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IRS Concrete Bridge Code..


For Official use only

(Railway Board)






LUCKNOW - 226011

IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997


1. SCOPE 1



4.1 Cement 8
4.2 Aggregates 9
4.3 Water 10
4.4 Admixtures 11
4.5 Reinforcement 11
4.6 Prestressing steel 11
4.7 Handling and storage of materials 12

5.1 Grades 12
5.2 Properties of concrete 12
5.3 Workability of concrete 14
5.4 Durability 14
5.5 Concrete mix proportioning 16
5.6 Production and control of concrete 18
5.7 Ready Mixed Concrete 19


6.1 Falsework 20
6.2 Formwork 21
6.3 Cleaning and treatment of forms 21
6.4 Stripping time 21
6.5 Tolerances for finished concrete bridge structure 22


7.1 Ordinary reinforcement 23
7.2 Prestressing tendons 25



8.1 Transportation 31
8.2 Placing 31
8.3 Compaction 31
8.4 Curing of concrete 32
8.5 Construction joints 33
8.6 Concreting under special conditions 33
8.7 Sampling, strength tests and acceptance criteria 34
8.8 Supervision 37

IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997

8.9 Pumpable concrete 37

10.1 General 38
10.2 Serviceability limit states 38
10.3 Ultimate limit states 39
10.4 Other considerations 40


11.1 Loads 40
11.2 Combination of loads 40
11.3 Partial load factors 40


12.1 Characterstic strengths 43
12.2 Materials properties for analysis 43
12.3 Material properties for concrete and steel 43
12.4 Value of Ym 44


13.1 Analysis of structure 44
13.2 Analysis of section 45
13.3 Deflection 45
13.4 Fatigue 46
13.5 Combined global and local effects 46


14.1 General 46
14.2 Moments and forces in walls 46
14.3 Eccentricity in the plane of the wall 47
14.4 Eccentricity at right angles to walls or abutments 47
14.5 Analysis of section 47
14.6 Shear 48
14.7 Bearing 48
14.8 Deflection of plain concrete walls 48
14.9 Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement 48
14.10 Stress limitations for serviceability limit state 48


15.1 General 48
15.2 Limit state design of reinforced concrete 48
15.3 Structures and structural frames 49
15.4 Beams 50
15.5 Slabs 57
15.6 Columns 59
15.7 Reinforced concrete walls 67
15.8 Footings 69
15.9 Considerations affecting design details 70
15.10 Use of light weight aggregates 81

IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997

16.1 General 81
16.2 Limit state design of prestressed concrete 81
16.3 Structures and structural frames 82
16.4 Beams 83
16.5 Slabs 90
16.6 Columns 90
16.7 Tension members 90
16.8 Prestressing requirements 90
16.9 Considerations affecting design details 96


17.1 General 98
17.2 Precast concrete construction 99
17.3 Structural connections between units 102
17.4 Composite concrete constructions 104


18.1 Load tests of individual precast units 108
18.2 Load tests of structures or parts of structures 108
18.3 Non-destructive tests (NDT) 109

APPENDIX-A Specification for construction joints 110
APPENDIX-B Tests on sheathing ducts 112
APPENDIX-B 1 Additional test for corrugated HDPE sheathing 117
APPENDIX-C Specification for sheathing duct joints 119
APPENDIX-D Recommended practice for grouting of cables in 120
prestressed concrete bridges
APPENDIX-E Cover and spacing of curved ducts for prestressed concrete 124
APPENDIX-F Non-destructive testing of concrete 127
APPENDIX-G Test procedure for measuring permeability of concrete 128
APPENDIX-H Fatigue assessment of details of welded reinforcement bars 129

TABLE-1 Permissible limit for solids 10
TABLE-2 Grades of concrete 12
TABLE-3 Shrinkage of post-tensioned prestressed concrete 13
TABLE-4a Maximum water cement ratio 15
TABLE-4b Minimum grade of concrete 16
TABLE-4c Minimum cementitious material content 16
TABLE-5 Proportions for nominal mix concrete 17
TABLE-6 Surface water carried by aggregate 19
TABLE-7 Optional tests requirements of concrete 35
TABLE-8 Assumed standard deviation 36
TABLE-9 Characteristic compressive strength compliance requirements 37
TABLE-10 Design crack widths 38

IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997

TABLE-11 Stress limitations for the serviceability limit state 39

TABLE-12 Loads to be taken in each combination with appropriate YfL 42
TABLE-13 Values of Ym for the serviceability stress limitations 44
TABLE-14 Form and area of shear reinforcement in beams 53
TABLE-15 Ultimate shear stress in concrete; Vc 54
TABLE-16 Values of s 54
TABLE-17 Ultimate torsion shear stress 55
TABLE-18 Effective height le for columns 61
TABLE-19 Relationship of P/Puz to n 65
TABLE-20 Ultimate local bond stresses 74

TABLE-21 Ultimate anchorage bond stresses 74

TABLE-22 Reduction factor for effective perimeter of a group of bars 75
TABLE-23 Compressive stresses in concrete for serviceability limit states 84
TABLE-24 Allowable compressive stresses at transfer 84
TABLE-25 Conditions at the ultimate limit state for rectangular beams 85
with pre-tensioned tendons, or with post-tensioned tendons
having effective bond
TABLE-26 Maximum shear stress 89
TABLE-27 Design bursting tensile forces in end blocks 96
TABLE-28 Flexural tensile stresses in-situ concrete 107

IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997



1. SCOPE Aggregate, coarse Crushed stone or
crushed boulders, gravel or such other inert
1.1 This Code of Practice applies to the use
materials, conforming generally to IS: 383.
of plain, reinforced and prestressed
concrete in railway bridge construction. It Aggregate Fine Natural sand or sand
covers both in-situ construction and prepared from crushed stone, gravel or
manufacture of precast units. The Code such other inert materials, conforming
gives detailed specifications for materials generally to IS: 383.
and workmanship for concrete,
Air-Entraining- The capability of a material
reinforcement and prestressing tendons
or process to develop a system of minute
used in the construction of railway bridges.
bubbles of air in cement paste, mortar or
After defining the loads, forces and their
combinations and requirements for the limit
state design, particular recommendations Anchorage - A device or provision enabling
are given for plain concrete, reinforced the prestressing tendon to impart and
concrete and prestressed concrete bridge maintain the prestress in the concrete.
construction. Anchorage Zone - In post tensioning, the
1.2 For road bridges, the design and region adjacent to the anchorage subjected
construction shall comply with the standard to secondary stresses resulting from the
specifications and codes of practice for road distribution of the prestressing force, in pre-
bridges issued by Indian Roads Congress. tensioning, the region in which the transfer
bond stresses are developed.
1.3 It is recommended that the officials
involved in the construction of concrete Bar, Deformed - A reinforcing bar with
bridges are in possession of the manufactured surface deformations, which
codes/specification referred in this code. provide a locking anchorage with
surrounding concrete.
1.4 Any revision or addition or deletion of
the provisions of this Code shall be issued Batching - Weighing or volumetrically
only through the correction slip to this Code. measuring and introducing into the mixer
No cognizance shall be given to any policy the ingredients for a batch of concrete or
directives issued through other means. mortar.
2. TERMINOLOGY Bleeding - The autogenous flow of mixing
water within or its emergence from newly
2.1 For the purpose of this code, the
placed concrete or mortar caused by the
definitions given in IS: 4845 and IS: 6461
settlement of the solid materials within the
(Parts I to XII) shall generally apply.
mass or drainage of mixing water also
However, the commonly used definitions are
called water gain.
reproduced below.
Camber- The intentional curvature of a
Access Door- (Access Trap or Inspection
beam or formwork, either formed initially to
Door or Porthole or Trap Door)- A
compensate for subsequent deflection
removable panel in the form work for a high
under load or produced as a permanent
lift to give access for inspection or for
effect for aesthetic reasons.
placing or compacting concrete.
Cementitious Material - Cementitious
Admixture A material other than water,
material means cement or cement mixed
aggregates and hydraulic cement, used as
with mineral admixtures like Pozzolanic Fly
an ingredient of concrete or mortar, and
Ash (PFA), Grounded granulated blast
added to the batch immediately before or
furnace slag (GGBFS), micro silica etc.
during its mixing to modify one or more of
the properties of concrete.
Chamfer- (a) The surface produced by the Concrete Pump - An apparatus which
removal, usually symmetrically of an forces concrete to the placing position
external edge. through a pipe line or hose.
(b) Beveled corner, which is formed in Concrete Vibrating Machine A machine
concrete work by placing a three-corner commonly carried on side forms or on rails
piece of wood (cant strip or skew back) in parallel thereto, which compacts a layer of
the form corner. freshly mixed concrete by vibration.
Chute - A sloping trough or tube for Consistency The relative plasticity of
conducting concrete cement aggregate or freshly mixed concrete or mortar, and a
other free flowing materials from a higher to measure of its workability.
a lower point.
Construction Joint - The interface between
Coating - Material applied to a surface by adjacent concrete pours which are designed
brushing, dipping, mopping, spraying, to act monolithically in the completed
toweling etc. such as to preserve, protect, structure.
decorate, seal, or smooth the substrate.
Contraction Joint - A plane, usually
Cold Joint A joint or discontinuity formed vertical, separating concrete in a structure
when a concrete surface hardens before the or pavement, at designed location such as
next batch is placed against it, to interfere least with performance of the
characterized by poor bond unless structure, yet such as to prevent formation
necessary procedures are observed. of objectionable shrinkage cracks elsewhere
in the concrete.
Column Long A column having a ratio
of effective column length to least lateral Core of Helically Reinforced Column-
dimension greater than 12. The portion of the concrete enclosed within
the central line of the helical reinforcement.
Column or Strut A compression member
the length of which exceeds three times its Coring The act of obtaining cores from
least lateral dimension. concrete structures or rock foundations.
Column Short A column having a ratio Corrosion Disintegration or deterioration
of effective column length to least lateral of concrete or reinforcement by electrolysis
dimension not exceeding12. or by chemical attack.
Column Composite - A concrete column Cover (Reinforced Concrete) The least
with a core of structural steel or cast iron distance between the surface of the
designed to carry portion of the column reinforcement and the face of the concrete.
Cracking Load - The total load causing the
Column, Effective Length - The effective first visible crack.
length of column determined as under
Creep in Concrete Progressive increase and table-18.
in the plastic deformation of concrete under
Composite Construction - A type of sustained loading.
construction made up of different materials,
Creep in Steel Progressive decrease of
for example, concrete and structural steel or
stress in steel at constant strain.
of members produced by different methods,
for example, in situ concrete and precast Cube Strength The load per unit area at
concrete. which a standard cube fails when tested in a
specified manner.
Concrete - A mixture of cementitious
material, water, fine and coarse aggregates Curing of Concrete Maintenance of
with or without admixtures. moisture conditions to promote continued
hydration of cement in the concrete.
Cyclopean Concrete Mass concrete in in contact with the concrete and all
which large stones, each of 50 kg or more, necessary supporting structure.
are placed and embedded in the concrete
Free Fall Descent of freshly mixed
as it is deposited; the stones are called
concrete into forms without drop chutes or
pudding stones or plums, preferably not
other means of confinement; also the
less than 15cm apart and not closer than
distance through which such descent
20cm to any exposed surface.
occurs: also uncontrolled fall of aggregate.
Dead Load The dead load is the weight of
Live Load The temporary forces applied
structure itself together with permanent load
to formwork by the weights of men and
carried thereon.
construction equipment or the service load
Effective Area of Reinforcement The due to railway loading or roadway loading.
area obtained by multiplying the normal
Loss of Prestress The reduction of the
cross-sectional area of the reinforcement by
prestressing force which results from the
the cosine of the angle between the
combined effects of creep in the steel and
direction of the reinforcement and the
creep and shrinkage of the concrete,
direction in which the effectiveness is
including friction losses and losses due to
elastic deformation of the concrete.
Effective Depth of a Beam -- The distance
Membrane Curing A process that
between the centroid of the area of tensile
involves either liquid sealing compound (for
reinforcement and the maximum
example, bituminous and paraffinic
compression fibre.
emulsions, coal tar cut backs, pigmented
Falsework (a) Falsework is the temporary and non-pigmented resin suspensions, or
structure erected to support work in the suspensions of wax and drying oil) or non-
process of construction. It is composed of liquid protective coating (for example, sheet
shores, formwork for beams or slabs (or plastics or water proof paper), both of which
both), and lateral bracing. types function as films to restrict
evaporation of mixing water from the fresh
(b) That part of formwork, which supports
concrete surface.
the forms usually for a large structure, such
as a bridge. Mixing Time The period during which the
constituents of a batch of concrete as mixed
Fatigue Strength The greatest stress,
by a mixer, for a stationary mixture, time is
which can be sustained for a given number
given in minutes from the completion of
of stress cycles without failure.
mixer charging until the beginning of
Final Prestress The residual prestress in discharge; for a truck mixer, time is given in
the concrete after deduction of all losses, total minutes at a specified mixing speed or
such as those due to shrinkage, creep, slip, expressed in terms of total revolutions at a
friction and elastic compression, from the specified mixing speed or expressed in
initial prestress. terms of total revolutions at a specified
Final Tension The tension in the steel mixing speed.
corresponding to the state of the final Plain Concrete Concrete without
prestress. reinforcement; or concrete that does not
Formwork (Shuttering) Complete system conform to the definition of reinforced
of temporary structure built to contain fresh concrete.
concrete so as to form it to the required Plum A large random shaped stone
shape and dimensions and to support it until dropped into freshly placed mass concrete.
it hardens sufficiently to become self-
supporting. Formwork includes the surface
Pumped Concrete Concrete which is Tamper A timber or metal beam spanning
transported through hose or pipe by means between edge forms or screed rails and
of a pump. used for compacting concrete.
Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) Concrete Tensile Strength The maximum load
produced by completely mixing cement, reached in a tensile test divided by the
aggregates, admixtures, if any, and water at original cross-sectional area of the gauge
a Central Batching and Mixing Plant and length portion of the test piece. Also termed
delivered in fresh condition at site of as maximum stress, or ultimate tensile
construction. stress.
Reinforcement Metal bars, wires or other Tremie A pipe or tube through which
slender members, which are embedded in concrete is deposited under water, having at
concrete in such a manner that the metal its upper end a hopper for filling and a bail
and the concrete act together in resisting by means of which the assembly can be
forces. handled by a derrick.
Rubble Rough stone of irregular shape Vibrator An oscillating machine used to
and size broken from larger masses by agitate fresh concrete so as to eliminate
geological process or by quarrying. gross voids including entrapped air but not
entrained air and produce intimate contact
Segregation The differential
with form surfaces and embedded
concentration of the components of mixed
concrete, resulting in non-uniform
proportions in the mass. Water Cement Ratio The ratio of amount
of water, exclusive only of that absorbed by
Sheath An enclosure in which post-
the aggregates, to the amount of cement in
tensioned tendons are encased to prevent
a concrete or mortar mixture; preferably
bonding during concrete placement.
stated as a decimal by weight.
Slump A measure of consistency of
Wobble Coefficient A coefficient used in
freshly mixed concrete mortar, or stucco
determining the friction loss occurring in
equal to the subsidence measured to the
post-tensioning, which is assumed to
nearest 6mm of the moulded truncated cone
accounts for the secondary curvature of the
immediately after removal of the slump
Yield Strength The stress, less than the
Splice Connection of one reinforcing bar
maximum attainable stress, at which the
to another by overlapping, welding,
ratio of stress to strain has dropped well
mechanical end connectors, or other
below its value at low stress, or at which a
material exhibits a specified limiting
Strand A prestressing tendon composed deviation from the usual proportionality of
of a number of wires most of which are stress to strain.
twisted about a center wire of core.
Yield Stress Stress (that is, load per unit
Stress Corrosion Corrosion of a metal cross-sectional area) at which elongation
accelerated by stress. first occurs in the test piece without
Sulphate Attack Harmful or deleterious increasing the load during tensile test. In the
chemical or physical reaction or both case of steels with no such definite yield
between sulphates in soil or groundwater point, the yield stress is the stress under the
and concrete or mortar, primarily the cement prescribed testing conditions at which the
paste matrix. observed increase in the gauge length is
1/200 of the gauge length when the rate at
Sulphate Resistance Ability of concrete which the load is applied is not more than
or mortar to withstand sulphate attack.
0.5 kg/mm2 when approaching the yield acr distance from the point(crack)
stress. considered to surface of the nearest
longitudinal bar
av distance between the line of action
Ac area of concrete
or point of application of the load
Acf area of effective concrete flange and the critical section or supporting
Acon contact area member

Acor area of core of the concrete section b width or breadth of section

Ae area of fully anchored reinforcement ba average breadth of section excluding

per unit length crossing the shear the compression flange
plane bc breadth of compression face
Ao area enclosed by the median wall bcol width of column
bs width of section containing effective
Aps area of prestressing tendons in the reinforcement for punching shear
tension zone
bt breadth of section a level of tension
As area of tension reinforcement reinforcement
As area of compression reinforcement bw breadth of web or rib of a member
Asl area of compression reinforcement cnom nominal cover
in the more highly compressed face
d effective depth to tension
As2 area of reinforcement in other face reinforcement
Asc area of longitudinal reinforcement d depth of compression reinforcement
(for columns)
dc depth of concrete in compression
AsL Cross-sectional area of one bar of
de effective depth for a solid slab or
longitudinal reinforcement provided
rectangular beam, otherwise the
for torsion.
overall depth of the compression
Ast Cross-sectional area of one leg of a flange
closed link
do depth to additional reinforcement to
Asup supporting area resist horizontal loading
Asv Cross-sectional area of the legs of a dt effective depth from the extreme
link compression fiber to either the
At area of reinforcement in a particular longitudinal bars around which the
direction stirrups pass or the centroid of the
tendons, whichever is the greater
a Centre to center distance between
bars d2 depth from the surface to the
reinforcement in the other face
a distance from compression face to
point at which the crack width is Ec static secant modulus of elasticity of
being calculated concrete

acent distance of the centroid of the Ecf modulus of elasticity of flange

concrete flange from the centroid of concrete
the composite section Es modulus of elasticity of steel
(EI)c flexural rigidity of the column cross- fyv characteristic strength of link
section reinforcement
E28 secant modulus of elasticity of the h overall depth (thickness) of section (in
concrete at the age of 28 days plane of bending)
e eccentricity hagg maximum size of aggregate
ex resultant eccentricity of load at right- he effective thickness
angels to plane of wall
hf thickness of flange
Fbst tensile bursting force
hmax larger dimension of section
Fbt tensile force due to ultimate loads in
hmin smaller dimension of section
bar or group of bars
hwo wall thickness where the stress is
Fh maximum horizontal ultimate load
Fv maximum vertical ultimate load
hx overall depth of the cross-section in the
f stress plane of bending Miy
fbs local bond stress hy overall depth of the cross-section in
the plane of bending Mix
fcav average compressive stress in the
flexural compressive zone I second moment of area
fci concrete strength at(initial) transfer K a factor depending on the type of
duct or sheath used
fcj stress in concrete at application of
an increment of stress at time j kr depends on grade of reinforcement
fck characteristic compressive strength kl depends on the concrete bond
of concrete across the shear plane
fcp compressive stress at the centroidal Ls length of shear plane
axis due to prestress
l distance from face of support at the
fcr flexural strength of concrete end of a cantilever, or effective span
of a member
fpb tensile stress in tendons at (beam)
failure l length of the specimen
fpe effective prestress (in tendon) le effective height of a column or wall
fpt stress due to prestress lex effective height for bending about
the major axis
fpu characteristic strength of
prestressing tendons ley effective height for bending about
the minor axis
fs2 stress in reinforcement in other face
lo clear height of column between end
fi maximum principal tensile stress
fy characteristic strength of
lsb length of straight reinforcement
beyond the intersection with the link
fyc design strength of longitudinal steel
lt transmission length
in compression
M bending moment due to ultimate
fyl characteristic strength of longitudinal
Ma increased moment in column
Mcr cracking moment at the section P ultimate axial load on the section
considered considered
Mcs hogging restraint moment at an Ph horizontal component of the
internal support of a continuous prestressing force after all losses
composite beam and slab section
Pk basic load in tendon
due to differential shrinkage
Po initial prestressing force in the
Mg moment due to permanent load
tendon at jacking end on at tangent
Mi maximum initial moment in a column point near jacking end
due to ultimate loads
Pu ultimate axial load resistance
Mix initial moment about the major axis
Px Prestressing force at distance x from
of a slender column due to ultimate
Puz axial loading capacity of column
Miy initial moment about the minor axis
ignoring all bending
of a slender column due to ultimate
loads Q* design load
Mq moment due to live loads Qk nominal load
Mtx total moment about the major axis of r internal radius of bend
a slender column due to ultimate rps radius of curvature of a tendon
S* design load effects
Mty total moment about the minor axis of
a slender column due to ultimate s depth factor
loads. Sd estimated standard deviation
Mu ultimate moment of resistance SL spacing of longitudinal reinforcement
Mux ultimate moment capacity in a short Sv spacing of links along the member
column assuming ultimate axial
loads and bending about the major T torsional moment due to ultimate
axis only loads.
Muy ultimate moment capacity in a short u perimeter
column assuming ultimate axial us effective perimeter of tension
loads and bending about the minor reinforcement
axis only
V shear force due to ultimate loads
Mx,My moment about the major and minor
axis of a short column due to Va premeasured quantity of water in a
ultimate loads measuring cylinder
M1 smaller initial end moment due to Vb balance quantity of water left in the
ultimate loads (assumed negative if cylinder after completely filling of the
the column is bent in double test sample
curvature) Vc ultimate shear resistance of concrete
M2 larger initial end moment due Vp actual volume
ultimate loads (assumed positive)
Vco ultimate shear resistance of a
n number of sample test results section un-cracked in flexure
nw ultimate axial load per unit length of Vcr ultimate shear resistance of a
wall section cracked in flexure
Vl longitudinal shear force due to deviation of individual test strength
ultimate load from the average strength of n
Vux ultimate shear capacity of a section samples
for the x-x axis strain
Vuy ultimate shear capacity of a section diff differential shrinkage strain
for the y-y axis
m average strain
Vx applied shear due to ultimate loads
for the x-x axis s strain in tension reinforcement
Vy applied shear due to ultimate loads l strain at level considered
for the y-y axis S angle between the compression face
v shear stress and the tension reinforcement
vc ultimate shear stress in concrete Yw coefficient for wall dependent upon
vt torsional shear stress concrete used

vtmin minimum ultimate torsional shear coefficient of friction

stress for which reinforcement is Asv area of shear reinforcement
us sum of the effective perimeters of
vtu ultimate torsional shear stress the tension reinforcement
x neutral axis depth size (Nominal diameter) of bar or
xl smaller center line dimension of a tendon or internal diameter of the
link sheathing
y distance of the fibre considered in Q creep coefficient
the plane of bending from the Q1 creep coefficient for prestressed
centroid of the concrete section construction
yo half the side of end block
ypo half the side of loaded area 4. MATERIALS
yl larger center line dimension of a link 4.1 Cement
z lever arm 4.1.1 The cement used shall be any of the
n Coefficient as a function of column following, with the prior approval of the
axial load engineer:
1 Angle between the axis of the design a) 33 Grade Ordinary Portland
moment and the direction of the cement conforming to IS:269
tensile reinforcement b) 43 Grade Ordinary Portland cement
2 Angle of friction at the joint conforming to IS:8112

cc Ration of total creep to elastic c) 53 Grade Ordinary Portland cement

deformation conforming to IS:12269

Yf1 Yf2 Yf3 partial load factors d) Rapid hardening Ordinary Portland
cement conforming to IS:8041
YfL product of Yf1 Yf2
e) High strength Portland cement
Ym partial safety factor for strength conforming to IRS:T:40
f) Portland slag cement conforming to IS:383. These tests shall be done in
IS:455(see Note 1&4 below) accordance with IS: 2386 (Part I) to IS: 2386
(Part VIII)
g) Portland pozzolana cement conforming
to IS:1489(see Note 2&4 below) 4.2.1 Size of Aggregate The nominal
maximum size of the aggregate should be
h) Sulphate resistance cement conforming
as large as possible within the limits
to IS:12330(see Note 3 below)
specified but in no case greater than one
Note: 1 Portland slag cement fourth of the minimum thickness of the
conforming to IS:455 may be used for member, provided that the concrete can be
prestressed concrete work, provided slag placed without difficulty so as to surround all
content in cement is not more the 50% reinforcement and prestressing tendons
Note: 2 Portland Pozzolana cement thoroughly and fill the corners of the form
shall not be used for RCC & PSC works. work.
Portland Pozzolana Cement can be used For heavily reinforced concrete
only for foundation concrete and concrete members as in the case of ribs of main
works in bridge substructures where beams, the nominal maximum size of the
reinforcement is not provided for structural aggregates should usually be restricted to
strength or reinforcement provided is only 5mm less than minimum clear distance
nominal for temperature stresses etc. When between the main bars, cables, strands or
Portland Pozzolana cement is used, it is to sheathings where provided or 5mm less
be insured that proper damp curing of than minimum cover to the reinforcement,
concrete is done at least for 14 days and Whichever is smaller. However, in lightly
supporting form work shall not be removed reinforced concrete members such as solid
till concrete attains at least 75% of the slabs with widely spaced reinforcement,
design strength. limitation of the size the aggregate may not
Note: 3 The sulphate resisting be so important and the nominal maximum
cement conforming to IS:12330 shall be size may sometimes be as great as or even
greater than the minimum cover.
used only in such conditions where the
concrete is exposed to the risk of excessive For reinforced concrete and
sulphate attack e.g. concrete in contact with prestressed concrete works a nominal
soil or ground water containing excessive maximum size of 20mm is generally
amount of sulphate. It shall not be used considered satisfactory. In special cases
under such conditions where concrete is larger size aggregate may be specifically
exposed to risk of excessive chlorides and permitted by the engineer, but in no case,
sulphate attack both. the nominal maximum size shall be more
than 40mm.
Note: 4 The rate of development of strength
is slow in case of blended cement i.e. 4.2.2 In general, marine aggregate shall
Portland pozzolana cement and Portland not be used for reinforced concrete and
slag cement, as compared to ordinary prestressed concrete bridges. However, in
Portland cement. This aspect should be special cases, use of marine aggregates
taken care while planning to use blended may be permitted by the engineer subject to
cement. Accordingly stage of prestressing, the following: -
period of removal of form work and period of
a) The marine aggregates shall be
curing etc. should be suitably increased.
thoroughly washed.
4.2 Aggregates- Aggregates shall
comply with the requirements of IS: 383. b) Generally, the limits for chloride
Where required by the engineer, aggregates content and sulphate content in
shall be subjected to the tests specified in aggregates after washing will be as
Fine Coarse 500 mg/I for
Aggregate Aggregate prestressed concrete
i) Chloride 0.04% by wt. 0.02% by works.
contents (Cl) acid soluble wt. acid Suspended matter 2000mg/I
max. soluble
4.3.1 In case of doubt regarding
ii) Sulphates 0.4% by wt. 0.4% by wt. development of strength, the suitability of
(SO3) max acid soluble acid soluble
water for making concrete shall be
ascertained by the compressive strength
c) After washing and drying, the
and initial setting time tests specified in
aggregates should conform to IS: 383. The and
designer should take into account grading of
aggregates after washing. The sample of water taken for
testing shall represent the water proposed
4.3 Water Water for washing of
to be used for concreting, due account
aggregates and for mixing and curing
being paid to seasonal variation. The
concrete shall be clean and free from
sample shall not receive any treatment
injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkalis,
before testing other than that envisaged in
salts, sugar, organic materials or other
the regular supply of water proposed for use
substances that may be deleterious to
in concrete. The sample shall be stored in a
concrete or steel. As a guide the following
clean container previously rinsed out with
concentrations represent the maximum
similar water.
permissible values: - Average 28 days compressive
a) To neutralize 200ml sample of water,
strength of at least three 15cm concrete
using phenolphthalein as an indicator, it
cubes prepared with water proposed to be
should not require more than 2ml of 0.1
used shall not be less than 90 percent of the
normal NaOH. The details of test shall
average of strength of three similar concrete
be as given in IS: 3025.
cubes prepared with distilled water. The
b) To neutralize 200ml sample of water cubes shall be prepared, cured and tested
using methyl orange as and indicator, it in accordance with the requirements of
should not require more than 10ml of 0.1 IS:516.
normal HCl. The details of test shall be The initial setting time of test block
as given in IS: 3025.
made with the appropriate cement and the
c) Permissible limits for solids when water proposed to be used shall not be less
tested in accordance with IS: 3025 shall than 30 minutes and shall not differ by 30
be minutes from the initial setting time of
control test block prepared and tested in
as given in Table 1.
accordance with the requirements of
(Clause 4.3)
___________________________________ 4.3.2 The pH value of water shall generally
Maximum permissible Limit be not less than 6.
4.3.3 Water found satisfactory for mixing is
Organic 200mg/I also suitable for curing concrete. However,
Inorganic 3000mg/I water used for curing should not produce
Sulphate (as SO4) 500mg/I any objectionable stain or unsightly deposit
Chlorides (as Cl) 2000 mg/I for plain on the concrete surface. The presence of
concrete works, 1000 tannic acid or iron compounds is
mg/I for reinforced objectionable.
concrete works and
4.4 Admixtures The Chief Engineer may a) Plain hard-drawn steel wire
permit the use of admixtures for imparting conforming to IS:1785 (part-I)
special characteristics to the concrete or
b) Uncoated stress-relieved strand
mortar on satisfactory evidence that the use
conforming to IS:6006.
of such admixtures does not adversely
affect the properties of concrete or mortar c) High tensile steel bars conforming
particularly with respect to strength, volume to IS:2090.
change, durability and has no deleterious d) Uncoated stress relieved low
effect on reinforcement. relaxation strands conforming to IS:14268.
4.4.1 the admixtures, when permitted, All prestressing steel shall be free
shall conform to IS:9103.
from splits, harmful scratches, surface
4.4.2 Calcium chloride or admixtures flaws, rough, jagged and imperfect edges
containing calcium chloride shall not be and other defects likely to impair its use in
used in structural concrete containing prestressed concrete.
reinforcement, prestressing tendons or 4.6.2 Modulus of Elasticity The value of
other embedded metal. the modulus of elasticity of steel used for
4.4.3 The admixture containing Cl & SO3 the design of prestressed concrete
ions shall not be used. Admixtures members shall preferably be determined by
containing nitrates shall also not be used. tests on samples of steel to be used for the
Admixtures based on thiocyanate may construction. For the purposes of this
promote corrosion and therefore shall be clause, a value given by the manufacturer of
prohibited. the prestressing steel shall be considered
as fulfilling the necessary requirements.
4.5 Reinforcement Where it is not possible to
4.5.1 The reinforcement shall be any of the
ascertain the modulus of elasticity by test or
following :
from the manufacturer of the steel, the
a) Grade-I mild steel and medium following values may be adopted :
tensile steel bars conforming to IS:432
(Part-I) Type of Steel Modulus of Elasticity
Es kN/mm 2
b) High strength deformed steel bars Plain cold-drawn wi res 210
conforming toIS:1786. Conforming to IS:1785 (Part-I)
c) Thermo-mechanically Treated (TMT) High tensile alloy steel bars 200
Bars satisfying requirements of IS:1786. Conforming to IS: 2090
d) Rolled steel made from structural Strands conforming to IS: 6006 195
steel conforming to IS:2062 Gr.A and Gr.B.
Strands conforming to IS: 14268 195
4.5.2 Independent test check on quality of
steel from each lot shall be conducted. All 4.6.3 Coupling units and other similar
reinforcement shall be free form loose small fixtures used in conjunction with the wires or
scales, rust and coats of paints, oil, mud bars shall have an ultimate tensile strength
etc. of not less than the individual strength of the
wires or bars being joined.
4.5.3 The modulus of elasticity of steel shall
be taken as 200kN/mm2. 4.7 Handling & Storage of Materials
Storage of materials shall be as per IS:
4.6 Prestressing Steel 4082.
4.6.1 The prestressing steel shall be any of 4.7.1 Cement Cement of different
the following :- specifications shall be stacked separately
and quality of stored cement actually used GRADE SPECIFIED
in any member or part of the structure shall DESIGNATION CHARACTRISTIC
fulfill the design and construction COMPRESSIVE
requirement of the same. Cement shall be STRENGTH
stored at the work site in such a manner as
AT 28 DAYS N/mm2
to prevent deterioration either through
moisture or intrusion of foreign matter. M 20 20
Cement older than 3 months should
M 25 25
normally not be used for PSC works unless
the quality is confirmed by tests. M 30 30
4.7.2 Aggregates Coarse aggregates M 35 35
supplied in different sizes shall be stacked
in separate stockpiles and shall be mixed M 40 40
only after the quantity required for each size M 45 45
has been separately weighed or measured.
The quantity of coarse aggregates, thus M 50 50
recombined shall be that required for a M 55 55
single batch of concrete.
M 60 60
4.7.3 Steel The storage of all reinforcing
steel shall be done in such a manner as will
assure that no deterioration in its quality NOTE In the designation of concrete mix,
takes place. The coil of HTS wires & strands the letter M refers to the mix and
shall be given anti-corrosive treatment such the number to the specified
as water soluble oil coating before wrapping characteristic compressive strength
it in hession cloth or other suitable packing. of 150mm cube at 28 days,
During transportation, it shall be ensured expressed in N/mm2
that no damage is done to coils while
loading and unloading. Care shall be taken 5.2 Properties of Concrete
to avoid mechanically damaging ,work 5.2.1 Tensile Strength of Concrete The
hardening or heating prestressing tendons flexural and split tensile strengths shall be
while handling. obtained as described in IS: 516 and IS: 5816
4.7.4 Any material, which has deteriorated respectively. When the designer wishes to
or has been damaged, corroded or have an estimate of the tensile strength
contaminated, shall not be used for from compressive strength, the following
concrete work. expression may be used.
fcr = 0.7 f ck
5. CONCRETE fcr is the flexural strength in N/mm2; and
5.1 Grades Concrete shall be in grades fck is the characteristic compressive strength
as designated as per Table 2. of concrete in N/mm2.
5.1.1 The characteristic strength is defined 5.2.2 Elastic Deformation The modulus
as the strength of material below which not of elasticity is primarily influenced by the
more than 5 percent of the test results are elastic properties of the aggregate and to a
expected to fall. lesser extent by the conditions of curing and
age of the concrete, the mix proportions and
TABLE : 2 GRADES OF CONCRETE the type of cement. The modulus of
(Clause 5.1)
elasticity is normally related to the 7 0.00035
compressive strength of concrete.
10 0.00030 In the absence of test data, the
modulus of elasticity for structural concrete 14 0.00025
may be taken as follows :- 21 0.00020
28 0.00019
(N/mm2) (kN/mm2)
20 25 NOTE: The above values of strain are
for Ordinary Portland cement.
25 26
5.2.4 Creep of Concrete Creep of the
30 28 concrete depends, in addition to the factors
in 5.2.3, on the stress in the concrete, age
40 31
at loading and the duration of loading. As
50 34 long as the stress in concrete does not
exceed one third of cube strength at
60 36
transfer, creep may be assumed to be
proportional to the stress.
5.2.3 Shrinkage The shrinkage of Creep in concrete shall be taken as
concrete depends upon the constituents of 43x10-6 per N/mm2 of stress at the centroid
concrete, size of the member and of prestressing steel in case of prestressed
environmental conditions. For a given concrete structures.
environment the shrinkage of concrete is In the absence of experimental data
most influenced by the total amount of water
and detailed information on the effect of the
present in the concrete at the time of mixing
variables, the ultimate creep strain may be
and to a lesser extent, by the cement
estimated from the following values of creep
co-efficient that is ultimate creep In the absence of test data, the strain/elastic strain at the age of loading.
approximate value of shrinkage strain for
design may be taken as follows: -
Age of loading Creep coefficient
Total shrinkage strain in plain concrete,
reinforced concrete and pre-tensioned 7 Days 2.2
prestressed concrete: 0.0003
28 Days 1.6
Residual shrinkage strain in post-tensioned
prestressed concrete: as per table 3 1 year 1.1

TABLE 3 : SHRINKAGE OF POST- Note : The Ultimate creep strain estimated

TENSIONED PRESTRESSED CONCRETE as above does not include the elastic strain.
(clause 5.2.3) For the calculation of deformation at
AGE OF STRAIN DUE TO some stage before the total creep is
CONCRETE AT RESIDUAL reached, it may be assumed about half the
THE TIME OF SHRINKAGE total creep takes place in first month after
STRESSING IN loading and that about three-quarter of the
DAYS total creep takes place in the first six
months after loading.
3 0.00043
5.2.5 Thermal Expansion The coefficient Concreting of Very low 20-10
of thermal expansion depends on nature of shallow seconds, vee-
cement, the aggregate, the cement content, sections with bee time or
the relative humidity and the size of vibration 0.75-0.80,
sections. The value of coefficient of thermal compacting
expansion for concrete with different
aggregates may be taken as below :- Concreting of Low 10-5 seconds,
lightly vee-bee time
Type of Coefficient of reinforced or 0.80-0.85,
Aggregate Thermal Expansion sections with compacting
for Concrete/0C vibration factor
Quartzite 1.2 to 1.3 x 10-5 Concreting of Medium 5-2 seconds,
Sandstone 0.9 to 1.2x 10-5 lightly vee-bee time
Granite 0.7 to 0.95x10-5 reinforced or 0.85-0.92,
Basalt 0.8 to 0.95x 10-5 sections compacting
without factor or 25-
Limestone 0.6 to 0.9 x 10-5 vibrations, or 75mm, slump
5.2.6 Modular Ratio In elastic analysis heavily for 20mm*
modular ratio shall be taken as 280/fck. This reinforced aggregate
expression takes into account the effect of section with
long term loading on elastic modulus such vibration
as creep. Concreting of High Above 0.92
5.3 Workability of Concrete heavily compacting
5.3.1 The concrete mix proportions chosen reinforced factor or 75-
should be such that the concrete is of sections 125mm, slump
adequate workability for the placing without for 20mm*
vibration aggregate
conditions of the concrete and can properly
be compacted with the means available. * For smaller aggregates the values will be
Placing Degree of Values of lower
Conditions workability workability 5.4 Durability
(1) (2) (3) 5.4.1 The durability of concrete depends on
its resistance to deterioration and the
environment in which it is placed. The
resistance of concrete to weathering,
chemical attack, abrasion, frost and fire
depends largely upon its quality and
constituents materials. Susceptibility to
corrosion of the steel is governed by the
cover provided and the permeability of
concrete. The cube crushing strength alone
is not a reliable guide to the quality and
durability of concrete; it must also have an
adequate cement content and a low water-
cement ratio. The general environment to
which the concrete will be exposed during
its working life is classified in five levels of
severity that is mild, moderate, severe, very
severe and extreme, as described below:
Mild Concrete surface protected against weather or aggressive conditions.
Moderate Concrete surface sheltered from severe rain or freezing whilst wet concrete
exposed to condensation, concrete structure continuously under water,
concrete in contact with non-aggressive soil/ground water.
Severe Concrete surface exposed to severe rain, alternate wetting and drying or
occasional freezing or severe condensation. Concrete exposed to
aggressive sub-soil/ ground water or coastal environment.
Very Severe Concrete surface exposed to sea water spray, corrosive fumes or severe
freezing conditions whilst wet.
Extreme Concrete structure surfaces exposed to abrasive action, surfaces of
members in tidal zone.

5.4.2 Permeability : iii) Permeability test is required for

RCC/PSC structural element only. One of the main characteristics
influencing the durability of any concrete is
5.4.3 Maximum Water Cement Ratio
its permeability. Therefore, tests for
The limits for maximum water cement ratio
permeability shall be carried out for
for design mix shall be based on
concrete bridges as recommended in clause
environmental conditions as defined in With Strong, dense aggregates, a
Clause 5.4.1 . The limits for maximum
suitably low permeability is achieved by
water-cement ratio for different
having a sufficiently low water-cement ratio,
environmental conditions shall be as given
by ensuring as thorough compaction of the
in Table No.4 (a).
concrete as possible and by ensuring
sufficient hydration of cement through
proper curing methods. Therefore, for given TABLE 4 (a) : MAXIMUM WATER CEMENT
aggregates, the cement content should be RATIO
sufficient to provide adequate workability (Clause 5.4.3)
with a low water-cement ratio so that
concrete can be completely compacted by Maximum Water-Cement Ratio
vibration. Test procedure for penetration Environ- Plain Reinforced Prestressed
measuring permeability has been given in ment Conc. concrete Concrete
Appendix-G. The depth of penetration of (PCC) (RCC) (PSC)
moisture shall not exceed 25mm. Mild 0.55 0.45 040
Moderate 0.50 0.40 0.40 : Permeability test : Severe 0.45 0.40 0.40
i) Permeability test shall be Very 0.45 0.38 0.35
mandatory for all RCC/PSC bridges Severe
under severe, very severe and extreme Extreme 0.40 0.35 0.35
ii) Under mild and moderate 5.4.4 Minimum Grade of Concrete From
environment, permeability test shall be durability consideration, depending upon the
mandatory for all major bridges and for environment to which the structure is likely
other bridges permeability test is to be exposed during its service life,
desirable to the extent possible. minimum grade of concrete shall be as
given in Table 4(b).
TABLE 4(b) : MINIMUM GRADE OF 5.4.6 Total Chloride contents: -
The total chloride content by weight of
(Clause 5.4.4) cement shall not exceed the following
Environ- Minimum Grade of Concrete values: -
ment Plain Reinforced prestressed a) For prestressed concrete work
Concrete Concrete Concrete
i) Under extreme and 0.06%
(PCC) (RCC) (PSC) very severe environment
Mild M-20 M-25 M-35* ii) Under severe moderate
Moderate M-25 M-30 M-35* 0.10% and mild
Severe M-25 M-35 M-45
b) For RCC works 0.15%
Very M-30 M-40 M-50
Severe 5.4.7 Coatings for Concrete
Extreme M-30 M-45 M-50 In order to provide adequate
resistance against corrosion of embedded
material in RCC structures, concrete shall
Minimum grade of concrete shall be be provided with suitable coating depending
M-40 for pre-tensioned prestressed upon the environmental conditions.
concrete structures. The recommended coating is as under :
5.4.5 Cementitious Material Content : Aggressive Environment Non
Depending upon the environment to which aggressive
(Severe, Very Severe &
the structure is likely to be exposed during environment
its service life, minimum cementitious (Mild &
material content in concrete shall be as Moderate)
given in Table 4(C). Maximum cementitious Super Substructure All structures
material content shall be limited to structure of of bridges (in
500kg/m3. bridges affected part
Epoxy- Coaltar No coating is
Phenolic IPN epoxy necessary
(Clause 5.4.5) coating Coating
Environment Minimum Cementitious material
content in Kg/m3 Or
Plain Reinforced Prestressed CECRI
Conc. Concrete Concrete
(PCC) (RCC) (PSC) four coat
Mild 300 350 400 system
Moderate 350 400 400 The frequency of coating shall
Severe 380 400 430 depend upon the condition of the existing
Very Severe 400 430 440
Extreme 400 430 440 5.5 Concrete Mix Proportioning
5.5.1 Mix Proportion The mix
proportions shall be selected to ensure that
the workability of the fresh concrete is
suitable for the conditions of handling and required workability, durability and a
placing, so that after compaction its characteristic strength not less than
surrounds all reinforcements are completely appropriate values given in Table 2. The
fills the formwork. When concrete gets procedure given in IS:10262 may be
hardened, it shall have the required followed for mix design.
strength, durability and surface finish.
5.5.3 Nominal Mix Concrete Nominal mix The determination of the proportions
concrete may be used for concrete of grade
of cement, aggregates and water to attain
M 20. The proportions of materials for
the required strengths shall be made as
nominal mix concrete shall be in
accordance with Table 5.
a) By designing the concrete mix; such
concrete shall be called Design mix
Concrete ; or
(Clause 5.5.3)
Grade Total quantity Proportion of Qty of
b) By adopting nominal concrete mix;
of of dry fine water per
such concrete shall be called conc. aggregates by aggregate to 50 kg of
Nominal mix concrete. mass per 50 coarse cement
kg of cement, aggregates Max.
Design mix concrete is preferred to to be taken as
nominal mix. Nominal mixes, when used, the sum of the
are likely to involve higher cement content. individual
Concretes of grades richer than M 20 shall masses of fine
only be design mix concretes. & coarse
aggregates Information Required In (kg) (By Mass) (liters)
specifying a particular grade of concrete,
the following information shall be included: - (1) (2) (3) (4)

a) Type of mix, i.e. design mix concrete

or nominal mix concrete; Fine aggregates grading
b) Grade designation;
Zone Zone Zone Zone
c) Type of cement;
d) Maximum nominal size of
aggregate; M20 250 1:1.5 1:2 1:2.25 1:2.5 25
e) Workability
f) Mix proportion (for nominal mix Note: It is recommended that fine
concrete); aggregate conforming to grading zone IV
g) Type of aggregate; should not be used in reinforced concrete
h) Whether an admixture shall or shall unless tests have been made to ascertain
not be used and the type of the suitability of proposed mixed
admixture and the conditions of use; proportions.
and The cement content of the mix
i) Exposure condition. specified in table 5 for any nominal mix shall
be proportionately increased if the quantity
5.5.2 Design Mix Concrete of water in a mix has to be increased to
overcome the difficulties of placement and The mix shall be designed to compaction, so that water-cement ratio as
produce the grade of concrete having the specified is not exceeded.
Note1: In case of vibrated concrete the 5.6.2 Batching In proportioning concrete,
limit specified may be suitably the quantity of both cement and aggregate
reduced to avoid segregation. should be determined by mass. Water
should be either measured by volume in
Note2: The quantity of water used in the
calibrated tanks or weighed. Any solid
concrete mix for reinforced
admixture that may be added, may be
concrete work should be sufficient,
measured by mass, liquid and paste
but not more than sufficient to
admixtures by volume or mass. Batching
produce a dense concrete of
plant where used should conform to IS:
adequate workability for its
4925. All measuring equipment should be
purpose, which will surround and
maintained in a clean serviceable condition,
properly grip all the reinforcement.
and their accuracy periodically checked,
Workability of the concrete should
Coarse and fine aggregates shall be
be controlled by maintaining a
batched separately.
water content that is found to give a
concrete, which is just sufficiently Except where it can be shown to the
wet to be placed and compacted satisfaction of the engineer that supply of
without difficulty by means properly graded aggregate of uniform
available. quality can be maintained over the period of
work, the grading of aggregate should be If nominal mix concrete made in
controlled by obtaining the coarse
accordance with the proportions given for a
aggregate in different sizes and blending
particular grade does not yield the specified
them in the right proportions when required,
strength, such concrete shall be specified
the different sizes being stocked in separate
as belonging to the appropriate lower grade.
stock piles. The material should be stock-
Nominal mix concrete proportioned for a
piled for several hours preferably a day
given grade in accordance with Table 5 shall
before use. The grading of coarse and fine
not, however, be placed in higher grade on
aggregate should be checked as frequently
the ground that the test strengths are higher
as possible, the frequency for a given job
than the minimum specified.
being determined by the engineer to ensure
5.6 Production and Control of Concrete that the specified grading is maintained. The
5.6.1 General To avoid confusion and grading of fine and coarse aggregate shall
error in batching, consideration should be be as per IS:383. The combined aggregate
given to using the smallest practical number shall also conform to all in-aggregate
of different concrete mixes on any site or in grading curve as per IS:383.
any one plant. A competent person shall supervise In case uniformity in the materials
all stages of production of concrete. used for concrete making has been
Competent person is one who has been established over a period of time, the
issued competency certificate by Divisional proportioning may be done by volume
Engineer/Senior Engineer for executing and batching for M20 grade concrete with the
supervising relevant aspect of concreting. approval of the engineer, provided the
Preparation of test specimens and site tests materials and aggregates conform to the
shall be properly supervised. grading as per IS:383. Where weigh- The engineer shall be afforded all batching is not practicable, the quantities of
reasonable opportunity and facility to fine and coarse aggregate (not cement)
inspect the materials and the manufacture may be determined by volume batching for
of concrete and to take any samples or to concrete of grade upto M25. If the fine
make any tests. aggregate is moist and volume batching is
adopted, allowance shall be made for 5.6.3 Mixing - Concrete shall be mixed in
bulking in accordance with IS:2386 (part III). a mechanical mixer. The mixer should
comply with IS:1791. The mixing shall be It is important to maintain the water-
continued until there is a uniform distribution
cement ratio constant at its correct value. To
of the materials in the mass is uniform in
this end, determination of moisture contents
colour and consistency. If, there is
in both fine and coarse aggregates shall be
segregation after unloading from the mixer,
made as frequently as possible, the
the concrete should be remixed.
frequency for a given job being determined
by the engineer according to weather Note 1: For guidance, the mixing time may
condition. The amount of the added water be taken as 1.5 to 2 minutes for
shall be adjusted to compensate for any normal mixer and 45 to 60 seconds
observed variations in the moisture for high rated batching plant.
contents. For the determination of moisture Workability of the concrete
content in the aggregates, IS:2386 (Part-III)
Should be controlled by direct-measurement
may be referred to. To allow for the variation
of water content with/without admixtures.
in mass of aggregate due to variation in
Workability should be checked at frequent
their moisture content, suitable adjustments
intervals (refer to IS:1199).
in the masses of aggregate shall also be
made. In the absence of exact data, only in 5.7 Ready Mixed Concrete
the case of nominal mixes, the amount of 5.7.1 Use of Ready Mixed Concrete
surface water may be estimated from the Ready mixed concrete may be used,
values given in Table-6. wherever required. It shall conform to the
Table-6 SURFACE WATER CARRIED specifications of concrete, as laid down in
BY AGGREGATE this Code. For other aspects, which are not
( Clause covered in this Code, IS:4926 (Specifications
for Ready Mixed Concrete) may be referred
SURFACE WATER 5.7.2. Effect of transit (transportation)
PERCENT BY MASS time on Ready Mixed Concrete: As ready
l/m3 mixed concrete is available for placement
after lapse of transit time, reduction in
1 2 3 workability occurs, which may lead to
Very wet sand 7.5 120 difficulty in placement of concrete. In
Moderately wet 5.0 80 addition, in case of longer transit time, initial
sand setting of concrete may also takes place,
Moist sand 2.5 40 which may render it unusable. Thus, while
planning for using of Ready Mixed
Moist coarse 1.25-2.5 20-40 Concrete, these aspects should be kept in
aggregate view.
5.7.3 Checking suitability of Admixtures:-
* coarser the aggregate, less that water it Generally admixtures like water reducing
will carry. agent, retarder etc. are used in Ready No substitutions in materials used Mixed Concrete for retention of desired
on the work or alterations in the established workability and to avoid setting of concrete.
proportions, except as permitted in In such cases, admixtures should be tested
and shall be made without additional for their suitability as per IS:9103 at the time
tests to show that the quality and strength of of finalizing the mix design. Regarding
concrete are satisfactory. specification of admixtures, clause 4.4 of
this Code may be referred to.
5.7.4 Re-tempering with Concrete a) Dead load of wet concrete and
Under any circumstances, retempering i.e. reinforcement;
addition of water after initial mixing shall not b) Weight of form work;
be allowed, as it may affect the strength and
c) Plant and equipment including
other properties of concrete.
5.7.5 Time Period for delivery of d) Impact due to deposition of concrete;
concrete: The concrete shall be delivered
e) Construction personnel;
completely to the site of work within 1
hours (when the atmospheric temperature is f) Prestressing loads;
above 200C) and within 2 hours (when the g) Lateral loads;
atmospheric temperature is at or below h) Wind loads;
200C) of adding the mixing water to the dry i) Force due to water current, if any.
mix of cement and aggregate or adding the
cement to the aggregate, whichever is 6.1.3 Materials All the materials shall
earlier. In case, location of site of conform to the specified quality consistent
construction is such that this time period is with the intended purpose and actual site
considered inadequate, increased time condition as applicable.
period may be specified provided that 6.1.4 Falsework Plans Falsework plans
properties of concrete have been tested shall include the following information:
after lapse of the proposed delivery period
at the time of finalising mix design. a) Design Assumptions All major design
values and loading conditions shall be
5.7.6 Transportation of Ready Mixed shown on these drawings. They include
Concrete: The Ready Mixed Concrete assumed values of superimposed load,
shall be transported in concrete transit rate of placement, mass of moving
agitators conforming to IS: 5892 equipment which may be operated on
(Specification for concrete transit mixers formwork, foundation pressures, camber
and agitators). Agitating speed of the diagram and other pertinent information,
agitators during transit shall not be less than if applicable.
2 revolutions per minute not more than 6
revolution per minute. b) Types of materials, sizes, lengths and
connection details.
6 FALSE WORK & FORM WORK c) Sequence of removal of forms and
6.1 Falsework shores.
6.1.1 General d) Anchors, form ties, shores and braces
e) Field adjustment of the form during Falsework shall be designed to meet placing of concrete.
the requirements of the permanent
structure, taking into account the actual f) Working scaffolds and gangways.
conditions of materials, environment and g) Weep holes, vibrator holes or access
site conditions. doors for inspection and placing of
concrete. Careful attention shall be paid to the
detailing of connections and function with a h) Construction joints, expansion joints.
view to avoiding gross errors leading to i) Sequence of concrete placements and
significant damage or failure. minimum/maximum elapsed time
between adjacent placements.
6.1.2 Loads:
j) Chamfer strips or grade strips for Falsework shall be designed to exposed corners and construction joints.
cater for following loads: k) Foundation details for falsework.
l) Special provisions such as protection repairs should be carried out with prior
from water, ice and debris at stream approval of the engineer.
6.2.5 Moulds for pretension works shall be
m) Form coatings and release agents. sufficiently strong and rigid to withstand,
n) Means of obtaining specified concrete. without distortion, the effects of placing and
o) Location of box outs, pipes, ducts, compacting concrete as well as those
conduits and miscellaneous inserts in prestressing in case of manufacture by the
the concrete attached to or penetrating individual mould process where the
the forms. prestressing tendon is supported by the
mould before transfer.
p) Location and spacing of rubber pads
where shutter vibrators are used. 6.3 Cleaning and Treatment of Forms-
All rubbish particularly chippings, shavings
6.2 Formwork and sawdust shall be removed from the
interior of the forms before the concrete is
6.2.1 General The formwork shall conform placed and the formwork in contact with the
to the shapes, lines and dimensions shown concrete shall be cleaned and thoroughly
on the drawings such that the relevant wetted or treated with an approved release
tolerances of finished concrete as specified agent. Care shall be taken that such
in 6.5 are achieved. approved release agent is kept out of
6.2.2 Formwork shall be so constructed and contact with the reinforcement.
supported as to remain sufficiently rigid 6.4 Stripping Time - Forms shall not be
during the placement and compaction of the struck until the concrete has reached a
concrete and shall be sufficiently watertight strength at least twice the stress to which
to prevent loss of water or mortar from the concrete may be subjected at the time
concrete. The formwork and false work must of removal of formwork. The strength
be designed keeping in view all loads and referred to shall be that of concrete using
forces. the same cement and aggregates, with the
6.2.3 Forms for finished surfaces should be same propositions and cured under
smooth and mortar tight. If wood forms are conditions of temperature and moisture
used, the boards must be uniform in the similar to those existing on the work. Where
thickness, tongued and grooved, smoothly possible, the formwork shall be left longer
finished on the surface next to the concrete, as it would assist the curing.
evenly matched and tightly placed, except 6.4.1 In normal circumstances and where
where the desired surface or appearance ordinary Portland cement is used, forms
requires special treatment. The use of forms may generally be removed after the expiry
of ply-wood/similar product, which can of the following periods:
absorb water, is not recommended.
6.2.4 Finishing: No surface finishing will a) Walls, columns & 24 to 48 hrs. as
normally be provided. If minor defects are vertical faces of may be decided
noticed, the surface should be rendered. all structural by the Engineer.
The required finish shall be obtained by use members.
of properly designed formwork of closely
jointed boards. The surface may be b) Slabs (props left 3 days
improved by carefully removing all fins and under)
other projections, thoroughly washing down
and then filling the most noticeable surface c) Beam soffits 7 days
blemished with a cement and fine aggregate (props left under)
paste. For major defects, if noticed any
6.5 The Tolerances for Finished Concrete
d) Removal of props
under slabs: Bridge Structures:-
7 days
i) Spanning up to 1. Shift from 25mm
4.5m alignment
ii) Spanning over 14 days
4.5m 2. Deviation from 1 in 250,
plumb or specified, subjected to a
e) Removal of props batter for face of maximum value
under beams: exposed piers. of .05 times the
least lateral
i) Spanning upto 14 days dimension of
6 m. pier.
ii) Spanning over 21 days
6m 3. Deviation from 1 in 125
plumb or specified,
batter for face of
For other cements, the stripping time backfilled
recommended for ordinary Portland cement abutments
may be suitably modified.
4. Cross-sectional -5 mm The number of props left under, their dimensions of +20mm
sizes and disposition shall be such as to be piers, abutments
able to safely carry the full dead load of the and girders
slab or beam as the case may be together
with any live load likely to occur during 5. Thickness of deck +6mm
curing or further construction. slab of bridges -3mm
6.4.2 Where the shape of the element is
such that the formwork has reentrants 6. Size and locations 12mm
angles, the formwork shall be removed as of openings
soon as possible after the concrete has set,
to avoid shrinkage cracking occuring due to 7. Plan dimensions of +50mm
the restraint imposed. footings (formed) -25mm
6.4.3 The forms should be so constructed 8. Plan dimensions of +75mm
as to be removable in the sections without footings (Unformed -00mm
marring or damaging the surface of the excavations)
concrete. Forms should be removed as
soon as possible in order to make 9. Thickness of +No limit
necessary repairs and finish the surface. As footings - 5%
soon as forms are removed, list of
major/minor defects noticed in concrete 10 Footing eccentricity 0.02 times the
should be prepared. Repairing methodology width of the
should be approved by Engineer- In charge. footing in the
After making necessary repairs, the surface direction of
should be finished with wood float so as to deviation but
free from streaks, discolourations or other not more than
imperfections. Plastering should not be 50mm.
permitted and a steel trowel should not be
used to finish surfaces.
11 Reduced level of top of 5mm
inwards. For aggressive environment,
footing/pier/bed block
galvanized binding wire shall be used.
12 Centre to centre 30mm All steel fabrics shall be lapped two
distance of pier and meshes unless otherwise shown on the
abutments at pier top drawing and securely bound to the
supporting bars with 1.6mm dia mild steel
13 Centre to centre 5mm wire (IS:280) or approved reinforcement
distance of bearings clips. The free ends of the binding wire shall
along span be bent inwards. Proper cutting pliers shall
be used and the wire binding and tying shall
14 Centre to centre 5mm be done as tightly as possible.
distance of bearings Tolerance on placing of
across span Reinforcement- Unless otherwise
specified by the engineer, reinforcement
shall be placed within the following
a) For over all depth 200mm or less:
7.1 Ordinary Reinforcement- Any
reinforcement, which is bent, should not be
rebent at the location of the original bend. b) For over all depth more than
Where the temperature of steel is below 200mm: 15mm
50C, special precautions may be necessary The cover shall, in no case, be reduced by
such as reducing the speed of bending or more than one-third of specified cover or
with the engineers approval, increasing the 5mm whichever is less.
radius of bending. Sufficient precast concrete spacers
7.1.1. Straightening, Cutting & Bending- shall be provided as shall, in the opinion of
Reinforcement shall be bent and fixed in the engineer, be necessary to maintain
accordance with the procedure specified in specified concrete cover to the
IS: 2502 and shall not be straightened in a reinforcement and preventing displacement
manner that will injure the material. All before and during the placement of the
reinforcement shall be bent cold. concrete. These spacers shall be accurately
7.1.2 Special precautions like coating of fixed to the reinforcement to ensure that
reinforcement bars shall be taken for they will not be displaced during placement,
reinforced concrete elements exposed to tamping or vibrating of concrete. The
severe and very severe exposure composition of concrete of spacer blocks
conditions. shall be same as that of surrounding
7.1.3 Placing All reinforcement shall be
placed and maintained in the position Binding wires, used for binding /
shown in the drawings. fixing reinforcement bars, shall be
Galvanized Iron wires. Crossing bars should not be tack-
welded for assembly of reinforcement 7.1.4 Welded Joints or Mechanical
unless permitted by the engineer. At all Connections Welded joints or mechanical
intersections, reinforcing bars shall be connections in reinforcement may be used
securely bound together with 1.6mm dia with the approval of the engineer but in the
mild steel wire in accordance with IS:280 or case of important connections, test shall be
with approved reinforcement clips. The free made to prove that the joints are of the full
ends of the binding wire shall be bent strength of bars connected. Welding of mild steel bars percent of the moment of resistance and
conforming to IS:432(Part I) may be such joints should be so disposed that at
permitted with the approval of the engineer. any section not more than 50% of the bars
Welding of mild steel reinforcement shall be are connected by mechanical devices,
done in accordance with the bottlenuts or couplings (see
recommendations of IS:2751. All welders Reinforcement temporarily left
and welding operators to be employed shall
projecting from the concrete at construction
have to be qualified by tests prescribed in
joints or other joints shall not be bent during
IS: 2751. Inspection of welds shall conform
the period in which concreting is suspended
to IS:822 and destructive and non-
except with the approval of the engineer.
destructive testing may be undertaken when
Where reinforcement bars are bent aside at
deemed necessary. Joints with weld defects
construction joints and afterwards bent back
detected by visual inspection or dimensional
to the original positions, care should be
inspection shall not be accepted.
taken to ensure that at no time is the radius Welded joints may be permitted in of the bend less than 4 bar diameters for
cold worked bars conforming to IS:1786 plain mild steel or 6 bar diameters for the
provided that the carbon equivalent deformed bars. Care shall also be taken
calculated from the chemical composition of when bending back bar to ensure that the
the bar is 0.4% or less. Welding of the cold- concrete around the bar is not damaged.
worked bars may be done in accordance No concreting shall be done until the
with the recommendations of IS:9417. When
reinforcement has been inspected and
cold-worked bars are welded, the stress at
approved by the Engineer.
the weld should be limited to the strength of
mild steel bars without cold-working. 7.1.5 Protective Coatings: - In order to
offer adequate resistance against corrosion Butt welding between the ends of a
reinforcement bars shall be provided with
bar in line, whereby the stress is transferred
suitable protective coatings depending upon
across the section, is to be allowed for mild
the environmental conditions. The
steel bars only.
recommended coatings are as under: - Welded joints should not be located
Aggressive Environment Non
near the bends in the reinforcement.
(Severe, Very severe and aggressive
Wherever possible, joints in the parallel bars
Extreme) environment
of principal tensile reinforcement should be
(Mild and
staggered. The welded joints may
preferably, be placed in regions of low
stresses. Important Minor All structures
and major bridges Bars may be joined with mechanical
bridges and
devices e.g. by special grade steel swaged
on to bars in end to end contact or by
screwed couplers or using bottle nuts, if Cement Cement Truncated
permitted by the engineer. Patented Polymer Polymer Inhibited
systems with approved use shall only be Composite Composite Cement Slurry
permitted to be used on production of test Coating Coating
results showing the adequacy of the device
Or Or
to the satisfaction of the Engineer- In
charge. The effectiveness for such joints Fusion Inhibited
shall invariably be proved by static and Bonded Cement
fatigue strength tests. Such joints should Epoxy Slurry
preferably be located at sections where the Coating. Coating.
bending moment is not more than 50
7.2 Prestressing Tendons All prestressing steel shall be
carefully and accurately located in the exact
7.2.1 Straightening
positions shown in design drawings. The The wire and strands as supplied, permissible tolerance in the location of the
shall be self-straightening when uncoiled. prestressing tendon shall be 5mm.Curves In the case of high tensile steel bars, or bends in prestressing tendon required by
any straightening (or bending if the design the designer shall be gradual and the
provides for curved bars) shall be carried prestressing tendon shall not be forced
out by means of a bar-bending machine. around sharp bends or be formed in any
Bars shall not be bent when their manner which is likely to set up undesirable
temperature is less than 10o C. Bars bent in secondary stresses.
threaded portion shall be rejected. The relative position of wires in a In no case, heat shall be applied to cable, whether curved or straight, shall be
facilitate straightening or bending of accurately maintained by suitable means
prestressing steel. such as sufficiently rigid and adequately
distributed spacers.
7.2.2 Special precautions like coating of
prestressing wires/strands/ bars/tendons In the case of post-tensioned work,
shall be taken for post-tensioned pre- the spacing of wires in a cable shall be
stressed concrete elements exposed to adequate to ensure the free flow of grout.
severe and very severe exposure The method of supporting and fixing
conditions. the tendons (or the sheaths or duct formers)
7.2.3 Cutting in position should be such that they will not
be displaced by heavy or prolonged All cutting to length and trimming of vibration, by pressure of the wet concrete,
the ends of wires shall be done by suitable including upwards thrust of concrete, by
mechanical cutters. workmen or by construction traffic. Bars shall preferably be ordered to The means of locating prestressing
the exact length required. Any trimming tendons should not unnecessarily increase
required shall be done only after the bar has the friction greater than that assumed in the
been tensioned and the grout has set; it design, when they are being tensioned.
shall then be carried out in accordance with 7.2.6 Tensioning the Tendons.

7.2.4 Jointing General All wires, strands or bars

stressed in one operation shall be taken, Strands and hard-drawn wires, used where possible, from the same parcel.
in prestressed concrete work shall be Each cable shall be tagged with its number
continuous over the entire length of the from which the coil numbers of the steel
tendon. used can be identified. Cables shall not be High tensile steel bars may be kinked or twisted. Individual wires or
joined together by means of couplings, strands for which extensions are to be
provided the strength of the coupling is such measured shall be readily identifiable at
that in a test to destruction, the bar shall fail each end of the member. No strand that
before the coupling. has become unravelled shall be used. The
order in which wires or cables forming a part Welding shall not be permitted in of prestressing tendon are to stressed
prestressing steel. should be in such a way that stresses
7.2.5 Arrangement of Tendons and permitted are not exceeded at any stage.
Positioning. The order should be decided by the
engineer responsible for the design and
should be shown on the working drawings. The tensioning equipment shall be
Similarly, where there are a large number of calibrated before the tensioning operation
separate tendons, the order in which the and at intervals to the approval of the
tendons are to be stressed should be engineer.
decided by the engineer and shown on the Temporary Gripping Device
working drawings. The tensioning of each
Prestressing tendons may be gripped by
tendon should be such as to cause as little
wedges, yokes, double cones or any other
eccentric stress as possible and to ensure
approved type of gripping devices. The
this, symmetrical tendons should be
prestressing wires may be gripped singly or
successively stressed.
in groups. Gripping devices shall be such Tensioning Apparatus. that in a tensile test, the wire or wires fixed
by them would break before failure of the The requirements of
grip itself.
shall apply to both the pre-tensioned and
the post-tensioned methods of prestressed Releasing Device - The
concrete except where specifically releasing device shall be so designed that
mentioned otherwise. during the period between the tensioning
and release, the tension in the prestressing Prestressing steel may be
elements is fully maintained by positive
tensioned by means of hydraulic jacks of
means, such as external anchorages. The
similar mechanical apparatus. The method
device shall enable the transfer or prestress
of tensioning steel covered by this code is
to be carried out gradually so as to avoid
generally by means of hydraulic or similar
large difference of tension between wires in
mechanical jacks.
a tendon, severe eccentricities of prestress
The type of tensioning apparatus shall be or the sudden application of stress to the
such that a controlled force can be applied. concrete.
It shall not induce dangerous secondary Pretensioning.
stresses or torsional effects on steel,
concrete or on the anchorages. Straight Tendons- In the long-
line method of pre-tensioning sufficient The means of attachment of the
locator plates shall be distributed throughout
tendon to the jack or tensioning device shall
the length of the bed to ensure that the
be safe and secure and such as not to
wires or strands are maintained in their
damage the wire or bar.
proper position during concreting. Where a The force in the tendons during the number of units are made in line, they shall
tensioning shall be measured by direct- be free to slide in the direction of their
reading load cells or obtained indirectly from length and thus permit transfer of the
gauges fitted in the hydraulic system to prestressing force to the concrete along the
determine the pressure in the jacks. whole line.
Facilities shall be provided for the
In the individual mould system, the moulds
measurement of the extension of the tendon
shall be sufficiently rigid to provide the
and of any movement of the tendon in the
reaction to the prestressing force without
gripping devices. The load-measuring
device shall be calibrated to an accuracy
with +2% and checked at intervals to the Deflected Tendons Where
approval of the engineer. Elongation of the possible the mechanisms for holding down
tendon shall be measured to an accuracy or holding up tendons shall ensure that the
within 2% or 2mm, whichever is more part in contact with the tendon is free to
accurate. move in the line of the tendon so that
frictional losses are nullified. If, however, a
system is used that develops a frictional
force, this force shall be determined by test maintained securely to prevent
and due allowance made. displacement during placement and
compaction of concrete. The permissible
For single tendons, the deflector in contact
tolerance in the location of the sheaths and
with the tendon shall have a radius of not
extractable cores shall be 5 mm. Any
less than 5 times the tendon diameter for
distortion of the sheath during concreting
wire or 10 times the tendon diameter for a
may lead to additional friction.
strand, and the angle of deflection shall not
exceed 15 degrees. Mild Steel Sheathing
The transfer of the prestressing force to the Unless otherwise specified,
concrete shall be effected in conjunction the material shall be Cold Rolled Cold
with the release of hold-down and hold-up Annealed (CRCA) mild steel intended for
forces as approved by the engineer. mechanical treatment and surface refining
but not for quench hardening or tempering. Post-tensioning.
The material shall be clean and free from Arrangement of Tendons rust and normally of bright metal finish.
Where wires, strands or bars in a tendon However, in case of use in aggressive
are not stressed simultaneously, the use of environment (severe, very severe and
spacers shall be in accordance with the extreme as defined in clause 5.4.1),
recommendations of the system galvanized or lead coated mild steel strips
manufacturer. may be used. Sheathing - The sheathings The thickness of the strips
shall be in mild steel as per the sub-clause shall be a minimum of 0.24 mm 0.02 mm However, as an alternative, for internal diameter of sheathing ducts upto
HDPE sheathings as per sub-clause and including 51mm and shall be 0.30 may be used subject to its being mm0.02 mm for diameter beyond 51mm
cost effective as compared to metal and upto 91 mm.
sheathing. The sheaths shall be in as long The joints of all sheathing
lengths as practical so as not to be dented
shall conform to the provisions contained in
or deformed during handling and
Appendix C.
transporting. These shall conform to the
requirements as per tests specified in Corrugated HDPE sheathing
Appendix-B and B1 and the manufacturer Unless otherwise specified,
shall furnish a test certificate to this effect.
the material for the high-density
The tests specified in Appendix B1 are to be
polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing shall have
performed as part of additional acceptance
the following properties:
tests for prestressing system employing
corrugated HDPE sheathing ducts and are
not meant for routine site testing purpose. sheaths shall be sufficiently
watertight to prevent concrete laitance
penetrating in them in quantities likely to
increase friction. Special care shall be taken
to ensure water-tightness at the joints. The alignment of all sheaths
and extractable cores shall be correct to the
requirements of the drawings and
Property Unit Applicable Temperature Acceptance
Standard Values
Min Max
Carbon content % 2 -

Density gm/cc IS2530 23OC 0.94 0.96

Tensile strength at MPa BS EN ISO 20 26
Yield 527-3
Shore D BS EN ISO 55 65
Hardness 2039-1
Elongation at % BS EN ISO 7 10
Yield 527-3
Melt Flow Index g/10 IS:2530 190 OC under a 0.5 1.2
(MFI) minutes mss of 5 kg
Environmental Hrs ASTMD-1693 70 OC 192
Stress Crack
Coefficient of / OC DIN 53 752 1.50x
Thermal Expansion 10-4
for 20 OC - 80 OC
Charpy impact kJ/m2 BS EN ISO 1.0kJ/m2
strength of notched 179 4 kJ/m2
(i)at 23 OC
(ii) at -40 OC
Jointing with thick walled HDPE The thickness of the wall shrink couplers with glue.
shall be 2.30.3 mm as manufactured Welding with electrofusion
and 1.5mm after loss in the compression couplers.
test as per clause B1-2 at Appendix B1,
for sheathing upto 160 mm Outer The joints shall be able to withstand an
Diameter. internal pressure of 0.5 bar (0.05Mpa)
for 5 minutes as per water loss test The sheathing shall be procedure given in clause B-7 at
corrugated on both the sides. The Appendix B.
sheathings shall transmit full tendon
strength from the tendon to the Anchorages The anchorage
surrounding concrete over a length not system in general comprises the
greater than 40 times the sheathing anchorage itself and the arrangement of
diameter. tendons and reinforcement designed to
act with the anchorage. Sheathings shall be joined
by adopting any one of the following The anchorage may consist
methods, as convenient to suit the of any device patented or otherwise,
individual requirements of the location, which complies with the requirements
subject to the satisfactory pressure laid down in to
tests, before adoption. Proprietary anchorages shall be handled
and used strictly in accordance with the
Screwed together with male and manufacturers instructions and
female threads. recommendations. The anchoring device shall The total tension imparted to
be capable of holding without more than each tendon shall conform to the
nominal slip the prestressing tendon requirement of the design. No alteration
subjected to a load midway between the in the prestressing force in any tendon
proposed initial prestressing load and shall be allowed unless specifically
the ultimate strength of the prestressing approved by the designer.
tendon. Any slack in the prestressing The anchoring device shall tendon shall first be taken up by
be strong enough to resist in all respects applying in a small initial tension.
a force equal to at least the breaking
The initial tension required to remove
strength of the prestressing tendon it
slackness shall be taken as the starting
point for measuring the elongation and The anchorage shall transfer a correction shall be applied to the total
effectively and distribute, as evenly as required elongation to compensate for
possible, the entire force from the the initial tensioning of the wire. The
prestressing tendon to the concrete extent of correction shall be arrived at by
without inducing undesirable secondary plotting on a graph the gauge reading as
or local stresses. abscissae and extensions as ordinates;
the intersection of the curve with the Y The anchorage shall be safe
axis when extended shall be taken to
and secure against both dynamic and
give the effective elongation during initial
static loads as well as against impact.
tensioning and this effective elongation The anchorage shall have shall be added to the measured
provision for the introduction of a elongation to arrive at the actual total
suitable protective medium, such as elongation as shown in Fig.1.
cement grout, for the protection of the
prestressing steel unless alternate
arrangements are made. Deflected Tendons The
deflector in contact with the tendon
shall, where possible, have a radius of
not less than 50 times the diameter of
the tendon and the total angle of the
deflection shall not exceed 15 degree.
Where the radius is less than 50 times
the diameter of the tendon, and the
angle of deflection exceeds 15 degree,
the loss of strength of the tendon shall
be determined by test and due FIG 1 : ACTUAL ELONGATION
allowance made. When two or more Stressing. prestressing tendons are to be
tensioned simultaneously, care shall be The tensioning of taken to ensure that all such tendons
prestressing tendons shall be carried out are of the same length from grip to grip.
in manner that will induce a smooth and The provision shall be more carefully
even rate of increase of stress in the observed for tendons of length smaller
tendons. All wires/strands in a tendon than 7.5 m.
shall be stressed simultaneously. The placement of cables or
ducts and the order of stressing and
grouting shall be so arranged that the The transfer of the prestress
prestressing steel when tensioned and shall be carried out gradually so as to
grouted, does not adversely affect the avoid large differences of tension
adjoining ducts. between wires in a tendon, severe
eccentricities of prestressing force and Measurements of
the sudden application of stress to the
Prestressing Force.
concrete. The force induced in the Where the total prestressing
prestressing tendon shall be determined
force in a member is built up by
by means of gauges attached to the
successive transfers to the force of a
tensioning apparatus as well as by
number of individual tendons on to the
measuring the extension of the steel and
concrete, account shall be taken of the
relating it to its stress-strain curve. The
effect of the successive prestressing.
variation between the two
measurements should be within 5%. It In the long line and similar
is essential that both methods are used methods of prestressing, when the
jointly so that the inaccuracies to which transfer is made on several moulds at a
each is singly susceptible are time, care shall be taken to ensure that
minimized. Due allowance shall be the prestressing force is evenly applied
made for the frictional losses in the on all the moulds, and that the transfer
tensioning apparatus. If the variation of of prestress to the concrete is uniform
two measurements exceeds 5% then : along the entire length of the tension
i) the cause shall be ascertained.
7.2.7 Protection of Prestressing
ii) the cable should be released and
Steel and Anchorages In all
constructions of the post-tensioned type,
iii) even then, if the variation does where prestressing is initially carried out
not come within 5% then the without bond, the prestressing tendon
cable is to be rejected. shall, at a subsequent date and
generally not later than one week after The pressure gauges of
prestressing, be given adequate
devices attached to the tensioning
protection against corrosion.
apparatus to measure the force shall be
periodically calibrated to ensure that Internal Prestressing Steel-
they do not at any time introduce errors Internal prestressing steel is best
in reading exceeding 2 percent. protected by a cement or cement-sand
grout preferably in colloidal form. Care In measuring the extension
shall be taken to prevent segregation
of prestressing steel, any slip which may
and, for that purpose, only fine sand
occur in the gripping device shall be
shall be used.
taken into consideration. External Prestressing Steel- Breakage of Wires - The
The protection of external prestressing
breakage of wires in any one
steel is usually best done by encasing
prestressed concrete member shall not
the tensioned wires, strands or bars in a
exceed 2.5 percent during tensioning.
dense concrete secured to the main
Wire breakage after anchorage,
concrete, for example, by reinforcement
irrespective of percentage, shall not be
left projecting from the latter. If a
condoned without special investigation.
cement-sand mix is used, the cover Transfer of prestressing provided and its density should be
Force adequate to prevent corrosion.
Alternatively, the steel may be encased segregation of the materials and
in bitumen or where the steel is displacement of reinforcement. To
accessible for inspection and achieve this, concrete should be
maintenance, paint protection may be lowered vertically in the forms and
provided. horizontal movement of concrete inside
the forms should as far as practicable be The anchorage shall be
brought to a minimum. In wall forms
adequately protected against damage or
drop chutes attached to hoppers at the
corrosion soon after the completion of
top should preferably be used to lower
the final stressing and grouting
concrete to the bottom of the form.
Under no circumstances concrete shall
8 TRANSPORTATION, PLACEMENT, be dropped freely from a height of more
COMPACTION & CURING OF than 1.5 metre.
8.2.1 A record shall be kept of the time
8.1 Transportation Mixed concrete and date of placing the concrete in each
shall be transported from the place of portion of the structure.
mixing to the place of final deposit as
8.2.2 Concrete cover blocks of the
rapidly as practicable by methods which
same strength and density as parent
will prevent the segregation or loss of
concrete shall be used.
the ingredients. Concrete shall be
deposited as near as practicable to its 8.3 Compaction No concrete shall
final position to avoid rehandling. be allowed without vibration except
under water concreting or tremie
8.1.1 When concrete is conveyed by
concreting, or in specific cases with prior
chute, the plant shall be of such size
approval where access is not available.
and design as to ensure practically
continuous flow in the chute. The slope Concrete shall be thoroughly compacted
of the chute shall be such as to allow the and fully worked around the
concrete to flow without the use of reinforcement, around embedded
excessive quantity of water and without fixtures and into corners of the
segregation of the ingredients. The formwork. To achieve proper compaction
delivery end of the chute shall be as mechanical vibrators shall be used.
close as possible to the point of deposit. However, in case of vibrated concrete,
When the operation is intermittent, the quantity of water in a nominal mix
spout shall discharge into a hopper. The concrete may have to be reduced as
chute shall be thoroughly flushed with brought out in Note 1 under The
water before and after each working vibrator can be internal or external type
period; the water used for this purpose and depending on the shape and size of
shall be discharged outside the the member both the types may be used
formwork. in combination. When internal vibrators
are used they shall be used vertically to
8.1.2 During hot or cold weather,
the full depth of the layer being placed
concrete shall be transported in deep
and shall penetrate into the layer below
containers. Other suitable methods to
while it is still plastic to the extent of
reduce the loss of water by evaporation
100mm. The vibrator shall be kept in
in hot weather and heat loss in cold
place until air bubbles cease to escape
weather may also be adopted.
from the surface and then withdrawn
8.2 Placing The concrete shall be slowly to ensure that no hole is left in the
placed before setting has commenced concrete, care being taken to see that it
and shall not be subsequently disturbed. remains in continued operation while
Concrete shall be so placed as to avoid being withdrawn. Vibrator should not be
used to move the concrete as it can (i) Loss of moisture in concrete with
cause honey-combing. and without curing compound.
8.3.1 The internal vibrators shall be (ii) Cube strength of concrete with
inserted in an orderly manner and the moist curing and curing compound.
distance between insertions should be
(iii) Permeability of concrete.
about 1.5 times the radius of the area
visibly affected by vibration. 8.4.3 Steam-Curing- Steam curing can
be advantageously used to save time of
8.3.2 Form vibrators shall be used in
curing of concrete for transfer of
addition to internal vibrators in case of
prestress. The optimum steam curing
prestressed concrete girders/slabs etc.
cycle for a particular situation can only
Whenever vibration has to be applied
be determined by trial and error.
externally, the design of formwork and
However, it has been found satisfactory
the disposition of vibrators should
to use a presteaming period of 4 to 5
receive special consideration to ensure
hour or rate of temperature rise between
efficient compaction and to avoid
22-330 C per hour and a maximum
surface blemishes.
curing temperature of 66-820 C for a
8.3.3 The use of vibrators complying period such that entire curing cycle does
with IS: 2505, IS:2506, IS:2514 and not exceed 18 hour. Rapid temperature
IS:4656 for compacting concrete is changes during the cooling period
recommended. Over- vibration and should be avoided and drop in ambient
under vibration of concrete are harmful temperature in the enclosure is not
and should be avoided. sharper than 200 C per hour. The reuse
of casting beds and forms alongwith 18
8.4 Curing of Concrete
hour steam curing makes it a total 24
8.4.1 Moist Curing The concrete hour cycle. Prestress to members in
should be kept constantly wet for a pretension beds should be transferred
minimum period of 14(fourteen) days. immediately after the termination of
Water should be applied on unformed steam curing while the concrete and
surfaces as soon as it can be done forms are still warm, otherwise the
without marring the surface and on temperature within the enclosure shall
formed surfaces immediately after the be maintained at over 150 C until the
forms are stripped. The concrete shall prestress is transferred to the concrete.
be kept constantly wet by ponding or
The steam curing will be considered
covered with a layer of sacking, canvas,
complete when the concrete has
hessian or a similar absorbant material.
reached the minimum strength at
When air temperature is expected to
Strength at Stress transfer or handling
drop below 50C during the curing period,
additional covering of cotton/gunny
bags, straw or other suitable blanketting
material shall be provided so that
8.5 Construction Joints:
concrete temperature at surface does
not fall below 100C. 8.5.1 Concreting shall be carried out
continuously upto the construction joints,
8.4.2 Curing Compound- Approved
the position and arrangement of which
curing compounds may be used in lieu
shall be predetermined by the designer.
of moist curing with the permission of
the engineer. Such compounds shall be 8.5.2 The use of construction joints in
applied to all exposed surfaces of the prestressed concrete work should
concrete along with stripping of form preferably be avoided. However, if
work. Tests shall be done to ascertain : found necessary, they shall be kept to
the minimum by adopting proper resumed within 2 hours, the tremie shall
construction techniques. not be taken out of the concrete. Instead
it shall be raised and lowered slowly
8.5.3 The construction joints shall
from time to time to prevent the concrete
comply with the provisions given at
around tremie from setting. Concreting
Appendix-A. Properly designed
should be resumed by introducing a little
reinforcement shall be provided for
richer concrete with a slump of about
transfer of full tensile stress across the
200mm for easy displacement of partly
joints prior to casting of the next lift.
set concrete. All tremie tubes shall be
8.6 Concreting Under Special properly cleaned before and after use.
Conditions: Tremie The concrete
8.6.1 Work in Extreme Weather should be coherent and slump shall be
Conditions- During hot or cold weather, more than 150mm but it should not
the concreting should be done as per exceed 180mm. When concrete is
the procedure set out in IS: 7861 (Part I) carried out under water a temporary
or IS: 7861 (Part II) with the approval of casing should be installed to the full
the engineer. However, calcium chloride depth of bore hole or 2m in to non-
or admixtures containing calcium collapsible stratum, so that fragments of
chloride shall not be used. ground cannot drop from the sides of the
8.6.2 Under-water Concreting hole in the concrete as it is placed. The
temporary casing may not be required When it is necessary to deposit except near the top when concreting
concrete under water, Tremie method under drilling mud. The top section of
shall be used. The equipment materials tremie shall be a hopper large enough to
and proportions of the mix to be used hold one entire batch of the mix or the
shall be submitted to and approved by entire contents of the transporting
the engineer before the work is started. bucket if any. The tremie pipe shall be
The volume or mass of the coarse not less than 200mm in diameter and
aggregate shall be not less than one shall be large enough to allow a free
and a half times, not more than twice flow of concrete and strong enough to
that of the fine aggregate. withstand the external pressure of the Coffer-dams or forms shall be water in which it is suspended, even if a
sufficiently tight to ensure still water if partial vacuum develops inside the pipe.
practicable, and in any case to reduce Preferably, flanged steel pipe of
the flow of water to less than 3m per adequate strength for the job should be
minute through the space into which used. A separate lifting device shall be
concrete is to be deposited. Coffer-dams provided for each tremie pipe with its
or forms in still water shall be sufficiently hopper at the upper end. Unless the
tight to prevent loss of mortar through lower end of the pipe is equipped with
the walls. Dewatering by pumping shall an approved automatic check valve, the
not be done while concrete is being upper end of the pipe shall be plugged
placed or untill 24 hours thereafter. before delivering the concrete to the
tremie pipe through the hopper, so that Concrete shall be deposited when the concrete is forced down from
continuously until it is brought to the the hopper to the pipe, it will force the
required height. While depositing, the plug (and alongwith it any water in the
top surface shall be kept as nearly level pipe) down the pipe and out of the
as possible and the formation of seams bottom end, thus establishing a
avoided. In the exceptional cases of continuous stream of concrete. It will be
interruption of concreting which can be necessary to raise the tremie pipe by
25cm to 30cm slowly in order to cause a saline atmosphere during storage and
uniform flow of the concrete, but the fabrication.
tremie shall not be emptied to avoid flow
8.6.4 Concrete in Aggressive Soils
of water into the pipe. At all times even
and Water
while changing/adding pipes to tremie,
the bottom of tremie pipe shall be atleast General - The destructive action
600mm below the top of concrete as of aggressive waters on concrete is
ascertained by sounding. This will cause progressive. The rate of deterioration
the concrete to build up from below which varies with the alkali resisting
instead of flowing out over the surface, property of the cement used, decreases
and thus avoid formation of laitance as the concrete is made stronger and
layers. If the charge in the tremie is lost more impermeable and increases as the
while depositing, the tremie shall be salt content of the water increases.
raised above the concrete surface, and Where structures are only partially
unless sealed bye a check value, it shall immersed or are in contact with
be replugged at the top end, as at the aggressive soils or waters on one side
beginning, before refilling for depositing only, evaporation may cause serious
concrete. concentrations of salts with subsequent
deterioration, even where the original To minimise the formation of
salt content of the soils or water is not
laitance, great care shall be exercised
high. The selection of type of cement,
not to disturb the concrete as far as
therefore, should be made after
possible while it is being deposited.
thorough investigation. For particular
8.6.3 Concrete in Sea Water problems, engineer-incharge should
decide upon the method. Special attention shall be given
to the design of the mix to obtain the No concrete shall be allowed to
densest possible concrete; slag, broken come in contact with sea water within 72
brick, soft limestone, soft sandstone, or hours of casting.
other porous or weak aggregates shall
8.7 Sampling, Strength Tests and
not be used.
Acceptance Criteria As far as possible, preference
8.7.1 General Samples from fresh
shall be given to precast members
concrete shall be taken as per IS:1199
unreinforced, well cured and hardened,
and cubes shall be made, cured and
without sharp corners, and having
tested at 28 days in accordance with IS:
trowel-smooth finished surfaces free
from crazing, cracks or other defects;
plastering should be avoided. In order to get a relatively quick
idea of the quality of concrete, optional No construction joints shall be
tests on beams for modulus of rupture at
allowed within 600mm below low water
722 hours or at 7 days, or compressive
level or within 600mm of the upper and
strength tests at 7 days may be carried
lower planes of wave action. Where
out in addition to 28 days compressive
unusually severe conditions or abrasion
strength tests. For this purpose, the
are anticipated such parts of the work
values given in table 7 may be taken for
shall be protected by bituminous or
general guidance in case of concrete
silico-fluoride coating or stone facing
made with ordinary Portland cement. In
bedded with bitumen.
all cases, the 28 days compressive In reinforced concrete strength specified in Table 2 shall alone
structures, care shall be taken to protect be the criterion for acceptance or
the reinforcement from exposure to rejection of the concrete.
51 & above 4 plus one
additional sample
m3 or part thereof.

Min. at 7 Min. at Min. at 7 Note- At least one sample comprising of

days 722h days 3 cubes shall be taken from each shift.

(1) (2) (3) (4) 8.7.3 Test Specimen- Three test

specimens shall be made from each
N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 sample for testing at 28 days. Additional
cubes may be required for various
M 20 13.5 1.7 2.4 purposes such as to determine the
M 25 17.0 1.9 2.7 strength of concrete at 7 days or at the
time of striking the formwork, or to check
M 30 20.0 2.1 3.0 the testing error. Additional cubes may
M 35 23.5 2.3 3.2 also be required for testing cubes cured
by accelerated methods as described in
M 40 27.0 2.5 3.4 IS:9013. The specimen shall be tested
M 45 30.0 2.7 3.6 as described in IS:516.

M 50 33.5 2.9 3.8 8.7.4 Test Strength of Sample The

test strength of the sample shall be the
M 55 37.0 3.1 4.0 average of the strength of three
specimens. The individual variation
M 60 40.0 3.3 4.2
should not be more than 15 per cent of
the average. If more, the test results of
8.7.2 Frequency of sampling. the sample are invalid. When individual
variation exceeds this limit, the Sampling Procedure A procedure for the fabrication of
random sampling procedure shall be specimen and calibration of the testing
adopted to ensure that each concrete machine should be checked.
batch shall have a reasonable chance of
being tested; that is, the sampling
should be spread over the entire period 8.7.5 Standard Deviation
of concreting and cover all mixing units. Standard Deviation Bases on Frequency - The minimum Test Results.
frequency of sampling of concrete of
each grade shall be in accordance with a) Number of Test Results-
the following :- The total number of test results required
to constitute an acceptable record for
Quantity of Number of samples calculation of standard deviation shall
concrete in the not be less than 30. Attempts should be
work, m3 made to obtain 30 test results, as early
as possible, when a mix is used for the
1-5 1
first time.
6-15 2
b) Standard Deviation to be
16-30 3 brought up to date- The calculation of
the standard deviation shall be brought
31-50 4
up to date after every change of mix M 25 5.3
design and at least once a month.
M 30 6.0
M 35 6.3 Determination of Standard
Deviation M 40 6.6

a) Concrete of each grade shall be M 45 7.0

analysed separately to determine its M 50 7.4
standard deviation.
M 55 7.6
b) The standard deviation of concrete
of a given grade shall be calculated M 60 7.8
using the following formula from the
results of individual tests of concrete However, when adequate past records
of that grade obtained as specified in for a similar grade exist and justify to the
8.7.4: designer a value of standard deviation
different from that shown in Table 8, it
Estimated standard deviation, shall be permissible to use that value.

Sd = 2
8.7.6 Acceptance Criteria
n 1 Compressive strength.
Where, is the deviation of the When both the following conditions are
individual test strength from the average met, the concrete complies with the
strength of n samples ; and specified compressive strength:
n is the number of sample test a) The mean strength
results. determined from any group of four
consecutive test results complies
c) When significant changes are made
with the appropriate limits in column
in the production of concrete
A of table 9 ;
batches(for example changes in the
materials used, mix design, b) Any individual test results
equipment or technical control), the complies with the appropriate limits
standard deviation value shall be in Column B of table 9.
separately calculated for such Flexural strength when both the
batches of concrete. following conditions are met, the Assumed Standard Deviation concrete complies with the specified
Where sufficient test results for a flexural strength:
particular grade of concrete are not (a) The mean strength determined from
available, the value of standard any group of four consecutive test
deviation given in Table 8 may be results exceeds the specified
assumed. characteristic strength by at least 0.3
DEVIATION (Clause (b) The strength determine from any test
GRADE OF ASSUMED result is not less than the specified
CONCRETE STANDARD characteristic strength less 0.3 N/mm2.
M 20 4.6
(Clause, providing a proper construction joint.
The reinforcement has been displaced
Specified Group A B
grade of test beyond the tolerances specified; or
The mean of Any construction tolerances have not been
the group of individual test met. However, the hardened concrete
test result result is not may be accepted after carrying out
exceeds the less than the
suitable remedial measures to the
specified characteristic
characteristic compressive satisfaction of the engineer.
compressive strength less: 8.8 Supervision- It is exceedingly
strength by at difficult and costly to alter concrete once
least: placed. Hence, constant and strict
N/mm2 N/mm2 supervision by a competent person of all
the items of the construction is
M 20 & Any con- 3 3
above secutive necessary during the progress of the
4 work, including the proportioning and
mixing of the concrete. Supervision by a Quantity of Concrete competent person is also of extreme
Represented by Strength Test importance to check the reinforcement
Results- The quantity of concrete and its placing before being covered.
represented by a group of 4 consecutive 8.8.1 Before any important operation,
test results shall include the batches such as concreting or stripping of the
from which the first and last samples formwork is started, adequate notice
where taken together with all intervening shall be given to the engineer.
8.9 Pumpable Concrete:
For the individual test result
requirements given in column B of table- 8.9.1 General- Pumpable concrete is
9 or in item (b) of only the the concrete which is conveyed by
particular batch from which the sample pressure through either rigid pipe or
was taken shall be at risk. flexible hose and discharged directly into
the desired area, it is especially used
Where the mean rate of sampling is not where space for construction equipment
specified the maximum quantity of is very limited.
concrete that four consecutive test
results represent shall be limited to 8.9.2 Pumping Rate and Range-
60m3. Depending on the equipment, pumping
rate should be 10 to 70m3 per hour. If the concrete is deemed not to Effective pumping range is upto 300m
comply pursuant to, the horizontally and 90m vertically.
structural adequacy of the parts affected
8.9.3 Proportioning Pumpable
shall be investigated and any
consequential action as needed shall be
taken. Basic Consideration- More
emphasis on quality control is essential Concrete of each grade shall be to the proportioning and use of a
assessed separately. dependable pump mix. Concrete mixes Concrete shall be assessed daily for pumping must be plastic. Particular
for compliance. attention must be given to the mortar
and to the amounts and sizes of coarse Concrete is liable to be rejected aggregates.
if it is porous or honey combed; its The maximum size of angular
placing has been interrupted without
coarse aggregate is limited to one-third
of smallest inside diameter of the hose 10.2 Serviceability Limit States
or pipe. Provisions should be made for The design shall be such that the
elimination of oversized particles in the structure will not suffer local damage
concrete by finish screening or by which would shorten its intended life or
careful selection of aggregates. incur expensive maintenance costs. In
8.9.4 Pumping Concrete Proper particular, calculated crack widths shall
planning of concrete supply, pump not exceed those permitted in 10.2.1.
locations, line layout, placing sequences 10.2.1 Cracking- Cracking of concrete
and the entire pumping operation will shall not adversely affect the
result in saving of cost and time. The appearance of durability of the structure.
pump should be placed as near the The engineer should satisfy himself that
placing area as practicable and the any cracking will not be excessive,
entire surrounding area must have having regard to the requirements of the
adequate bearing strength. Lines from particular structure and the conditions of
the pump to the placing area should be exposure. In the absence of special
laid out with a minimum of bends. The investigations, the following limit shall be
pipe line shall be rigidly supported. adopted. While pumping downward 15m 10.2.1(a) Reinforced concrete
or more, it is desirable to provide an air Design crack widths, as calculated in
release valve at the middle of the top accordance with, shall not
bend to prevent vacuum or air build-up. exceed the values given in Table 10
When pumping upward, it is desirable to under the loading given in 11.3.2 :
have a valve near the pump to prevent TABLE 10: DESIGN CRACK WIDTHS
reverse flow. [Cl. 10.2.1 (a) ]
9 GROUTING OF PRE- Environment Design crack width
9.1 A recommended practice for Mild 0.20
grouting of cables is given at Moderate 0.20
Appendix D. Severe 0.10*
Very severe 0.10*
10.1 General In the method of design
based on limit state concept, the
Extreme 0.10*
structure shall be designed so as to
ensure an adequate degree of safety
and serviceability. The acceptable limit *Surfaces exposed to weather.
for each of the safety and serviceability **Surfaces protected against weather.
requirements is called a Limit State. Note Exposure conditions are as
For this purpose the limit states of 10.2 defined in 5.4.1.
and 10.3 shall be considered. The usual
10.2.1(b) Prestressed Concrete
approach will be to design on the basis
Structures and Elements
of the limit state expected to be most
critical and then to check that the No tensile stresses are permitted and
remaining limit states will not be reached therefore, no cracks shall occur under
and that all other requirements will be the loading given in 11.3.2.
met. 10.2.2. Stress Limitations- To prevent
Consideration of other factors, such as, unacceptable deformations from
deflection, fatigue and durability, will occurring, compressive stresses in
need to be made as referred to in 10.4. concrete and stresses in steel should be
calculated by linear elastic analysis for
the load combinations given under 11.2 tensioned segmental
in any of the following applications : construction.
a) for all prestressed concrete 10.3 Ultimate Limit States
10.3.1 Rupture or Instability The
b) for all composite construction; assessment of the structure under
c) where the effects of differential design loads appropriate to this limit
settlement, temperature difference, shall ensure that prior collapse of the
the creep and shrinkage of concrete structure does not take place as a result
are not considered at the ultimate of rupture of one or more critical
state : sections, buckling caused by elastic or For reinforced concrete and plastic instability or overturning.
prestressed concrete, the compressive The effects of creep and shrinkage of
and tensile stress limitations are as concrete, temperature difference and
specified in Table 11. differential settlement need not be
TABLE 11. STRESS LIMTATIONS FOR considered at the ultimate limit state
THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE. provided that these effects have been
(Clause 10.2.2) included in the appropriate load
combinations to check the stress
Type of stress Type of
under design construction limitations given in for the
loading serviceability limit state.
10.4 Other Considerations

Concrete Triangular or near 0.50 0.40fck 10.4.1 Deflections- The deflection of

triangular fck the structure or any part of it, shall not
compressive such as to affect adversely the
stress distribution appearance or efficiency of the
(e.g. due to structure.
bending) The appearance and function of
Uniform or near 0.38 0.30fck concrete superstructures are normally
uniform fck unaffected although calculations may be
compressive required in the following circumstances :
stress (e.g. due to
axial loading) (a) where minimum specified
Reinforc Compression 0.75 Not appli- clearances may be violated;
ement Tension fy cable (b) where drainage
Pre- Tension Not Deemed difficulties might ensure;
stressing appli- to be (c) where method of
tendons cable satisfied
construction may require careful control
by 16.8.1
of profile, e.g. at discontinuities in serial
construction, and where decks comprise
NOTE 1 The above stress limitations abutting prestressed concrete beams.
have been derived from 12.2 10.4.2 Fatigue The fatigue life shall
after making allowance comply with the requirements of 13.4.
according to Table 13 (see
12.4.2). 10.4.3 Durability The specifications
in this code regarding drainage for the
NOTE 2 - See 17.3.3 for limiting flexural deck (see, concrete cover to
stresses in joints for post- the reinforcement (see 15.9.2) and
acceptable crack widths (see 10.2.1) in
association with the limits given in 5.4 is being considered temporary erection
are intended to meet the durability loads.
requirements of almost all bridge Combinations 3 The load to
structures. Where more severe
be considered are the loads in
environments are encountered,
combination 1, together with those
however, additional precautions may be
arising from restraint due to the effect of
necessary, and specialist literature shall
temperature range and difference and
be referred to.
where erection is being considered
11. LOADS, LOAD COMBINATIONS temporary erection loads.
AND PARTIAL LOAD FACTORS Combinations 4 The load to
11.1 Loads The values of loads as be considered are the permanent loads,
given in IRS Bridge rules shall be taken together with the loads due to friction at
as characteristic loads for the purpose of bearings.
this code. Combinations 5- Dead load,
11.1.1 For design of concrete bridges of superimposed dead load, together with
span 30m and larger, an appropriate derailment loads.
temperature gradient shall be
11.3 Partial Load Factors The factors
considered. In the absence of any data
by which the design loads are obtained
in this regard, depending on the
from the characteristic loads are
environmental conditions, a linear
specified in 11.3.1.
gradient of temperature of 50C to 100C
between the top and bottom fibres may 11.3.1 Design loads, Q* are the loads
be considered for design. obtained by multiplying the
characteristics load, Qk by Yfl the partial
The effect of difference in temperature
safety factor for loads which takes into
between outside and inside of box
account the following: -
girders shall also be considered in
design. 1. Possible
unfavourable deviations of the
11.1.2 Creep and shrinkage of concrete
loads from their characteristic
and prestress (including secondary
effects in statically in determinate
structures) are load effects associated 2. Inaccurate
with the nature of structural material assessment of the loading,
being used; where they occur, they shall unforeseen stress distribution in
be regarded as permanent loads. the structure and variation in
dimensional accuracy achieved
11.2 Combinations of Loads
in construction.
11.2.1 Combinations of loads
3. Reduced
Following five combinations of loads are
probability that various loads
acting together will all attain their Combinations 1 The characteristic values
permanent loads i.e. dead load, simultaneously.
superimposed loads etc. together with
The values of the function Yfl for the
the appropriate live loads.
various loads are given in Table 12. Combinations 2 The load to
11.3.2 Serviceability Limit State For
be considered are the loads in
the limitations given in 10.2.1. load
combination 1, together with those due
combination only shall be considered.
to wind/earthquake, and where erection
For the stress limitations given in 10.2.2,
load combinations 1 to 5 shall be 1.15 where it adversely affects the
considered. resistance and 0.87 in other cases. In
calculating secondary effects in statically
The value of YfL. for creep and shrinkage
indeterminate structures YfL for
of concrete and prestress (including
prestressing force may be taken as 1.0.
secondary effects in statically
indeterminate structures) shall be taken 11.3.4 Deflection Minimum specified
as 1.0. clearances shall be maintained under
the action of load combination 1.
11.3.3 Ultimate Limit State To check
the provisions of 10.3 load combinations The appearance and drainage
1 to 4 shall be considered. characteristics of the structure shall be
considered under the action of
The value of YfL for the effects of
permanent loads only.
shrinkage and, where relevant, of creep
shall be taken as 1.2. The values of YfL for the
In calculating the resistance of members individual loads shall be those
to vertical shear and torsion YfL for the appropriate to the serviceability limit
prestressing force shall be taken as state.
(Clauses 11.2 and 11.3)
1 2 3 4 5
Dead weight of concrete ULS 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 -
SLS 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Superimposed dead load ULS 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 -
SLS* 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.00
Wind During erection ULS - 1.25 - - -
SLS - 1.00 - - -
with dead and superimposed
dead loads only and for ULS - 1.60 - - -
members primarily resisting SLS - 1.00 - - -
wind loads.
With dead plus superimposed ULS - 1.25 - - -
dead plus other appropriate SLS - 1.00 - - -
combination 2 loads.
Relieving effect of wind ULS - 1.00 - - -
SLS - 1.00 - - -
Earth With dead and superimposed ULS - 1.60 - - -
quake dead loads only SLS - 1.00 - - -
With dead plus superimposed ULS - 1.25 - - -
dead plus other appropriate SLS - 1.00 - - -
combination 2 loads.
Tempe Restraint against movement ULS - - 1.50 - -
rature except frictional SLS - - 1.00 - -
Frictional restraint ULS - - - 1.50 -
SLS - - - 1.00 -
Differential temperature effect ULS - - 1.15 - -
SLS - - 0.80 - -
Differential settlement ULS As specified by engineer
Fill retained and or live ULS 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 -
Earth load surcharge SLS 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -
Pressure relieving effect ULS 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -
Erection temporary loads (when being ULS - 1.30 1.30 - -
Live load on foot path ULS 1.50 1.25 1.25 - -
SLS 1.00 1.00 1.00 - -
Live load ULS 2.00 1.75 1.75 - -
SLS 1.10 1.00 1.00 - -
Derailment loads SLS (As specified by bridge rules for
combination 5 only)
NOTE 1-ULS : Ultimate limit state SLS : serviceability limit state
NOTE 2-Wind and earth quake loads shall not be assumed to be acting simultaneously.
NOTE 3- Live load shall also include dynamic effect, forces due to curvature exerted on track, longitudinal
forces, braking forces and forces on parapets.
12 CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTHS 0 and 2.44x104 f ck /Ym
f ck 5500 2 2
12.1 Characteristic Strengths f = 5500 2.68
12.1.1 Characteristic strengths is that
strength below which not more than 5%
of possible test results may be expected Where f is stress and is the strain.
to fall.
12.1.2 The characteristic cube strengths
of concrete are given in 5.1. Until the Modulus of Elasticity The
relevant Indian Standard Specifications modulus of elasticity to be used for
for reinforcing steel and prestressing elastic analysis shall be appropriate to
steel are modified to include the concept the cube strength of the concrete at the
of characteristics strength, the age considered and in the absence of
characteristic strength shall be assumed special investigations may be taken as
as the minimum yield/0.2 percent proof given in
stress for reinforcing steel and as the 12.3.2 Reinforcement and
minimum ultimate tensile stress/breaking prestressing Steel The design stress-
load for prestressing steel, specified in strain curves may be taken as follows:
the relevant Indian Standard
Specifications (see 4.5 and 4.6). (a) for reinforcement, from Fig.4A or
4B, using the values of Ym given in
12.2 Material properties for Analysis 12.4;
12.2.1 In general in analysing a structure (b) for prestressing steel, from Fig.2A
to determine the load effects, the material or 2B, using the values of Ym given
properties appropriate to the in 12.4.
characteristic strength shall be used,
irrespective of the limit state being
12.2.2 For the analysis of sections, the
material properties to be used for the
individual limit states are as follows:
(a) Serviceability limit state- The
characteristic stresses, which shall be
taken as 0.75fy. for reinforcement and 0.5
fck for concrete in compression.
(b) Ultimate limit state-
Characteristic strengths given in 12.3.1.
The appropriate Ym values are
given in 12.4.
12.3 Material Properties for Concrete BARS.
and Steel
12.3.1 Concrete In assessing the
strength of sections at the ultimate limit
state, the design stress-strain curve for
concrete may be taken from Fig. 3, using
the value of Ym for concrete given in 12.4.
Equation for the parabolic curve between
Uniform or 1.33 1.67
near uniform
(e.g. due to
axial loading)
Tension Not applicable
Reinforc Compre-
e-ment ssion Tension 1.00 N.A.
Pre- Tension NA Not
Stress- requir-ed
The higher values for prestressed
FIG 2B: WIRES (AS DRAWN) concrete arise because the whole
CURVES FOR PRE-STRESSING STEEL concrete cross section is normally
in For reinforcement, modulus of compression and therefore creep will be
elasticity may be taken from 4.5.3. greater than in reinforced concrete. For prestressing steel, the Similarly in reinforced concrete creep will
modulus of elasticity may be taken from be greater where the compressive stress
distribution is uniform over the whole
cross section.
12.4 Values of Ym
12.4.3 Ultimate Limit State- For both
12.4.1 General For the analysis of reinforced concrete and prestressed
sections, the values of Ym are given in concrete, the values of Ym applied to the
12.4.2. and 12.4.3. characteristic strengths are 1.5 for
concrete and 1.15 for reinforcement and
12.4.2 Serviceability Limit State The
prestressing tendons.
values of Ym applied to the characteristic
stresses defined in 12.2.2 are given in 12.4.4 Fatigue- For reinforced concrete,
Table 13 and have been allowed in the value of Ym applied to the stress
deriving the compressive and tensile range limitations given in 13.4 for
stresses given in Table 11. reinforcement is 1.0.
TABLE 13: VALUES OF YmFOR THE 12.4.5 Unless specifically stated
SERVICEABILITY STRESS otherwise all equations, figures and
LIMITATIONS tables given in this code include
( Clause 12.4.2 ) allowances for Ym the partial safety factor
Material Type of Stress Type of for material strength.
Concrete Triangular or 1.00 1.25 13.1 Analysis of Structure-
near 13.1.1 General- Global analysis of
action shall be undertaken for each of the
most severe conditions appropriate to the
part under consideration for all the load
(e.g. due to combinations prescribed in Table 12.
bending The methods of analysis shall satisfy
equilibrium requirements, all load effects
being shown to be in equilibrium with the
applied loads. They shall be capable of
predicting all loading effects including, 13.1.3 Analysis for Ultimate Limit
where appropriate, those that cannot be State
predicted by simple bending theory. The General Elastic methods may
requirements of methods of analysis
be used to determine the distribution of
appropriate to the distribution of forces
forces and deformations throughout the
and deformations, which are to be used
structure. Stiffness constants shall be
in ascertaining that the limit state criteria
based on the section properties as used
are satisfied, are given in 13.1.2 and
for the analysis of the structure at the
serviceability limit state (See
13.1.2 Analysis for Serviceability Method of Analysis and their
Limit State
Requirements The application of General- Load effects under elastic methods of analysis in association
each of the prescribed design loadings with the design loads for the ultimate limit
appropriate to the serviceability limit state state in general leads to safe lower
shall where relevant, be calculated by bound solutions.
elastic methods, The flexural stiffness
When treating local effects, elastic
constants (second
methods may be applied to derive the in
moment of area) for sections of discrete
plane forces and moments due to out of
members or unit widths of slab elements
plane loading.
may be based on any of the following: Other methods of analysis (e.g.
(a) Concrete section-The entire member
plastic hinge methods for beams or yield
cross section, ignoring the presence of
line method for slabs) are beyond the
scope of this code. Use of such methods
(b) Gross transformed section-The entire requires the prior approval of the
member cross section including the engineer and reference to specialist
reinforcement transformed on the basis literature.
of modular ratio.
13.2 Analysis of Section.
(c) Net transformed section-The area of
13.2.1 Serviceability Limit State At
the cross section, which is in
any section, an elastic analysis shall be
compression together with the tensile
carried out to satisfy the
reinforcement transformed on the basis
recommendations of 10.2 In-plane shear
of modular ratio.
flexibility in concrete flanges (shear lag
Consistent approach shall be used which effects) may be allowed for. This may be
reflects the different behaviour of various done by taking an effective width of
parts of the structure. flange as given in
Axial torsional and shearing stiffness 13.2.2 Ultimate Limit State The
constants, when required by the method strength of critical sections shall be
of analysis, shall be based on the assessed in accordance with clauses 15
concrete section and used with (a) or (b). or 16 to satisfy the recommendations of
10.3. In- plane shear flexibility in concrete
Moduli of elasticity and shear moduli
flanges (shear lag effects) may be
values shall be appropriate to the
characteristic strength of the concrete.
13.3 Deflection Deflection shall be Method of Analysis and their
calculated for the most unfavourable
Requirements The method of analysis
distributions of loading for the member
shall ideally take account of all the
(or strip of slab) and may be derived from
significant aspects of behaviors of a
an elastic analysis of the structure. The
structure governing its response to loads
material properties, stiffness constants
and imposed deformations.
and calculation of deflection may be
based on 12.3.1.
13.4 Fatigue - The effect of repeated accordance with 13.2 to satisfy the
live loading on the fatigue strength of a recommendations of 10.
bridge shall be considered in respect of
a) Serviceability Limit State
reinforcing bars that have been subject to
welding. 1) For reinforced concrete elements, the
total crack width due to combined global
Welding may be used to connect bars
and local effects shall be determined in
subjected to fatigue loading provided that
accordance with
2) For prestressed concrete elements,
a) the connection is made to
co-existent stresses, acting in the
standard workmanship levels as given in
direction of prestress, may be added
7.1.3 ;
algebraically in checking stress
b) the welded bar is not part of limitations:
a deck slab spanning between
longitudinal and/or transverse members
b) Ultimate Limit State The resistance
and subjected to the effect of of the section to direct and flexural effects
concentrated loads ; shall be derived from the direct strain due
to global effects combined with the
c) the detail has an acceptable flexure strain due to local effects.
fatigue life determined as described in
However, in the case of a deck slab the
resistance to combined global and local
d) lap welding is not used. effects is deemed to be satisfactory if
13.4.1 For unwelded reinforcing bars, the each of these effects is considered
stress range under various load separately.
combinations for the serviceability limit 14. PLAIN CONCRETE WALLS
state shall be limited to 300 N/mm 2 for Fe
415 grade bars and to 265 N/mm2 for Fe 14.1 General A plain concrete wall is a
250 grade bars. vertical load bearing concrete member
whose greatest lateral dimension is more
13.5 Combined Global and Local than four times its least lateral dimension
Effects- and which is assumed to be without
13.5.1 General In addition to the reinforcement when considering its
design of individual primary and strength.
secondary elements to resist loading The recommendations given in 14.2 to
applied directly to them, it is also 14.11 refer to the design of a plain
necessary to consider the loading concrete wall that has a height not
combination that produces the most exceeding five times its average
adverse effects due to global and local thickness.
loading where these co-exist in an
element. 14.2 Moments and Forces in Walls
13.5.2 Analysis of Structure Analysis Moments, shear forces and axial forces
of the structure may be accompanied in a wall shall be determined in
either by one overall analysis (e.g. using accordance with 13.1.
finite elements) or by separate analysis The axial force may be calculated on the
for local and global effects. In the latter assumption that the beams and slabs
case the forces and moments acting on transmitting forces into it are simply
the element from local and global effects supported.
shall be combined as appropriate.
The resultant axial force in a member
13.5.3 Analysis of section Section may act eccentrically due to vertical
analysis for the combined global and loads not being applied at the centre of
local effects shall be carried out in the member or due to the action of
horizontal forces. Such eccentricities eccentricity of all the vertical loads above
shall be treated as indicated in 14.3 and that level is zero.
14.5 Analysis of Section Loads of a
The minimum moment in a direction at purely local (as a beam bearings or
right angles to the wall shall be taken as column bases) may be assumed to be
not less than that produced by immediately dispersed provided the local
considering the ultimate axial load per stress under the load does not exceed
unit length acting at an eccentricity of that given in 14.7. Where the resultant of
0.05 times the thickness of the wall. all the axial loads acts eccentrically in the
plane of the member, the ultimate axial
14.3 Eccentricity in the Plane of the
load per unit length of wall nw shall be
assessed on the basis of an elastic
In the case of a single member this analysis assuming a linear distribution of
eccentricity can be calculated from load along the length of the member
statics alone. Where a horizontal force is assuming no tensile resistance.
resisted by several members, the amount Consideration shall first be given to the
allocated to each member shall be in axial force and bending in the plane of
proportion to its relative stiffness provided the wall to determine the distribution of
the resultant eccentricity in any individual tension and compression along the wall.
member is not greater than one-third of The bending moment at right angles to
the length of the member. Where a shear the
connection is assumed between vertical wall shall then be considered and the
edges of adjacent members an section checked for this moment and the
appropriate elastic analysis may be used, compression or tension per unit length at
provided the shear connection is various positions along the wall. Where
designed to withstand the calculated the eccentricity of load in the plane of the
forces. member is zero, a uniform distribution of
nw may be assumed.
14.4 Eccentricity at Right Angles to For members restrained in position, the
Walls or Abutments axial load per unit length of member, nw
due to ultimate loads shall be such that
The load transmitted to a wall by a
concrete deck may be assumed to act at nw (h 2e x )Yw f ck
the one-third the depth of the bearing
area from the loaded face. Where there
is an in situ concrete deck on either side nw is the maximum axial load per unit
of the member the common bearing area length of member due to ultimate loads.
may be assumed to be shared equally by
h is the overall thickness of the section;
each deck.
ex is the resultant eccentricity of load at
The resultant eccentricity of the
right angles to the plane of the member
total load on a member unrestrained in
(see 14.2) (minimum value 0.05h).
position at any level shall be calculated
making full allowance for the eccentricity fck is the characteristic cube strength of
of all vertical loads and the overturning the concrete.
moments produced by any lateral forces Yw is a coefficient, taken as 0.35 for
above the level. concretes of grade M 20 and 0.4 for
The resultant eccentricity of the concrete of grades M 25 and above.
total load on a member restrained in 14.6 Shear The resistance to shear
position at any level may be calculated forces in the plane of the member may
on the assumption that immediately be assumed to be adequate provided the
above a lateral support the resultant horizontal shear force due to ultimate
loads is less than either one-quarter of 14.10 Stress Limitations for
the vertical load, or the force to produce Serviceability Limit State The wall
an average shear stress of 0.45 N/mm2 shall be designed so that the concrete
over the whole cross section of the compressive stresses comply with Table
member in the case of concretes of 11 and concrete tensile stresses do not
Grade M 25 or above; where Grade M 20 increase 0.034 fck.
concrete is used, a figure of 0.3 N/mm2 is
14.7 Bearing Bearing stresses due to
ultimate loads of a purely local nature, as REINFORCED CONCRETE
at girder bearing, shall be limited in 15.1 General;
accordance with
15.1.1 This clause gives methods of
14.8 Deflection of Plain Concrete analysis and design, which in general
Walls The deflection in a plain concrete ensure that, for reinforced concrete
member will be within acceptable limits if structures, the recommendations set out
the preceding recommendations have in 10.2 & 10.3, are met. In certain cases
been followed. the assumptions made in this clause may
14.9 Shrinkage and Temperature be inappropriate and the engineer shall
Reinforcement For plain concrete adopt a more suitable method having
members exceeding 2m in length and regard to the nature of the structure in
cast question.
in situ it is necessary to control cracking 15.1.2 All RCC structures shall be
arising from shrinkage and temperature designed for safety, serviceability and
effects, including temperature rises durability requirements (structural and
caused by the heat of hydration released non-structural loads caused by
by the cement. Reinforcement shall be environment).
provided in the direction of any restraint
to such movement. 15.1.3 The bridges shall be designed for
The area of reinforcement As parallel to the service life as given below :-
the direction of each restraint shall be Type of Structure Design life in Yrs
such that.
Bridges in sea 50
As Kr (Ac-0.5 Acor)
Bridges in coastal areas 80
Bridges in rest of India 100
Kr is 0.005 for Grade Fe 415
reinforcement and 0.006 for Grade Fe 15.2 Limit State Design of Reinforced
250 reinforcement; Concrete-
Ac is the area of the gross concrete 15.2.1 Basis of Design- Clause 15
section at right-angles to the direction of follows the limit state philosophy set out
the restraint; in clause 10 but as it is not possible to
assume that a particular limit will always
Acor is the area of the core of the concrete be the critical one, design methods are
section, Ac i.e. that portion of the section given for both the ultimate and
more than 250mm from all concrete serviceability limit states.
In general, the design of reinforced
14.9.1 Shrinkage and Temperature concrete members is governed by the
Reinforcement- shall be distributed ultimate limit state, but the limitations on
uniformly around the perimeter of the crack width and, where applicable,
concrete sections and spaced at not stresses at the serviceability limit state
more than 150mm. given in 10.2.3 shall also be met. Where a plastic method or are given in Table 2. These values do not
redistribution of moments is used for the include any allowance for Ym.
analysis of the structure at the ultimate Characteristic Strengths of
limit state, or where critical parts of the
Reinforcement- Until the relevant Indian
structure are subjected to the severe
Standard Specifications for reinforcing
category of exposure, the design is likely
steel are modified to include the concept
to be controlled by the serviceability limit
of characteristic strength, the
state of cracking.
characteristic value for various grades of
15.2.2 Durability- A proper drainage steel shall be assumed as the minimum
system shall be provided on the deck as yield/0.2 percent proof stress specified in
indicated in In 15.9.2 guidance the relevant Indian Standard
is given on the nominal cover to Specifications (see 4.5). These values do
reinforcement that shall be provided to not include any allowance for Y m. The
ensure durability. For other durability characteristic strength of Thermo
requirements of concrete like maximum Mechanically Treated bars shall be
water cement ratio, minimum grade of assumed at par with reinforcement bars
concrete, minimum cement contents, conforming to IS: 1786.
maximum crack width etc., Clause 5.4
15.3 Structures and Structural
and 10.2.1 shall be referred.
Frames Drainage for the Deck A
15.3.1 Analysis of Structures-
complete drainage system for the entire
Structures shall be analysed in
deck shall be provided to ensure that the
accordance with the recommendations of
drainage water is disposed off quickly
from the deck to a safe location. For
bridges level in longitudinal profile, 15.3.2 Redistribution of Moments
minimum cross slopes in the deck shall Redistribution of moments obtained by
be kept at 2.5%. rigorous elastic analysis under the limit
state may be carried out provided the
15.2.3 Loads In clause 15, the design
following conditions are met;
load (see 11.3) for the ultimate and
serviceability limit states are referred to a) Checks are made to ensure that
as ultimate loads and service loads adequate rotation capacity exists at
respectively. sections where moments are
reduced, making reference to
In clause 15, when analysing sections,
appropriate test data.
the terms strength, resistance and
capacity are used to describe the design In the absence of a special
strength of the section. investigations, the plastic rotation
capacity may be taken as the lesser
15.2.4 Strength of Materials
of:- Definition of Strengths- In dc
clause 15, the design strengths of (1) 0.008+0.035 (0.5- )
materials for the ultimate limit state are de
expressed in all the tables and equations or
in terms of the characteristic strength of 0.6
the material. Unless specifically stated (2)
otherwise, all equations, figures and d dc
tables include allowances for Ym, the but not less than 0 or more than
partial safety factor for material strength 0.015.
(see 12.4.5.)
where Characteristic Strength of
Concrete- The characteristic cube dc is the calculated depth of concrete in
strengths of concrete for various grades compression at the ultimate limit state
de is the effective depth for a solid slab the length to the centre of the support
or rectangular beam, otherwise the shall be used.
overall depth of the compression flange. Effective Width of Flanged
is the diameter of the smallest tensile Beams
reinforcing bar In analysing structures, the
d is the effective depth to tension full width of flanges may be taken as
reinforcement. effective.
(b) Proper account is taken of In analysing sections at the
changes in transverse moments, serviceability limit state, and in the
transverse deflections and transverse absence of any more accurate
shears consequent on redistribution of determination, the effective flange width
longitudinal moments by means of a shall be taken as the width of the web
special investigation based on a non- plus one-tenth of the distance between
linear analysis. the points of zero moment (or the actual
(c) Shears and reactions used in design width of the outstand if this is less) on
are taken as those calculated either prior each side
to redistribution or other redistribution, of the web. For a continuous beam the
whichever is greater. points of zero moment may be taken to
be at a distance of 0.15 times the
(d) The depth of the members of
effective span from the support.
elements considered is less than
In analysing sections at the ultimate limit
15.4 Beams state the full width of the flanges may be
taken as effective.
15.4.1 General Slenderness Limits for Effective Span- The effective
span of a simply supported member shall
be taken as the smaller of; To ensure lateral stability, a simply
a) the distance between the centers supported or continuous beam shall be so
of bearings or other supports; or proportioned that the clear distance
between lateral restraints does not exceed
b) the clear distance between supports
plus the effective depth. 60bc or 250bc2/d, whichever is the lesser, The effective span of a Where
member framing into supporting d is the effective depth to tension
members shall be taken as the distance reinforcement; and
between the shear centers of the
supporting member. bc is the breadth of the compression
face of the beam midway between The effective span of a restraints.
continuous member shall be taken as the
distance between centers of supports For cantilevers with lateral
except where, in the case of beams on restraint provided only at the support, the
wide columns, the effect of column width clear distance from the end of the
is included in the analysis. cantilever to the face of the support shall
not exceed 25bc or 100bc2/d whichever is The effective length of a lesser.
cantilever shall be taken as its length
from the face of the support plus half its 15.4.2 Resistance Moment of Beams
effective depth except where it is an Analysis of Sections When
extension of a continuous beam when analysing a cross section to determine its
ultimate moment of resistance, the
following assumptions shall be made :
(a) The strain distribution in the concrete
in compression and the strains in the
reinforcement, whether in tension or
compression, are derived from the
assumption that plane sections remain
(b) The stresses in the concrete in
compression are either derived from the
stress-strain curve in Fig.3 with Y = 1.5
or, in the case of rectangular sections
and in flanged, ribbed and voided
sections where the neutral axis lies within
the flange, the compressive strength
may be taken as equal to 0.4 f ck over the
whole compression zone. In both the
cases the strain at the outermost
compression fibre at failure is taken as FIG 4: REPRESENTATIVE STRESS STRAIN
(c) The tensile strength of the concrete
is ignored; and
(d) The stresses in the reinforcement
are derived from the stress-strain curves
in Fig. 4 with Ym = 1.15.
In addition, if the ultimate moment of
resistance, calculated in accordance with
this clause, is less than 1.15 times the
required value, the section shall be
proportioned such that the strain at the
FIG3: SHORT TERM DESIGN STRESS centroid of the tensile reinforcement is
E s Ym
Es is the modulus of elasticity of the
steel. As an alternative, the strains in the
concrete and the reinforcement, due to
the application of ultimate loads, may be
calculated using the following
assumptions :
e) The strain distribution in the
concrete in compression and the strains
in the reinforcement, whether in tension
or compression, are derived from the
assumption that plane sections remain
plane ;
f) The stresses in the concrete in Mu = 0.15fckbd2 .. (equation 2)
compression are derived from the stress-
Mu = 0.15f ck bd 0.72f y A s d d
strain curve given in Fig.3 with Ym=1.5 ;
g) The tensile strength of the
concrete is ignored ; and (0.87fy)As=0.2fckbd+0.72fyAs(equ. 4)
h) The stresses in the where
reinforcement are derived from the
Mu is the ultimate resistance moment
stress-strain curves in Fig.4 with
Ym=1.15. As is the area of tension reinforcement

In using the alternative method of As is the area of compression

analysis, the calculated strain due to the reinforcement
application of ultimate loads at the b is the width of the section
outermost compression fibre of the
concrete shall not exceed 0.0035 and the d is the effective depth to the tension
strain at the centroid of the tensile reinforcement
reinforcement shall be not less than
0.002+fy/(EsYm) except where the d is the depth to the compression
requirement for the calculated strain in reinforcement
the concrete, due to the application of
1.15 times the ultimate loads, can be fy is the characteristic strength of the
satisfied. reinforcement In the analysis of a cross
section of a beam that has to resist a z is the lever arm; and
small axial thrust, the effect of the fck is the characteristic strength of the
ultimate axial force may be ignored if it concrete
does not exceed 0.1 fck times the cross-
sectional area. When d'/d is greater than 0.2, equation 3
should not be used and the resistance Design Formulae Provided moment shall be calculated with the aid
that the amount of redistribution of the of
elastic ultimate moments has been less
than 10%, the following formulae may be The lever arm, z, in equation 1 may be
used to calculate the ultimate moment of calculated from the equation:
resistance of a solid slab or rectangular 1.1f y A s
z = 1 d .. (equation 5)
beam, or of a flanged beam, ribbed slab f ck bd
or voided slab when the neutral axis lies
within the flange. The value z shall not be normal taken as For sections without greater than 0.95d.
compression reinforcement the ultimate The ultimate resistance
moment of resistance may be taken as moment of a flanged beam may be taken
the lesser of the values obtained from as the lesser of the values given by
equations 1 and 2. Equations 3 & 4 may equations 6 & 7 where hf is the thickness
be used for sections with compression of the flange.
A rectangular stress block of maximum
depth 0.5d and a uniform compression
stress of 0.4fck has been assumed

Mu = (0.87fy)Asz ..(equation 1)
(N/mm2 ) Reinforcement to be
provided (mm2)
v svc Asv 0.4bsv/ 0.87 fyv
v svc Asv bsv(v+0.4-svc)/0.87fyv
Note In the above Table :
v is the shear stress
s is the depth factor (see table 16)
vc is the ultimate shear stress in concrete
(see table 15)
Asv is the cross sectional area of all the
legs of the stirrups/links at a
particular cross section;
Mu = (0.87fy) As(d-hf/2)equation 6 sv is the spacing of the stirrups along
Mu = (0.4fck)bhf (d-hf/2)equation 7 the member
fyv is the characteristic strength of
Where it is necessary for the resistance strirrup reinforcement but not
moment to exceed the value given by greater than 415 N/mm2
equation7, the section shall be analysed
in accordance with Where stirrups combined
with bent up bars are used for shear
15.4.3 Shear Resistance of Beams reinforcement, not more than 50% of the Shear Stress The shear shear force (v+0.4-svc)bd shall be
stress, v, at any cross section shall be resisted by bent-up bars. These bars
calculated from:- shall be assumed to form the tension
members of one or more single systems
V of lattice girders in which the concrete
v = .(equation.8)
bd forms the compression members. The
maximum stress in any bar shall be taken
as 0.87fy. The shear resistance at any
V is the shear force due to ultimate vertical section shall be taken as the sum
loads. of the vertical components of the tension
b is the breadth of the section which, and compression forces cut by section.
for a flanged beam, shall be taken as the Bars shall be checked for anchorage
rib width; (see and bearing (see
d is the effective depth to tension
In no case shall v exceed 0.75 or
4.75 N/mm2 whichever is the lesser, CONCRETE, vc
whatever shear reinforcement is (Clause, 15.5.4, 15.6.6. 15.7.5., 17.2.4)
provided. 100 As CONCRETE GRADE Shear Reinforcement Shear bd M20 M25 M30 M35 M40

reinforcement shall be provided as given or
in Table 14. more
% N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2
0.15 0.31 0.31 0.36 0.37 0.39
0.25 0.37 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.47
REINFORCEMENT IN BEAMS 0.50 0.47 0.50 0.53 0.56 0.59
(CLAUSE 1.00 0.59 0.63 0.67 0.70 0.74
Value of v Area of Vertical shear 2.00 0.74 0.80 0.85 0.89 0.93
>3.0 0.85 0.91 0.97 1.01 1.06 allowed for sections within a distance y
NOTE 1:b = bs for punching shear cases < 2d from the face of a support, front
edge of a rigid bearing or centre line of a
(see figure 6)
flexible bearing.
NOTE 2: TABLE 14 is derived from the
This enhancement shall take the form of
following relationship:
an increase in the allowable shear stress,
0.27 100A s
svc to svcx 2d/ay but shall not exceed 0.75
vc f ck 1/3 fck or 4.75 N/mm2 whichever is the
Ym b w d
Where Ym is taken as 1.25 and fck shall Where this enhancement is used the
not exceed 40. main reinforcement at the section The term As in Table 15 is
that area of longitudinal reinforcement considered shall continue to the support
which continues at least a distance equal and be provided with an anchorage
to the effective depth beyond the section equivalent to 20 times the bar size.
being considered, except at supports
where the full area of tension TABLE 16 VALUES OF s
reinforcement may be used provided the (Clause,, 15.6.6, 15.7.5)
recommendations of 15.9.7 are met. Effectiv >2000 15001000 500 400 400 300 200 100 <100
Where both top and bottom Depth,
reinforcement is provided the area of As d (mm)
used shall be that which is in tension
Depth 0.70 0.75 0.85 1.00 1.05 1.151.20 1.25 1.35 1.50
under the loading which produces the Factors
shear force being considered. The area of longitudinal
reinforcement in the tensile zone shall be NOTE Table 16 is derived from the
such that : following relationship:
V s = (500/d)1/4 or 0.70, whichever is the
As 2(0.87f ) greater.
y Bottom Loaded Beams
where, Where load is applied near the bottom of
As is the area of effectively anchored a section, sufficient vertical reinforcement
longitudinal tension reinforcement (see to carry the load to the top of the section
15.9.7) ; shall be provided in addition to any
reinforcement required to resist shear.
fy is the characteristic strength of the
reinforcement ; 15.4.4 Torsion
V is the shear force due to ultimate loads General - Torsion does not
at the point considered. usually decide the dimensions of The maximum spacing of members, therefore torsion design shall
the legs of stirrups in the direction of the be carried out as a check, after the
span and at right angles to it shall not flexural design. This is particularly
exceed 0.75d and d for 45 inclined relevant to some members in which the
stirrups where d is the effective depth maximum torsional moment does not
under consideration. In no case shall the occur under the same loading as the
spacing exceed 450mm. maximum flexural moment. In such
circumstances reinforcement in excess of Enhanced shear strength of that required for flexure and other forces
sections close to supports - An may be used in torsion.
enhancement of shear strength may be Torsionless Systems - In provided by the resistance of the
general, where the torsional resistance or reinforcement. This reinforcement is
stiffness of members has not been taken additional to any requirements for shear
into account in the analysis of the or bending.
structure, no specific calculations for Treatment of various cross
torsion will be necessary, adequate
sections :
control of any torsional cracking being
provided by the required nominal shear a) Box sections- The torsional shear
reinforcement. However, in applying this stress shall be calculated as :
clause it is essential that sound T
engineering judgment has shown that vt . (equation-9)
torsion plays only a minor role in the 2hwo Ao
behaviour of the structure, otherwise where
torsional stiffness shall be used in
analysis. h wo is the wall thickness where the stress
is determined; Stresses and
Reinforcement- Ao is the area enclosed by the median
wall line..
Where torsion in a section increases
substantially the shear stresses, the Torsion reinforcement shall be provided
torsional shear stress shall be calculated such that:
assuming a plastic stress distribution. A st T
Where the torsional shear stress v t Sv 2A o (0.87f yv )
exceeds the value vt min from Table 17,
reinforcement shall be provided. In no
case shall the sum of the shear stresses
resulting from shear force and torsion A sL A st f yv
(v+vt) exceed the value of the ultimate (equation 11)
SL Sv f yL
shear stress, vtu from Table 17 nor in the
case of small section (y1 550mm), shall Where
the torsional shear, vt exceed vtuv1/550,
where y1 is the larger centerline T is the torsional moment due to the
dimension of a stirrup/link. ultimate loads;
Ast is the area of one leg of a closed
stirrup of a section;
(Clause AsL is the area of one bar of
CONCRETE GRADE longitudinal reinforcement;
_________________________________ fyv is the characteristics strength of
M20 M25 M30 M35 M40 or stirrups.
N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 more fYL is the characteristic strength of the
Nmm2 longitudinal reinforcement;
vt min 0.30 0.33 0.37 0.38 0.42
Sv is the spacing of the stirrups along
vtu 3.35 3.75 4.10 4.43 4.75 the member; Torsion reinforcement shall SL is the spacing of the longitudinal
consist of rectangular closed stirrups in reinforcement ;
accordance with together with In equations 10 and 11, fyv and fyl shall not
longitudinal reinforcement. It shall be taken as greater than 415 N/mm2.
calculated assuming that the closed (b) Rectangular sections- The torsional
stirrups form a thin walled tube, the shear stresses shall be calculated from the
stresses in which are balanced by equation :
longitudinal and transverse forces
2T corner bar diameters over 300mm. The
vt = longitudinal reinforcement shall be
h min (hmax hmin /3)
positioned uniformly and such that there
(equation 9a) is a bar at each corner of the stirrups.
where The diameters of the corner bars shall be
hmin is the smaller dimension of the not less than the diameters of the
hmax is the larger dimension of the In detailing the longitudinal reinforcement
to cater for torsional stresses account
may be taken of those areas of the cross
Torsion reinforcement shall be provided section subjected to simultaneous
such that: flexural compressive stresses and a
lesser amount of reinforcement provided.
Ast T
...(equation The reduction in the amount of
Sv 1.6x1 y1 (0.87f yv ) reinforcement in the compressive zone
10a) may be taken as
where fcav(Area of section subject to
x1 is the smaller centre line dimension of flexural compression)
the stirrups; Reduction of =
y1 is the larger centre line dimension of Steel area 0.87 fyL
the stirrups;
and AsL satisfies equation 11 with the where
value of Ast calculated as in equation fcav is the average compressive stress in
the flexural compressive zone.
c) T,L & I sections:- such section
shall be divided into component In the case of beams, the depth of the
rectangles for purpose of torsional design. compressive zone used to calculate the
This shall be done in such a way as to area of section subject to flexural
maximise function (hmaxh3min), where hmax compression shall be taken as twice the
and hmin are the larger and smaller cover to the closed stirrups.
dimensions of each components The area of either the stirrups or the
rectangle. Each rectangle shall then be longitudinal reinforcement may be
considered subject to a torque : reduced by 20% provided that the
T (hmax h3 min )
Asv Asl
(hmax h3min )
remains unchanged.
Reinforcement shall be so detailed as to
tie the individual rectangles together. 15.4.5 Longitudinal Shear- For
Where the torsional shear stress in a flanged beams where shear
minor rectangle is less than vtmin no reinforcement is required to resist vertical
torsion reinforcement need be provided shear the longitudinal shear resistance of
in that rectangle. the flange and of the flange web junction Detailing Care shall be shall be checked in accordance with
taken in detailing to prevent the diagonal
compressive forces in adjacent faces of a 15.4.6 Deflection in Beams-
beam sapling the section corner. The Deflection may be calculated in
closed stirrups shall be detailed to have accordance with clause 10.
minimum cover, and a pitch less than the
smallest of (x1+y1)/4, 16x longitudinal
15.4.7 Crack Control in Beams- 15.5.4 Shear Resistance of Slabs
Flexural cracking beams shall be Shear Stress in Solid Slabs
controlled by checking crack widths in
The shear stress v, at any cross section
accordance with
in a solid slab, shall be calculated from :
15.5 Slabs:
v = V (equation 12)
15.5.1 Moments and Shear Forces in bd
Slabs- Moments and shear forces in where
slab bridges and in the top slabs of beam
V is the shear force due to ultimate loads;
and slab, voided slab and box beam
bridges may be obtained from a general b is the width of slab under consideration;
elastic analysis or such particular elastic d is the effective depth in tension
analysis as those due to Westergard or reinforcement.
Pucher; alternatively, Johansens yield
line method may be used to obtain No shear reinforcement is
required ultimate moments of resistance required when the stress, v, is less than
subject to The effective spans svc where s has the value shown in Table
shall be in accordance with 16 and vc is obtained from Table 15.
15.5.2 Resistance Moments of The shear stress, v, in a solid
Slabs- The ultimate resistance moment slab less than 200 mm thick shall not
in a reinforcement direction may be exceed svc.
determined by the methods given in In solid slabs at least
15.4.2. If reinforcement is being provided 200mm thick, when v is greater than svc
to resist a combination of two bending shear reinforcement shall be provided as
moments and a twisting moment at a for a beam (see except that the
point in a slab, allowance shall be made space between stirrups may be
for the fact that the principal moment and increased to d.
reinforcement directions do not generally
coincide. Allowance can be made by The maximum shear stress
calculating moments of resistance in the due to ultimate loads shall not exceed the
reinforcement directions, such that appropriate value given in for a
adequate strength is provided in all beam even when shear reinforcement is
directions. provided.
In voided slabs, the stresses in the Shear stresses in solid slabs
transverse flexural reinforcement due to under concentrated loadsWhen
transverse shear effects shall be considering this clause the dispersal of
calculated by an appropriate analysis concentrated loads allowed in Bridge
(e.g. an analysis based on the Rules shall be taken to the top surface of
assumption that the transverse sections the concrete slab. only and not through
acts as a Vierendeel frame). the concrete slab.
15.5.3 Resistance to In-plane Forces The critical section for
If reinforcement is to be provided to calculating shear shall be taken on
resist a combination of in-plane direct perimeter 1.5d from the boundary of the
and shear forces at a point in a slab, loaded area, as shown in Fig.6 where d
allowance shall be made for the fact that is the effective depth to the flexural
the principal stress and reinforcement tension reinforcement. Where
directions do not generally coincide. concentrated loads occur on a cantilever
Such allowance can be made by slab or near unsupported edges, the
calculating required forces in the relevant portions of the critical section
reinforcement directions, such that shall be taken as the worst case from (a),
adequate strength is provided in all (b) or (c) of Fig.6. For a group of
directions. concentrated loads, adjacent loaded
areas shall be considered singly and in may be in the form of vertical or inclined
combination using the preceding stirrups anchored at both ends passing
recommendation. round the main reinforcement. Stirrups
shall be spaced no further apart than No shear reinforcement is
0.75d and, if inclined stirrups are used,
required when the ultimate shear force,
the area of shear reinforcement shall be
V, due to concentrated loads, is less than
adjusted to give the equivalent shear
the ultimate shear resistance of the
concrete Vc, at the critical section, as
given in Fig.6. When openings in slabs and
footings (see Fig.7) are located at a The overall ultimate shear
distance less than 6d from the edge of
resistance at the critical section shall be
taken as the sum of the shear resistance
of each portion of the critical section. The
value of 100 As/(bd) to be used in Table-
15 for each portion shall be derived by
considering the effectively anchored
flexural tensile reinforcement associated
with each portion as shown in Fig.6. In solid slabs at least
200mm thick, where V lies between Vc FIG 7: OPENINGS IN SLAB
and the maximum shear resistance
based on that allowed for a beam in concentrated load or reaction, then that, an area of shear reinforcement part of the periphery of the critical
shall be provided on the critical perimeter section, which is enclosed by radial
and a similar amount on a parallel projections of the openings to the
perimeter at a distance of 0.75d inside it, centroid of the loaded area, shall be
such that ; considered ineffective. Where one hole is
adjacent to the column and its greatest
width is less than one-quarter of the
0.4 bd Asv(0.87fyv)(V-Vc) column side or one-half of the slab depth,
whichever is the lesser, its presence may
..(equation 13) be ignored.
where Shear in Voided Slabs- The
bd is the area of the critical section longitudinal ribs between the voids shall
be designed as beams (see 15.4.3) for
Asv is the area of shear reinforcement. the shear forces in the longitudinal
direction including any shear due to
fyv is the characteristic strength of the
torsional effects.
shear reinforcement which shall be taken
as not greater than 415N/mm2. The top and bottom flanges shall be
designed as solid slabs (see,
The overall ultimate shear resistance
each to carry a part of the global
shall be calculated on perimeters
transverse shear forces and any shear
progressively 0.75d out from the critical
forces due to torsional effects
perimeter and, if the resistance continues
proportional to the flange thickness. The
to be exceeded, further shear
top flange of a rectangular voided slab
reinforcement shall be provided on each
shall be designed to resist the punching
perimeter in accordance with equation
effect due to concentrated loads (see
13, substituting the appropriate values for Where concentrated loads may
V and bd. Shear reinforcement shall be
punch through the slab as a whole, this
considered effective only in those places
shall also be checked.
where the slab depth is greater than or
equal to 200mm. Shear reinforcement
15.5.5 Crack Control in Slabs- when considering its strength.
Cracking in slabs shall be checked in
A column shall be considered as
accordance with
short if the ratio le/h in each plane of
15.6 Columns buckling is less than 12;
15.6.1 General where: Definitions A reinforced le is the effective height in the plane of
concrete column is a compression buckling under consideration.
member whose greater lateral dimension
h is the depth of the cross section in the
is less than or equal to four times its
plane of buckling under
lesser lateral dimensions, and in which
consideration. It shall otherwise be
the reinforcement is taken into account
considered as slender.
IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997 Effective Height of a Column- 15.6.2 Moments and Forces in

The effective height, le, in a given plane Columns The moments, shear forces
may be obtained from Table 18, where lo is and axial forces in a column shall be
the clear height between end restraints. determined in accordance with 13.1
except that if the column is slender the
The values given in Table 18 are based on
moments induced by deflection shall be
the following assumptions:
considered. An allowance for these
a) rotational restraint is at least additional moments is made in the design
4(EI)c/lo for cases 1,2 and 4 to 6 and recommendations for slender columns,
8(EI)c/lo for case 7, which follow, and the bases or other
(EI)c being the flexural rigidity of the members connected to the ends of such
column cross section. columns shall also be designed to resist
these additional moments.
b) Lateral and rotational rigidity of
elastomeric bearings are zero. In columns with end moments it is
generally necessary to consider the Where a more accurate maximum and minimum ratios of moment
evaluation of the effective height is to axial load in designing reinforcement
required or where the end stiffness values areas and concrete sections.
are less than those values given in (a), the
effective heights shall be derived from first 15.6.3 Short Columns Subject to Axial
principles. The procedure given in IS: 456 Load and Bending about the Minor
Appendix-D may be adopted. Axis. The accommodation of General A short column shall

movements and the method of articulation be designed for the ultimate limit state in
chosen for the bridge will influence the accordance with the following
degree of restraint developed for columns. recommendations provided that the
These factors shall be assessed as moment at any cross section has been
accurately as possible using engineering increased by that moment produced by
principles based on elastic theory and considering the ultimate axial load as
taking into account all relevant factors acting at an eccentricity equal to 0.05
such as foundation flexibility, type of times the overall depth of the cross
bearings, articulation system etc. section in the plane of bending, but not
more than 20mm. This is a nominal Slenderness Limits for allowance for eccentricity due to
Columns In each plane of buckling, the construction tolerances.
ratio le/h shall not exceed 40, except that
where the column is not restrained in Analysis of Sections When
position at one end, the ratio l e/h shall not analysing a column cross-section to
exceed 30; le and h are as defined in determine its ultimate resistance to moment axial load, the following
assumptions should be made: Assessment of Strength- Sub
clauses 15.6.2. to 15.6.7 give methods, a) The strain distribution in the
for assessing the strength of columns at concrete in compression and the
the ultimate limit state, which are based compressive and tensile strains in the
on a number of assumptions. These reinforcement are derived from the
methods may be used provided the assumption that plane sections remain
assumptions are realised for the case plane.
being considered and the effective height b) The stresses in the concrete in
is determined accurately. In addition, for compression are either derived from the
columns subject to applied bending stress-strain curve in Fig.3
moments the serviceability limit state for
cracking given in 10.2.1(a) shall be met.

IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997

or not. Both the ultimate axial load, P, and

the ultimate moment, M, sha not exceed
the values of Pu and Mu given by
equations 14 and 15 for the appropriate
value of dc.
Pu = 0.4fckbdc+fycAs1+fs2As2(equation14)
-fs2As2(h/2-dc) ..(equation 15)
Pu is the ultimate axial load applied on
the section considered.
M is the moment applied about the axis
considered due to ultimate loads
including the nominal allowance for
construction tolerances (see
PuMu are the ultimate axial load and
FIG 8: REINFORCED COLUMN bending capacities of the section
for the particular value of dc
compression zone where this is assumed.
rectangular or circular. In both cases, the
concrete strain at the outermost fck is the characteristic cube strength
compression fibre at failure is of the concrete.
compression are either derived from the b is the breadth of the section.
stress-strain curve in Fig.3 with Ym = 1.50,
or taken as equal to 0.4 fck over the whole dc is the depth of concrete in
taken as 0.0035. compression assumed subject to a
minimum value of 2d
c) The tensile strength of the
concrete is ignored. fyc is the design compressive strength
of the reinforcement (in N/mm 2)
d) The stresses in the taken as:
reinforcement are derived from the stress- f
strain curves in Fig.4 with Ym=1.15. fy / Ym v
2000 For rectangular columns the
following design methods, based on the As1 is the area of compression
preceding assumptions, may be used. For reinforcement in the more highly
other column shapes, design methods compressed face.
shall be derived from first principles using fs2 is the stress in the reinforcement in
the preceding assumption. the other face, derived from Design Formulae for Fig.3 and taken as negative if
Rectangular Columns- The following tensile;
formulae (based on a concrete stress of As2 is the area of reinforcement in the
0.4fck over the whole compression zone other face which may be
and the assumptions in may be considered as being
used for the design of rectangular column
having longitudinal reinforcement in the (1) in compression
two faces parallel to the axis of bending (2) inactive or
whether that reinforcement is symmetrical (3) in tension
IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997

as the resultant eccentricity of load Major Axis or Biaxial Bending- The

increased and dc decreases from h to 2 d moment about each axis due to ultimate
loads shall be increased by that moment
h is the overall depth of the section in
produced by considering the ultimate axial
the plane of bending
load as acting at an eccentricity equal to
d is the depth from the surface to the 0.03 times the overall depth of the cross
reinforcement in the more highly section in the appropriate plane of
compressed face; bending, but not more than 20mm. This is
a nominal allowance for eccentricity due
d2 is the depth from the surface to the to construction tolerances.
reinforcement in the other face.
For square, rectangular and circular
columns having a symmetrical Simplified Design Formulae
arrangement of reinforcement about each
for Rectangular Columns:- The following
axis, the section may be analysed for axial
simplified formulae may be used, as
load and bending about each axis in
appropriate, for the design of a
accordance with any one of the methods
rectangular column having longitudinal
of design given in or
reinforcement in the two faces parallel to
such that:
the axis of bending, whether that
reinforcement is symmetrical or not; (Mx/Mux)n + (My/Muy)n 1.0 .(equ. 16)
a) Where the resultant Where
eccentricity=M/P, does not exceed Mx and My are the moments about the
(h/2-d)and where the ultimate major x-x axis and minor
axial load, P, does not exceed 0.45 y-y axis respectively due
fckb(h-2e), only nominal to ultimate loads, including
reinforcement is required (see the nominal allowance for
15.9.,4.1 for minimum provision of construction tolerances
longitudinal reinforcement), where given in the preceding
M, P, h,d,fck and b are as defined paragraph.
in Mxu is the ultimate moment
b) Where the resultant capacity about the major
eccentricity is not less than (h/2-d2) x-x axis assuming an
the axial load may be ignored and ultimate axial load capacity,
the column section designed to Pu, not less than the value
resist an increased moment of ultimate axial load P.
Muy is the ultimate moment
Ma = M + P(h/2-d2) capacity about the major
Where M, P, h and d2 are as y-y axis assuming an
defined in The area of ultimate axial load capacity,
tension reinforcement necessary Pu, not less than the value
to provide resistance to this of ultimate axial load P;
increased moment may be n is related to P/Puz as given
reduced by the amount P/(0.87fy). in Table 19, where Puz is
axial loading capacity of a
15.6.4 Short Columns Subject to Axial
column ignoring all
Load and Either Bending About the
IRS Concrete Bridge Code..1997
bending, taken Asc is allowance for
as: t General - A construction
h cross section of tolerances given
Puz= 0.45fck Ac +
e a slender in It
fyc Asc ...
a column may be will be sufficient
(equation 17)
r designed by the to limit the
Where: e methods given minimum value
fck and fyc a for a short of moment to
o column (see not less than the
f 15.6.3 and nominal
lo 15.6.4) but, in allowance given
n the design,
gi account shall be
t taken of the
s Slender
u additional
d Columns Bent
di moments
e About A Minor
n induced in the
fi Axis A slender
al column by its
n column of
r deflection. For
e constant cross-
ei slender columns
d section bent
n of constant
in about the minor
f rectangular or
1 y-y axis shall be
o circular cross
5 designed for its
r section having a
. ultimate axial
c symmetrical
6 load, P together
e arrangement of
. with the moment
m reinforcement,
3 Mty given by :
e the column shall
Ac is n be designed to
t t. resist the M ty M iy l e /hx 2 1 0.003
h ultimate axial 1750 hx
e load, P, together ..(equation 18)
a with the
r moments Mtx
OF P/Puz
e and Mty derived M ty is the
a in accordance
O n initial
o with
( Clause 15.6.4 ) moment
P/Puz 0.2 0.4 Alternatively, the due to
simplified ultimate
o n 1.00 1.33 formulae given loads,
in and but not
c For other may be less than
r column used where that
e sections, design appropriate; in correspo
t shall be in this case the nding to
e accordance with moment due to the
a ultimate loads nominal
15.6.5 Slender need not be allowanc
Columns increased by the e for
nominal construct
ion (assume moment about
toleranc d . (equation the minor axis.
es as negative 20)
given in if the
Slender column where le & hx
Columns Bent
; is bent in are defined in
About Both
double :
hx is the Axis - A
overall Mix is the slender column
e) ;
depth of initial bent about both
the cross M2 is the moment axis shall be
section larger due to designed for its
in the initial ultimate ultimate axial
plane of end loads, load, P, together
bending moment but not with the
Mty ; due to less than moments, Mtx
le is the ultimate that about its major
effective loads correspo axis and Mty
height (assume nding to about its minor
either in d the axis, given by :
the positive). nominal
plane of allowanc
In no case, Phy 2
however, shall
e for M tx M ix l ex /hy 1

or in the construct 1750 h
Miy be taken as
plane at ion (equation
less than 0.4 M2
right toleranc 21)
or such that Mty
angles, es as
is less than M2.
whichev given in
er is
; M ty M iy
l ey /hy 2 1 0.0035
Slender 1750 hx
For a column
Columns Bent hy is the (equation
fixed in position
About a Major overall 22)
at both ends
Axis - When depth of
where no
the overall the cross
transverse loads where
depth of its section
occur in its
cross section, in the
height the value hx and hy are as
hy, is less than plane of
of Miy may be defined in
three times the bending
reduced to : and
width, h x, a Mix.
M ty 0.4 M 1 0.6 M 2 slender column 15.6
bent about the respectively:
(equation 19) Where hy is
major x-x axis
Where equal to or Mix is the initial
shall be
greater than moment due
M1 is the designed for its
three times, hx, to ultimate
smaller ultimate axial
the column shall loads about
initial load P, together
be considered the x-x axis,
end with the moment
as biaxially including the
moment Mtx given by :
loaded with a nominal
due to Ph y 2 le
ultimate M tx M ix l e / h x nominal


1750 h for
loads x
construction P is the a n
tolerance ultimate t g
(see axial load(in e ul
15.6.4.): Newtons); lo ti
a m
Miy is the initial
Ac is the area of d a
moment due
the entire s t
to ultimate
concrete f e
loads about
section ( in o s
the y-y axis,
mm2) r h
including the
t e
nominal A column h a
allowance subject to e r
for biaxial shear x c
construction due to ultimate - a
tolerance loads for shall x p
(see 15.6.4); be designed a a
lex is the such that: - xi ci
effective s ti
height in a e
respect of Vx /Vux Vy /Vuy 1.0 n s
bending d o
about the where, y f
major axis; - t
ley is the Vx and Vy y h
effective in a e
respect of a xi c
bending r s o
about the e r n
minor axis; t e c
h s r
15.6.6 Shear e p e
Resistance of a e t
Columns- A p ct e
column subject pl iv a
to unaxial shear ie el n
due to ultimate d y. d
loads shall be s st
designed in h Vux and Vuy are ir
accordance with e t r
15.4.3 except a h u
that the ultimate r e p
shear stress, Svc s c r
obtained from d o ei
Table 15 and u rr n
Table 16 may be e e f
multiplied by: t s o
o p r
1+ 0.05 P ul o c
Ac ti n e
where m di m
e it Retaining walls, thickness. The
n h wing walls, effective height
t t abutments, shall be
f hi piers and other obtained from
o s similar elements Table 18. When
r cl subjected the wall is
t a principally to restrained in
h u bending position at both
e s moment and ends and the
x e where the reinforcement
- . ultimate axial complies with
x load is less than the
a 15.6.7. Crack 0.1 fck Ac shall recommendatio
xi control in be treated as ns 15.9.4, the
s columns- A cantilever slabs slenderness
a column and designed in ratio shall not
n subjected to accordance with exceed 40
d bending shall be 15.5. unless more
y considered as a than 1% of
- beam for the In other cases, vertical
y purpose of this clause reinforcement is
a crack control applies. provided, when
xi (see the slenderness
A reinforced wall
s shall be ratio may be up
r 15.7 to 45.
considered as
e Reinforced When the wall is
either short of
s Concrete Walls not restrained in
slender. In a
p 15.7.1 similar manner position at one
e General to columns, a end the
ct wall may be slenderness
iv ratio shall not
Definition- A considered as
el short where the exceed 30.
y reinforced wall
is a vertical ratio of its
d effective height 15.7.2 Forces
e load-bearing and Moments
concrete to its thickness
ri does not exceed in Reinforced
v member whose Concrete
greater lateral 12. It shall
e otherwise be walls- Forces
d dimension is and moments
more than four considered as
in slender. shall be
a times its lesser calculated in
c lateral accordance with
dimensions, and
c Limits to 13.1 except
o in which the that, if the wall
reinforcement is Slenderness
r The is slender, the
d taken into moments
account when slenderness
a ratio is the ratio induced by
n considering its deflection shall
strength. of the effective
c height of the also be
e wall to its considered. The
w distribution of
axial and deep beam the plane of the compression or
horizontal forces effects and the wall. tension per unit
along a wall distribution of length at various
from the loads axial loads per When the wall is points along the
on the super unit length of subjected to wall length,
structure shall wall. significant using the
be determined bending both in assumptions of
by analysis and It will generally the plane of the 15.4.2.
their points of be necessary to wall and at right
application consider the angles to it 15.7.4 Slender
decided by the maximum and consideration Reinforced
nature and minimum ratios shall be given Walls- The
location of the of moment to first to bending distribution of
bearings. axial load in in the plane of axial load along
designing the wall in order a slender
For walls fixed reinforcement to establish a reinforced wall
to the deck, the areas and distribution of shall be
moments shall concrete tension and determined as
similarly be sections. compression for a short wall.
determined by along the length The critical
elastic analysis. 15.7.3 Short of the wall. The portion of wall
Reinforced resulting tension shall then be
The Walls Resisting and considered as a
moment/unit Moments and compression slender column
length in the Axial Forces shall then be of unit width and
direction at right The cross combined with designed as
angles to a wall section of the compression such as in
shall be taken various portions due to the accordance
as not less than of the wall shall ultimate axial with 15.6.5.
0.05nwh, where be designed to load to
15.7.5 Shear
nw is the resist the determine the
Resistance of
ultimate axial appropriate combined axial
load per unit ultimate axial load per unit
Walls A wall
length and h is load and the length of wall.
subject to
the thickness of transverse This may be
uniaxial shear
the wall. moment per unit done by an
due to ultimate
Moments in the length elastic analysis
loads shall be
plane of a wall calculated in assuming a
designed in
can be accordance with linear
accordance with
calculated from 15.7.2. The distribution except
statics for the assumption along the wall.
that the ultimate
most severe made when
shear stress,
positioning of analysing beam The bending
Svc, obtained
the relevant sections (see moment at right
from Table 15
loads. 15.4.2) apply angles to the
and Table 16
and also when wall shall then
may be
Where the axial the wall is be considered
multiplied by
load is non- subject to and the section
uniform, significant checked for this 0.05P
consideration bending only in moment and the Ac
shall be given to resulting
where acceptable Except where the face of the
limits if the the reactions to column or wall.
P is the recommendatio the applied
ultimate axial ns given in loads and The footing
load (in 15.7.1 to 15.7.5 moments are moment at any
Newtons) have been derived by more vertical section
Ac is the area of followed. accurate passing
entire concrete 15.7.7 Crack methods, e.g. completely
section Control in an elastic across a footing
( in mm2) Reinforced analysis of a shall be taken
A wall subject to Walls Where pile group or the as that due to all
biaxial shear walls are application of external
due to ultimate subject to established ultimate loads
loads shall be bending, design principles of soil and reactions
designed such crack widths mechanics, the on one side of
that- shall be following that section. No
Vx Vy calculated in assumptions redistribut-ion of
1.0 accordance with should be moments shall
Vux Vuy made. be made.
where 15.8.3 Design
15.8 Footings a) Whe
of Footings.
Vx and Vy are 15.8.1 General re the footing is
the applied - Where axially loaded,
shears due to pockets are left the reactions to Resistance to
ultimate loads for precast ultimate loads Bending -
for the x-x axis members are uniformly Footings shall
and y-y axis allowance shall distributed per be designed as
respectively. be made, when unit area or per beam-and-slab
computing the pile ; or flat-slab as
Vux and Vuy are flexural and b) Whe appropriate.
the shear strength re the footing is Beam-and-slab
corresponding of base section, eccentrically footing shall be
ultimate shear for the effects of loaded, the designed in
capacities of the these pockets reactions vary accordance with
concrete and unless they are linearly across 15.4.
stirrup/link to be the footing. For
reinforcement subsequently columns and
for the x-x axis Flat-slab
grouted up walls restrained sections shall
and y-y axis using a cement in direction at
respectively, be designed to
mortar of the base, the resist the total
derived in compressive moment
accordance with moments and
strength not less transferred to shears at the
this clause. than that of the the footing shall sections
15.7.6 concrete in the be obtained considered.
Deflection of base. from 15.6.
Reinforced Where the width
Walls The 15.8.2 The critical of the section
deflection of a Moments and section in considered is
reinforced Forces in design of an less than or
concrete wall Footing isolated footing equal to 1.5 (bcol
will be within may be taken as
+ 3d), where bcol across any The critical
is the width of given section. In recommendatio section;
the column and pile caps ns of d is the
d is the effective designed by apply. effective
depth, to the truss analogy b) Punching depth to
tension 80% of the shear around tension
reinforcement, reinforcement the loaded area reinforce
of the footing, shall be where the ment of
reinforcement concentrated in recommendatio the
shall be strips linking the ns of section.
distributed pile heads and apply.
where av is
evenly across the remainder The shear
taken to be the
the width of the uniformly strength of pile
section distributed caps is
between the
considered. For throughout the governed by the
face of column
greater widths, pile cap. more severe of
or wall and the
two-thirds of the the following
nearer edge of
area of Shear two conditions:
the piles it shall
reinforcement The design 1) Shear
be increased by
shall be shear is the along any
20% of the pile
concentrated on algebraic sum of vertical section
a width of (bcol + all ultimate extending
3d) centered on vertical loads across the full In applying the
the column. acting on one width of the cap. recommendatio
side of or The ns of
Pile caps may outside the recommendatio the allowable
be designed periphery of the ns of ultimate shear
either by critical section. apply except stress shall be
bending theory The shear that over taken as the
or by truss strength of flat- portions of the average over
analogy taking slab footing in section where the whole
apex of the the vicinity of the flexural section.
truss at the concentrated reinforcement is 2)
centre of the loads is fully anchored
loaded area and governed by the by passing Punching shear
the corners of more severe of across the head around loaded
the base of the the following of a pile, the areas, where
truss at the two conditions :- allowable the
intersections of ultimate shear recommendatio
the centre lines a) Shear stress may be ns of
of the piles with along a vertical increased to apply.
the tensile section (2d/av)svc Bond
reinforcement. extending Where and Anchorage
across the full av is the The
In pile caps width of the distance recommendatio
designed as footing, at a between ns of 15.9.6.
beams the distance equal the face apply to
reinforcement to the effective of the reinforcement in
shall be depth from the column footings. The
uniformly face of the or wall critical sections
distributed loaded area. and the
for local bond footings need relation to more or brickwork)
are: - not be than one face of ;
considered. a member (e.g. d) the size of
a stirrup in a the
15.8.5 Crack
beam in which structural
Control in
the nominal part and the
Footings The
cover for all relative size
sides is given ) of bars of
ns of
the actual reinforceme
apply as
concrete cover nt cage.
on one side may
depending on
be greater and In
the type of
can be derived certain cases
footing and
FIG. 10 from a where bars or
treatment of
a) the critical consideration reinforcement
design (see
sections of:- cages are
described in a) dimensions positioned and spacing accurately on
b) sections at of cover one face of a
which the blocks, structural
depth spacers member, this
Design Details
changes or and/or may affect the
any chairs position of Size of
reinforceme (including highly stressed
Members- The
nt stops the reinforcement at
ease of
c) in the compressibil the opposite
placement of
vicinity of ity of these face of the
concrete and
piles, where items and member. The
vibration should
all the the surfaces consequent
be considered
bending they bear possible
while deciding
reinforceme on) ; reduction in
the sizes of
nt required b) stiffness, effective depth
to resist the straightness, to this
pile load and reinforcement
shall be accuracy of may exceed the
Accuracy of
continued to cutting, percentage
positions of
the pile bending and allowed for in
center line fixing of bars the values of the
In all normal
and or partial safety
cases the
provided reinforceme factors. In the
design may be
with an nt cage ; design of a
based on the
anchorage c) accuracy of particularly
assumption that
beyond the formwork critical member,
center line of both in therefore,
reinforcement is
20 bar dimension appropriate
in its nominal
diameters. and plane adjustment to
position (Refer
(this the effective
7.1.2). However,
15.8.4 includes depth assumed
Deflection of permanent may be
reinforcement is
Footings - The forms such necessary.
located the
deflection of as blinding from the Beam/ 60 reinforcement in
Construction engineer. Girder a structural
joints - The Column 75 member.
15.9.2 Clear
exact location Well, 75 However,
and details of pile & simultaneous
construction footing use of two
joints, if any, different types
shall be Clear or grades of
indicated in Clear cover should not steel for main
drawing. cover is the be more than and secondary
Construction least distance 2.5 times reinforcement
joints shall be at from outer most diameter of respectively is
right angles to surface of steel reinforcing bar. permissible.
the direction of or binding wire If clear cover is
the member and or its end to the more, chicken The
shall take due face of the mesh shall be recommendatio
account of the concrete. provided in ns for detailing
shear and other cover concrete for earthquake-
stresses. If Clear to keep the resistant
special cover is the concrete in its construction
preparation of dimension used position. given in IS: 4326
the joint faces is in design and shall be taken
required it shall indicated on the into
be specified drawings. The Diameter of consideration,
(also see 8.5). clear cover shall reinforcing bar where
not be less than and maximum applicable. size of
the size of the
Movement aggregate shall
bar or maximum
joints - The be decided
aggregate size Groups of Bars
location of all based on
plus 5mm ; in Subject to the
movement joints and
the case of a reductions in
shall be clearly
bundle of bars bond stress,
indicated on the
(see., it The bars may be
drawings both
shall be equal to clear cover shall arranged as
for the individual
or greater than not exceed pairs in contact
members and
the size of a 75mm in any or in groups of
for the
single bar of type of three or four
structures as a
equivalent area structure. bars bundled in
whole. In
plus 5mm. contact.
15.9.3 Bundled bars
movement joints
From durability Reinforcement: shall be tied
in the structure
consideration, General together to
shall pass
minimum clear Considerations ensure the bars
through the
cover shall be . remaining
whole structure
as under : together. Bars
in one plane. larger than 32
Requirements General
Type of Extreme mm diameter
for the design of Reinforcing bars
structure Environ- severe shall not be
joints shall be of same type
ment environ- bundled, except
ascertained and grade shall
ment in columns.
be used as main Bars shall not
Slab 50
be used in a or 0.35% of bad longitudinal bars In the
member without when Grade Fe shall be in predominantly
stirrups. Bars in 250 contact with the tensile area of a
a bundle should reinforcement is helical solid slab or wall
terminate at used, reinforcement the minimum
different parts and equidistant area of
spaced at least where around its inner secondary
40times the circumference. reinforcement
bars size apart ba is the Spacing of shall be not less
except for breadth of longitudinal bars than 0.12% of
bundles section, or measured along btd when using
stopping at average the periphery of Grade Fe 415
support. breadth the columns reinforcement,
excluding shall not exceed or 0.15% of btd the 300mm. The when Grade Fe
Bundles shall compression total cross 250
not be used in a flange for sectional area of reinforcement is
member without nonrectangu these bars shall used. In a solid
stirrups. lar sections ; not be less than slab or wall
1 % of the cross where the main Bar d is the sections of the reinforcement is
schedule effective column or used to resist
dimension - depth to 0.15P/fy, compression,
The dimensions tension whichever is the the area of
of bars showed reinforceme lesser, where P secondary
on the schedule nt. is the ultimate reinforcement
shall be the axial load and fy provided shall
For a box, T or
nominal is the be at least
I section ba shall
dimensions in characteristic 0.12% of btd in
be taken as the
accordance with strength of the the case of
average breadth
the drawings. reinforcement. Grade Fe 415
of the concrete
below the upper
15.9.4. A wall cannot be and 0.15% of
Minimum considered as a btd in the case
Areas of reinforced of Grade Fe 250
The minimum
Reinforcement concrete wall reinforcement.
number of
in Members. unless the The diameter
longitudinal bars
percentage of shall be not less
provided in a vertical than one quarter
column shall be
Minimum area reinforcement of the size of the
four in
of main provided is at vertical bars
reinforcement - least 0.4%. with horizontal
columns and six
The area of This vertical spacing not
in circular
tension reinforcement exceeding 300
columns and
reinforcement in may be in one mm.
their size shall
a beam or slab or two layers.
not be less than
shall be not less In beams where
12mm. In a
than 0.2% of bad the depth of the
when using Minimum area side face
Grade Fe 415 of secondary exceeds 600
column, the
reinforcement, reinforcement - mm, longitudinal
reinforcement sive reinforcement is exceed twice
shall be flange supported by a the member
provided having either link passing thickness in
an area of 1000 round the bar either of the two
atleast 0.05% of mm2/m and having an principal
btd on each face or 0.7% included angle direction of the
with a spacing of the of not more than member and be
not exceeding minimum 135o. All other not greater than
300 mm. flange bars or groups 16 times the bar
section. within a size in the
compression direction of the
where zone shall be compression
within 150 mm force.
may be required
bt is the of a restrained
in beams slabs In all beams
breadth of bar. For circular
and walls to shear
the section ; columns, where
control early reinforcement
the longitudinal
d is the shrinkage and shall be
reinforcement is
effective thermal cracking provided
located round
depth to (see also throughout the
the periphery of
tension 15.9.9). span to meet
a circle,
reinforceme the adequate lateral
nt. recommendatio
Minimum area support is
ns given in
In a voided slab of links provided by a
the amount of When, in a circular tie
transverse beam or passing round The spacing of
reinforcement column, part or the bars or stirrups shall not
shall exceed the all of the main groups. exceed 0.75
lesser of the reinforcement is times the
When the
following: - required to effective depth
resist of the beam, nor
a) In the percentage of
compression, shall the lateral
bottom, reinforcement in
links or ties at spacing of the
or the compression
least one individual legs
predomi face of a wall or
quarter the size of the stirrups
nantly slab exceeds
of the largest exceed this
tensile, 1%, links at
compression figure.
flange least 6 mm or
bar shall be
either one quarter of
provided at a Stirrups shall
1500 the size of the
maximum enclose all
mm2/m largest
spacing of 12 tension
or 1% of compression
times the size of reinforcement.
the bar, whichever
the smallest Also, the
minimum is the greater,
compression spacing of
flange shall be
bar. Links shall stirrups shall be
section; provided
be so arranged restricted to 450
b) In the through the
that every mm.
top, or thickness of the
corner and
predomi member. The
alternate bar or 15.9.5
nantly spacing of these
group in an Maximum
compres links shall not
outer layer of areas of
reinforcement changes in NOTE: For section
in Members. tension over deformed bars, due to
short lengths of the above ultimate In a reinforcement, values shall be loads ;
beam or slab , the local bond increased by S is the
neither the area stress fbs 40%. angle
of tension obtained from between
reinforcement equation 23 V (M/d)tan S the
nor the area of shall not exceed f bs
compression the appropriate Usd compres
sion face
reinforcement value obtained ....(equation 23)
of the
shall exceed 4% from Table 20. section
of the gross which becomes
and the
cross-sectional TABLE 20: tension
area of the V reinforce
f bs
concrete. U Usd ment.
L In a T In equation 23,
when the bars the negative
column, the I are parallel to
percentage of M sign shall be
the compression used when the
longitudinal A face, where
reinforcement T moment is
shall not exceed E increasing
V is the numerically in
6 in vertically L shear
cast columns or O the same
force direction as the
8 in horizontally C due to
cast columns, A effective depth
ultimate of the section.
except that at L loads;
laps percentage B Critical sections
may be 8 & 10 O for local bond
Us is the sum
respectively. N occur at the
of the
D ends of simply
effective In a S supported
wall, the area of T members, at
rs of the
vertical R points where
reinforcement E tension bars
shall not exceed S stop and at
4% of the gross S points of
cross-sectional E contraflexure.
area of the S However, points
concrete. . where tension
(Clause bars stop and
d is the
15.9.6 Bond points of
Anchorage and contraflexure
depth to
Bearing. BAR CONCRETE GRADE need not be
TYPE M20 M 25 reinforce considered if the Local anchorage bond
ment ;
Bond - To N/mm2 N/mm stresses in the
M is the
prevent local Plain continuing bars
1.7 2.0 moment
bond failure bars do not exceed
at the
caused by large 0.8 times the
value in C shall be taken H as the sum of Anchoring
O the effective Shear Anc R perimeters of Reinforcement
horage bond - A the individual
To prevent bond G bars multiplied
failure the E by the Anchorage of
tension or B appropriate Stirrups A
compression in O reduction factor stirrup may be
any bar at any N given in Table considered to
section due to D 22. be fully
ultimate loads ST TABLE 22 : anchored if it
shall be R REDUC passes round
developed on ES TION another bar of at
each side of the SE FACTO least its own
section by an S. R FOR size through an
appropriate (Clause EFFECT angle of 90o
embedment, IVE and continues
length or other ) PERIME beyond for a
end anchorage. TER OF minimum length
The anchorage M 20 A of eight times
bond stress, GROUP own size, or
assumed to be N/mm2 OF when the bar is
constant over BARS. bent through an
the effective Plain bars in 1.2 (Clause angle of 135o
anchorage tension and is continued
length, taken as Plain bars in 1.5 ---------------------- beyond the end
the force in the compression ---------------------- of the curve for
bar divided by ---------- a lengthy of 6
the product of Note : For NUMBER OF BARS bars diameter,
the effective REDUCTION or through 180o
deformed bars, FACTOR
anchorage the above IN A GROUP and continues
length and the values shall be ------------------------ for a minimum
effective increased by ------------------------ length of four
perimeter of the 40%. ---------- times its own
bar or group of 2 size. In no case
bars (see 0.8 shall the radius, shall Effective ---------------------- of any bend in
not exceed the perimeter of a ---------------------- the stirrup be
appropriate bar or group of ---------- less than twice
value obtained bars - The 3 the radius of the
from Table 21. effective 0.6 test bend
perimeter of a ---------------------- guarantee by
TABLE 21 : single bar may ---------------------- the
UL be taken as ---------- manufacturer of
TI 3.14 times its 4 the bar.
M nominal size. 0.4
AT The effective ---------------------- Anchorage of
E perimeter of a ---------------------- inclined bars
A group of bars ---------- The
N (see
development that splices in be used for bars the
length shall be flexural larger than 32 section
as for bars in members shall mm. When bars as
tension ; this not be at are lapped, the intended
length shall be sections when length of the lap to bed
measured as the bending shall at least cast is
under : moment is more equal the less than
than 50 percent anchorage twice the
1) In tension
of the moment length (derived bar size ;
zone, from the
of resistance from b) the
end of the
and not more required to clear
sloping or
than half the develop the distance
inclined portion
bars shall be stress in the between
of the bar, and
spliced at a smaller of the the lap
2) In the section. two bars lapped. and
compression The length of another
zone, from the Where more the lap pair of
mid depth of the than one-half of provided, lapped
beam. the bars are however, shall bars is Laps spliced at a neither be less less than
and Joints section or where than 25 times 150
Continuity of splices are the smaller bar mm ;
reinforcement made at points size plus 150
c) a corner
may be of maximum mm in tension
bar is
achieved by a stress, special reinforcement
connection precautions nor be less than
using any of the shall be taken, 20 times the
and the
following jointing such as, smaller bar size
methods: increasing the plus 150 mm in
cover to
length of lap compression
a) lapping bars and/or using reinforcement.
face is
spirals or
b) butt welding less than
closely spaced The lap length
(see 7.1.4 twice the
stirrups around calculated in the
and 13.4 ) bar size.
the length of the preceding
c) sleeving splice. paragraph shall Where
(see be increased by conditions (a)
d) threading of The use of the a factor of 1.4 if and (b) or
bars (see joining methods any of the conditions (a) given in (c) and following and (c) apply
(d) and any conditions the lap length
Such other method apply: shall be
connection shall not listed shall increased by a
occur, as far as be verified by a) the factor of 2.0.
possible, away test evidence. nominal
from points of cover to Lap
high stress and Lap the splices are
shall be Lengths lapped considered to
staggered. It is bars be staggered if
recommended Lap from the the centre to
splices shall not top of centre distance
of the splices is the end of the support, the radius of the
not less than 1.3 bend, and may beginning of the bend ;
times the lap be taken as the hook shall be
is the size of
length lesser of 24 atleast four
the bar or, in
calculated as times the bar times the bar
a bundle,
described in size or size inside the
the size of a face of the
bar of
a) f support.
equivalent In or a
case of bundled hook,
bars, lapped eight Bearing stress
The stress shall
splices of times the inside bends.-
not exceed
bundled bars internal The bearing
1.5fck / (1+20/a)
shall be made radius of stress inside a
where a for a
by splicing one the hook bend, in a bar
particular bar or
bar at a time ; ; which does not
group of bars in
such individual extend or is not
b) f contact shall be
splices within a assumed to be
or a 90o taken as the
bundle shall be stressed beyond
bend, centre to centre
so staggered a point four
four distance
that in any times the bar
times the between bars or
cross-section size past the
internal groups of bars
there are not end of the bend,
radius of perpendicular to
more than four need not be
the the plane of the
bars in a checked. The
bend. bend ; for a bar
bundle. bearing stress
or group of bars
inside a bend as
In no adjacent to the Hooks described in IS:
case shall the face of the
and Bends - 2502 need not
radius of any member, a shall
Hooks, bends be checked.
bend be less be taken as the
and other
reinforcement than twice the The cover plus .
anchorages radius of the bearing stress
shall be of such test bend inside a bend in If a
form dimension guaranteed by any other bar change in
and the shall be direction of
arrangement as manufacturer of calculated from tension or
to avoid the bar and, in the equation: compression
overstressing addition, it shall Bearing reinforcement
the concrete. sufficient to Fbt induces a
ensure that the stress = resultant force
r acting outward
The bearing stress
Fbt is the tensile tending to split
effective at the mid-point
force due to the concrete,
anchorage of the curve
ultimate such force shall
length of a hook does not exceed
loads in a be taken up by
or bend shall be the value given
bar or group additional links
measured from in
bars ; or stirrups. Bent
the start of the
bend to a point When a r is the tension bar at a
four times the hooked bar is internal re-entrant angle
bar size beyond used at a
shall be reinforce 12 times the
avoided. a) ment bar size
the bars stops plus d/2
15.9.7 extend provide from the
Curtailment an double face of the
and anchorage anchora the area support
of ge required ;where d is
reinforcement. length to resist the effective
appropri the depth to In ate to moment tension
any member their at that reinforceme
subject to design section. nt of the
bending every strength member; no
bar shall extend, (0.87 fy) One or bend shall
except at end from the other of these begin before
supports, point at conditions shall d/2 from the
beyond the which be satisfied for face of the
point at which it they are all support.
is no longer no arrangements of
needed for a longer ultimate load Curtail
distance equal required considered. ment of
to the effective to resist bundled bars
depth of the bending At simply Bars in a bundle
member or 12 ; or supported end shall terminate
times the size of of a member at different
the bar, each tension points spaced
the shear
whichever is bar shall be apart by not less
greater. A point anchored by than 40 times
at the
at which one of the the bar diameter
reinforcement is following: - except for
no longer bundled bars
required is 1) stopping at a
where the an effective support.
resistance anchorage
stops is
moment of the equivalent to 15.9.8
section 12 times the Spacing of
considering only bar size Reinforcement
twice the
the continuing beyond the
bars, is equal to centre line
the required of the
moment. support ; no Minimum
present ;
bend or distance
In addition, hook shall between bars
reinforcement c) begin before These
shall not be the the centre of recommendatio
terminated in a continuin the support; ns are not
tension zone g bars at related to bar
unless one of the 2) sizes but when
the following section an effective a bar exceeds
conditions is where anchorage the maximum
satisfied: the equivalent to size of coarse
aggregate by absence of between bars in
more than 5 better 1. the gaps tension.
mm, a spacing information, the between
smaller than the following may corresponding The
bar size shall be used as a pairs in each maximum
generally be guide: row shall be in spacing shall
avoided; if the line and of width not be greater
distance under a) Individu not less than than 300 mm
consideration is al bars - Except hagg + 5mm; and be such
between bars of where bars form that the crack
2. when the
unequal part of a pair or width and
bars forming the
diameters, the bundle (see (b) calculated using
pairs are one
size of the and (c) the clear equations 24 &
above the other,
larger bar shall distance 26 as
the clear
be considered between bars appropriate do
for this purpose. shall be not less not exceed the
between rows
A pair of bars in than hagg + limits laid down
shall be not less
contact or a 5mm, where hagg in 10.2.1 under
than hagg, except
bundle of three is the maximum the design
for precast
or four bars in size of coarse loadings given
members where
contact shall be aggregate. in 11.3.2.
it shall be not
considered as a
less than 0.67
single bar of Where there are
equivalent area two or more
when assessing rows: 3. when the
size. bars forming the
1. the gaps pair are side by
The between side, the clear
spacing of bars corresponding distance
shall be suitable bars in each between rows
for the proper row shall be in shall be not less
compaction of line. than hagg + 5mm.
concrete and
2. the clear
when an internal c) Bundled
vibrator is likely bars -
between rows
to be used Horizontal and
shall be not less
sufficient space vertical
than hagg except
shall be left distances
for precast
between between
members where
reinforcement to bundles shall be
it shall be not a) For solid
enable the not less than
less than 0.67 rectangular
vibrator to be hagg + 15 mm
hagg. sections, stems
inserted. and gaps
b) Pairs of of T beams and
between rows of
bars - Bars may other solid
Minimum bundles shall be
be arranged in sections shaped
reinforcement vertically in line.
pairs either without re-
spacing is best
touching or entrant angles,
determined by
closer than in the design crack
experience or Maximum
(a), in which widths at the
proper works distance
case: surface (or,
test, but in the
where the cover dc is the depth 1 is the tension
to the outermost of the calculated reinforceme
bar is greater concrete in strain at the nt, ignoring
than Cnom, on a compression level where the stiffening
surface at a (if dc = 0 the cracking is effect of the
distance Cnom crack widths being concrete in
from outermost shall be considered, the tension
bar) shall be calculated ignoring the zone;
calculated from using stiffening
the following equation effect of the As is the area
equation: 26 ); concrete in of tension
the tension; reinforcement.
h is the overall
Design crack
depth of the
width = bt is the width Where the
of the axis of the
3a cr m m is the section at design moment
calculated the level of and the
1 2 a cr c nom / h d c strain at the the centroid direction of the
level where of the tensile
. equation 24) cracking is tension steel reinforcement
where being ; resisting that
acr is the considered, moments are
distance allowing for a is the not normal to
from the the stiffening distance each other (e.g.
point (crack) effect of the from the in a skew slab),
considered concrete in compression As shall be
to the the tension face to the taken as :
surface of zone; a point at
the nearest negative which the As = (At Cos4
longitudinal value of m crack width 1)
bar ; indicates is being
that the calculated ; where
cnom is the section is At is the area of
required uncracked. Mg is the reinforceme
nominal The value of moment at nt in a
cover to the m shall be the section particular
tensile obtained considered direction;
reinforceme from the due to
nt given in equation: permanent 1 is the angle
15.9.2, loads ; between the
where the
cover shown 3.8b t h a d c M q 9 axis of the
m 1 Mq 1 is 10the
or the
s sA h d c M g at
moment moment and
drawing is the section the direction
greater than .
considered of the tensile
the value
due to live reinforceme
given in ..
loads ; nt, At,
15.9.2, the (equation 25)
but nor greater resisting that
latter value s is the moment.
may be than 1
used; where strain in the
b) For algebraic accurate than 250
flanges in addition of the determination, mm
overall tension, strains the area of away
including tensile calculated reinforcement, from all
zones of box separately. The As, parallel to concrete
beams and design crack the direction of surfaces.
voided slabs, width shall then each restraint,
the design crack be calculated in shall be such Shrinkage
width at the accordance with that : & temperature
surface (or at a (b) but may, in As Kr ( Ac - reinforcement
distance Cnom the case of a 0.5 Acor ) shall be
from the deck slab where where distributed
outermost bar) a global uniformly
shall be compression is Kr is 0.005 around the
calculated from being combined for perimeter of the
the following with a local Grade concrete section
equation: moment, be Fe 415 and spaced at
obtained using reinforce not more than
Design crack (a), calculating ment 150 mm.
width = 3 acr m dc on the basis and
of the local 0.006 for
moment only. Grade Reinforcement
. Fe 250 that is present
( d) The reinforce for other
e spacing of ment; purposes may
q transverse bars be taken into
u in slabs with Ac is the account for the
a circular voids area of purpose of this
ti shall not exceed the clause.
o twice the gross
n minimum flange concrete 15.9.10
2 thickness. section Arrangement
6 at right of
) 15.9.9 angles to reinforcement
Shrinkage and the in Skew Slabs.
temperature direction
reinforcement. of the
m is - To prevent
General - In all
restraint; types of skew
obtained excessive
from slab for which
cracking due to Acor is the
equation 25. the moments
shrinkage and area of and torsions
thermal the core
c) Where have been
movement, of the
global and local determined by
reinforcement concrete
effects are an elastic
shall be section,
calculated analysis, the
provided in the Ac i.e.
separately (see reinforcement or
direction of any that
13.5.3) the prestressing
restraint to such portion
value of m
movements. In of the
tendons shall be
may be aligned as close
the absence of section
obtained by as is practicable
any more more
to the principal less efficient reinforcement caused by
moment method, is to may frequently jacking
directions. In fan out the have to be operations
general, an longitudinal placed at a during erection
orthogonal steel from different angle and
arrangement is perpendicular to or parallel to the maintenance
recommended. the supports to supports. operation like
parallel to the replacement of Solid
free edge at the 15.9.11 Design bearings.
Slabs. Only
edge. of diaphragms.
for combinations A
of large skew The minimum
angle and low
Voided slabs thickness of vertical
ratio of skew
The longitudinal diaphragms clearance of
breadth to skew
steel will when provided 400 mm shall be
span is it
generally be for connecting provided
preferable to
placed parallel two girders, between the top
to the voids and shall not be less of pier/bed block
reinforcement in
it is than the and the jacking
recommended thickness of the point to facilitate
that the web of the jacking
and parallel to
transverse steel girder. operation.
the free edges.
be placed
Usually it is
orthogonal to The 15.10 Use of
more efficient to
this steel. reinforcement to lightweight
be provided in aggregates
reinforcement Solid the diaphragms Use of
parallel and
composite shall resist a lightweight
perpendicular to
slabs - The tensile force aggregates is
the supports,
longitudinal equal to 2.5% of beyond the
preferably in
steel will the total scope of this
generally be in compressive code.
with bends of
the form of force carried by Lightweight
prestressing both the girders. aggregates can
tendons in the This only be used
adjacent and
precast units reinforcement with the specific
parallel to the
which are diaphragm with approval of the
free edges.
parallel to the additional engineer for
free edges. nominal which separate
Ideally, the reinforcement specifications
attention shall
transverse through the are to be drawn
be given to the
reinforcement entire depth of up.
provision of
shall be placed the diaphragm.
at right-angles 16 DESIGN &
anchorage of
to the free edge, The DE
bars meeting
since this is the end TAI
the free edge at
most efficient diaphragms, LIN
an angle.
arrangement; where required, G:
however, in shall also be PRESTRE
practice, the strong enough SSED
alternative, but
transverse to resist the load CONCRETE
a) unbonded Type of flexure, shear
16.1 General tendons, structures and torsion shall
Design life in be checked.
b) external yrs.
16.1.1 This tendons ( a
clause gives tendon is 16.2.2
methods of Bridges in sea Durability :- A
considered 50
analysis and external if, proper drainage
design which Bridges in system shall be
after Coastal areas
will in general stressing provided for the
ensure that for 80 deck as
and Bridges in rest
prestressed incorporatin indicated in
concrete of India
g in the 100
construction, the permanent Guidance is
recommendatio work but given in 16.9.2
ns set out in 16.2 Limit on the minimum
before state design of
10.2 & 10.3 are protection, it cover to
met. Other prestressed reinforcement
is outside concrete
methods may the concrete and
be used section ); prestressing
provided they 16.2.1 Basis of tendons. For
c) lightweight Design
can be shown to other
aggregate. Clause 16
be satisfactory requirements
for the type of When follows the limit like maximum
structure or analysing state philosophy water cement
member sections, the set out in clause ratio, minimum
considered. In terms strength, 10 but, as it is grade of
certain cases resistance and not possible to concrete,
the assumptions capacity are assume that a minimum
made in this used to describe particular limit cement
clause may be the strength of state will always contents,
inappropriate the section. be the critical maximum crack
and the 16.1.2 All one, design width etc.,
engineer shall prestressed methods are Clause 5.4 &
adopt a more concrete given for both 10.2.1 shall be
suitable method structures shall the ultimate and referred.
having regard to be designed for the
the nature of the safety, serviceability 16.2.3 Loads
structure in serviceability limit states. In clause 16, the
question. and durability design load (see
requirements In general, 11.3) for the
This clause (structural and the design of ultimate and
does not cover non-structural prestressed serviceability
prestress loads caused by concrete limit states are
concrete environment). members are referred to as
construction controlled by ultimate loads
using any of the 16.1.3 The concrete stress and service
following in the bridges shall be limitations for loads
permanent designed for the serviceability respectively.
works : service life as load conditions,
given below: - but the ultimate Consideration
strength in shall be given to
the construction equations in for prestressing used for the
sequence and terms of the steel are design of
to the characteristic modified to individual
secondary strength of the include the members.
effects due to material. Unless concept of
The relative
prestress specifically characteristic
stiffness of
particularly for stated strength, the
members shall
the otherwise, all characteristic
generally be
serviceability equations and strength shall be
based on the
limit states. For tables include assumed as the
concrete section
prestressed allowances for minimum
as described in
concrete Ym, the partial ultimate tensile
members the safety factor for stress/breaking
different stages material load for the 16.3.2.
of loadings strength. prestressing Redistribution
defined below steel specified of Moments -
shall be Ch in the relevant Redistri
investigated and aracteristic Indian Standard bution of
the various strength of Specifications. moments
stresses to concrete The obtained by The
which the characteristic rigorous elastic
values given in
member is cube strengths analysis under
relevant Indian
subjected shall of concrete for the ultimate limit
be maintained various grades state may be
within the are given in carried out
do not include
permissible Table 2. These provided the
any allowance
limits. values given do following
for Ym.
a) at transfer not include any conditions are
of allowance for 16.3 Structur
prestres Ym. Design es &
s, shall be based Structur a) Appropria
on the al te checks are
b) at made to ensure
characteristic Frames:
handling that adequate
strength, fck, 16.3.1
and rotation capacity
except that at Analysis of
erection; exists at
transfer the structures
c) at design calculations sections where
load. Complete
shall be based moments are
structures and
on the cube reduced,
16.2.4 complete
strength at making
Strength of structural
transfer. reference to
Materials frames may be
appropriate test Ch analysed in
data. aracteristic accordance with
Definition of strength of the In the absence
strengths In prestressing recommendatio of a special
clause 16 the tendons Until ns of 13.1 but investigation,
design strengths the relevant when the plastic
of materials are Indian appropriate the rotation capacity
expressed in all standards methods given may be taken as
the tables and specifications in 16.4 may be the lesser of :
transverse when depth
deflections and under load in its ratios,
transverse final position, etc.

dshears the possible
0.008 0.035 0.5 c b) location
d consequent
on instability of a
of lifting
redistribution of prestressed
points ;
longitudinal beam during
or moments by erection shall be c) methods
(2) means of an considered. of lifting
10 appropriate non- i.e.
linear analysis. inclined
d dc Members may
c) Shears collapse by
but not less than vertical
and reactions tilting about a
0 or more than slings,
used in design longitudinal axis
0.015 type of
are taken as through the
where either those lifting points.
calculated prior The initial tilting,
dc is the between
to redistribution which may be
calculated the
or after due to
depth of beam
redistribution, imperfections in
concrete in and the
whichever is beam geometry
compression slings;
greater. and in locating
at the d) tolerance
the lifting points,
ultimate limit d) The depth
could cause in
state (in of the members
lateral bending construct
mm) ; or elements
moments and ion, e.g.
considered is
de is the these, if too maximu
less than 1200
effective high, could m lateral
depth for a result in lateral bow.
solid slab or 16.4 Beams instability. The stress
rectangular 16.4.1 General due to the
The problem is
beam, combined complex and
otherwise effects of lateral
Definitions - previous
the overall bending, dead
The definitions experience shall
depth of the load and
and limitations be relied on in
compression prestress can
of the geometric considering a
flange (in be assessed
properties for particular case.
mm); and, if cracking
prestressed The following
d is the factors may is possible, the
beams are as
effective require lifting
given for
depth to consideration: arrangements
tension shall be
concrete beams a) beam
reinforceme changed or the
in 15.4.1. geometr
nt (in mm) beam shall be y, i.e.
provided with
b) Proper Slender Beams type of
adequate lateral
account is taken In addition to cross
of changes in limiting the section,
transverse span/bre 16.4.2
slenderness of a
moments, adth/ Serviceability
beam (see
Limit State : a) Load deemed to be
Flexure. under satisfied
Design load in
serviceability provided that bending
limit state - the flexural
The Design Load in tensile stresses
Analysis - The
compressive direct compression under the
stresses in the loading given in
concrete in the 11.3.2 do not
may be made
concrete under TABLE-24: produce any
the loads given ALLOWABLE tensile stresses
in Clause-11 COMPRESSIVE except as
design loads :
shall not exceed STRESSES AT indicated in
a) Plane the values given TRANSFER (b).
sections remain in Table-23.
(Clause b) At
Higher transfer and
b) Elastic stresses are During
behaviour exists permissible for NATURE OF Construction-
for the concrete prestressed STRESS The flexural
upto stresses members used DISTRIBUTION tensile stress in
given in in composite Triangular or near the concrete construction triangular shall not exceed
c) In (see distribution of 1 N/mm2 due
general, it may prestress solely to
b) At
only be prestress and
transfer - The Uniform or near
necessary to co-existent dead
compressive uniform
calculate and temporary
stresses in the distribution of
stresses due to loads during
concrete at prestress
the load erection.
transfer shall
combinations not exceed the Steel 16.4.3 Ultimate
given in 11.3 values given in stress Limit State :
immediately Table 24, where limitations Flexure
after the transfer fci is the The stress in
of prestress and concrete the prestressing Section
after all losses strength at tendons under Analysis
of prestress transfer. the loads given When analysing
have occurred; in 11 need not
TABLE-23: a cross section
in both cases be checked.
COMPRESSIVE to determine its
the effects of The stress at
STRESSES IN ultimate
dead and transfer shall be
CONCRETE strength the
imposed loads checked in
FOR following
on the strain accordance with
SERVICEABILI assumptions
and force in the 16.8.1.
TY LIMIT shall be made :-
tendons may be
ignored. a) The
( Clauses Cracking strain, a) Under distribution in
Concrete service loads - the concrete in
The compression is
stress NATURE OF
recommendatio derived from the
limitations LOADING
ns of 10.2.1 are assumption that
plane sections addition, the D TENDONS, In addition, if
remain plane. tendon will have OR WITH the ultimate
an initial strain POST- moment of
b) The
due to prestress TENSIONED resistance
stress in the
after all losses. TENDONS calculated as in
concrete in
HAVING (a) to (e) is less
compression e) The
EFFECTIVE than 1.15 times
are derived stresses in
BOND. the required
either from the bonded
value, the
stress-strain prestressing (Clause 16.4.3) section shall be
curve given in tendons,
f pu Aps STRESS IN proportioned
Fig.3, with Ym = whether initially
TENDONS AS Asuch that the
1.5, or, in the tensioned or fck bd PROPORTION
strain in the
case of untensioned, OF THE DESIGNoutermost
rectangular and in additional STRENGTH, tendon is not
sections or reinforcement,
fpb/(0.87fpu less than:
flanged sections are derived from
with the neutral the appropriate
axis in the stress-strain f pu
flange, the curves, with Ym Pre- Post-ten- 0.005
E s Ym
compressive = 1.15; the Ten- sioning
stress may be stress strain sioning with
taken as equal curves for bond
to 0.4 fck over prestressing fpu is
the whole tendons are 0.025 1.0 1.0 characteristic
compression given in Fig.2 strength of
0.05 1.0 1.0 prestressing
zone ; in both and the stress-
cases the strain strain curves for 0.10 1.0 1.0 tendon, and
at the outermost reinforcement 0.15 1.0 1.0 Es is the
compression are given in Fig. modulus of
fibre is taken as 4. An empirical 0.20 1.0 0.95
elasticity of the
0.0035. approach for 0.25 1.0 0.90 steel.
obtaining the
c) The 0.30 1.0 0.85 Where the
stress in the
tensile strength outermost
tendons at 0.40 0.9 0.75
of the concrete tendon, or layer
failure is given
is ignored. of tendons,
in and
d) The Table 24. NOTE-* The provides less
strain in bonded neutral axis than 25% of the
prestressing depth in these total tendon
tendons and in cases is too low area, this
any additional to provide the condition shall
TABLE 25: elongation given also be met at
CONDITIONS in It is the centroid of
whether in
AT THE essential the outermost
tension or
ULTIMATE therefore that 25% of tendon
LIMIT STATE the strength area.
are derived from
FOR provided shall
the assumption As
RECTANGULA exceed that
that plane an alternative,
R BEAMS strictly required
sections remain the strains in the
WITH by 15%.
plane. In concrete and
the bonded (d) The rectangular
prestressing stresses in beam, or of a
tendons and bonded flanged beam in
any additional prestressing which the
reinforcement, tendons, neutral axis lies
due to the whether initially within the
application of tensioned or flange, may be
ultimate loads, untensioned, obtained from
may be and in additional equation 27.
calculated using reinforcement
Mu =
the following are derived from
assumptions: the appropriate
(equation 27)
(a) The strain
curves with where
distribution in BEAM
Ym=1.15; the
the concrete in
stress strain Mu is the
curve for ultimate
and the strains
prestressing moment of
in bonded In addition the
tendons is given resistance
prestressing section shall be
in Fig. 2A & 2B
tendons and proportioned of the
and the stress
any additional such that the section.
strain curves for
reinforcement, strain at the
reinforcement fpb is the tensile
whether in centroid of the
are given in stress in the
tension or outermost 25%
Fig.4. In using tendons
compression, of the cross
the alternative at
are derived from sectional area of
method of failure
the assumption the tendons is
analysis, the
that plane not less than x is the
calculated strain
sections remain 0.005+fpu/(EsYm) neutral axis
due to the
plane. In except where depth;
application of
addition, the the requirement
ultimate loads at d is the
tendons will for the
the outermost effective depth
have an initial calculated strain
compression to tension
strain due to in the concrete,
fibre of the
prestress after due to the reinforcem
concrete shall
all losses. application of ent
not exceed
(b) The 0.0035. 1.15times the
Aps is the area
stresses in the ultimate loads,
of the
concrete in can be satisfied.
compression Design
are derived from tendons in
Formula In
the stress-strain the tension
the absence of
curve given in zone.
an analysis
Fig. 5, with Ym = based on the Value for fpb and
1.5. assumptions x may be
(c) The tensile given in derived from
strength of the, the Table 25 for pre-
concrete is resistance tensioned
ignored. moment of a members and
for post-
tensioned uncracked (see b) losses have
members with and to occurred
effective bond cracked (see multiplied by the
between the in using the appropriate
concrete and flexure, and if appropri value of YfL (see
tendons, necessary shear ate value 11.3.3)
provided that reinforcement of
The value of Vco
the effective shall be prestres
is given by:
prestress after provided (see s at the
all losses is not
less than section

Vco 0.67bh f 2 t f cp f t ) For a
0.45fpu. ed,
cracked section
Prestressing assumin
the conditions of (equation 28 )
tendons and g a
maximum shear
additional parabolic where
with co-existent
reinforcement in variation
bending ft is 0.24
the compression of
moment and
zone are prestres f ck taken as
ignored in s over positive;
strength the
moment with co- fcp is the
calculations transmis
existent shear compressive
when using this sion
shall both be stress at the
method. length.
centroidal Non- axis due to
rectangular Sections
Within the prestress,
Sections: - Uncracked in
Non-rectangular Flexure It taken as
length of
beams shall be may be positive
analysed using assumed that
members (see *b is the
the assumptions the ultimate
16.8.4) the breadth of the
given in shear resistance
shear resistance member which of a section
of a section
uncracked in for T, I and L
16.4.4 Shear shall be taken
flexure, Vco beams shall
Resistance of as the greater of
corresponds to be
Beams- the values
the occurrence replaced by
calculated from: of a maximum the breadth
Calculations for a) 15.4.3 principal tensile of the rib.
shear are only except stress at the
h is the overall
required for the that in centroidal axis,
depth of the
ultimate limit determin of
state. ing the
area As ft = 0.24 f ck At
the area In the
any section the NOTE: * Where
of calculation of
ultimate shear the position of a
tendons Vco, the value of
resistance of the duct coincides
shall be fcp shall be
concrete alone. with the position
ignored: derived from the
Vc shall be of maximum
and prestressing
considered for principal tensile
the section both force after all stress, e.g. at or
near the of the member section form of
junction of shall be consider stirrups/links
flange and web algebraically ed. such that:
near a support, added to Vco.
Mcr (0.37 fck f pt )I/yAsv 0.4b
the value of b This component
shall be reduced shall be taken Sv 0.87f yv
in which
by the full as positive fpt is the stress
diameter of the where the shear where
due to prestress
duct if resistance of the only at the fyv is the
ungrouted and section is tensile fibre y characte
by two-thirds of increased. from the ristic
the diameter if centroid of the strength
grouted. concrete section of the
Sections In Cracked in which has a stirrup/lin
flanged Flexure- The second moment k
members where ultimate shear of area I: the reinforce
the centroidal resistance of a value of fpt shall ment but
axis occurs in section cracked be derived from not
the flange, the in flexure Vcr the prestressing greater
principal tensile may be force after all than 415
stress shall be calculated losses have N/mm 2
limited to using equation occurred Asv is the
0.24fck at the 29: multiplied by the total
intersection of appropriate cross
Vcr= 0.037bd value of YfL (see
the flange and sectional
M 11.3.3):
web; in this f ck cr V area of
calculation, the M V and M the legs
algebraic sum of ...(equation are the shear of the
the stress due 29 ) force and stirrups/li
to the bending bending nks
moment under Where moment (both Sv is the
ultimate loads d is the taken as stirrup/lin
and the stress distance positive) at the k
due to prestress from the section spacing
at this extreme considered due along
intersection compres to ultimate the
shall be used in sion fibre loads; length or
calculating Vco. to the Vcr shall the For a centroid be taken as not beam.
section with of the less than 0.1 bd Minimum
inclined tendons
fck shear
tendons, the at the
section Shear reinforcement
component of
consider Reinforcement shall also not be
ed. less than 0.20%
force (multiplied of web area in
by the Mcr is the Minimum shear plan in the case
appropriate cracking reinforcement of mild steel
value of Yfl) moment shall be reinforcement
normal to the at the provided in the and 0.12% of
longitudinal axis
web area in plan tendons) greater. A the minimum
in the case of ; stirrup/link shall spacing shall
HSD bars. extend as close not be less than
fy is the
to the tension 75mm. characte
When the shear ristic
force, V, due to strength
faces as Maximum
the ultimate of the
possible, with Shear Force
loads exceeds longitudi
due regard to In no
Vc the shear nal
cover. The circumstances
reinforcement reinforce
stirrups/links shall the shear
provided shall ment
provided at a force, Va due to
be such that : and
cross section ultimate loads,
Asv V 0.4bd t Vc shall between exceed the
them enclose all appropriate
Sv 0.87f yv d t tendons
the tendons and value given by
but not additional Table 26
Where reinforcement multiplied by bd,
stirrups/links are provided at the where b is as
used, the area cross section defined in
of longitudinal and shall be less
steel in the In adequately either the
tensile zone rectangular anchored (see diameter of the
shall be such beams, at both duct for
that :- corners in the temporarily
tensile zone, a The ungrouted ducts
V stirrup/link shall spacing of or two-thirds the
2(0.87fy ) pass round a stirrups/links diameter of the
longitudinal bar, along a beam duct for grouted
a tendon, or a shall not ducts; d is the
As is the group of exceed 0.75d, distance from
area of tendons having nor four times the compression
effectivel a diameter not the web face to the
y less than the thickness for centroid of the
anchore stirrup/link flanged beams. area of steel in
d diameter. In this When V the tension
longitudi clause on shear exceeds 1.8 Vc, zone,
nal reinforcement, the maximum irrespective of
tensile the effective spacing shall be its characteristic
reinforce depth, dt, shall reduced to 0.5d. strength.
ment be taken as the The lateral
(see depth from the spacing of the
15.9.7) extreme individual legs
and compression of the links
prestres fibre either to provided at a
sing these cross section
tendons longitudinal bars shall not exceed
(excludin or to the 0.75dt. In no
g centroid of the case shall the
debonde tendons, spacing exceed
d whichever is 450mm. Also,
( Clause 2 is the circumstances, concrete due to , angle of reinforcement prestress shall
16.5.2 ) friction at and prestress in be taken into
the joint. excess of that account
CONCRETE GRADE required for separately in
Tan 2 can flexure and accordance with
30 40 vary from 0.7 for
shear may be
N/mm2 N/mma smooth used in torsion.
unprepared joint In
Maximum calculating (v
4.1 4.7 upto 1.4
Shear for a castellated Stresses and +vt), for
Stress joint; a value Reinforcement comparison with
greater than 0.7 Calculations vtu in Table 17, v
shall only be for torsion are shall be
used where only required for calculated from
justified by tests the ultimate limit equation 8,
and agreed by state and the regardless of
In post-
the engineer. torsional shear whether
stresses shall or
segmental 16.4.5 Torsion be calculated is
construction, the al assuming a critical in shear.
shear force due Resista plastic shear
to ultimate loads nce of For
shall be not Beams concrete grades
greater than : Calculati above M40 the
ons for torsion values of vtu
0.7 YfLPh shall be in given in Table
tan 2 General - accordance with 17 may be
Torsion does not 15.4.4 with the increased to
usually decide following 0.75 fck but not
YfL is the the dimensions modifications. more than 5.8
partial of members; When N/mm2.
safety therefore, prestressing
factor for torsional design
steel is used as
the shall be carried Segmental
prestres out as a check Construction-
torsional steel,
sing after the flexural When a
in accordance
force, to design. This is structure to be
with equations
be taken particularly constructed
10 and 10(a) or
as 0.87: relevant to segmentally is
as longitudinal
some members designed for
Ph is the steel, in
in which the torsion, and
horizont accordance with
maximum additional
al equation 11, the
torsional torsional steel is
compon stress assumed
moment does necessary in
ent of in design shall
not occur under accordance with
the be the lesser of
the same equation 11, the
prestres 415 N/mm2 or
loading as the distribution of
sing (0.87fpu fpe).
maximum this longitudinal
flexural The steel, whether
after all
moment. In compressive by
such stress in the reinforcement or
prestressing flange web given in corresponding
tendons, shall junction shall be may in general to the
comply with the checked in be used unless occurrence of a
recommendatio accordance with a more accurate maximum
ns of assessment is principal
Other required. Due tensile stress
16.4.7 Deflecti
arrangements allowance shall of ft = 0.24fck at
on of
may be used be made for the the centroidal
provided that loss of prestress axis around the
the line of action The after the period critical section
of the instantaneous considered. which is
longitudinal deflection due to assumed as a
16.5 Slabs
elongating force design loads perimeter h/2
is at the centroid may be 16.5.1 The from the loaded
of the steel. calculated using analysis of area. The
elastic analysis prestressed values of Vco Other
based on the concrete slabs given in Table
concrete section shall be in 26 may be used
properties and accordance with with b being
on the value for 15.5.1 provided taken as the
methods of
the modulus of that due length of the
elasticity given allowance is critical
in 12.3.1. made for perimeter.
subjected to
moments due to Reinforcement if
combined The total
prestress. The necessary, shall
bending, shear long term
design shall be be provided in
and torsion may deflection due to
in accordance accordance with
be used with the the prestressing
with 16.4.
approval of the force, dead load
engineer, and any 16.5.2 The 16.6 Columns
provided that it sustained design for shear
imposed loading shall be in 16.6.1
can be shown
may be accordance with Prestressed
that they satisfy
calculated using 16.4.4 except concrete
both the
elastic analysis that shear columns, where
ultimate and
based on the reinforcement the mean stress
concrete section need not be in the concrete
limit state
properties and provided if V is section imposed
on an effective less than Vc. by the tendons
16.4.6 is less than
modulus of
Longitudinal In the 2.5N/mm2, may
elasticity based
Shear For treatment of be analysed as
on the creep of
flanged beams shear stresses reinforced
the concrete per
where shear under columns in
unit length for
reinforcement is concentrated accordance with
unit applied
required to loads, the 15.6 otherwise
stress after the
resist vertical ultimate shear the full effects of
shear, the resistance of a the prestress
longitudinal section shall be
(specific creep).
shear resistance uncracked in considered.
The values for
of the flange flexure. Vco may
specific creep
and of the be taken as
16.7 Tension Prestress- consideration the
Members Immediately shall be given, concrete
after anchoring in determining ;
16.7.1 The
the force in the the maximum
tensile strength (c) slip or
prestressing initial prestress,
of tension moveme
tendon shall not to the possible
members shall nt of
exceed 70% of influence of the
be based on the tendons
the size of the
design strength at
characteristic deflector on the
(0.87fpu) of the anchora
strength for post strength of the
prestressing ge
tensioned tendons.
tendons and the during
tendons, or 75% Attention shall
strength anchorin
for pre- also be paid to
developed by g;
tensioned the effect of any
any additional
tendons. The frictional forces (d) other
jacking force that may occur. causes
The additional
may be in
reinforcement 16.8.2 Loss of
increased to special
may usually be Prestress,
80% during circumst
assumed to be Other Than
stressing, ances,
acting at its Friction
provided that e.g.
design stress Losses
additional when
(0.87fy): in
consideration is steam
special cases it
given to safety, General- curing is
may be
to the stress Allowance shall used
necessary to
strain be made when with
check the stress
characteristics calculating the pretensi
in the
of the tendon, forces in oning.
and to the tendons at the
using strain If
assessment of various stages
compatibility. experimental
the friction in design for the
evidence on
16.7.2 Members losses. appropriate
performance is
subject to axial losses of In not available,
tension shall prestress
determining the account shall be
also be checked resulting from:
jacking force to taken of the
at the
be used, (a) relaxatio properties of the
consideration n of the steel and of the
limit state to
shall also be steel concrete when
comply with the
given to the comprisi calculating the
gripping or ng the losses of
anchorage tendons: prestress from
limitations of
efficiency of the these causes. (b) the
anchorage (see For a wide
16.8 range of
Prestressing structure, the Where ion and
Requirements simple
deflected subsequ
tendons are ent
ns given in this
16.8.1 used in pre- shrinkag
clause shall be
Maximum tensioning e and
used; it should
Initial systems, creep of
be reducing to 0 at short time prior prestress in the
105ecognized, 50% of the to the tendons at
however, that characteristic anchorage of transfer shall be
these strength. The the tendon. calculated on a
recommendatio intermediate modular ratio In
ns are value may be basis using the
special cases,
necessarily interpolated stress in the
such as tendons
general and linearly. adjacent
at high
approximate. concrete.
Where temperatures or Loss there is no subjected to For
of Prestress experimental large lateral members with
due to data available loads (e.g. post-tensioning
Relaxation of and the force at deflected tendons that are
Steel- The the time of tendons), not stressed
thousand-hour transfer in the greater simultaneously,
relaxation loss tendon is less relaxation there is a
value shall be than 70% of the losses will progressive loss
obtained from characteristic occur. of prestress
the strength, the Specialist during transfer
manufacturer of 1000 hrs literature should due to the
prestressing relaxation loss be consulted in gradual
steel. This data (at 30o C) may these cases. application of
shall be be assumed to the prestressing Loss
independently decrease force. The
of prestress
cross-checked linearly from 4% resulting loss of
due to Elastic
to ascertain its (2.5% for low prestress in the
Deformation of
veracity. The relaxation tendons shall be
the Concrete -
independently prestressing calculated on
Calculation of
checked data steel strand) for the basis of half
the immediate
shall be adopted an initial the product of
loss of force in
for extrapolating prestress of the modular
the tendons due
the final 70% of the ratio and the
to elastic
relaxation loss characteristic stress in the
deformation of
value occurring strength to 0 for concrete
the concrete at
at about initial prestress adjacent to the
transfer may be
0.5x106h which of 50% of the tendons,
based on the
shall be taken characteristic averaged along
values for the
as 2.5 times (for strength. their length;
modulus of
low relaxation alternatively, the
No elasticity of the
prestressing loss of prestress
reduction in the concrete given
steel strands 3 may be
value of the in The
times) the 1000 computed
relaxation loss modulus of
hrs value at 30o exactly based
shall be made elasticity of the
C. The above on the
for a tendon tendons may be
value shall be sequence of
when a load obtained from
for initial stress tensioning.
equal to or 4.6.2.
level of 70% of
greater than the In
the For
relevant jacking making these
characteristic pre-tensioning,
force has been calculations, it
strength the loss of
applied for a may usually be
assumed that Loss is necessary to Loss
the tendons are of Prestress determine the of Prestress
located at their due to Creep of deformation of due to Steam
centroid. the Concrete - the concrete Curing - Where
The loss of due to creep at steam curing is Loss
prestress in the some earlier employed in the
of prestress
tendons due to stage, it may be manufacture of
due to
creep of the assumed that prestressed
Shrinkage of
concrete shall half the total concrete units,
the Concrete -
be calculated on creep takes changes in the
The loss of
the assumption place in the first behavior of the
prestress in the
that creep is month after material at
tendons due to
proportional to transfer and that higher than
shrinkage of the
stress in the three quarters of normal
concrete may
concrete for total creep takes temperature will
be calculated
stress of up to place in the first need to be
from the
one-third of the 6 months after considered. In
modulus of
cube strength at transfer. addition, where
elasticity for the
transfer. The the long-line
tendons given in Loss
loss of prestress method of pre-
4.6.2 assuming of Prestress
is obtained from tensioning is
the values for during
the product of used there may
shrinkage per Anchorage
the modulus of be additional
unit length given In post
elasticity of the losses as a
in 5.2.3. tensioning
tendon (see result of bond
systems When 4.6.2) and the developed
allowance shall
it is necessary creep of the between the
be made for any
to determine the concrete tendon and the
movement of
loss of prestress adjacent to the concrete when
the tendon at
and the tendons. the tendon is
the anchorage
deformation of Usually it is hot and relaxed.
when the
the concrete at sufficient to Since the actual
some stage assume, in losses of
force is
before the total calculating this prestress due to
transferred from
shrinkage is loss, that the steam curing
the tensioning
reached, it may tendons are are a function of
equipment to
be assumed for located at their the techniques
the anchorage,
normal centroid, Creep used by the
The loss due to
aggregate of the concrete various
this movement
concrete that per unit length manufacturers,
is particularly
half the total may be taken specialist advice
important in
shrinkage takes form should be
short members,
place during the sought. The and for such
first month after
figures for creep members the 16.8.3 Loss of
transfer and that
of the concrete allowance made Prestress due
per unit length by the designer to Friction
of the total
relate to the shall be
shrinkage takes
ultimate creep checked on the
place in the first General In
after a period of site.
6 months after post-tensioning
years, When it
transfer. systems there
will be considered in tendon and the of
movement of design. sides of the forming
the greater part duct, and so it and The
of the tendon produce friction. the
extension of the
relative to the The degree
tendon shall be
surrounding prestressing of
duct during the force, Px at any vibration
allowing for the
tensioning distance x from employe
variation in
operation, and if the jack may be d in
tension along its
the tendon is in calculated from : placing
contact with the
Px = Poe-Kx
either the duct concrete

or any spacers Friction in the .
(equation 31)
provided, friction Jack and
The value of
will cause a Anchorage and where Kx
K per meter
reduction in the This is directly 0.2, e-Kx may be
length in
prestressing proportional to taken as (1-Kx)
equation 31
force as the the jack
where shall generally
distance from pressure, but it
be taken as not
the jack will vary Po is the
less than 33x10-
increases, in considerably prestres 4
, but where
addition, a between sing
strong rigid
certain amount systems and force in
sheaths or duct
of friction will be shall be the
formers are
developed in the ascertained for tendon
used closely
jack itself and in the type of jack at the
supported so
the anchorage and the jacking
that they are not
through which anchorage end:
displaced during
the tendon system to be
e is the the concreting
passes. used.
base of operation, the In the Napieria value of K may
absence of Friction in the n be taken as
evidence Duct due to logarith 17x10-4. Other
established to Unintentional ms(2.71 values may be
the satisfaction variation form 8): used provided
of the engineer, the Specified they have been
K is the
the stress Profile - established by
variation likely Whether the tests to the
to be expected desired duct satisfaction of
ng on
along the design profile is straight the engineer.
the type
profile shall be or curved or a
of duct
assessed in combination of
or Friction in the
accordance with both, there will
sheath Duct due to to be slight
employe Curvature of in order variations in the
d, the the Tendon-
to obtain the actual line of the
nature of When a tendon
prestressing duct, which may
its inside is curved, the
force at the cause additional
surface, loss of tension
critical sections points of contact
the due to friction is
between the
method dependent on
the angle turned Values of may circumferential n
through and the be taken as: tendons are st
coefficient of tensioned by e
0.55 for
friction , means of jacks el
steel moving on
between the the losses due b
tendon and its to friction may e
supports. 0.30 for be calculated a
steel moving on from the formula r
The steel in but e
0.25 for the values of r
force Px, at any
steel moving on may be taken as s
distance, x
lead. fi
along the curve 0.45 f
from the tangent 0.17 for o
point may be steel moving r
calculated from: on HDPE st
sheathing. e
Px Po e
x/rps o
The value of t
. m
(equation 32) may be reduced o
where special vi
where c
precautions are n
Po is the taken and g
prestres where results in
sing are available to s
force in justify the value m
the assumed. For o
tendons example, a o
at the value of t
tangent = 0.10 has been h
point observed for c 0.17 f
near the strand moving o o
jacking on rigid steel n r
end. spacers coated c st
with r e
rps is the
molybdenum e el
radius of
disulphide. Such t m
reduced values e o
may be used . vi
Where x/rps only with the n
0.25 f
0.2, e x/r ps prior approval of g
may be taken as the engineer if o
(1-x/rps) sufficient n
evidence is H
Where (Kx + e
established to D
x/rps) 0.2, his satisfaction. P
( Kx x/rps ) E o
may be taken as s
Friction in vi
{ 1- (Kx + x/rps)} h
Circular n
Construction - g
Where o
t transmission (f) the the tendon is
hi length is defined surface released
n as the length condition gradually:
g over which a of the
(1) for plain and
tendon is tendon.
0.10 f indented wires
bonded to
o The 100
concrete to
r transmission
transmit the (2) for crimped
st lengths for the
initial wires
e tendon towards
prestressing 65
el the top of a unit
force in a
m may be greater (3) for strands
tendon to the
o than those at
vi the bottom. 35
n The
The sudden Where is the
g transmission
release of diameter of
o length depends
tendons may tendons.
n on a number of
also cause a
st variables, the The
e most important development of
increase in the
el being: stress form the
r end of the unit
(a) the lengths.
ol to the point of
le In view maximum stress
r of these many shall be
s. variables, assumed to vary
on of the
transmission parabolically concrete
lengths shall be over the
Lubricants - :
determined from transmission
Lubricants may
(b) the tests carried out length.
be specified to
strength under the most
ease the If the
of the unfavorable
movement of tendons are
concrete conditions of
tendons in the prevented from
; each casting
ducts. Lower bonding to the
yard both under
values of than (c) the size concrete near
those given in and type the ends of the
conditions and and of units by the use
under ultimate may tendon; of sleeves or
loads. In the
then be used, (d) the absence of tape, the
subject to their deformat values based on transmission
being ion (e.g. actual tests, the lengths shall be
determined by crimp) of following values taken from the
trial and the may be used ends of the de-
agreeable to the tendon; provided the bonded
engineer. concrete is well portions.
(e) the
16.8.4 stress in compacted and 16.8.5 End
Transmission the its strength at Blocks - The
Length in Pre- tendon; transfer is not end block (also
tensioned and less than known as the
Members - The 35N/mm2 and anchor block or
end zone) is (b) overall (3) shape recommendatio
defined as the equilibriu of the ns are followed
highly stressed m of the end by some
zone of end block guidance on
concrete around block; relative other aspects.
the termination to the
(c) spalling The
points of a pre general
of the bursting tensile
or post shape of
concrete forces in the
tensioned the
form the end blocks, or
prestressing member;
loaded end regions of
tendon. It
face (4) layout bonded post-
extends from
around of tensioned
the points of
anchora anchora members, shall
application of
ges. ges be assessed on
prestress (i.e.
including the basis of the
the end of the In
asymmet tendon jacking
bonded part of considering
ry group load. For
the tendon in each of these
effects temporarily
pre tensioned aspects,
and unbonded
construction or particular
edge members, the
the anchorage attention shall
distance bursting tensile
in post- be given to
s; forces shall be
tensioned factor such as
assessed on the
construction) to the following: (5) influenc
basis of the
that section of e of the
(1) shape, tendon jacking
the member at support
dimensio load or the load
which linear reaction;
ns and in the tendon at
distribution of position (6) forces the ultimate limit
stress is of due to state, calculated
assumed to anchor curved using
occur over the plates or whichever is the
whole cross- relative divergen greater.
section. to the t The The cross- tendons.
bursting tensile
following section ]
force , Fbst
aspects of of the The existing in an
design shall be end
following individual
considered in block:
recommendatio square end
assessing the (2) the ns are block loaded by
strength of end magnitu appropriate to a a symmetrically
blocks: de of the circular, square placed square
(a) bursting prestres or rectangular anchorage or
forces sing anchor plate, bearing plate,
around forces symmetrically may be derived
individua and the positioned on from Table 27,
l sequenc the end face of
anchora e of a square or
ges; prestres rectangular post Yo is half
sing; tensioned the side
member, the
of end to the square area load axis are
block; reinforcement is shall be derived. provided for.
less than 50mm. Alternative
Ypo is half Where
methods of
the side In the groups of
design, which
of rectangular end anchorages or
use higher
loaded block, the bearing plates
values of
area; bursting tensile occur, the end
Fbst/Pk and
forces in the two blocks shall be
Pk is the allow for the
principal divided into a
load in tensile strength
directions shall series of
the of concrete may
be assessed on symmetrically
tendon be more
the basis of the loaded prisms
assesse appropriate in
formulae in and each prism
d in some cases,
Table 27. treated in the
accorda particularly
nce with TABLE 27: where large
manner. In
the DESIGN concentrated
detailing the
precedin BURSTING tendon forces
g TENSILE are involved.
for the end
paragrap FORCES IN
block as a
whole it is Consideration
Fbst is the necessary to shall also be )
bursting ensure that the given to the
tensile Ypo/Y0 0.3 groups of spalling tensile
force. 0.4 0.5 anchorages are stresses that
0.6 0.7 appropriately occur in end
This force,
Fbst, will be Fbst/Pk 0.23 tied together. blocks where
distributed in a 0.20 0.17 the anchorage Special
region 0.14 0.11 or bearing
attention shall
extending from plates are highly
be paid to end
0.2Yo to 2Yo eccentric; these
blocks having a
from the loaded reach a
cross- section
face of the end maximum at the
different in
block. loaded face.
shape from that
Reinforcement of the general 16.9
provided to cross section of Considerations
sustain the the beam; Affecting
bursting tensile reference Design Details:
force may be should be made
16.9.1 General-
assumed to be to the specialist
acting at its literature:
design strength in 16.9.2 to
(0.87fy) except Compliance with 16.9.6 are
that the stress
When circular the preceding intended to
shall be limited
anchorage or recommendatio supplement
to a value
bearing plates ns will generally those for
are used, the ensure that reinforced
to a strain of
side of the bursting tensile concrete given
0.001 when the
equivalent forces along the in 15.9.
concrete cover
16.9.2 Cover to are given in be applicable. aggregat
Prestressing Appendix E. In pre-tensioned e;
Tendons and members, (b) in the The
Reinforcement where vertical
anchorage is direction; ns as given in
achieved by the
General- The 15.9.2,
bond, the vertical
cover to concerning
spacing of the internal
prestressing cover to
wires or strands dimensio
tendons will reinforcement,
in the ends of n of the
generally be may be taken to
the members duct;
governed by be applicable in
shall be such as
considerations case of post (c) in the
to allow the
of durability. tensioned horizont
members also. al lengths given in
Prestressing 16.9.3 Spacing 16.8.4 to be
Tendons in of Prestressing developed. In
Pre-tensioned Tendons addition, if the
structures:- tendons are internal
For pre- positioned in
General- In all dimensio
stressing wires two or more
prestressed n of the
and strands a widely spaced
members there duct;
minimum cover groups, the
shall be where
of 50mm shall possibility of
sufficient gaps internal
be provided for longitudinal
between the vibrators
all types of splitting of the
tendons or bars are used
environment member shall
to allow the minimum
conditions. be considered.
largest size of clear The aggregate used distance
recommendatio to move under Tendons shall be
ns of 15.9.2 vibration, to all in Ducts- The 10mm
concerning parts of the clear distance more
cover to the mould. Use of between ducts than dia
reinforcement high capacity and other of
may be taken to tendons shall be tendons shall be needle
be applicable in preferred to not less than the vibrator.
case of pre- avoid grouping following,
tensioned and reduced the whichever is the Where two or
members. number of greatest: more rows of
cables. ducts are used (a)
Tendons in hagg+5m the horizontal
Ducts- The Pre- m, gaps between
cover to any tensioned where the ducts shall
duct shall be not Tendons- The hagg is be vertically in
less than 75mm. recommendatio the line wherever
ns of maximu possible, for ease of
concerning m size of
Recommendatio construction.
spacing of the
ns for the cover
reinforcement coarse
to curved ducts
may be taken to Recommendatio
ns for the Concrete severe and very d2= dia of
spacing of Beams- The severe longitudi
curved tendons amount and exposure nal
in ducts are disposition of conditions. The reinforce
given in stirrups/links in thickness at the ment in
Appendix E. rectangular tip of the mm
beams and in cantilever shall No c = clear
the webs of not be less than
cable shall be cover to
flanged beams 150mm.
anchored in the vertical
will normally be
deck slab. W stirrups
governed by
eb Thickness- in mm.
16.9.4 considerations
In the case of
Longitudinal of shear (see
Reinforcement 16.4.4). Bottom Slab
girders, the
in Prestressed Thickness in
Stirrups/links minimum web
Concrete Box Girders- In
to resist the thickness shall
Beams- case of post-
bursting tensile be as under:
Reinforcement tensioned box
forces in the
may be used in (i) for webs girders, the
end zones of
prestressed having single minimum
concrete duct: The bottom slab
members shall
members either minimum thickness shall
be provided in
to comply with thickness of be 150mm.
accordance with
the web in mm
16.8.5. D
recommendatio should be:
eck Width
ns of or Stirrups/l
d+12 The minimum inks shall be
0+2(c+d1+d2) deck width
provided in the between inside
transmission (ii) for webs
Reinforcement faces of ballast
lengths of pre- having two
may be retainer shall be
tensioned ducts at the
necessary, 4500mm.
members in same level,
accordance with minimum 16.9.7 Design
where post-
16.4.4. and thickness of of Diaphragms
using the web should be
systems are
information greater of:
used to control of diaphragms
given in 16.8.4. (a) in case of box
any cracking
resulting from 16.9.6 2d+60+2(c+d1+ girders shall be
restraint to Minimum d2) based on any
longitudinal Dimensions- rational method
shrinkage of approved by the D 3d+150
members engineer.
eck Slab- The where
provided by the
formwork during d = external Spacing of
thickness of the
the time before dia of sheath in Diaphragms -
deck slab shall
the prestress is mm The spacing of
be 200mm for
applied. diaphragms
normal d1= dia of
16.9.5 exposure vertical stirrups shall be such as
Stirrups/Links conditions and in mm to ensure even
in Prestressed 220mm for
distribution of shall be force of 15% of maximum clear
the live load. symmetrically the design span of 30.5m.
placed in the prestressing
If the deck is 17 DESIGN
structure so as force.
supported on AND
to be capable of
prestressed 16.9.11 Shock DETAILING:
generating a
concrete Loading - PRECAST AND
beams, two end When a COMPOSITE
force of about
diaphragms and prestressed CONSTRUCTIO
4% of the total
a minimum of concrete beam N
one may be required
prestressing 17.1 General
intermediate to resist shock
force in the 17.1.1
diaphragm shall loading. It shall
structure. Only Introduction
be provided. In be reinforced
those cables This clause is
case of box with closed links
which are concerned with
girders, at least and longitudinal
required to the additional
two end reinforcement
make up the considerations
diaphragms preferably of
deficiency shall that arise in
shall be Grade Fe 250
be stressed and design and
provided which steel. Other
the remaining detailing when
will have methods of
pulled out and precast
suitable opening design and
the duct holes members or
for a man to detailing may be
grouted. This precast
enter the girder used provided it
shall be done in components
for inspection. can be shown
consultation including large
that the beam with the
can develop the panels are
Guidance may designer.
required incorporated
also be obtained
16.9.10 Future ductility. into a structure
from 15.9.11 for
Cables - or when a
detailing of 16.9.12
Provision for structure in its
diaphragms in a Provision should
easy installation entirety is
prestressed be made at the
of prestressing precast
concrete girder. design stage for
steel at a later concrete
inside, outside
16.9.8Number date shall be construction.
and ends
of Stages of made in the However,
inspection of
Prestress- The case of box precast
girder and
number of girders so as to segmental
inspection of
stages of cater for an bridge
prestress shall increased construction
be reduced to prestressing 16.9.13 shall be done
the minimum, force in the Elastomeric with the prior
preferably not event it is Bearings Use approval of
more than two. required in of elastomeric Railway Board.
service. This bearing in
16.9.9 17.1.2 Limit
provision shall prestress
Emergency State
be made to concrete
Cables - Design.
cater for an bridges should
Besides design
additional preferably be B
minimum restricted up to asis of Design
prestressing The limit state
philosophy set The position of the design of clause 15 or 16
out in clause 10 lifting and beam and slab as appropriate.
applies equally supporting ends on corbels
17.2.2 Other
to precast and points shall be and nibs,
in situ specified. particular care
Members All
construction and Consultation at shall be taken to
other precast
therefore, in the design stage provide overlap
general, the with those and anchorage,
recommended responsible for in accordance
including large
methods of handling is an with 15.9.7. of
panels shall be
design and advantage. all
designed and
detailing for reinforcement
The design shall detained in
reinforced adjacent to the
take account of accordance with
concrete given contact faces,
the effect of the appropriate
in clause 15 and full regard being
snatch lifting recommendatio
those for paid to
and placing on ns of clauses
prestressed construction
to supports. 14,15and16
concrete given tolerances.
shall incorporate
in clause 16
17.2 Precast provision for the
apply also to Connections
Concrete appropriate
precast and and Joints- The
Construction connections as
composite design of
construction. connections is 17.2.1 Framed
in 17.3.
of fundamental Structures and
Sub-clauses in
importance in Continuous Precast
clause 15 or 16
precast Beams When components
which do not
construction and the continuity of intended for use
apply are either
shall be reinforcement or in composite
carefully tendons through construction
worded for in
considered. the connections (see 17.4) shall
situ construction
and/or the be designed as
or modified by Joints to
interaction such but also
this clause. allow for
between checked or
movements due members is designed for the
to shrinkage,
Handing such that the conditions
thermal effects
Stresses- structure will arising during
and possible
Precast units behave as a handling,
shall be frame, or other transporting and
settlement of
designed to rigidly erecting.
foundations are
resist without interconnected
of as great 17.2.3
permanent system, the
importance in Supports for
damage all analysis,
precast as in in- Precast
stresses redistribution of
situ Members
induced by moments and
handling, the design and
The number and
storage, detailing of Concrete
spacing of such
transport and individual Corbels- A
joints shall be
erection ( see members, may corbel is a short
determined at
also all be in cantilever beam
an early stage in
accordance with in which the
the design. In
principal load is
applied such a corbel shall be reinforcement accordance with
that the distance designed and shall be 15.9.7.
av, between the the strength of adequately
line of action of the corbel anchored within
the load and the checked, on the the supporting
Stresses - The
face of the assumption that member.
supporting it behaves as a stress in the
member is less simple strut and
Shear contact area
than 0.6d and tie system.
reinforcement shall not exceed
the depth at the
The shall be 0.4 fck under the
outer edge of
reinforcement provided in the ultimate loads.
the bearing is
so obtained, form of When the
not less than
shall be not less horizontal members are
one-half of the
than 0.4% of the links/stirrups made of
depth at the
section at the distributed in the concretes of
face of the
face of the upper two-thirds different
supporting of the effective strengths, the
member and depth of the lower concrete
shall be corbel at column strength is
adequately face; this applicable.
anchored. At the reinforcement
Higher bearing
front face of the need not be
stresses may be
corbel, the calculated but
used where
reinforcement shall be not less
shall be than one-half of
measures are
anchored by the area of the
taken to prevent
bending back main tension
splitting or
the bars to form reinforcement
FIG. 14. spalling of the
a loop; the and shall be
Horizontal links concrete, such
in corbel bearing area of adequately
as the provision
the load shall anchored.
The of well-defined
not project
depth at the The bearing areas
beyond the
face of the corbel shall also and additional
straight portion
supporting be checked at binding
of the bars
member shall the reinforcement in
forming the
be determined serviceability the ends of the
from shear limit states. members.
conditions in Bearing Width
accordance with When stresses due to
of Supports for but the corbel is ultimate loads
Precast Units
using the designed to shall then be
The width of
modified resist a slated limited to :
supports for
definition of av horizontal force
precast units 1.5f ck
given in additional
shall be 1 2 A con /A sup
preceding reinforcement
sufficient to
paragraph. shall be , but not more
ensure proper
provided to than fck The anchorage of
transmit this
main tension tension Where
force in its
reinforcement in reinforcement in
entirety; the
Acon is the connection by critical sections
contact area; providing either: of members
close to joints
Asup is the a) sliding
shall be
supporting area. bearings
designed to
: or resist the worst
Higher bearing b) suitable combinations of
stresses due to lateral shear, axial
ultimate loads reinforce force and
shall be used ment in bending caused
only where the top by the ultimate
justified by of vertical and
tests, e.g. supporti horizontal Where a space
concrete hinges. ng forces. When is left between
member the design of two or more
and the precast precast units, to
members is be filled later
Forces or c) continuit
based on the with in situ
Rotations at y
assumption that concrete or
Bearings The reinforce
the joint mortar the
presence of ment to
between them is space shall be
significant tie
not capable of large enough for
horizontal forces together
transmitting the filling
at a bearing can the ends
bending material to be
reduce the load of the
moment, the placed easily
carrying supporte
design of the and compacted
capacity of the d
joint shall either sufficiently to fill
supporting and member
ensure that this the gap
supported s
is so ( see completely,
Where owing to or without
considerably by
large spans or suitable abnormally high
other reasons, precautions standards of
large rotations shall be taken to workmanship or
splitting or
are likely to ensure that if supervision. The
shearing. These
occur at the end any cracking erection
forces may be
supports of develops it will instructions
due to creep,
flexural not excessively shall contain
shrinkage and
members, reduce the definite
suitable members information as
effects or result
bearings resistance to to the stage
capable of shear or axial during
accommodating force and will construction
lack of plumb or
these rotations not be unsightly. when the gap
other causes.
shall be used. should be filled.
When they are
likely to be 17.2.4 Joints The majority of
significant these between joints will
forces shall be Precast incorporate a
allowed for in Members structural
designing and connection (see
detailing the General The 17.3) and
consideration to component of continued hooked or bent
this aspect force in the link straight on vertically, the
should be given is equal to Fv. without hooks or inclined links
in the design of i.e. : bends the links shall be
joint. may be anchored by
Fv = Asv(0.87fyv)
considered bending them cos 45o; for
anchored if: parallel to the
Halving Joint links at 45
It is difficult to
Where Fh the reinforcement;
provide access
to this type of Asv is the
in this case, or if
2 u l inclined links
joint to reset or
replace the
cross sectional
area of the
s sb are replaced by
bent-up bars,
bearings, legs of anc
the bearing
Halving joints the inclined hor
stress inside the
should only be links. age
bends shall not
used where it is bon
fyv is the exceed the
absolutely d
characteristic value given in
essential. stre
strength of the
For the type of
inclined as If there
joint shown in
links. give is a possibility of
Fig.15, the
n in a horizontal load
maximum The links Tabl being applied to
vertical ultimate and any e the joint
load, Fv, shall longitudinal 20. horizontal links
not exceed reinforcement shall be
4vcbdo, where b taken into Where, provided to
is the shear account should carry the load
breadth of the intersect the line us is the
(as shown in
beam, do is the of action of Fv. sum of
Fig.15); such
depth of the
In the links shall also
additional effective
compression be provided if
reinforcement to perimete
face of the there is
resist horizontal rs of the
beam the links possibility of the
loading and vc is reinforce
shall be inclined links
the stress given ment.
anchored in being displaced
by Table 15 for
accordance with lsb is the so that they do
the full beam In the length of not intersect the
section. When
tension face of the line of action of
determining the
the beam the straight Fv.
value of Fv,
horizontal reinforce
consideration The joint
component, Fh, ment
shall be given to may
which for 45o beyond
the method of alternatively be
links is equal to the
erection and the reinforced with
Fv, should be intersecti
forces involved. vertical links,
transferred to on with
designed in
The joint shall the main the link.
accordance with
be reinforced by reinforcement, If If the 15.4.3, provided
inclined links so the main main the links are
that the vertical reinforcement is reinforcement is
adequately clause 16) or shall be the joint is
anchored. structural steel. considered practicable.
during design
and the
Joint shall also Consideration Factors
following points
be checked at Affecting Affecting
should be given
the Design Details Design and
serviceability In addition to Construction -
limit states. ultimate The strength
strength (1) Where and stiffness of
requirements projecting bars any connection
the following or sections are can be
shall be required they significantly
considered. shall be kept to affected by
Between Units
a minimum and workmanship on
17.3.1 General made as simple site. The as possible. The following points
Structural length of such shall be
Requirements projections shall considered
shall be
of Connection be not more where
designed to
When than necessary appropriate.
maintain the
designing and for security.
standard of (a)
detailing the protection (2) Fragile fins sequenc
connections against weather and nibs shall e of
across joints and corrosion be avoided. forming
between precast required for the the joint;
(3) Fixing
members the remainder of the devices shall be (b) critical
overall stability structure. located in dimensio
of the structure
(b) concrete section ns
including its
of adequate allowing
stability during
Appearance - strength. for
Where toleranc
shall be (4) The
connections are es. e.g.
considered. practicability of
to be exposed, minimum
both casting and they shall be so permissi
assembly shall
Design Method designed that ble
be considered.
Connections the quality of bearing.
shall where appearance (5) Most
(c) critical
possible be required for the connections
designed in remainder of the require the
accordance with structure can be introduction of
the generally readily suitable jointing
accepted achieved. material.
methods Sufficient space
(c) for a
applicable to shall be allowed
Manufacture, particula
reinforced in the design for
Assembly and r
concrete (see such material to
Erection reinforci
clause 15) ensure that the
Methods of ng bars.
prestressed proper filling of
concrete (see manufacture
and erection
(d) method materials other method compres
of shall be not listed shall sive
correctin given; be verified by force
g test evidence. only;
(i) weld
sizes (c) sleeves
lack of fit
shall be Sleeving that are
in the
fully Three principal mechani
specified types of sleeve cally
(e) details of . jointing may be swaged
temporar used, with the to the
y approval of the bars and
Continuity of
propping engineer, are
and time provided that capable
when it the strength and of
may be General deformation transmitti
removed Where characteristics, ng both
; continuity of including tensile
reinforcement is behaviour under and
required through fatigue compres
the connection conditions, have sive
on of
the jointing been forces.
method used determined by
stability The detailed
shall be such tests.
of the design of the
that the
structure (a) grout or sleeve and the
with resin method of
made in
details of filled manufacture
analysing the
any sleeves and assembly
structure and
necessar capable shall be such as
critical sections
y of ensure that at
are realised.
temporar transmitti the ends of the
The following
y ng both two bars can be
methods may
bracing; tensile accurately
be used to
and aligned into the
(g) how far achieve
compres sleeve. The
the continuity of
sive concrete cover
uncompl reinforcement:
forces: provided for the
(a) lapping sleeve shall be
structure (b) sleeves
bars; not less than
may that
(b) butt that specified for
proceed mechani
welding; normal
in cally
relation (c) sleeving; align the
to the square-
complete (d) threadin sawn Threading
d and g of ends of The following
matured bars. two bars methods may
section; The use of to allow be used with the
jointing methods the approval of the
(h) full
given in (c) and transmis engineer for
details of
(d) and any sions of
joining threaded bars; the as per, where tests
bars; second the strength of have shown
set of the joint may be their
(a) the
bars are based on 80% acceptability,
fixed to of the specified may be used to
ends of
the plate characteristic form joints
by strength of the subjected to
may be
means joined bars in compression but
joined by
of nuts. tension and on not to resist
100% for bars in tension or
coupler (c) threade
compression shear.
having d
divided in each
left and anchors For resin
case by the
right- may be mortar joints,
appropriate Ym
hand cast into the flexural
threads. a pre- stress in the
This type cast unit joints shall be
of to Welding of compressive
threaded receive Bars - The throughout
connecti the design of under service
on threaded welded loads, During
requires ends of connection shall the jointing
a high reinforce be in operation at the
degree ment. accordance with construction
of 7.1.3. stage the
Where there
accuracy average
is a risk of the 17.3.3 Other
in compressive
threaded Types of
manufac stress between
connection Connection
ture in the concrete
working loose, Any other type
view of surfaces to be
e.g. during of connection
the joined shall be
vibration of in which can be
difficulty checked at
situ concrete, a capable of
of serviceability
locking device carrying the
ensuring limit state and
shall be used. ultimate loads
alignmen shall lie
acting on it may
t. The between 0.2
be used with the
structural design N/mm2 and 0.3
(b) one set approval of the
of special N/mm2
of bars engineer subject
threaded measured over
may be to verification by
connections the total
welded test evidence.
shall be based projection of the
to a steel
on tests, Amongst joint surface
including those suitable (locally not less
that is
behavior under for resisting than
drilled to
fatigue shear and 0.15.N/mm2)
conditions. flexure are and the
where tests those made by difference
have shown the prestressing between flexural
ends of
strength of the across the joint. stresses across
threaded the section shall
second Resin
connection to be
set of adhesives,
be not more clause 15 or 16, Differential
than 0.5 N/mm2 . modified where shrinkage of the General
appropriate by added concrete Where the
17.4.2 and and precast cross-section of
cement mortar
17.4.3. concrete composite
joints, the
Particular members members and
flexural stresses
attention shall requires the applied
in the joint shall
be given in the consideration in loading increase
be compressive
design of both analysis by stages (e.g.
throughout and
the components composite a precast
not less than 1.5
parts and the members for the prestressed unit
N/mm2 under
composite serviceability initially
service loads.
section to the limit states (see supporting self
17.4 effect, on stress; it weight and the
Composite and deflections, need not be weight of added
Concrete of the method of considered for concrete and
Constructions construction and the ultimate limit subsequently
17.4.1 General whether or not state. acting
- The props are used. compositely for
recommendatio A check for live loading), the
ns of 17.4 apply adequacy shall entire load may
to flexural be made for be assumed to
units, having
members each stage of act on the
consisting of construction. cross-section
tendons are
pre-cast The relative appropriate to
designed as
concrete units stiffnesses of the stage being
acting in members considered.
members and
conjunction with should be based
continuity is
added concrete on the concrete,
obtained with Vertical Shear -
where provision gross
reinforced The assessment
has been made transformed or
concrete cast in of the resistance
for the transfer net, transformed
situ over the of composite
of horizontal section
supports, the section to
shear at the properties as
compressive vertical shear
contact surface. described in
stresses due to and the
The precast; if the
prestress in the provision of the
units may be of concrete
ends of the units shear
either reinforced strengths in the
may be reinforcement
or prestressed two components
assumed to vary shall be in
concrete. of the composite
linearly over the accordance with
members differ
In transmission 15.4.3 for
by more than 10
general, the length for the reinforced
analysis and tendons in concrete and
allowance for
design of assessing the 16.4.4 for
this shall be
composite strength of prestressed
made in
concrete section. concrete
structures and (except that in
stiffnesses and 17.4.2 Ultimate
members shall determining the
stresses. Limit State
be in area As, the
accordance with area of the
tendons within assessed in between the depth as the
the transmission accordance with infill concrete mean depth of
length shall be 16.4.4. In this and the precast infill concrete, or
ignored) case section prestressed the mean
modified where properties shall units on the effective depth
appropriate as be based on basis of cross- to the
follows: those of the sectional area longitudinal
composite with due reinforcement
(a) for I,T
section with due allowance for where this is
T,T,U and box
allowance for the different provided in the
beam precast
the different grades of infill section.
grades of concrete where
concrete units In applying
concrete where appropriate. The
with an in situ 16.4.4, the
appropriate. shear resistance
reinforced breadth of the
for the infill
concrete top (b) For precast section
concrete section
slab cast over inverted T beam shall be taken
and the precast
the precast units precast as the web
(including prestressed thickness and
section shall be
pseudo box concrete units the depth as the
construction), with transverse depth of the
separately in
the shear reinforcement precast unit.
accordance with
resistance shall placed through
15.4.3 and (c) in
be based on standard holes
16.4.4 applying
either of the in the bottom of
respectively. dt shall
following : the webs of the
be derived for
(1) the the composite
completely in
vertical shear section.
filled with
force, V, due to
concrete placed
ultimate loads
between and Longitudinal
may be
over the units to Shear - The
assumed to be
form a solid longitudinal
resisted by the
deck slab, the shear force, V1 ,
precast unit
shear resistance per unit length
acting alone and
and provision of of a composite
the shear
shear member,
resistance FIG. 16:
reinforcement whether simply
assessed in POTENTIAL
shall be based supported or
accordance with SHEAR
on either of the continuous,
16.4.4. PLANES
following: shall be
(2) the In calculated at the
(1) as in
vertical shear applying 15.4.3, interface of the
force, V, due to the breadth of precast unit and
(1) :
ultimate loads the infill the in situ
may be (2) the concrete shall concrete and at
assumed to be vertical shear be taken as the other potential
resisted by the force, V , due to distance shear planes
composite ultimate loads between (see Fig16)by
section and the may be adjacent precast an elastic
shear resistance apportioned webs and the method using
properties of the consider fy is the concerned with
composite ation: characte control of
concrete section ristic cracking the
Ae is the
(see strength design of
area of
with due of the composite
allowance for reinforce construction will
different grades ment. be affected by
d (see
of concrete and
15.9.6) For
where and
reinforce composite beam
appropriate. where precast
ment per and slab
V1 shall not unit construction a
units are used
exceed the length minimum area
also by,
lesser of the crossing of fully anchored
following: the reinforcement of
shear 0.15% of the
(a) k1fckLs
plane area of contact Compression
(b) 0.7Aefy under shall cross this in the
Where, consider surface; the Concrete- For
ation, spacing of this composite
k1 is a but reinforcement members
constant excludin shall not exceed comprising
dependi g the lesser of the precast
ng on reinforce following: prestressed
the ment units and in situ
concrete (a) four
required concrete the
bond times the
for methods of
across minimum
coexiste analysis may be
the thicknes
nt as given in
shear s of the
bending 16.4.2.
plane in situ
effects. However, where
under concrete
Shear ultimate failure
consider flange;
reinforce of the composite
ation, ment (b) 600mm unit would occur
taken as crossing due to
For inverted
0.09. the excessive
T beams
fck is the shear defined in elongation of
characte plane no the steel the
ristic and longitudinal maximum
cube provided shear strength concrete
strength to resist is required. compressive
of vertical stress at the
shear 17.4.3 upper surface of
(see Serviceability the precast unit
. Limit State may be
Ls is the may be increased above
length of included the values given
General In
the provided in Table 23 by
addition to the
shear it is fully upto 25%.
plane anchore ns given in
under d; clauses 15 & 16 Tension in the
concrete with a composite shrinkage strain
When the prestressed section and (the difference
composite precast unit the these shall be in the free strain
member flexural tensile investigated. between the two
considered in stresses in the The effect of components of
the design in situ concrete differential the composite
comprises shall be limited shrinkage are member), the
prestressed by cracking likely to be more magnitude of
precast considerations severe when the which will
concrete units in accordance precast unit is of depend on a
and in situ with reinforce great many
concrete, and concrete or of variables.
flexural tensile prestressed
continuity is For
stresses are concrete with an
obtained with bridges in a
induced in the in approximately
reinforced normal
situ concrete by triangular
concrete cast in environment
sagging distribution of
situ over the and in the
moments due to stresses due to
supports, the absence of
imposed service prestress, the
flexural tensile more exact
loading, the stress resulting
stresses or the data, the value
tensile stresses from the effects
hypothetical of shrinkage
in the in situ of differential
tensile stresses strain given in
concrete at the shrinkage may
in the 5.2.3 shall be
contact surface be neglected in
prestressed used to
shall be limited inverted T
precast units at compute
to the value beams with a
the supports stresses in
given in Table solid infill deck,
shall be limited composite
28. provided that
in accordance construction.
the difference in
TABLE 28: with
concrete The
FLEXURAL strengths effects of
Differential between the differential
STRESSES Shrinkage- The precast and infill shrinkage will
IN-SITU effect of components is be reduced by
CONCRETE differential not more than creep and the
shrinkage shall 10 N/mm2. For reduction
(Claus be considered coefficient may
other forms of
e for composite composite be taken as
Grade of M25 concrete constructions, 0.43.
in-situ construction the effects of
concrete where there is a differential Continuity in
difference shrinkage shall
Maximum the Composite
between the be considered in
Tensile Construction
3.2 age and the design.
Stress When continuity
quality of
(N/mm2) In is obtained in
concrete in
computing the composite
When tensile stresses, construction by
the in situ a value will be providing
shrinkage may
concrete is not required for the reinforcement
lead to increase
in direct contact differential over the
stresses in the
supports, the the precast unit. 1 = {1 - e cc }
considerations effect The resultant .(equation 35)
shall be given to ive moment due to
the secondary concr prestressed Where e is the
effects of ete may be taken as base of
differential flang the restraint Napierian
shrinkage and e moment which logarithms.
creep on the acent is the would have 18 LOAD
moments in dista been set up if TESTING
continuous nce composite
beams and on of section as a 18.1 Load
the reactions at whole had been Tests on
the supports. centr prestressed, individual
multiplied by a Precast Units
The oid of
the creep coefficient 18.1.1 General
restraint concr taken as 0.87. The load tests
moment, Mcs, ete The described in this
at an internal flang expression clause are
support of a e given in the intended as
continuous from preceding checks on the
section due to the paragraphs for quality of the
differential centr calculating the units and should
shrinkage shall oid of restraint not be used as
be taken as : the moments due to a substitute for
comp creep and normal design
Mcs=diffEcfAcf osite procedures.
acent . secti Where
shrinkage are
(equation-33) on. members
based on an
Where require special
is a assumed value
diff is the redu of 2.0 for the testing, such
differ ction ratio, cc of total special testing
ential co- creep to elastic procedures
shrin effici deformation. If should be in
kage ent the design accordance with
strain to conditions are the
allow such that this specification.
Ecf is the
for value is Test loads are to
cree significantly low, be applied and
p then the removed
taken engineer shall incrementally.
elasti as calculate values 18.1.2 Non-
city 0.43 for the reduction destructive
of The restraint co-efficients Test The unit
flang moment, Mcs will from the should be
e be modified with expressions: - supported at its
concr time by creep designed points
= {1 - e cc
ete. due to dead of support and
load and creep }/cc . loaded for 5
Acf is the
due to any (equation 34) min. with a load
of prestressed in equal to the
sum of the light of When the test is imposed load and
characteristic reasonable for a reason should be
dead load plus interpretation of other than the maintained for a
1.25 times the relevant data. quality of the period of 24h. If
characteristic concrete in the any of the final
18.1.3 Special
imposed load. structure being dead load is not
Test For very
The deflection in doubt, the in position on the
large units, or
should then be test may be structure,
units not readily
recorded. The carried out compensating
amenable to
maximum earlier provided loads should be
tests (such as
deflection that the added as
columns, the
measured after concrete has necessary.
precast parts of
application of already reached
composite During the
the load should its specified
beams, and tests, struts and
be in characteristic
members bracing strong
accordance with strength.
designed for enough to
continuity or When support the whole
fixity) the testing testing load should be
that should be
arrangements prestressed placed in position
defined by the
should be concrete, leaving a gap
agreed before allowance under the
The such units are should be made members to be
recovery should cast. for the effect of tested and
be measured 5 prestress at the adequate
18.2 Load
min. after the time of testing precautions
Test of
removal of the being above its should be taken
Structures or
applied load and final value. to safeguard
Parts of
the load then persons in the
Structures 18.2.3 Test
reimposed. The vicinity of the
Loads The test
percentage 18.2.1 structure.
loads to be
recovery after General- The
applied for the 18.2.4
the second tests described
limit states of Measurements
loading should in this clause
deflection and during the Tests
be not less than are intended as
local damage are Measurements
that after the a check on
the appropriate of deflection and
first loading nor structures other
design loads, i.e. crack width
less than 90% than those
the characteristic should be taken
of the deflection covered by
dead and immediately after
recorded during serviceability or
imposed loads. the application of
the second strength.
When the load and in the
loading. At no 18.2.2 Age at ultimate limit case of the 24h
time during the Test - The test state is being sustained load
test should the should be considered, the test at the end of
unit show any carried out as test load should the 24h-loaded
sign of soon as be equal to the period after
weakness or possible after sum of the removal of the
faulty the expiry of 28 characteristic load and after the
construction as days from the dead load plus 24h recovery
defined by the time of placing 1.25 times the period. Sufficient
engineer in the the concrete. characteristic measurements
should be taken visible cracks test load for the be repeated.
to enable side should occur ultimate limit The structure
effects to be under the test state as should be
taken into load for local calculated in considered to
account. damage. 18.2.3 a have failed to
Temperature and reinforced pass the test if For
weather concrete the recovery
conditions should structure does after the second
be recorded not show a loading is not at
between two
during the test. recovery of at least 85% of the
supports, the
least 75% of the maximum
18.2.5 deflection
maximum deflection
Assessment of measure
deflection shown during
Results In immediately
shown during the second
assessing the after application
the 24h under loading.
serviceability of a of the test load
load. The
structure or part for deflections 18.3 Non-
loading should
of a structure should not be destructive
be repeated the
following a more than 1/500 Tests
structure should
loading test, the of the effective (NDT)
be considered
possible effects span. Limits
to have failed to Additional non
of variation in should be
pass the test if destructive tests
temperature and agreed before
the recovery on the hardened
humidity during testing
after the second concrete in the
the period of the cantilever
loading is not at structure as a
test should be portions of
least 75% of the whole or any
considered. structures.
maximum finished part of
The If the deflection the structure
following maximum shown during where
recommendation deflection (in the second necessary may
s should be met. millimeters) loading; be carried out to
shown during as certain its For If within
the 24h under integrity of
reinforced 24 h of the
load is less than strength. Details
concrete removal of the
40 L2 /h where L of few non-
structures, the test load for the
is the effective destructive
maximum width ultimate limit
span (in metres) techniques are
of any crack state as
and h is the given in
measured calculated in
overall depth of Appendix-F
immediately on 18.2.3 a
construction in
application of the prestressed
(millimeters), it
test load for local concrete
is not necessary
damage should structures does
for the recovery
not be more than not a recovery
to be measured
two-thirds of the of at least 85%
value for the limit of the maximum
and do
state requirement deflection
not apply.
given in 10.2.1. shown during
For prestressed If the 24h under
concrete within 24h of the load. The
structures, no removal of the loading should