force,
R, the angle that R makes with the normal is f, the angle of friction, and
tan f = µ.

To solve the problem:
1 Analysis diagram –
The analysis diagram is again used to determine and show all of the
forces acting on the body. The first step is to determine and show
the friction force on the analysis diagram and then show all of the
other forces acting on the body.
2 Angle of friction method –
Replace the friction force and normal reaction with a resultant force,
R. Indicate the angle that R makes with the normal as f, the angle of
friction
3 Free body diagram –
On the free body diagram show the three forces acting on the
system, mg, P and the resultant force R.

The solution is now found using a force diagram. You solve the problem
using a graphical method or using trigonometry.

Once you learn this method of analysis you will find it much easier and
quicker to use than the previous method when solving limiting friction
problems.

Sample solution
Pending motion
mg
R
mg R
P P

FR P
f mg
N R

Force analysis Free body diagram

Figure 3.4 Angle of friction

The solution using a force triangle as shown is a much quicker method.

Part 3: Engineering mechanics, hydraulics and communication – 1 9

30∞ mg P P P Nf R 30∞ mg FR mg R FR f N Figure 3.5 Inclined Plane 1 Inclined Plane 2 10 Braking systems . 30∞ mg f P RfN mg 30∞ R FR P mg FR N P Body at point of moving – force upward. using the angle of friction method. iv and v. Worked example 2 Repeat the force analysis for parts iii. Body at point of moving – force horizontal mg f RfN P P mg R FR mg (given) FR N P Body at point of moving – force downward.

pending motion). (that is. In Landscape products you were introduced to the analysis of forces on an inclined plane. but opposite in sense to the weight component down the plane. the angle of inclination. Determine the coefficient of friction between two selected materials. is equal to the angle of friction. You may be able to secure a spring balance to the body. and tan f = µ. Limiting friction on an inclined plane When a body is at rest on an inclined plane. the angle of inclination. glue a material. or sheet of garnet paper. q. such as a fabric. or a brick. and is on the point of moving. You should revise this work before commencing this basic introduction to friction on an inclined plane. Part 3: Engineering mechanics. Method 1 Determine the horizontal force required to move the body across a surface. and tan f = µ Inclined plane 1 Inclined plane 2 Figure 3. Using a ream of paper. hydraulics and communication – 1 11 . q = f. f. Friction on an inclined plane Basic introduction.6 Inclined planes A body at rest on Plane 1 is in equilibrium. (ie pending motion). is equal to the angle of friction. q. A body on Plane 2 is on the point of slipping (that is. Again the friction force is equal in magnitude. to one side and another material to the other. tan f = µ This angle. q. pending motion). As it is on the point of moving. The friction force is equal in magnitude. f. and tan f = µ. is sometimes called the angle of repose. but opposite in sense to the weight component down the plane.

Spring balance or Sand could be added to the bucket until movement occurs Figure 3.8 Determining the angle of limiting friction Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 3. determine the coefficient of friction knowing that the angle of inclination. 12 Braking systems . Now.7 Coefficient of friction on a horizontal plane Method 2 Place the body on an inclined plane. Determine the angle of repose of the inclined plane. Alternately you could use a fixed pulley and attached masses. q. is equal to the angle of friction. that is. the angle of inclination of the plane when the body just commences to move. and tan f = µ.1. f. using the friction formula F = µN determine the coefficient of friction. Figure 3. Now.

Hooke’s Law Robert Hooke. using the tensile loading of a piece of wire that extension was proportional to the applied load – Hooke’s Law. demonstrated. hydraulics and communication – 1 13 . as the Curator of the Royal Society. His name is given to the Modulus of Elasticity. Part 3: Engineering mechanics. was a characteristic of the material and applied equally to the compression of a body as well as to tension. in 1662. or Young’s Modulus. showed that Hooke’s Law was only effective up to a certain limit. either extension or contraction will occur. When a body has a load or force applied to it. the deformation will be either elastic or plastic. Depending upon the size of the load and the mechanical strength of the body. His contribution to the study of the strength of materials and the resulting effect on the design of components was enormous. some deformation. Elastic deformation Elastic deformation means that the body will return to its original shape and size when the deforming force is removed. Opposing Force Opposing Force What is happening to the object? It’s under stress. then there must be some force opposing it. Stress and strain When a force is applied to an object. if it doesn’t move. in 1807. An engineer must be aware of these stresses as they could cause the structure to deform and subsequently collapse. Young’s Modulus Thomas Young.

compressive or shear. when the deforming force is being applied. In both of the above cases. depending upon the applied load. It may be tensile. Basic units: Load = newtons (N) Area = square metres (m2) Stress = Pascals (Pa) 14 Braking systems . Stress Stress is a body’s internal resistance to an externally applied force that tends to deform the body. Calculation Stress is calculated as load per unit area. Plastic deformation Plastic deformation means that the body will not return to its original shape and size when the deforming force is removed. (Pa). This internal resistance to deformation is called stress. Other permitted units include: 3 kilo Pascal kPa. Formula Load Stress = Area P s = A Symbol: s (sigma) Units Pascals. 10 Pa Note: you must always convert to basic units when doing calculations. The body is said to have taken a permanent set. 10 Pa 6 Mega Pascal MPa. 10 Pa 9 Giga Pascal GPa. an internal resistance is tending to prevent the body from deforming.

11 Shear load Problem solving There is only one very simple formula to learn. Area being stressed The area being stressed varies with the different application of the load. the area being stressed is the shear area.9 Tensile stress Compressive stress Compressive stress occurs when the externally applied load tends to shorten the body. Tensile stress Tensile stress occurs when the externally applied load tends to stretch the body. In tensile and compressive loads the area being stressed is usually the cross sectional area. Part 3: Engineering mechanics. (See examples 1 and 2 which follow).10 Compressive loads Shear stress Shear stress occurs when the externally applied load tends to slide one part of the body across another part of the body. that is the area that would have to break if the component were to fail under the applied load. 120 N 120 N 120 N Figure 3. but it takes much practice to be able to analyse and solve problems. 120 N 120 N 120 N Figure 3. 120 N 120 N Figure 3. In shear loads. hydraulics and communication – 1 15 .

Method All problems should be set out and presented as follows. v Substitute the data into the formula. Worked example 1 A cylindrical braking rod of mild steel. vi Complete the necessary calculations. 5 kN d = 12 mm = 12 x 10-3m P = 5 kN CSA 3 = 5 x 10 N s = ? 5 kN Figure 3. ensuring that you use the basic units. It sometimes helps to use a sketch of this area. i Summarise the given data. pd 2 Area = pr 2 or 4 pd 2 A = 4 p ¥ (12 ¥ 10 -3 )2 = 4 p ¥ 144 ¥ 10 -6 = 4 = 113 ¥ 10 -6 m 3 P Now s = A 16 Braking systems . ii Convert all units to basic units where appropriate. using the related symbols from the formula.12 Analysis diagram Area being stressed is the cross sectional area (CSA). iv Select and write the appropriate formula. is subjected to a tensile force of 5 kN. iii Determine the area under stress. diameter 12 mm. and the given units. vii Write the solution to the problem using correct engineering units. Determine the tensile stress in the rod.

4 N = 6.2 Mpa Worked example 2 A cylindrical punch. Part 3: Engineering mechanics. the compressive stress in the punch is 120 MPa.032 kN ii Using the previous data as well as the calculated force in the punch from part i.13 Analysis diagram 6 = 120 ¥ 10 Pa P = ? Area being stressed is the cross sectional area.27 ¥ 10-6 = 6032. hydraulics and communication – 1 17 . determine the shear stress in the lining material. 5 ¥ 103 P = 113 ¥ 10 -6 = 44. of diameter 8 mm is used to punch out the holes of a brake liner of thickness 5 mm. determine the force used to punch out the hole.2 ¥ 106 = 44. d = 8 mm compressive area (CSA) = 8 ¥ 10-3 m = 120 Mpa Figure 3. i If. pd 2 A = 4 p ¥ (8 ¥ 10 -3 )2 = 4 p ¥ 64 ¥ 10 -6 = 4 = 50. during the punching operation.27 ¥ 10 -6 m 2 P Now s = A P = s¥A = 120 ¥ 106 ¥ 50. Area being sheared is the curved surface area of the cylindrical shape beig punched out of the liner.

It is sometimes expressed as a percentage.14 Analysis diagram = 125. 18 Braking systems . The ratio of stress to strain.Circumference = 2p r or pd Shear area = Circumference ¥ thickness = pd ¥ k shear area = p ¥ 8 ¥ 10 -3 ¥ 5 ¥ 10 -3 Figure 3. It is especially important to determine the area being stressed. within the elastic limit is a constant for a given material. It is calculated as deformation per unit length. so that errors do not occur. an example is percentage elongation. It is a measure of the elasticity or stiffness of the body.032 ¥ 103 P = 125. strain expressed as a percentage. Formula Change in length Strain = Originallength e = e/L Symbol: e (eta) Units Strain is a ratio.67 ¥ 10-6m2 P Now s = A 6.2 ¥ 106 Pa = 48 MPa You can see from these two worked examples that it is very important to analyse each question. that is. Now we will consider the contribution of Robert Hooke and Thomas Young to the scientific design of engineering structures. Strain Strain is the ratio of the change in length of a body with respect to its original length.67 ¥ 10 -6 = 48.

d = 15 mm 25 kN -3 = 15 ¥ 10 m P = 25 kN CSA = 25 ¥ 103N L = 800 mm 25 kN Figure 3. and engineering multiples. Worked example 3 A cylindrical braking rod made from 15 mm diameter medium carbon steel. kPa.71 ¥ 10-6 m2 PL Now E = Ae Eae = PL Part 3: Engineering mechanics. pd 2 A = 4 p ¥ (15 ¥ 10 -3 )2 = 4 = 176. Formula Modulas of Elasticity = Stress Strain E = s e (within the elastic limit) Derived formula E = PL Ae Units: Pascals (Pa).15 Analysis diagram = 800 ¥ 10-3m E = 210 Gpa = 210 ¥ 109 Pa e = ? Area being stressed is the cross sectional area. MPa and GPa. determine the contraction of the rod. is subjected to a compressive load of 25 kN. If the original length of the rod is 800 mm and the modulus of elasticity is 210 GPa. hydraulics and communication – 1 19 .

6 tonne. Note in this example mass is given as 1.2 tonne. pd 2 A = 4 p ¥ (5 ¥ 10 -3 )2 = 4 = 19.2 t = 1. If the modulus of elasticity of the mild steel wire is 210 GPa. This must be converted to basic units.2 ¥ 103kg CSA P = mg Figure 3.2 ¥ 10 ¥ 10N = 12 ¥ 103 L = 12 m E = 210 Gpa = 210 ¥ 109 Pa e = ? i Area being stressed is the cross sectional area. by multiplying by 10. by multiplying by 103. kilograms. and the diameter of the wire is 5 mm: i determine the extension of the wire ii determine the extension from a load of 0.54 mm Worked example 4 A mass of 1. m = 1.2 tonne is suspended from a 12 m length of fencing wire during an experiment to confirm Hooke’s Law.16 Analysis diagram 3 = 1.71 ¥ 10 -6 = 0.64 ¥ 10-6m2 PL Now E = Ae 20 Braking systems .539 ¥ 10-3 = 0. PL \ e = EA 25 ¥ 103 ¥ 800 ¥ 10 -3 = 210 ¥ 109 ¥ 176. and then to the weight force. in Newtons.

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) occurs where the load is a maximum.0 (mm) Load 20 40 60 62 70 80 82 80 70 (kN) i On the given axes below.0 5.40 2. a graph is produced during the test. Part 3: Engineering mechanics.0 3. 120 ¥ 103 ¥ 12 = 210 ¥ 109 ¥ 19. 80 60 Load (kN) 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 Extension (mm) Figure 3. the only value to change is the mass. Extension 0.6 tonne From the above calculations.40 0. plot the load extension diagram.80 1.349 m = 350 mm ii Determine the extension from a load of 0.17 Load extension diagram ii Determine the ultimate tensile strength of the material. plotting load on the vertical axis and extension on the horizontal axis. \ Extension = 175 mm Load-extension diagram When a tensile test is conducted. Worked example 5 The following results were obtained in a tensile test with a test piece 50 mm in gauge length and a cross sectional area of 160 mm2.0 3. The extension must also be halved. which is halved. hydraulics and communication – 1 21 .5 4.20 1.64 ¥ 10 -6 = 0.

2 to 3.6 Gpa Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercises 3. These values are therefore used to determine E.5 Mpa iii Determine the Young’s modulus.20 ¥ 10 -3 = 15. Young’s modulus or the modulus of elasticity.20. extension = 1.20 ¥ 10-3m L = 50 mm = 50 ¥ 10-3m A = 160 mm2 = 160 ¥ 10-3m2 E = ? PL E = Ae 60 ¥ 103 ¥ 50 ¥ 10 -3 = 160 ¥ 10 -6 ¥ 1.625 ¥ 109Pa = 15.6. E. load = 60. is the ratio of stress to strain within the elastic limit. 22 Braking systems . \ P = 82 kN = 82 ¥ 103 N A = 160 mm2 s = ? P s = A 82 ¥ 103 = 160 ¥ 10 -6 = 512 ¥ 106 Pa = 512. P = 60 kN = 60 ¥ 103N e = 1.20 mm = 1. The straight line portion of the graph is from the origin to the point having coordinates.

You should then be able to interpret the shapes of other pictorial drawings. Isometric projection. oblique. you will need extensive practice on the topic. perspective and dimetric projection. The length is evenly divided into three and the height is also evenly divided into three. pictorial drawings using isometric projection. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 23 . Isometric projection You will learn about isometric projection and in particular how to draw isometric circles. Pictorial drawing Pictorial drawing is very important to engineers as it enables the visualisation of components. If you have not covered this work before. width 10 mm and height 9 mm. If you have done technical drawing in earlier years you should find this section relatively easy. isometric projection. in detail. You will cover. axonometric. In this section of work you will learn to draw one of these methods of pictorial. Communication In this section of work you are going to build upon the freehand drawing of three dimensional objects that you did in Household appliances. length 18 mm. although revision may be required. Pictorial drawing includes isometric. especially in the visualisation of components. It has been used to design the communication sections of this module. visualisation Worked exercise 1 A stepped block is manufactured from a rectangular prism. Freehand pictorial is used extensively in initial design work.

To assist you with your pictorial drawing. The visualisation of the shape of the block requires more information. a basic shape of the original block has been given. The top view. Each step is then outlined to complete the pictorial drawing. drawn to a scale of 2:1 figure 3.18 Orthogonal and isometric Did you answer? Method The top view and the left side view show only the outside shape and two edges. complete. Using this given shape. SCALE 2:1 TOP VIEW PICTORIAL LEFT SIDE FRONT VIEW VIEW Figure 3. The block has been divided into a grid pattern to assist you with your freehand work when approximating sizes. The front view provides the details needed. Size details may also be given as dimensions on a drawing.18. That is the block has been cut into a stepped shape. Remember to use 30º lines and vertical lines only. 24 Braking systems . front view and left side view of the block are given in third angle projection. The steps are projected back towards the left at 30º. the pictorial drawing of the stepped block. freehand. The above paragraph gives details of the size of the block. This stepped shape is drawn on the front face of the isometric block.

Turn to the exercise section and complete exercise 3. the freehand method for quick visualisation is the most useful. Isometric circles In this section you will learn how to draw isometric circles. along with a pictorial grid.19 Stepped block So that you will have practice at visualisation and freehand sketching. is represented by combining four separate isometric quadrants. However. PICTORIAL Figure 3. Four centre method to construct an isometric circle A circle can be divided into four quadrants.7. CAD systems could also be used. The drawings are to a scale of 1:1. using the four centre method. The two figures below show a circle and an isometric ‘circle’.7. use isometric ellipse templates. a 60∞–30∞ set square and a set of compasses. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 25 . or conversely. In the exercise you are to complete freehand. the pictorial drawing of each shaped block. The eight different shapes are cut from rectangular prisms having the dimensions given in Worked Exercise 1. A circle in isometric projection. eight different blocks have been given in Exercise 3. or if necessary. both freehand and by using the following instruments. (actually an ellipse). you could draw four quadrants to form a circle. Most engineers would use freehand methods. Three orthogonal views of each block have also been drawn.

21 Quadrant method Drawing an isometric circle in a horizontal face The quadrant method given on the previous page is used to construct the isometric circle. along each side to locate the contact points 3 draw lines at 90º to the sides from these contact points 4 where these lines meet is the centre for the quadrant 5 check accuracy to each contact point and draw the quadrant. Method: 1 draw the isometric square having sides equal in length to the diameter of the required circle using very light construction lines 26 Braking systems . The two figures below show the method of constructing a true quadrant.20 Quadrants Drawing a quadrant in isometric projection Method: 1 draw the corner that contains the quadrant 2 accurately mark off the radius from the corner. Circle Isometric circle Figure 3. Contact Corner point Radius 90∞ s diu 90∞ Radius Corner Ra 90∞ Ra diu 90∞ Centre Contact point s Centre Contact point Quadrant Isometric quadrant Figure 3. Four quadrants are combined to form the isometric circle. and its application to an isometric quadrant in a horizontal surface.

Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 27 . Corner 1 Corner 2 Figure 3. 2 locate and mark the middle of each side of the square – these middle points represent the contact points for each quadrant 3 draw lines at 90º to the sides of the square from these middle or contact points – where these lines intersect are the centres for each of the quadrants 4 set your compasses at a radius equal to the distance from the centre to the contact points (note that this radius will not be 25 mm) 5 check your accuracy and draw the quadrant 6 complete the other three quadrants to form a full circle. Two of the four corners are represented below.23 Circle in horizontal face Drawing an isometric circle in a vertical face The quadrant method given on the previous pages is used to construct the isometric circle.22 Quadrant horizontal face The four centre method is used to draw an isometric circle of radius 25 mm in a horizontal face. Four quadrants are combined to form the isometric circle. Figure 3. the quadrants are shown.

25 Circle in vertical face 28 Braking systems . Two of the four corners are represented below. Corner 1 Corner 2 Figure 3. the quadrants are shown. Method: 1 draw the isometric square having sides equal in length to the diameter of the required circle using very light construction lines 2 locate and mark the middle of each side of the square – these middle points represent the contact points for each quadrant 3 draw lines at 90º to the sides of the square from these middle or contact points – where these lines intersect are the centres for each of the quadrants 4 set your compasses at a radius equal to the distance from the centre to the contact points (note that this radius will not be 25 mm) 5 check your accuracy and draw the quadrant 6 complete the other three quadrants to form a full circle. Figure 3.24 Quadrants in vertical face The four centre method is used to draw an isometric circle of radius 20 mm in a vertical face.

You therefore do not have to draw the whole quadrant in this lower face. Method: 1 draw the quadrant in the top face.26 Projecting quadrant in horizontal face From a horizontal plane. as described below. no profile edge Method: 1 project downward from the centre point and the two contact points towards the new surface using very light construction lines 2 set your dividers to the given thickness and accurately mark off the distance to the new surface. down from the centre point and the two contact points 3 check accuracy then draw the quadrant for the new surface. mark off the distances to locate the new centre point and contact point for the lower surface using dividers Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 29 . From a horizontal plane. with a profile edge A profile or outer edge of a solid object will hide part of the quadrant in the lower face. only half of the quadrant will be visible. Projecting an isometric quadrant to another face The following drawings show you a method of projecting the quadrant to another face. but it is quicker to use the methods shown below. then project downward. project down for new centre project down for new contact points Figure 3. to the lower face 2 project downward from the centre point and the contact point towards the new surface using very light construction lines 3 project downward the profile edge (note the profile edge is a line tangential to the quadrants that represents the outside edge of the object) 4 set to the required thickness of the object. You could fully construct another quadrant.

Figure 3. 6 darken the profile edge. The method is similar to the one described for the horizontal plane. and as such the method will not be described. and as such the method will not be described. no profile edge The following drawings show the method of projecting a quadrant from a left and a right vertical face. 5 check accuracy then draw the part quadrant for the new surface.28 Projected quadrant in vertical face From a vertical plane. with a profile edge The following drawings show the method of projecting a quadrant from a left and a right vertical face.27 Profile edge From a vertical plane. Quadrant radius = 40 mm Thickness = 15 mm Profile edge Projected centre Projected contact point Figure 3. 30 Braking systems . The method is similar to the one described for the horizontal plane.

Worked example 1 Draw.29 Profile edge Projecting an isometric quadrant (with a profile edge) You now have sufficient information to draw isometric circles.30. You will be shown two orthogonal drawings as worked examples. in orthogonal projection using a scale of 1: 2. Orthogonal drawing In this section of work you will build upon the freehand orthogonal drawing introduced in Household appliances and the orthogonal drawing from Landscape products. as practice. and use them as often as possible. but you will need a great deal of practice to be able to complete drawings quickly and accurately. If you are inexperienced at technical drawing you may wish to attempt these two drawings. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 31 . Keep these notes as a reference. following the given steps. The front view of the 12 mm diameter lower hole has been given as a starting point for the drawing. when viewed from the direction of the arrow. shown in figure 3. either freehand or by using instruments. Figure 3. a front view of the hand brake lever.

You must divide all dimensions by two. The vertical dimension is 40 mm. 2 Locate the top of the handle. Note the circle should be drawn using a circle template. The circle is diameter 12mm therefore draw the circle using a measurement of diameter 6 mm. 1 Locate the centreline position of. and draw the higher 12 mm diameter hole. project up from the located centreline and measure the required distance.5 55 40 6 14 20 Ø 12 R2 0 Figure 3. The dimension is 30 mm (R20 + R10) therefore measure 15 mm above the located centreline. 90 13 0 20 Ø 70 Ø 4 14 R1 0 Ø : INS 30 12 IDE R2 R8 0 . The horizontal dimension is 20 mm therefore measure 10 mm to the left of the given centreline. 32 Braking systems . used so that the drawing can fit onto the drawing page. therefore measure to scale 20 mm above the given centreline. This is a reducing scale.30 Pictorial – hand brake lever Steps and method Note the scale of 1:2 means that you will use half size measurements for the drawing.

12 Locate and draw the diameter 4 mm hole. Measure from the centreline of the previously drawn top 12 mm diameter hole. 8 Now you have to complete the right hand end of the lever. Use a thin dark chain line for the long centreline of the barrel of the lever. 3 Draw the top of the lever. in orthogonal projection. 5 From this left hand end draw the parallel portion of the bottom of the lever. 0. You should use your compasses to do this construction. 11 Use radius curves to darken the curves drawn in part (8) above. 7 mm and 2 mm.31. Congratulations. and 14 mm above.5 mm. The dimension is 90 mm therefore measure 45 mm to the right. 10 Use your set square to join the bottom of the R20 arc to the previously drawn sloping line at the bottom of the lever. therefore use measurements of 3 mm. using thin. 6 Draw the left hand sloping section of the bottom of the lever. 4 Draw the left hand end of the lever. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 33 . therefore measure downward a distance of 27. The dimension are 70 mm. Use very light construction lines. Lightly draw the two R20 mm radius curves on the two centrelines. The dimension is 20 mm radius. dark lines.5 mm to locate the end point. The completed drawing is shown in figure 3. Dimensions are 6 mm to the left. using thick. 65 mm and 45 mm. the centreline and the diameter is 4 mm. you have now completed the front view of the hand brake lever. (0. dark lines. Again you must use your circle template to draw the circle. Darken all centrelines. and thin continuous lines for the circle centrelines. 130 mm and 90 mm therefore mark off distances of 35 mm.25 mm). 13 Darken in all visible outline. The dimension is diameter 20 mm therefore draw down a distance of 10 mm. 9 Use your set square to join the tops of the two R20 arcs. Note that you were not requested to show any dimensions so do not show any. It slopes downward to a point 55 mm below the top edge. It slopes downward to a point 30 mm below the top edge. Note that thin continuous dark lines are used to indicate short centrelines. 7 Draw the middle sloping section of the bottom of the lever. If you have decided to attempt this drawing. therefore use a measurement of 10 mm radius. therefore measure downward a distance of 15 mm to locate the end point of the sloping line. drawing from the located position in part (2).

5 mm. thick. using on enlarging scale 2:1 and the drill hole positioned to show the 6mm diameter hole using a part-section. 12 mm. 64 mm and 12 mm using the scale of 2:1 2 mark off distances either side of the centreline.31 Front view of hand brake lever Worked example 2 Draw a front view of the piston from a hydraulic brake cylinder. 20 mm. The method of drawing the shape of the drill hole will be covered along with dimensioning of the hole. 34 Braking systems . a standard method to show interior details as visible outline.32. Figure 3. Ø 25 Ø 12 Ø 25 Ø 12 Ø 25 R4 HOLE Ø 6 DEPTH 12 6 32 6 20 6 Figure 3.32 Piston from on hydraulic brake cylinder The quickest method: 1 mark off distances along the given centreline. Dimension the overall length of the piston and the drill hole. dark lines for the quadrants. of 12 mm and 25 mm – all lines should be light construction lines 3 draw the four R2 quadrants. 12 mm. using the 4mm size on your radius curves using 0. from the right hand end. shown in figure 3.

It is drawn using two lines. The full drill hole is now shown as visible outline using thick dark lines. The depth of the drill hole The depth of the drill hole is measured as the distance of the full diameter of the hole. Figure 3. each of 60º. 60 ∞ DEPTH Figure 3.34 Shape of drill hole The part-section A thin dark continuous freehand line is now drawn just to the left of the of the drill hole to indicate the limit of the part-section. 6 mm above and below the centreline 3 outline the rectangular shape of the hole. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 35 . measuring 24 mm from the right hand end 2 mark off the diameter of the hole. from the left hand end of the previously drawn rectangle.33 Depth of drill hole The pointed end of the drill hole The pointed end of the drill hole has an included angle of 120º. The depth does not include the distance to the point. 1 mark off the depth of the 12 mm hole. Note that the hole takes the pointed shape of the drill. Drawing the drill hole The following steps describe how to draw the shape of the drill hole.

Then dimension the overall length of the piston. Dimensioning the drill hole The drill hole is fully dimension to show diameter and depth using the AS1100. • Thick dark lines are used to draw the visible outline. using thin dark lines. equally spaced at an angle of 45º. Some of the AS1100 standards that you should be aware of include: • All lines are drawn as dark lines. 36 Braking systems .35.35. AS 1100 standards The completed drawing is shown in figure 3. • Thin dark lines are used to indicate – the part-section line – the hatching lines – the centre line – the extension lines for the dimensions and – the dimension lines. You must use current AS1100 standards in your drawings. • There are two different thicknesses of dark lines used on the drawing. The area of the drill hole is not hatched. • The dimensioning uses the current standard symbols to indicate diameter and depth of the drill hole. Hatching the sectioned area The part-sectioned area is hatched. 1992 symbols for diameter and depth as shown in figure 3.

35 Part sectioned front view Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 3.9. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 37 .8 and 3. 60 12 Ø6 Figure 3.

38 Braking systems .

Exercises Exercise 3. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 39 . You should submit this exercise as a word processed document and attach your document to this page.1 1 Determine the coefficient of friction between two materials and write a 2 page report on the experiment and state your conclusions.

3. 40 Braking systems . determine the braking force. If the coefficient of friction between the materials of the pad and of the disc is 0. b A drum braking system has a force of 12 kN applied by the brake shoe to the drum surface. If the coefficient of friction between the materials of the shoe liner and of the drum is 0.35. determine the total braking force. Exercise 3.2 a A disc brake system has a force of 8 kN applied to each of the pads.

2. attempting to park. A truck. bumps the sedan with a horizontal force of 2 kN. determine if the sedan will move forward as a result of the collision. and the coefficient of friction between the tyres and the surface of the parking area is 0. c A family sedan is parked with its hand brake on. The hand brake operates only on the rear wheels. If each of the rear wheels of the sedan supports a mass of 300 kg. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 41 .

moving at a velocity of 100 km/h. B. A. or D that best answers the question. 2 Effective dissipation of heat energy is important in braking systems to: a keep the driver warm in winter b allow the conversion of kinetic energy to heat energy to continue during heavy braking operations.45 d having no coefficient of friction between the braking materials. Exercise 3.25 through to 0. C. c allow the drums/discs to stay hot during braking. 1 Braking systems are effective as a result of : a an extremely high coefficient of friction between the braking materials b an extremely low coefficient of friction between the braking materials c a range of coefficients of friction between the braking materials from 0. d allow fade when braking. If the front wheels are fitted with disc brakes: i draw a force analysis diagram showing all of the forces acting between one of the front discs and the brake pads ii draw a free body diagram of the braking area of the disc showing all of the forces iii write an equilibrium equation that would be used to determine the magnitude of the braking force 42 Braking systems . brakes suddenly to avoid a collision.3 Select the alternative. 3 The angle of friction is: a equal to the coefficient of friction b used during calculations only when limiting friction applies c equal to the normal reaction d equal to the friction force.4 a A family sedan. Exercise 3.

Wheel rotates clockwise Analysis diagram Free body diagram Force triangle Figure 3. 6∞ Figure 3. Determine the coefficient of friction between the truck tyres and the gravel surface.37 c A truck is parked on the side of a gravel road. Clearly label the angle of friction. iii Replace the friction force and normal reaction with a single force. Due to the loose gravel surface. iv Draw a force triangle that would be used to determine the magnitude of the braking force. The angle of inclination of the road is 6º. i Draw on the following diagram a force analysis diagram showing all of the forces acting between one of the front wheels and the road surface. ii Draw a free body diagram of the braking area of the front wheel and the road surface showing all of the forces.38 Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 43 . the truck is on the point of sliding down the hill.36 b The front wheels equally support 2/3 of the total mass of the sedan. Pads Disc Analysis diagram Free body diagram Equation for FR Figure 3.

Exercise 3.5 Complete the analysis of forces being applied to a body on a horizontal plane by showing all of the forces acting on the body. Analysis diagram Free body diagram Equation for FR Body at rest mg N FR = 0 mg No horizontal force is acting N Body at rest – force horizontal mg N (given) P FR = mg (given) N Body at point of moving – force horizontal mg P FR = mg (given) N Body at point of moving – force downward. 30∞ mg P 30∞ FR = mg N Figure 3. a body at rest. (showing only the forces acting). 30∞ mg P 30∞ FR = mg N Body at point of moving – force upward. is completed for you.39 Friction analysis 44 Braking systems . then completing the free body diagram. then writing an equilibrium equation for FR. Note: the friction force opposes motion or pending motion. The first example.

diameter 10 mm.6 a Define the term mechanical stress. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 45 . _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ b A cylindrical braking rod of mild steel. is subjected to a tensile force of 15 kN. Determine the tensile stress in the rod. Exercise 3.

If the original length of the rod is 900 mm and the modulus of elasticity is 210 GPa. c A cylindrical braking rod made from 12 mm diameter medium carbon steel. i If. of diameter 9 mm is used to punch out the holes of a brake liner of thickness 6 mm. d A cylindrical punch. 46 Braking systems . is subjected to a tensile load of 30 kN. the compressive stress in the punch is 120 MPa. determine the force used to punch out the hole. determine the extension of the rod. during the punching operation.

Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 47 . ii Using the previous data as well as the calculated force in the punch from part i above. determine the shear stress in the lining material.

along with a pictorial grid.40 Isometric exercises 48 Braking systems . Complete freehand.40. the pictorial drawing of each shaped block.7 Eight different shapes are cut from rectangular prisms in figure 3. Exercise 3. The drawings are to a scale of 1:1. Figure 3. Three orthogonal views of each block have been drawn.

The starting point for the centrelines of the washer has been given. The scale used may be selected by you. a pictorial drawing of the washer.8 Shape and size details of a washer from a master cylinder assembly are given in the dimensioned orthogonal drawing in figure 3. The starting point for the centrelines of the washer has been given.41 Washer Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 49 . ii Draw. freehand. in isometric projection. Exercise 3.41. a pictorial drawing of the washer. i Sketch. using instruments. Use a scale of 2:1. 3 TOP VIEW Ø 30 Ø 10 FRONT VIEW Figure 3. in isometric projection.

42 Washer 50 Braking systems . iii FREEHAND PICTORIAL iv INSTRUMENT DRAWING OF WASHER Figure 3.

ii Project freehand. 20 60 30 0 Ø5 0 Ø3 50 ES Ø1 00 HOLCED Ø3 1 0 A 2X Ø 1 ALLY SP E QU Figure 3. Include the principle dimensions. Exercise 3. a left side view of the brake pad.43 Disk brake rotor Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 51 . when viewed from the direction of the arrow. On the grid paper attached: i Draw freehand. in orthogonal projection using a scale of 1: 3.43. using third angle projection.9 Shape and size details of a disc brake rotor are given in figure 3. a front view of the disc brake rotor.

Figure 3.44 Grid 52 Braking systems .

at the front there are two large rotors whilst at the back there is a single smaller rotor.45. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 53 . Figure 3. Exercise 3.45 Front and rear disc brakes on a modern motorbike Explain the dynamics of why this is an effective brake set-up. The rotors are considerably different in size.10 The front and rear disc brake from a modern motorbike are shown in figure 3.

54 Braking systems .

and orthogonal drawings of braking systems and braking components applying appropriate Australian Standard (AS 1100).au> for original and current documents. including dimensioning. ✓ ❏ Agree – well done ✓ Uncertain ❏ Disagree Disagree – revise your work Agree ✓ ❏ Uncertain – contact your teacher I have learnt about • engineering mechanics and hydraulics – friction (without calculations) – stress and strain stress (tensile and compression) load/extension diagram strain (tensile and compression) • communication – pictorial and orthogonal drawings – Australian Standard AS1100.boardofstudies. stress and strain • produce pictorial. I have learnt to • distinguish between force. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 55 . During the next part you will continue to explore mathematical and graphical methods used to solve problems of engineering practice and also learn more about isometric and orthogonal drawing.nsw. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best represents your level of achievement. Progress check In this part you explored mathematical and graphical methods to solve problems of engineering practice. © Board of Studies. 1999.edu. Refer to <http://www. NSW.

56 Braking systems .

1 to 3. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.2 ❐ Exercise 3.3 ❐ Exercise 3.10 Name: _______________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 3.4 ❐ Exercise 3.1 ❐ Exercise 3. Exercise cover sheet Exercises 3.5 ❐ Exercise 3.10 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet. Part 3: Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – communications 57 .8 ❐ Exercise 3.7 ❐ Exercise 3.9 ❐ Exercise 3.6 ❐ Exercise 3. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses at the completion of each part of a module.

Braking systems Part 4: Engineering mechanics. hydraulics and communication – 2 .

....................................2 What will you learn? ........................................................ 45 Exercise cover sheet ... energy .............................. 15 Computer aided drawing ..................................................... 47 Part 4: Engineering mechanics........................ 23 Exercises............................................... 8 Pascal’s Principle. 3 Fluid mechanics..................... 15 Detail drawing ............................................................................... power......... hydraulics and communication – 2 1 ................................... 33 Progress check.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Part 4 contents Introduction........... 11 Archimedes’ Principle............ 2 Engineering mechanics and hydraulics ..............................................................3 Work................................................. 14 Communication.............................................................................................................................................

power. What you will learn? You will learn about: • Engineering mechanics and hydraulics – work.edu. © Board of Studies. Introduction In this part you will continue to explore mathematical and graphical methods used to solve problems of engineering practice and also develop your skills in isometric and orthogonal drawing. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. You will learn to: • experiment with and apply the basic principles of fluid mechanics to simple braking systems • detail drawings of braking systems and braking components applying appropriate Australian Standard (AS 1100) • produce simple computer assisted drawing(s). NSW. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus.au> for original and current documents. energy (without calculations) – fluid mechanics Pascal’s and Archimedes’ Principles hydrostatic pressure applications to braking systems • Communication – detail drawing – computer graphics. hydraulics and communication – 2 2 . computer assisted drawing (CAD).boardofstudies. 1999.nsw. Refer to <http//ww.

energy You may have studied these topics before. J Work done by a force against a resistance Against a frictional resistance When a body. Engineering mechanics and hydraulics In this section of work you will learn about the meaning of mechanical work. Work. hydraulics and communication – 2 3 . but you will now require an understanding of each term. a distance. on an horizontal plane. The work done by a force is determined by the product of the force and the displacement of the point of application of that force. Work = Force x Displacement W = Fs Units of work: Joule. the work done by the applied force in overcoming this resistance is: Work = Frictional resistance x Displacement W = FR x s Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Mechanical work Mechanical work is done when a force acts upon a body and produces a displacement. how each affects engineering problems and specifically. how each relates to braking systems. moves with uniform velocity. energy and power. s. against a frictional resistance. power.

is opposed by inertia. the work done against gravity is: Work = Mass x Acceleration due to gravity x Height = mgh Up a smooth inclined plane (no friction) When a body on an inclined plane of angle q to the horizontal. ma and F = ma If the displacement during the acceleation is s. by a force applied parallel to the plane. is moved at uniform velocity a distance (s). the work done is: Work = mg sin q ¥ s Height But sin q = Displacement along the plane h = s W = mgh Against inertia When a force acting on a body causes that body to accelerate. up the incline. Against gravity When the centre of mass of a body is raised through a vertical distance (h). then: Work = FS = mas Part 4: Engineering mechanics. the applied force (F). hydraulics and communication – 2 4 .

Part 4: Engineering mechanics. work done is zero 2 Accelerating uniformly on a horizontal surface. hydraulics and communication – 2 5 . In each case the hand brake is in operation.mgh Where h is the vertical displacement of the car. Example 1 Consider the work done by a motor car: 1 Travelling at constant velocity on a horizontal surface. W = Rs + mas + mgh 4 Accelerating uniformly down an inclined surface. Work done = Total resistance x Displacement + mas . W = Rs + mas . you can see that the work done by the car engine is different from the work done by the braking system. accelerating uniformly downward.mgh Worked example 1 Let us consider the work done by a braking system. Work done = Total resistance x Displacement W = Rs Note if there is no resistance. 1 Car stationary on a horizontal surface. • Work done by the hand brake = mgh . Work done = Total resistance x Displacement + mas W = Rs + mas 3 Accelerating uniformly up an inclined surface. moving downward at constant velocity. 3 Car on an inclined surface. Work done = Total resistance x Displacement + mas + mgh Where h is the vertical displacement of the car.Rs 4 Car on an inclined surface. but in (3) and (4). ineffectively. • Work done by the hand brake = mgh – Rs – mas From these examples. • Work done by the hand brake = 0 as displacement is zero. • Work done by the hand brake = 0 as displacement is zero. 2 Car stationary on an inclined surface.

1 KE = mv2 2 Potential energy Potential energy is the energy possesses due to its position. Units are therefore the same as for work. 1 SE = Fs 2 It may also be determined from the load-extension diagram. PE = mgh Strain energy Strain energy is the energy a body possesses due to its deformation. Mechanical energy Mechanical energy is a body’s capacity to do work. More importantly is the rate at which a car or brake can do the work or transfer energy. This rate of doing work is called power. following a tensile test. It is determined by the amount of work done in bringing the body to rest. can do work more quickly. A car having an engine with a high power rating. It is determined by the amount of work done in lifting the body through a vertical height. A body that has a capacity to do work is said to possess energy. the amount of energy is determined by the quantity of work it can do. such as a spring. hydraulics and communication – 2 6 . Joule. Conservation of mechanical energy When considering the vertical movement of a body. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. up to the elastic limit. J. Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy a body possesses due to its motion. It is determined by the amount of work done in deforming the body. Loss of PE = Gain in KE and conversely Loss of KE = Gain in PE Work and energy are very important to engineers when designing cars and braking systems. Strain energy is found by determining the area under the graph.

hydraulics and communication – 2 7 . and is determined by the ratio of the work done over time taken to do the work. W P = but W = Fs t Fs s \ P = and = v (velocity) t t \ P = Fv W Fs P = = = Fv t t Units of Power: Watt (W) Worked example 2 Let us consider the energy of a motor car and the braking system: 1 Travelling velocity on a horizontal surface 1 KE = mv2 2 = Work done by the brakes in stopping the car 2 Accelerating uniformly on a horizontal surface. 1 1 KE = mv2 – mu2 2 2 = Work done by the car in accelerating Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Power Power is the time rate of doing work. Work done Power = Time taken W P = t Derived from this formula are two very important formulas.

automobile brakes were operated by mechanical means using levers. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. The advantages of this basic hydraulic system over the original mechanical brakes are that it gave completely uniform pressure throughout. cannot be appreciably compressed. and provided even braking on all wheels at all times. If you need to refresh your memory of the developments of braking systems revisit Part 2 and Part 3 of this module. Power output Mechanical Efficiency = Power input BrakePower Also in cars Mechanical Efficiency = Indicated Power When dealing with hydro-electricity the relationship between the volume and the mass of water is also very important to engineers: 1 000 l of water has a volume of 1 m3 and a mass of 1 000 kg. These braking systems were very unreliable. Mechanical efficiency of a machine Another important consideration for engineers is the efficiency of a machine such as a car or braking system. causing many service problems in maintaining linkages and providing equalisation of braking pressure to the brakes. cables and rods as linkages.1. through the system. allows pressure to be equally and evenly distributed throughout the system. if contained in a sealed system. Hydraulic systems were developed based on the simple principle that pressure exerted at any point on a confined fluid will be transmitted throughout the fluid equally and undiminished in all directions. The hydraulic-brake actuating system thus provides equalised transfer of pressure from the applied force. hydraulics and communication – 2 8 . Fluid mechanics In this section of work you will study the basic principles of the hydraulics used in braking systems. Later developments of front brakes and ABS braking systems modified the last ‘advantage’. to the brake shoes or discs. Basic hydraulic braking systems Originally. assumes the shape of the container. Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercise 4. and. Liquid flows freely. greatly reduced adjustment problems.

F = pxA Basic units of pressure: Pascal (Pa). times the pressure on that surface.162 kPa ii F = mg = 3 ¥ 10 = 30 N A = b¥ t = 110 ¥ 10-3 ¥ 75 ¥ 10-3 = 8250 x 10-6 mm2 P = F∏A Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Pressure To understand the basic principles of the hydraulic braking system you must firstly understand what is meant by pressure and be able to do simple calculations involving pressure. Pressure is force per unit area. hydraulics and communication – 2 9 . i F = mg = 3 ¥ 10 = 30 N A = 1¥b = 230 ¥ 10-3 ¥ 110 ¥ 10-3 = 25 300 ¥ 10-6 mm2 p = F∏ A = 30 ∏ 25300 x 10-6 = 1. Determine the pressure applied to the horizontal surface in each case. F p = A Thus total force or thrust on a surface is the area of the surface. Worked example 3 A brick of mass 3 kg and dimensions 230 x 110 x 75 rests on a horizontal surface: i flat on its largest face ii on its end.

so the answer was in kPa. the greater the amount of water above the hole. = 30 ∏ 8250 ¥ 10-6 = 3. the greater the pressure. three small holes along the side of a large PET drink bottle at various heights – one near the bottom. Pressure in liquids Open container A liquid at rest in an open container exerts a pressure due to its different weight at various depths. Part 4: Engineering mechanics.564 kPa As you can see the pressure is increased as the area is decreased. iii pressures are the same at all points on the same horizontal level in a liquid at rest. the area was determined in mm2. Figure 4.1 Water overflow from an open container You should observe that the: i pressure on the water in the open container varies with the depth. middle and top. or pierce. 2 Fill the container with water and observe the result. Note. 1 Drill. ii pressure exerted by the liquid is always perpendicular to the surface it contacts. hydraulics and communication – 2 10 .

Part 4: Engineering mechanics.2 Water flow from a closed container You should observe that the pressure on the water in the sealed or closed container is the same for each of the holes. through the application of a force (F1) in a cylinder of cross sectional area (A1). and pressure is applied by means of a cylinder and piston. or connected containers. 2 Fill the bottles with water. Principles of Transmission of Pressure in Fluids and today has a law or principle named after him. Thus when a fluid completely fills a sealed container. made similar observations in 1650. then the pressure at all points in the liquid is changes by the same amount. connect and squeeze the container without holes and observe the result. Figure 4. Pascal’s Principle Pascal’s Principle states that if the pressure at any point in a liquid that is enclosed and at rest. If pressure is applied to a liquid in a sealed container or system. in his publication. This observation would also apply to connected sealed containers. that pressure is transmitted equally throughout the whole of the enclosed fluid. is changed. Pascal. Any pressure that is applied from outside a sealed container full of liquid can exert an equal and undiminished pressure to all other portions of the liquid and to the walls of the container. 1 Attach the PET drink bottle used in the previous activity to another intact PET drink bottle so the two join at the neck. an equal pressure will be transmitted to a larger piston and cylinder. causing a thrust or force in this piston. of area (A2). Closed container Now consider the pressures in a closed or sealed container. A French scientist. of magnitude F2. hydraulics and communication – 2 11 .

Size details of the pedal. hydraulics and communication – 2 12 .4 Hydraulic braking system Part 4: Engineering mechanics. A force of 100 N is applied to the brake pedal as shown. Additionally. this can apply to a number of different cylinders and pistons attached to the sealed system. 100 N A2 = 300 mm2 rear wheel cylinder 250 A1 = 600 mm2 A3 = 900 mm2 front wheel cylinder 50 Figure 4.3 Hydraulic Braking System Worked example 4 Figure 4. Figure 4. master cylinder. Determine the thrust (force) delivered by each of the wheel cylinders. including the hydraulic press.4 represents a sealed hydraulic braking system. Braking systems This principle forms the basis of hydraulic machines. hoist. F1 F2 = A1 A2 F1 ¥ A2 F2 = A1 If A2 is very large compared to A1 a comparatively smaller force applied to the smaller piston can overcome a large resistance acting on the larger piston. jack and hydraulic braking systems. and front and back wheel cylinders are given on the diagram.

This is particularly applicable to the different stopping forces needed at the front and back wheels. that any pressure applied to a liquid in a confined container or system is transmitted equally and undiminished to all parts of the container or system. Since the pressure of 833 kPa is equal in all directions Force exerted by the piston = pressure x area = 833 ¥ 103 x 300 ¥ 10-6 = 250 N iv Determine the thrust at the front wheel cylinder. Since the pressure of 833 kPa is equal in all directions. When the brakes are applies the reaction at the front wheels is greatly increased due to the tendency of the vehicle to continue its forward motion. Pressure generated at master cylinder = Force/area F P = A 500 = 600 ¥ 10 -6 = 833 kPa iii Determine the thrust at the rear wheel cylinder. i Determine by moments the resultant force on the master cylinder caused by the applied force of 100 N exerted on the brake pedal. Force exerted by the piston = pressure x area = 833 ¥ 103 ¥ 900 ¥ 10-6 = 750 N Application to braking systems By varying the diameter of the cylinders it is possible to distribute the pressure as needed. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. hydraulics and communication – 2 13 . The front brakes therefore need a greater applied force than the rear wheels. One way that this can be done is by using larger wheel cylinders on the front brakes. ∑M about pivot: 100 x 250 = 50 ¥ R Resultant force on master cylinder = 500 N Note: the lever system has provided a mechanical advantage of 5! ii Determine the pressure generated in the system by this resultant force. Solution The solution is based on Pascal’s Principle.

Buoyancy From your previous reading you will remember that fluid exerts an equal pressure to all parts of a body in contact with. Buoyancy force = mass of fluid displaced ¥ g = density of fluid x volume ¥ 10 Use the brick. Archimedes’ Principle Archimedes was a Greek philosopher who lived in the third century BC. This upward thrust is buoyancy.2 and 4. You may have to us a wooden handle on the string to prevent the cotton cutting into your fingers. or ream paper. Tie a length of thin cotton around the brick page and attempt to lift the object. either in a bucket or washing tub. When a body is wholly or partially immersed in a fluid. or immersed in the fluid. Now attempt the same experiment with the brick immersed in water. Normally the cotton will break. or is it due to the buoyancy? I think that you can agree with Archimedes on that question. Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercises 4. still has wide application today. must be equal to the weight of the floating body. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. The lift should be successful while the brick remains immersed. the upward thrust due to the weight of the displaced fluid. For a body to float in a fluid. hydraulics and communication – 2 14 . This upthrust. The centre of mass is therefore referred to as the centre of buoyancy. or buoyancy. Archimedes’ Principle. it is acted upon by an upthrust which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. Is this because the brick has less mass in the water. acts through the centre of mass of the displaced fluid.3. from a previous experiment.

Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Sometimes three views. two detail drawings on brake components. It also gives the material that the component is to be made from. more complicated components may need up to five views. Communication In this section of work you will learn more about AS1100 standards. whilst other. what is meant by a detail drawing. The simple components from a brake master cylinder used in the following examples can use as few as two views. or even a single view that incorporates dimensioning to provide the full shape description. and complete. The detail drawing must provide sufficient information for the manufacture of that component. and how many views are necessary to show the full shape description. hydraulics and communication – 2 15 . The shape description The shape description is usually given in an orthogonal drawing. A detail drawing gives a full shape and size description of the component. A decision must be made as to which views. As examples you will be shown how to design the best solutions for. front view and left or right side view are required. and the standard sectioning techniques that may be used. Detail drawing A detail drawing is a specialised type of orthogonal drawing used to communicate information from the designer or engineer to the manufacturing personnel. a top view.

Hidden outline should be avoided where possible. Sectioned views Where the component has interior details that need to be shown. You will be required to draw detail drawings of some of the components in the exercise section of this module part. the placement of the dimensions. In the following two worked examples you will be shown how this design technique is applied. the master cylinder A master cylinder for a hydraulic braking system is shown below in figure 4. and then.35. The size description The size description is given by fully dimensioning the drawing of the components. half-section and part-section. A part-section was used in the orthogonal drawing of the piston in figure 3. The material The material to be used in the manufacture of the component is given on the drawing or in a materials list if the component is part of a larger drawing. The best approach when designing a detail drawing. using AS 1100 dimensioning standards. many design decisions have to be made. Designing a detail drawing With all of these requirements and options for the drawing. is to complete a number of freehand drawings showing various options with regard to the number of views. full-section. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. the sectioning methods. You will learn about the different types of sectioning that may be used.5. Worked examples. sectioning must be used to show these details as visible outline. hydraulics and communication – 2 16 .

a Show the designs for four possible detail drawings. Figure 4. hydraulics and communication – 2 17 .6. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. c Fully dimension each drawing. The psiton seal in shown in figure 4.5 Master cylinder Courtesy: Trinity College Auburn © LMP Worked example 1 Design a detail drawing of the piston seal from the master cylinder components. b Comments should be made as to the standards used and the good and bad points of the designed detail drawing. using freehand drawing techniques: i without the use of a section ii using a full-section iii using a half-section v using a part-section. using different placements for the dimensions.

these are correct standards. • Dimensioning – Dimensioning is clear and easily interpreted. hydraulics and communication – 2 18 . 10 Ø 25 Ø 22 Ø 12 FRONT VIEW RIGHT SIDE VIEW Material: neoprene Scale 2:1 Figure 4. • New Methods – The use of circle templates. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. The details of the hole are shown as visible outline.7 Possible solution 2 (using a full-section) Comments on solution 2 • Front View – As full sectioning is used. no hidden outline is shown. hidden outline must be used to show the details of the hole. • Right Side View – The drawing is clear and gives a good shape description. Hidden outline should be avoided where possible.6 Possible solution 1 (without the use of a section) Comments on solution 1 • Front View – As no sectioning is used. 10 10 Ø 22 25 Ø Ø 25 Ø 12 12 L Ø S EA 22 Ø FRONT VIEW RIGHT SIDE VIEW Material: neoprene Scale 2:1 Figure 4. • Decision – will not use this drawing due to hidden outline.

could be used. 10 Ø 12 Ø 25 Ø 22 FRONT VIEW RIGHT SIDE VIEW Material: neoprene Scale 2:1 Figure 4. the use of a half-section. Part 4: Engineering mechanics.8 Possible solution 3 (using a half-section) Comments on solution 3 • Front View – As half-sectioning is used. • Right Side View – The drawing is clear and gives a good shape description. • Dimensioning – Dimensioning is poorly designed with too many dimensions shown on the Front View. correct standards. • Dimensioning – Dimensioning is poorly designed with too many dimensions shown on the Right Side View. • New Methods – The use of circle templates. hydraulics and communication – 2 19 . • New Methods – The use of circle templates. The details of the hole are shown on one side of the centre line and the exterior details on the other side of the centreline. • Right Side View – The drawing is clear and gives good shape description. • Decision – Good solution but will not use as better solutions can be found. Note that a half- section may only be used when drawing a symmetrical component. • Decision – Good solution. the use of a full section. no hidden outline is shown.

Note that the dimensioning of the diameters in the Front View allows the Right Side View to be omitted. • New Methods – the use of a part-section. will use. You will be required to draw this detail drawing of the piston seal using instruments. 10 Ø 25 Ø 12 Ø 22 FRONT VIEW Material: neoprene Scale 2:1 Figure 4. correct AS1100 standards. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Possible solution 4. The part-section line is a thin dark continuous freehand line.9 Possible solution 4 (using a part-section) Comments on solution 4 • Front View – As part-sectioning is used. The details of the hole are shown as visible outline. • Decision – Good solution.1 in your exercises. hydraulics and communication – 2 20 . as exercise 4. shape is defined by the dimensions. using a part-section. is the quickest and preferred method. no hidden outline is shown. • Right Side View – No view is needed. The circular shapes have been defined by the use of these diameter dimensions. • Dimensioning – dimensioning is good. correct standards.

Do not show the dimensions on these design sketches. Worked example 2 Design a detail drawing of the valve from the master cylinder components. you can omit the RSV in the design process and show only the four methods for the various front views. These are rather difficult to draw freehand. and really serve no purpose in repeating them in the design process. hydraulics and communication – 2 21 .11 Four possible solutions Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Ø6 12 16 Ø Figure 4. FRONT VIEW FRONT VIEW FRONT VIEW FRONT VIEW (no section) (full section) (half-section) (part-section) Figure 4. Varying the design process In the next worked exercise you will be shown how the design process may be varied to suit the component being drawn. the design of the dimensioning can be completed later. using freehand drawing techniques. i without the use of a section 2 ii using a full-section iii using a half-section 30 Ø iv using a part-section. The valve is to be made from 70-30 brass. The right side view would show only three concentric circles.10 Valve As the right side view is only three concentric circles. Again. The four possible front views of the valve. The right side view will therefore be omitted. You are to show four possible detail drawings. you can design the dimensions later.

Visible outline should be drawn with thick dark lines. that should be checked. All lines other than visible outline are thin dark. During the HSC marking the darkness of lines is always checked. is the quickest and preferred method. as with worked example 1. The completed detail drawing is shown below. using a part-section. Ø 16 Ø 30 Ø6 2 PART-SECTIONED FRONT VIEW Material: 70–30 brass Figure 4. In both cases the arrows have been positioned outside the extension lines as there is insufficient space to neatly draw the arrows inside these extension lines. hydraulics and communication – 2 22 . There are two small dimensions. All lines. and in line with the leader line. the diameter 6 mm and the thickness 2 mm. Now the design for the position of the dimensions should be done on this solution. Line thickness is also important. and again the right side view may be omitted if the dimensions are able to be clearly placed on the front view. Possible solution 4. The dimensioning standards should also be checked. other than construction lines should be the same darkness.12 Detail drawing of valve AS 1100 standards When you have completed a drawing you should check to see that you have correctly used AS1100 standards. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Again. When the design is completed the drawing is done using instruments or a CAD system. and that the correct AS1100 standards have been used. The 2 mm dimension is written outside the extension lines as shown. The lines should be dark enough so that if photocopied they would give a good dark outline. When you have designed the solutions you should check that the solutions are correct. The four possible solutions are given above. Similarly the space for the 2 mm dimension is too small to enable the number to be neatly lettered.

Part 4: Engineering mechanics. • To plot the point defined by the coordinates (2. negative below the origin. – locate and label the plotted point (2. (2. Before commencing this section you should take time to review that work. the radius of the circle. Graphing points in mathematics You have already used x and y coordinates to plot points. Coordinates All objects drawn using CAD are defined by the positioning of points. along the horizontal x axis. • The coordinates. – mark off a distance of 3 units along the vertical y axis. and the y value. 3). 3). negative to the left from the origin • y axis: positive above. – mark off a distance of 2 units from the origin. • The y axis is the vertical axis. In this module you will learn more about computer graphics and computer aided drawing. that is. 3) represent the x value. measured from the origin: • x axis: positive to the right. Computer aided drawing In Landscape products you were introduced to Computer aided drawing (CAD). A circle may be defined by the positioning of its centre point and a point on the circle. The axes have both positive and negative values. lines and curves when drawing graphs in mathematics. You will learn to produce simple computer assisted drawings using tools and coordinates. hydraulics and communication – 2 23 . from the origin. A line may be defined by the positioning of its two end points. 2. • The x axis is the horizontal axis. 3.

Note.13 Graph of point 2. hydraulics and communication – 2 24 . then draw the line defined by the end points. • polar coordinates – you measure the radial distance from the last point entered. (0. 3 Example 1 On the axes given above. or predetermined point called the origin. plot the point (6. 7). you need only use two coordinates. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. (x.3) 0 Figure 4.0) as you do in mathematics. • relative coordinates – you measure the actual sizes along the x and y directions from the last point entered. There are three different methods you can use in CAD systems to locate points: • absolute coordinates – you measure the x and y values from the origin. To position a point on a flat surface. and the angle. 7). 3) and (6. Draw a line to join points (2. CAD uses the x and y values to precisely specify the location of points and thus lines and objects. y and z axes radiating from a fixed. Negative values are frequently used. Solution Mark off the horizontal distance 6 units to the right of the origin. such as on drawing paper or a computer screen. (2.y) as in mathematics. 7). Locate and label point (6. +y (2. we could also use absolute polar coordinates. measured in a counter clockwise direction from the positive x axis. Cartesian coordinate system in CAD In CAD the Cartesian coordinate system is used to define the position of a point in space by using the x . Mark off the vertical distance 7 units above the origin. As with mathematics the coordinates use both positive and negative values. 7). 3) and (6.

P. Thus the Absolute Cartesian Coordinates (2. If not. having coordinates of (25. 0). Example 2 20 40 20 A 40 Figure 4. the x axis and the y axis are drawn below to represent a CAD drawing on a computer screen. Point A. read through and study the method. ii Determine and label the coordinates of each of the points on the drawing. then the y value. sketch to scale the right side view of the ratchet block. 3) of a point. i On the given axes. iii If you have access to a computer with a CAD package. The positive x value is measured horizontally to the right of the origin. draw the right side view of the ratchet block using the absolute coordinates method. 20) is plotted on the axes. indicate that the point to be plotted is 2 units to the right and 3 units above the origin. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. hydraulics and communication – 2 25 . the x and y values are measured from the origin. This is shown in the previous diagram. The positive y value is measured vertically upward from the origin. and also applies to CAD.14 Right side view of ratchet block The origin. (0. Absolute coordinates are not widely used as it is difficult to calculate the values of all points in a complicated drawing. Example of absolute coordinates When using absolute coordinates in CAD. Be sure to write the x value first.

60. 25. Now draw a vertical line 20 mm upward from point A. <Enter>. <Enter>. iii The method used will vary with the CAD package that you are using. 45. 20 at the <From> point prompt. 65. The solutions uses AutoCAD. 40). Type the absolute coordinates of the end point. Type the absolute coordinates of the next end point. (65. 20. Type the absolute coordinates 25. 65. This tells the computer that the line you wish to draw begins at the point. <Enter>. Type the absolute coordinates of the next end point. 25. Type the absolute coordinates of the next point. (45. to meet the sloping line. 40 mm to the right. <Enter>. horizontally. hydraulics and communication – 2 26 . other tools could have been used. 40.15 Plotting point (25. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Draw a line from the top of this vertical line.20) Solution (sketching) i To sketch the shape. draw a horizontal line from point A. Draw a vertical line 40 mm upward from the right hand end of this horizontal line. in a clockwise direction are: (65. then press the <Enter> key. <Enter>. 60). The following solution assumes that you can create a new drawing. We will use a line tool in each exercise. 20). 40. Draw a line from the top of this vertical line to point A. Type the absolute coordinates of the next end point. 20 mm to the right.20) 0 Figure 4. listed in cyclic order from A. Solution (CAD) Click the Line button in the toolbox. 20. 40) and (25. 25. ii The absolute coordinates of each of the points. +y A (25. 20.

commencing from point B and drawing in a counter clockwise direction. 0.16 Front view of ratchet block The origin. Remember that the relative coordinate distances are measured along the axes from the last point entered. Example of relative coordinates When using relative coordinates the actual dimensions are measured along the x and y directions from the last point entered. The first point is entered using absolute coordinates. 20) is plotted. sketch to scale the front view of the ratchet block. i On the given axes. Assume that you draw the 20 mm square next. Note that AutoCAD remembers the last point specified. the x axis and the y axis drawn below represent a CAD drawing on a computer screen. not from the origin. These relative coordinates describe the actual distance from the first point to the second point. This enables the dimensions of the object to be used without having to calculate the absolute coordinates for each point from the origin. draw the front view of the ratchet block using the relative coordinates method. as described previously. Note: record the relative coordinates using the AutoCAD system. Assume that you draw the 40 mm square first. hydraulics and communication – 2 27 . The relative coordinates of the second point are then entered. Point B. Remember. 40 40 20 B 10 20 Figure 4. commencing at the bottom right hand corner. ii Determine and label the relative coordinates of each of the points on the drawing. This is a quicker and easier method. iii If you have access to a computer with a CAD package. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. ie the relative coordinate for the right hand end of the first line is @40. Example 3 The front view of a ratchet block follows. having coordinates of (25. the coordinates are relative to the previous point plotted.

Draw a vertical line 40 mm downward from the left hand end of this horizontal line to point B. change in y value. listed in cyclic order from B. +y B (25. -40 Absolute coordinates of the first point. 40 mm to the left.4 0 change in x value. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. draw a horizontal line from point B. 25. 20 mm to the left. for the 20 mm square. Draw a vertical line 40 mm upward from the right hand end of this horizontal line. hydraulics and communication – 2 28 .20) 0 Figure 4. If not. Absolute coordinates of point B.17 Plotting B (25. 0 @40.20) Solution i To sketch the shape. The relative coordinates of each of the other points for the 40mm square. 0 @-40.20. the bottom right hand corner. 40. 40 mm to the right. read through and study the methods. 0. Draw a horizontal line from the top of the vertical line. -40 @0. 0 change in x value. -40. Draw a vertical line 20 mm downward from the left hand end of the previously drawn line. 0. 0 change in x value. ii Determining the relative coordinator for using AutoCAD. 20. 40 @0. change in y value. 55. Find a point on the bottom line 30 mm to the right of point B then draw a vertical line 20 mm upward from this point. change in y value. in a clockwise direction are: Determining relative coordinates AutoCAD method change in x value. Draw a horizontal line from the top of this vertical line. change in y value.

0. 40. To draw the 40 mm square. -20 @0. 20 @0. Example of relative polar coordinates Polar coordinates can be either absolute coordinates or relative coordinates. 0 press <Enter>. then press the <Enter> key. -20. change in y value. the angle is measured in a counter clockwise direction from the positive x axis. listed in cyclic order from the first point. hydraulics and communication – 2 29 . 0 press <Enter>. To draw the 20 mm square. 20 change in x value.) Now. start at the bottom right hand corner.0 in AutoCAD. The relative coordinates are the most commonly used. 0. Type the absolute coordinates 55. -20 Note the use of negative coordinates iii Method of drawing using AutoCAD. 0 change in x value. The relative coordinates of each of the points for the 20 mm square. 0 @-20. type @0. 20 at the From point prompt. type @0. Click the Line button in the toolbox. as described previously. type @0. 0. 20 at the <From> point prompt.20. -40 press <Enter>. in a clockwise direction are: Determining relative coordinates AutoCAD method change in x value.. Now select the next point at the known distance of 40 mm horizontally to the right of point B. then press the Enter key. so we will only consider them. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. type @-20. 0 press <Enter>. 40 press <Enter>. type @-40. change in y value. 55. This tells the computer that the line you wish to draw begins at the point. The first point is entered using absolute coordinates. (Note: to enter relative coordinates. type the absolute coordinates 25. type @40. type @0. type @40. change in y value. Now enter the relative coordinates. When using relative polar coordinates the actual dimensions are measured in a radial direction from the last point entered. 20 press <Enter>. -20 press <Enter>.

+y B (25. the relative polar coordinate for the right hand end of the first line is @40<0.18 Top view of ratchet block The origin. Assume that you draw the 20 mm square next. hydraulics and communication – 2 30 . Remember. ii Determine and label the relative polar coordinates of each of the points on the drawing. having coordinates of (25. draw the front view of the ratchet block using the relative polar coordinates method.20) Part 4: Engineering mechanics. AutoCAD system. Point B. The relative polar coordinates of the second point are then entered.20) 0 Figure 4.19 Plotting point B (25. iii If you have access to a computer with a CAD package. commencing from point B then drawing in a counter clockwise direction. These relative coordinates describe the angle of rotation and the actual distance from the first point to the second point. i On the given axes. read through and study the methods. If not. This means the required point is a distance of 40 mm from B at an angle of 0º from the x axis. Assume that you draw the 40 mm square first. 20) is plotted. sketch to scale the top view of the ratchet block. the x axis and the y axis drawn below represent a CAD drawing on a computer screen. commencing at the bottom right hand corner. the coordinates are relative to the previous point plotted. 40 40 20 B 10 20 Figure 4.

25. highlighting the areas of importance or concern. hydraulics and communication – 2 31 . Angle from x axis 90º @40<90 Radial distance 20. Determining relative polar coordinates AutoCAD method Radial distance 40. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. 55. Determining relative polar coordinates AutoCAD method Radial distance 20. Angle from x axis 270º @40<270 Absolute coordinates of the first point. Complete all of the problems. Angle from x axis 90º @40<90 Radial distance 40. for the 20 mm square. Angle from x axis 180º @40<180 Radial distance 40.4 to 4. The relative coordinates of each of the points for the 20 mm square.6. work through the exercise using freehand sketching methods. The relative polar coordinates of each of the other points for the 40 mm square. If you do not have access to a CAD system. including the computer portion. 20. Turn to the exercise sheets and complete exercises 4. Solution i The solution is the same as for the front view. in a clockwise direction are as follows. Angle from x axis 180º @40<180 Radial distance 20. Angle from x axis 0º @40<0 Radial distance 40. the bottom right hand corner. ii Absolute coordinates of point B. listed in cyclic order from B. listed in cyclic order in a clockwise direction from the first point as follows. 20. Angle from x axis 270º @40<270 You should read the notes a number of times.

Part 4: Engineering mechanics. hydraulics and communication – 2 32 .

i A car travelling at constant velocity on a horizontal plane. through a distance (s). Exercises Exercise 4. Work done in overcoming this resistance is: ii Against gravity when raising a car of mass (m). and determine an equation for the work done in moving the car.1 a Define the term ‘mechanical work’. Work done is: Part 4: Engineering mechanics. through a height (h): Work done against gravity is: iii A car travelling at constant velocity. hydraulics and communication – 2 33 . ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ b Analyse each of the following three problems. against a frictional resistance (FR) a distance (s). up an inclined plane of angle q to the horizontal.

c Determine the work done by a braking system in the following. hydraulics and communication – 2 34 . moving downward at constant velocity. but in iii ineffectively. Work done by the hand brake = iii Car on an inclined surface. Work done by the hand brake = d Define the following types of energy and give the formula for calculating that energy. Work done by the hand brake = ii Car stationary on an inclined surface. In each case the hand brake is in operation. i Kinetic energy ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ii Potential energy ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ iii Strain energy ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Part 4: Engineering mechanics. i Car stationary on a horizontal surface.

Exercise 4. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ f Two very important formulas may be derived from the basic formula. hydraulics and communication – 2 35 . Show how these two formulas are derived. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ b Define the term ‘pressure’.2 a Explain what is meant by a hydraulic system used in brakes. power equals work divided by time. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ c State Pascal’s Principle. e Define the term ‘power’ when referring to mechanics. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Part 4: Engineering mechanics. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ d State Archimedes’ Principle.

Part 4: Engineering mechanics. f The front wheel brakes provide approximately 67% of the braking forces due to ‘dipping’ of the car when braking.3 Figure 4.20 represents a sealed hydraulic braking system. and iv. Determine the pressure applied to the horizontal surface. Size details of the pedal. Explain how the hydraulic system is able to provide for this need for greater braking forces at the front wheels. hydraulics and communication – 2 36 . flat on its largest face. Note the four steps needed to complete this question are set out in parts i. Determine the thrust (force) delivered by each of the wheel cylinders. A force of 200 N is applied to the brake pedal as shown. e A concrete brick of mass 5 kg and dimensions 430 x 150 x 100 rests on a horizontal surface. iii. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Exercise 4. and front and back wheel cylinders are given on the diagram. ii. master cylinder.

iii Determine the thrust at the rear wheel cylinder. ii Determine the pressure generated in the system by this resultant force. hydraulics and communication – 2 37 . 100 N A2 = 300 mm2 rear wheel cylinder 250 A1 = 600 mm2 A3 = 900 mm2 front wheel cylinder 50 Figure 4. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. iv Determine the thrust at the front wheel cylinder.20 Hydraulic braking system i Determine by moments the resultant force on the master cylinder caused by the applied force of 200 N exerted on the brake pedal.

The design of the drawing has already been completed in Worked Example 1. You should now draw the best solution to AS1100 standards.4 Draw. Note: it is sufficient to draw only one view. a detail drawing of the piston seal in figure 4. hydraulics and communication – 2 38 . Exercise 4. a part-sectioned front view.21. 10 25 Ø 12 Ø AL SE Ø 22 Material: neoprene Scale 2:1 Figure 4. then fully dimension the piston seal. using your instruments. to a scale of 2:1.21 Piston seal Part 4: Engineering mechanics. using instruments.

you can omit the Right Side View and show only the four front views. hydraulics and communication – 2 39 .22 Spring seal As the right side view consists of only four concentric circles. You should now complete the half-section solution to give you experience with this standard. Do not show the dimensions on these design sketches.5 a Design a detail drawing of the spring seal from the master cylinder components in figure 4. 22 Ø Figure 4.22. 25 Ø The spring seal is to be made from neoprene. Exercise 4. You are to show four possible detail drawings. First design the position of the dimensions. Front View Front View Front View Front View (No section) (Full section) (Half-section) (Part-section) Methods iii and iv are the best solutions. two visible and two hidden outline. using freehand drawing techniques: i without the use of a section 10 2 ii using a full-section iii using a half-section iv using a part-section. Part 4: Engineering mechanics.

a detail drawing of the valve. to a scale of 2:1. using instruments. hydraulics and communication – 2 40 . a half-sectional front view and then fully dimension the valve. it is sufficient to draw only one view. b Draw. Note. Part 4: Engineering mechanics.

(40. the starting point for the top view. project a top view of the spacing block. are (40. Note: the shape details are fully shown as the illustration is a three dimensional isometric drawing.23 Ratchet block The origin. commencing at Point B. List every step in sequence. The scale of the drawing is 1:1.60). the starting point for the right side view. the x axis and the y axis. Note: the absolute coordinates of the right side view of Point A. hydraulics and communication – 2 41 .60) is plotted on the axes.24. The size details are given using dimensioning. iv Determine and neatly label the absolute coordinates of each of the points on the drawing. fully describe how you would draw the orthogonal drawing of the spacing block using a AutoCAD package. Space for this exercise is provided after figure 4. v Commencing at Point B. giving the coordinate entries for each point plotted. drawn on the next page represent a CAD drawing on a computer screen.6 Shape and size details of a ratchet block are given figure 4. Name the TOP VIEW.130). Exercise 4. iii Also from the front view.23. You may use either relative or polar coordinate methods or a combination of the two methods. Point B. i On the given axes. Note: the absolute coordinates of the top view of Point B. are (110. having coordinates of (40. 40 20 40 20 B 20 10 A Figure 4. sketch to scale 1:1 the front view of the spacing block. project using third angle projection a right side view of the spacing block. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. ii From this front view.60).

60) 0 ORIGIN +x AXIS Figure 4. +y AXIS B (40. hydraulics and communication – 2 42 .24 CAD drawing Part 4: Engineering mechanics.

hydraulics and communication – 2 43 . using AutoCAD. combination of the two. Describe how you would draw the orthogonal drawing of the spacing block. Underline the method you will use: relative coordinates. (40.60). polar coordinates. commencing at Point B. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Part 4: Engineering mechanics.

hydraulics and communication – 2 44 .Part 4: Engineering mechanics.

Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best represents your level of achievement. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. Part 4: Engineering mechanics. Progress check In this part you used mathematical and graphical methods to solve problems of engineering practice and applied graphics as a communication tool.edu.au> for original and current documents. hydraulics and communication – 2 45 . computer assisted drawing (CAD).nsw. Refer to <http://www. I have learnt to • experiment with and apply the basic principles of fluid mechanics to simple braking systems • produce detail drawings of braking systems and braking components applying appropriate Australian Standard (AS 1100) • produce simple computer assisted drawing(s). 1999. power. © Board of Studies. NSW.boardofstudies. During the next part you will generate an engineering report. energy (without calculations) – fluid mechanics Pascal’s and Archimedes’ Principles hydrostatic pressure applications to braking systems • communication – detail drawing – computer graphics. ✓ ❏ Agree – well done ✓ Uncertain ❏ Disagree Disagree – revise your work Agree ✓ ❏ Uncertain – contact your teacher I have learnt about • engineering mechanics and hydraulics – work.

hydraulics and communication – 2 46 .Part 4: Engineering mechanics.

hydraulics and communication – 2 47 .6 Name: ________________________ Check! Have you have completed the following exercises? ❐ Exercise 4. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.3 ❐ Exercise 4.4 ❐ Exercise 4.1 ❐ Exercise 4. Part 4: Engineering mechanics.1 to 4.2 ❐ Exercise 4. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC). Exercise cover sheet Exercises 4.5 ❐ Exercise 4. You will need to return the exercise sheet and your responses at the completion of each part of a module.6 Locate and complete any outstanding exercises then attach your responses to this sheet.

Braking systems Part 5: Engineering report .

..........................................................27 Bibliography............................................................................................................................................................. 3 Structure of the engineering report......... 2 What will you learn?.................... 6 Exercise ..........23 Progress check .............................................. 6 Sample engineering report ..................... Part 5 contents Introduction............................................................. 2 Engineering report..............................................................................................29 Module evaluation ........................31 Braking systems 1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................25 Exercise cover sheet............ 3 Aims of an engineering report..................................................................................................................... 4 Developing an engineering report ..........

Refer to <http//ww. • conduct research using appropriate computer technologies • work with others and appreciate the value of collaborative working.boardofstudies. integrating computer software. You will learn to: • complete an engineering report based on the analysis of one type of brake or component of a braking system. What will you learn? You will learn about: • engineering report writing • communication – research methods including … libraries – collaborative work practices. © Board of Studies. 2 Part 5: Engineering report .nsw. 1999. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. NSW. Introduction In this part you will: • examine the components of an engineering report • read through a sample engineering report • report on a braking system or brake component.au> for original and current documents.edu.

Engineers do not communicate with words alone. analysis and communication skills related to the content • include data relevant to the area under investigation Braking systems 3 . An engineering report for a focus module involves covering additional aspects such as: • examining the nature of the work done by the profession • discussing issues related to the field. Aims of an engineering report A well structured engineering report aims to: • demonstrate effective management. tables. In an engineering report. An engineering report for an application module involves: • outlining the area under investigation • collecting and analysing available data • drawing conclusions and/or proposing recommendations • acknowledging contributions form individuals or groups • recording sources of information • including any relevant additional support material. considered document which draws together information gained about a product or filed. technical information is presented using a combination of text. to arrive at a conclusion or present recommendations based on investigation. through research and analysis. graphs and diagrams. Engineering report An engineering report is a formal. research.

graphs and diagrams to illustrate mathematical and scientific facts • justify the purpose using observations. Structure of the engineering report An engineering report generally includes the following sections: • title page • abstract • introduction • analysis • result summary • conclusions/recommendations • acknowledgments • bibliography • appendices. identifies its writer or writers and gives the date when the report was completed. or other evidence. calculations. • document contributions and sources of information. to support a conclusion or recommendations. The purpose of the abstract is to allow a reader to decide if the engineering report contains relevant information. Abstract The abstract is a concise statement that describes the content of the engineering report. The abstract should be no more than two or three paragraphs – shorter if possible. • present information clearly and concisely so that it is easily understood by the reader through the use of tables. Title page The title page gives the title of the report. It covers the scope of the report (what it is about) and the approaches used to complete the analysis (how the information was assembled). 4 Part 5: Engineering report .

then the selection should be stated and the reason for the selection explained. If the purpose of the report was to ‘select the best…. Introduction The introduction provides an overview of the subject. It also outlines the sections of the engineering report including why the investigation was undertaken. Acknowledgments The acknowledgment section provides the opportunity to credit other people’s work that has contributed to the engineering report. Bibliographic entries should follow established guidelines. purpose and scope of the engineering report and may contain background information regarding the topic. This section requires the writer to draw conclusions or make recommendations based on data collected. The results inform and support the conclusions and recommendations. used to summarise detailed data in a concise form. Information about materials and the mechanics of products should be collected or calculated for all engineering reports. This section must contain information required to satisfy the aim and purpose of the report. Analysis The analysis is the body of the engineering report and should show evidence of research and experimentation.. Braking systems 5 . what research occurred. how data was collected and what anaylsis was conducted. Tables and graphs. Conclusions/recommendations The conclusions/recommendations summarises major points or issues in earlier sections of the engineering report. are common features of an engineering report.’. Result summary The result summary should present the results concisely and note any limitations on the investigation. Bibliography The bibliography demonstrates that the report is well researched – all references need to be included.

A standard approach is the Harvard systems of referencing requiring the authors surname initials. Collaborative work practices Discussion with colleagues constitutes collaboration and can provide valuable information. and Wrighton. but may be relevant to some readers. publisher and place of publication. Appendices The appendices should contain detail that has been separated from the main body of the engineering report. USA. Practical Microscopical Metallurgy. For example: Kalpakjian. During the engineering course this section may contain a technical drawing and could include information collected from organisations. traditional reference materials remain a valuable source of information and include: • textbooks • booklets. The information in this section is not essential but enhances the other data. title of reference. 6 Part 5: Engineering report . This information allows the reader to source the information for confirmation of the details or conduct further research. 1967. H. Developing an engineering report Research and collaboration are the keys to developing an accurate and informative engineering report. R. Examples could be engineering drawings of the products being compared where the overall dimensions of the product may not have been part of the comparison in the report. Research methods In addition to popular research methods. H. date of publication. journals and magazines • videos. Addison Westley. like individual input and electronic media. brochures and pamphlets • newspapers.

These approaches to research and collaboration can be used by you, along
with the Information Technology (IT), to develop your engineering report,
as well as for any other research you may need to undertake.

Sample engineering report
You have already completed two engineering reports in the previous
modules so you will be expected to present a more comprehensive report
this time.

The engineering report for this module must be based upon the
investigation of a braking system such as:
• band brake
• drum brake
• disc brake
• multiple disc brakes systems
• regenerative braking systems.

Alternately you may wish to complete your engineering report on the
analysis of an individual component, such as the caliper braking system
used on bicycles.

You should communicate the selected topic for your engineering
report to your teacher before commencing the report. You may
negotiate with the teacher for an alternative topic based upon a braking
system if you have a particular interest or resource available.

You must be aware of the need for all safety precautions to be followed
during research and experimentation. Do not tamper with the braking
system of a registered vehicle. Tampering may make the vehicle
unroadworthy which could have fatal consequences.

The following section contains a sample engineering report that you may
use as a guide when presenting your work.

The sample of engineering report focuses on the investigation of a
component of a braking system – the brake shoe used in the rear drum
brakes of a current model car.

To assist you the sample engineering report will include notes explaining
the reasons for the selection or use of the information in the report. These
notes have been boxed to separate comments from the report.

Braking systems 7

8 Part 5: Engineering report

Braking systems
Report title: A brake shoe

Module: Braking systems – Module 3

Authors name: F. Riction

Date: February 2000

Abstract
The report provides a brief history of braking and brake shoes, analyses
the materials used and the mechanical situations involved.

Introduction
This report will investigate a braking system components- a brake shoe.
The report aims to:
‘analyse the rear brake shoes used in a current model car and determine if
a better product could be produced’.

Function of the product

The function of a brake shoe may be summarised as follows:

• to provide a braking force to the brake drum

• to adequately support a brake lining

• to transmit the applied force from the hydraulic system.

The function of the product or system selected by you must be
analysed and fully described in this section.

Figure 5.1 A brake shoe with lining material attached

Courtesy: Trinity Catholic College
© LMP

A freehand pictorial sketch

Figure 5.02 A freehand pictorial sketch

Engineers frequently use freehand sketching, particularly for pictorial
drawings. Another method is to sketch the pictorial from looking at the
actual component. Either method helps you with your presentation.

A sketched detail drawing

Figure 5.03 A sketched detail drawing of the brake shoe (without dimensions)

Sketching freehand orthogonal drawings is easier than
sketching freehand pictorials. A drawing involving large
circles such as in a brake shoe requires more skill, especially
with concentric circles. In cases like this an engineer would
probably use an aid such as a radius curve.
You have to decide how many views are required to give a
complete shape description for the report. Refer back to Part 4
where you did detail drawings, then decide on the most simple
method to show the brake shoe.
The drawing completed above uses two views, a front view and
a left side view that fully describes the shape of the brake shoe.
Well maybe it does if the person reading the report can
interpret an orthogonal drawing. Don’t worry too much, they
can also refer to the pictorial which is easier for the untrained
person to understand. Add all of the dimensions.
If a problem still exists, provide a model of the component or
include the actual component in an attachment.
If the component is too big to be included, attach a video. Be
innovative, and design a solution to a perceived problem.

mild steel and that service properties refer only to the properties that the material needs when in use. the curved plate and the drilled web. .04 A detail of a brake show It is good practice to include a completed drawing of the component or product in the report. It is also another opportunity to practice orthogonal drawing.2% C Steel Figure 5. The two components are welded together. not the properties needed during manufacture. A detail drawing of the product 42 4 24 50 Ø4 8 R8 30 ∞ R 10 Ø6 4 R 12 0 15∞ Ø 10 R 10 4 LEFT SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW Scale 1:2 Material 0. Analysis The main components of the product There are only two components in the brake shoe. The shape of the web is stamped from 4 mm mild steel strap and then stamped a second time to produce the required holes. The shape of the curved plate is stamped from 4 mm mild steel strap then curved to the required radius. It makes the report look more professional. Note: that the components required only one material.

Material

The metal components of the brake shoe are manufactured using mild
steel (0.2% carbon). Two service properties of mild steel that make it a
suitable material for the brake shoe are:

1 adequate toughness, able to absorb impact forces without fracture

2 adequate tensile and compressive strength to retain shape under
applied loads.

Environmental effects that mild steel might have:

a during production of the material

The mining of the iron ore causes environmental problems with the
surrounding area, and also affects the mining area, the flora and
fauna in the mine area and near the mine.

The smelting and production of steel has a very adverse effect upon
the surrounding area near the steelworks.

b during manufacture of the product

As the brake shoe components are produced by stamping and
pressing, the main environmental effect would be the noise
pollution.

The welding causes fumes and produces welding light both of which
can be detrimental to the operator or personnel near the welding
area.

c during service in the product

The material causes no environmental problem during service.

The material can be reused to produce steel for other products.

Alternative materials that could be used

Two possibilities are: medium carbon steel and gray cast iron. An
evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each material
compared to the use of mild steel, 0.2% C follow.

Medium carbon steel, 0.35% C

Advantages

• Higher carbon content, gives greater strength.
• Increased toughness.
• Increased tensile and compressive strength.
• Increased shear strength.
• Able to be hardened by heat treatment.

Disadvantages

• Higher carbon content, requires larger forces.

• Increased cost of production, larger forces needed.

• Product would be overdesigned.

Gray cast iron

Advantages

• Brake shoe is able to be produced as a single component.

Disadvantages

• Decreased toughness.
• Decreased tensile and compressive strength.
• Increased cost of production.
• Heavier component.

Mechanic and hydraulic situations involving the brake shoe

Stress and strain
1 During manufacture

The components are stamped from steel strap. Shear stress
calculations must be conducted to determine the force required to
stamp out the shape of each component.

Compressive stress and strain calculations are also required to
determine the forces in the punch or punches used to stamp out the
shapes.

2 During service

The web of the brake shoe undergoes compressive stress during
service due to the forces applied by the slave cylinder. The
compressive forces must be determined to ensure that the yield
strength of the steel is adequate for the required service condition.

Friction
1 During manufacture

Friction is involved during the stamping process and must be
considered during the design of the punches.

2 During service

Friction is involved during operation of the braking system. The
braking force produces shearing stresses in the welded web, and
must be considered during design calculations.

Hydraulics
The forces applied by the slave cylinder to the brake shoe must be
determined using moment calculations, and hydraulic pressure
calculation involving Pascal’s Principle.

1 During manufacture

The stamping machine uses a hydraulic press, which could involve
calculations of force and pressure.

2 During service

The forces applied by the slave cylinder would have to be determined.

Energy and power
Energy and power calculations affect the brake shoe during both
manufacture and service.

During manufacture

The energy used to stamp out the shapes could be determined as a
comparison between the different materials being investigated for use.

During service

The energy generated by the friction forces needs to be dissipated as heat
energy. Calculations of the mechanical energy generated at the brake
lining surface could be made.

Note that it would be sufficient for you to cover only two situations
involving the mechanics and/or hydraulics for your selected product.

1 Stress and strain:

Three cylindrical punches, of diameters 10 mm, 6 mm and 4 mm are
used to punch out the holes of the web of a brake shoe of thickness 4
mm in the one simultaneous operation.

i If, during the punching operation, the total compressive stress in
the punches is 720 MPa, determine the total force required to
punch out the holes.
d1 = 10 mm = 10 ¥ 10–3 m

d2 = 6 mm = 6 ¥ 10–3 m

d3 = 4 mm = 4 ¥ 10–3 m Figure 5.05 Analysis diagram

s = 720 Mpa = 720 ¥ 106 Pa

P = ?

Area being stressed is the total cross sectional area.
2
p¥d
A1 =
4
-3 2
p (10 ¥ 10 )
=
4

= 78.54 ¥ 10-6
2
p¥d
A2 =
4
-3 2
p (6 ¥ 10 )
=
4

= 28.27 ¥ 10-6
2
p¥d
A3 =
4
-3 2
p (4 ¥ 10 )
=
4

= 12.57 ¥ 10-6

Total Area = A1 + A2 + A3

= 119.38 x 10-6m 2
P
Now s =
A
P = s¥A

= 720 ¥ 10 6 ¥ 119.38 ¥ 10-6

= 85.953.6

= 85.95 kN

ii Determine the shear stress in the 4 mm thick material.

Area being sheared is the total surface area of the three
cylindrical shapes being punched out of the material for the web
of the brake shoe.

Total Shear Area = circumference of three holes x thickness

SA = p ¥ (d1 + d 2 + d3) ¥ t
–3
= p ¥ (10 + 6+ 4) ¥10 ¥ 5¥ 10-3

= p ¥ 100 ¥ 10-6m 2 Figure 5.06 Analysis diagram

Now s = P ∏ A
85 954
= -6
p ¥ 100 ¥ 10

= 273.6 ¥ 10 6 Pa

= 273.6 MPa
2 A pressure of 50 MPa is produced in the slave cylinder. If the
internal area of the cylinder is 30 mm:

i determine the force applied to the brake shoe.

F
Pressure =
A
Force = Pressure ¥ Area

= 50 ¥ 10 6 ¥ 30 ¥ 10 -6

= 1 500 N
= 1.5 kN
ii If the force applied to the front disc brake by the same
hydraulic system is to be twice the size of the force applied to
the rear drum brake, determine the internal area of the front
wheel cylinder.

Area required would be twice the area of the rear cylinder

\ Area = 60 mm.

Experiment to test alternative materials for the brake shoe

Note I was not able to gain access to materials testing machines. I was
hoping to conduct tensile and compressive test using a Hounsfield
tensometer.

especially with the gray cast iron. the force being applied axially to each sample. The tests are comparative only. The impact test was conducted by holding the sample in a vice and repeatedly striking the sample with a dumpy hammer. but I was unable to differentiate the results for the steels. 0. The compression tests were conducted in a vice. 20 mm long.2% C steel. I needed to gain access to testing machines but was unable to do so at the local high school. The compressive tests were complete failures. Two pieces of each of the three materials were cut and shaped to size. 0. I decided to conduct compressive tests and impact tests on the three materials and to research the tensile properties of the three materials. 6 mm wide and 4 mm thick.2% carbon 0. the impact tests worked well.35% C steel and gray cast iron.I wanted to carry out comparative testing of the three materials.35% carbon Gray cast iron steel steel Yield stress MPa 345 375 NA UTS Mpa 440 580 170 Izod impact test 117 65 10 . Collected data Material 0. The tests failed to give comparative results.

Heavy trucks are also randomly tested by the RTA inspectors throughout the year. to be registered as roadworthy. must pass an inspection each year. provided that it is clearly identified as such. Research data. you still need to provide data that is relevant to the report.07 Graph Note: you may also carry out an experiment that fails to provide the desired results. • Adequate strength properties when in use. may be used Health and safety issues 1 The performance of braking systems for cars and trucks are regularly tested. If this occurs. 0. Result summary List of strong points • Cost effective.2% C steel 0. • Transfers force effectively from wheel cylinder to brake drum. The number of fatal accidents has been reduced over the past ten years. The improvement in design and maintenance of braking systems has contributed to this reduction. .35% C steel Gray cast iron NA Yield UTS Impact Figure 5. 2 The poor performance of braking systems is still responsible for many vehicle accidents and as such contributes greatly to the hospitalisation of victims. • Ease of production. The vehicle. Safety issues are thus extremely important when associated with the brake shoe performance and design.

0.2% carbon steel is retained. • Material may corrode in adverse environment. Glossary auxiliary are additional brakes that are fitted to a brakes vehicle and are used to assist the major braking system in the vehicle. Recommendations and conclusions Conclusions • The material used is adequate and far superior to the other two materials investigated for this report. • The shape of the components is the best for the designed purpose. • The manufacturing method is the most cost effective. • Health and environmental problems that occur during the production of the components should be considered. detail a detail drawing is an orthogonal drawing drawing which gives a full size and shape description of the component. • The noise problem that occurs during the stamping operation be addressed by the Workplace Health and Safety Committee. Recommendations • The material. It also includes the material from which the component is to be manufactured. • The design is retained. exploded an exploded isometric drawing is a isometric pictorial drawing of an assembly in which the components are drawn separated so that details of each component can be seen . List of weak points • Some distortion under high and sustained temperatures.

Australia. Manager. W. Jacaranda Wiley. H. The Structure & Properties of Materials. . Addison Wesley. Greaves. 1967. and Wulff. S. John Wily and Sons.Acknowledgements Gary Smith.R. Physics Teacher. H. Chapman and Hall. England. G. 1983. New York. Metal Pressings Manufacturing Methods Video Stop Better Brakes Audio-visual Production History Bibliography Schlenker. B. USA. Introduction to Materials Science. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 1985. J. Moffatt. & Wrighton. Brake Regulations Tom Livingston. Pearsall. Practical Microscopical Metallurgy. RTA Inspector. Kalpakjian. 1964. Garage owner. Brakes and Brake Shoes George Michaels.R. Hydraulics Graeme Hamer.

The material used is mild steel. the curved plate and the drilled web. including band and cable brakes. Mild steel shoes were introduced in the late 19th century. External brake shoes are still in use on railway carriages. The main braking system was provided by the horse (or bullock) slowing down and then stopping. having wood attachments and leather liners. Wood proved inadequate as vehicles became faster and heavier. . These brakes were essentially used as parking brakes to hold the vehicle stationary. In 1902. These involve the use of medium carbon steel or gray cast iron shoes acting directly onto spheroidal graphite cast iron wheels. The internal brake shoe consists basically of two parts. incorporating internal brake shoes. When pneumatic tyres were patented in 1888. The shoe brake could be considered as an auxiliary brake that assisted the braking operation. Louis Renault introduced the drum brake. bending of the plate into the required curved shape. The basis design of the brake shoe has not altered except for the required shape designed for individual vehicles. These brakes were still in use on delivery carts during the 1940s and may still be seen in carriages and horse-drawn sulkies at shows. then welding the two components together. so liners were introduced. The mechanical design of the drum brake systems has varied and developed during the past century. Various brake systems were used. The externally applied brake shoe used initially was made from wood and operated by applying external pressure to the wrought iron rim of the vehicles’ wheel.Appendices Historical development of braking and brake shoes Shoe brakes were used extensively in the 18th and 19th centuries as part of the hand-operated lever brakes used on horse drawn vehicles. the use of external shoe brakes became limited. and the manufacture involves the stamping out of the two shapes.

Exercises Exercise 5. Braking systems 23 .1 Select a braking system/component and complete an engineering report structured under the headings used in the sample report. You may obtain a component or components from a garage. Use computer software such as a word processing program or graphics package to aide in the generation of your engineering report. or from a vehicle that is to be scraped. Alternatively use a bicycle part that you can see and measure. a wrecking yard.

24 Part 5 – Engineering report .

Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. © Board of Studies.au> for original and current documents. NSW. Take a few moments to reflect on your learning then tick the box that best represents your level of achievement. Congratulations! You have now completed Braking systems. ✓ ❏ Agree – well done ✓ ❏ Uncertain Disagree – revise your work Disagree Agree ✓ ❏ Uncertain – contact your teacher I have learnt about • engineering report writing • communication – research methods including Internet. integrating computer software • conduct research using appropriate computer technologies.edu. 1999.nsw.boardofstudies. I have learnt to • complete an engineering report based on the analysis of one type of brake or component of braking system. Refer to <http://www. Braking systems 25 . Progress check In this part you completed an engineering report.

26 Part 5 – Engineering report .

1 Name: ______________________ Check! Have you completed the following exercise and included all the sections? ❐ Exercise 5. they should be filed for future reference. Braking systems 27 . If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through a Distance Education Centre/School (DEC) you will need to return the exercise pages with your responses. Exercise cover sheet Exercises 5. Do not return all the notes.1 • title page • abstract • introduction • analysis • result summary • conclusions/recommendations • acknowledgments • bibliography • appendices. Please complete and return the module evaluation that follows. Return the exercise pages with the Title Page cover attached. If you study Stage 6 Engineering Studies through the OTEN Open Learning Program (OLP) refer to the Learner’s Guide to determine which exercises you need to return to your teacher along with the Mark Record Slip.

28 Part 5 – Engineering report .

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Crown Publisher. Stage 6 Engineering Studies Support Document. Sydney. 1999. Pergoman Press. Hydraulic Disc and Drum Brakes. Sydney. Matteucci. Board of Studies. Pearsall. 1964. N. England. and Wrighton. 1999. H. Chapman and Hall. H. 1985. Practical Microscopical Metallurgy. Board of Senior School Studies. 1999. Board of Studies NSW. W. Board of Senior school Studies NSW. Introduction to materials Science. The New Higher School Certificate Assessment Support Document. 1972–1998. Better Brakes.R. 1971. Schlenker. Sydney. Addison Wesley. Engineering Science HSC Examination Papers. The Structure & Properties of Materials. Board of Studies NSW. M. Mitsubishi. B. Warren. New York.R. Greaves. S. and Wulff. USA. G. Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus. Maintenance and Repair Manual for Mitsubishi Magna. New York. 29 . 1974. History of the Motor Car.Bibliography Board of Studies. 1967. J.G. Sydney. Physics Outlines. Sydney. John Wiley & Sons. 1990. Board of Studies. New York. Kalpakjian. 1999. Board of Studies NSW. John Wily and Sons. Sydney. Stage 6 Engineering Studies Examination. Moffatt. Board of Studies NSW. Assessment and Reporting. Board of Studies.

30 .

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1 2 3 4 5 ____________________________ ____________________________ Finally! Which were the most challenging parts of the material? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Please return this form to your teacher to forward on to OTEN – LMP. 32 . Thank you for this valuable information. 1 2 3 4 5 ____________________________ ____________________________ 5 Rate the accuracy of the ____________________________ indicative time given. 1 2 3 4 5 ____________________________ ____________________________ 8 Rate your achievement of the ____________________________ outcomes for the material. 4 Rate the relevance of the ____________________________ exercises. 1 2 3 4 5 ____________________________ ____________________________ 7 Rate the helpfulness of any ____________________________ support material. 1 2 3 4 5 ____________________________ ____________________________ 6 Rate the ease of obtaining the ____________________________ resources.

Learning Materials Production Training and Education Network – Distance Education NSW Department of Education and Training .