Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 1|P a g e

in Sool.000 one case-study and random sampling in the (UNHCR. main aim to map out the basic services that combined with security considerations. This. 2 6 Majority of the settlements are IDPs but the data collected Due to budget constraints. methodology developed: Settlements in Somalia generally are divided into • General data is collected through a key- numerous ‘umbrellas’. Host community settlements generally have an elected leader or elder. with a consequently a restricted timeframe. persons most of whom are protracted IDPs • Data collected may reflect both IDP and host displaced by conflicts in the neighbouring community needs. Umbrella leaders are responsible for the oversight and 3 Key Informants are categorized as follows IDP community management of the settlements. 2014) internally displaced other settlements (not all). that is recognized as an autonomous region The report takes into account several key consisting of five regions. Sool.e. 5000 representative data at the household level. 4 ‘gatekeeper’ responsible for multiple IDP This methodology is often used to conduct rapid needs assessment of affected communities after natural disasters settlements and landowner engagement. exercise was conducted on a limited budget and shot’ of the IDP1 settlements2 in Burco. 26. as there is a lack of base-line data. density and numbers believed to be 45. this report 1 IDP: Internally Displaced Person can be seen as suggestive for base-line purposes. Toghdeer. The sampling. The to share with a broad audience a concise following provides an overview of the overview of the current situation in this area. or both. natural hazards such as the recurrent • Other approaches based on probability droughts and access to basic services. Somaliland is • Due to budget restrictions and the short situated in the northern parts of Somalia time-scale.3 • Due to security restrictions and the capacity Burao town is the biggest urban setting in the of field staff.000 in Toghdeer. production of a map of all settlements including a perimeter. regions. limitations in the collection of data: Sanaaag. religious leader or a focus group.000 in Awdal and 1. data collection team to adopt a methodology that This factsheet does not aim to provide detailed was appropriate for the Somalia context and programmatic information. The exercise is to provide a useful and timely ‘snap. Host community leader. themselves in northern towns throughout Emphasis was given to collecting reliable northwest and northeast Somaliland with GPS data for the perimeter. including cluster and area displaced communities that fled their home sampling4. IDP elder. UNHCR participatory assessment methodology which would Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 2|P a g e . BACKGROUND natural land boundaries belonging to one or more Somaliland is a self-independent state of Somalia landowner. i. rather it is designed for the scope of this particular exercise. Each of the leader. The collection of data The aim of the exercise was to produce quick was closely supervised by the Shelter Cluster in turnaround ‘baseline data’5 that would enable the Somalia. led the IDPs can access in their respective settlements. 8. were considered but were not territories due to civil conflict and severe used due to budget restrictions and non- drought conditions. Nevertheless. This fact-sheet presents an analysis of primary data collected by NRC and UNHCR during the METHODOLOGY month of April in Burco. which resulted in less in Woqooyi Galbeed. general data on each settlement bordering republic of Djibouti to the west and was collected through a key informant Puntland state to the east. and have found availability of updated Satellite imagery. it was not possible to use the comprises both IDPs and urban poor.000 in Sanaag. interview (KII). 5 Settlements in Somalia are often divided by As the methodology adopted does not provide a basis for a statistical assessment. July. of multiple IDP settlements. through household questionnaires. the methodology used for district of Togdher. shelter-density checks and an The objective of the infrastructure mapping overview of all facilities accessed by IDPs. Each umbrella is made up informant interview6.000 (UNHCR 2012) facility purposes. the results are suggestive and serve as a starting point for improved programming interventions. Woqooyi Galbeed and Awdal with Hargeisa as its capital city. average shelter density was limited to only Somaliland is home of approximately 85.

but excluding salary costs. the compilation of the final report. meetings with staff available at the facilities Drawing on background information from a or IDPs and host community members living secondary data review from key agencies in around the facility. transport. future surveys of this type be advance through dialogue with the local conducted on a probability basis to permit the authority as well as umbrella and settlement preparation of a full statistical analysis. the results are extremely The data was uploaded directly from the mobile suggestive and serve as a starting point for phones onto the mFieldwork online platform for improved programming interventions. request. which included a key informant household. Assessment teams were comprised of shelter-density estimate and so p-values and/or male and female enumerators. assessment included two phases of data points. with the Shelter Cluster partners in Burco and police posts. with each team consisting of one team methodology adopted does not provide a basis leader and four enumerators responsible for data for a statistical assessment of the resulting collection. daily allowances for the teamleaders/enumerators.10 confidence intervals could not be prepared. health facilities.9 leaders. analysis by teams based in Nairobi. Burco. Before beginning data settlement. • Facilities mapping: All basic services that DATA COLLECTION IDPs access in their respective settlement The methodology applied for this interagency are recorded. This includes latrines. In general. water. mosques. Nevertheless. there seems to be The surveys were all conducted with mobile a correlation in-between shelter- phones by non-technical staff. direct observation surveys for HH data questions regarding shelter-typology and and the facility surveys. The teams. time and Access to the settlements was negotiated in budget permitting. It is therefore strongly recommended that. The Shelter Cluster secretariat well as (2) random sampling of households provided feed-back in crucial intervals to the within the remaining settlements. methodology and living in pre-selected settlements (or data collection plan for team leaders/enumerators sections of settlements) were mapped out as in Burco. The total exercise was produced in 2 weeks of Data collection was undertaken by 4 assessment field work and to a budget of under $5. The household survey includes interview.• Perimeter of each settlement: The data. the assessment engaged cluster member • Density case studies7: The aim of the density agencies in the primary data collection.0008. flights and other related costs for all Shelter Cluster staff. One tool checks is to conduct a quick turnaround was developed for the primary data collection household assessment with data that helps to phase: a settlement infrastructure mapping calculate average surface areas per survey. The assessment databases as well as the methodology recommend the use of different focus group discussions and data collection tools are available upon divided according to age and gender. the assessment officer conducted a incorporates (1) case studies where all HHs one-day training on the tool. The mapping exercise collection. collector. 10 This is dependent on the availability of female enumerators within the organisations. Cluster staff in the field and the team leaders. schools. solar lighting posts and primary data collection. Remote sensing and community centres. kiosks. engaged through density/shelter-typology and the surface area cluster partners in Burco and trained by the that each household occupies in the Shelter Cluster staff. collection and analysis: secondary data review markets. Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 3|P a g e . 7 See page 10 for more detailed explication 8 Including training costs. UNHCR provided the necessary support for collectors walk around the settlement and payments of the enumerators and the Cluster capture one in every ten households who members contributed with human resources and resides on the boundary of the settlement. garbage collection points. The Shelter Cluster ensured a Data in the household survey is collected coordination task during the data collection and through direct observation by the data. Most data is collected spatial analysis can be added to this exercise if through direct observation and through updated Satellite Imagery could be provided. shelter-density. including gatekeepers.

Sanaag. Bay 4% Overview table: Settlements and estimated HHs Bakool % according to KII11 Banaadir 17% 24 sub-settlements HH estimate KII Hiraan % TOTAL 15820 Galgaduud % Caqiibo 400 Nugaal % October 150 Mudug % Saylada C 100 Middle Shabelle % Saylada F 350 Lower Shabelle % Saylada D 150 Bari % Saylada E 100 Sanaag 17% Saylada A 400 Sool 13% Saylada B 300 Togdheer 63% Adan Suleiman D 150 Woqooyi-Galbeed % Adan Suleiman B 2000 Awdal 8% Adan Suleiman A 400 Adan Suleiman C 400 Table: existence of the settlements in time. Koosar A 2000 Group % Koosar F 2000 less_than_one_month % Koosar D 3000 one_3_months_ago % Koosar E 1500 three_6_months_ago 4% Koosar C 400 one_2_years_ago 4% Koosar B 300 two_5_years_ago 21% Ali Hussein A 400 five_10_years_ago 29% Yuroowe A 600 more_10_years 42% Yuroowe B 20 Ali Hussein C 100 KII stated that the closest health facility that Yuroowe C 200 IDPs/host community have access to is on Ali Hussein B 400 average a 28 minute walk from their place of Caqiibo 400 residence. 11 The KII household estimate was discussed and corrected in 12 group. Banadir. In determining the place of Origin of the In 54% of the KII. Friendly Spaces. but needs to be validated through an official In all tables and figures. if the data is nill. it DISTRICT % was reported that there are 15420 households Lower Juba % living in 24 settlements. it was reported that the Displaced Population. 75% of KII reported the existence of Child Awdal. Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 4|P a g e . On average. 13% of the Middle Juba % households were reported to be from the host Gedo % community. the KIIs suggest that the population had access to nutrition programmes. shown as “-” % (blank). majority of IDPs in Burco are from Togdheer. The closest school where IDPs have access to is reported to be (on average) a 26 minute walk. GENERAL DATA Table: % of place of origin reported in KII12 According to data collected during the KII. Bay and Sool. data will be household estimate exercise.

respective settlement.When determining the type of settlement. Very Bad % 8% of KII reported having refugees in their settlement. the fact that IDPs and host community members 15 Includes unaccompanied minors. No Land Tenure Agreement. This survey cannot 16 confirm the authenticity of the LTA or LTDs. However. etc. 14 The categorization of land tenure used will be further defined through a Housing. clan consent 29% Conflict with local militia % Individual permanent LTD 4% GBV % Communal permanent LTD % Conflict with Amisom % 2-5 year LTA 4% Discrimination % 5-10 year LTA % Violence against children % >10 year LTA 4% Other 67% Don’t know 13% None % When discussing access to protection services. In total 128 households arrived in the concluded that 46% of IDPs live in a planned13 last month. 58% of settlements reported having committees. were often both present during discussions may have skewed single-headed families persons with disabilities. 25% of all KIIs reported to have new Bad % Varies % Good 13% 13 Very good 75% Definition planned settlements: settlements with a minimum level of site planning with fire-breaks and areas for I don’t know 13% communal space. it was arrivals. Regarding evictions. Table: Host community relationship16 88% of KII reported the existence of persons Perception % with specific needs15 living in the settlement. 33% of KII reported that they were residing on 13% reported that the committee addresses privately owned land. settlement while 4% lives in an un-planned Table: % of groups of Refugees reported in the settlement. % reported a diseases settlement and 4% of KIIs mentioned the outbreak and % reported flooding in their existence of un-safe places. it was reported through the PROTECTION & SOLUTIONS KII. while 4% reported Table: % of different security concerns permanent LTD. the accuracy of these responses. emergencies. separated children. Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 5|P a g e . settlements Table: % of different settlement options Group % Group % Ethiopia 100% Living in a planned settlement 46% Djibouti % Living in an un-planned settlement 4% Yemen % Living in a public building 38% Living with host families 13% % of KII reported access to psychological counselling. 46% reported there was security concerns. Security concern % 14 Table: different land tenure agreements (LTA) Evictions % (LTD=land title deed) % Disputes with host community 33% No LTA 46% Conflict with police % Informal LTA. Land and Property working group under the protection cluster. 4% of KII reported access to legal When asking the key informant on past counselling. 4% of KII responded that they addressed by the committee were currently paying rent. it was reported that 4% reported a % of KIIs reported having war remnants in the fire-outbreak in the past. that % had received an eviction notice.

of which 85% are lockable.03 Table 8b: Main reasons reported during the KII buuls. The Return 50% analysis of the data for shelter incorporates only 20% of the data collected in the case studies to Resettlement/Relocation % balance out the random sampling in other Do not know 50% settlements. Other % In total. Time-period % 20% of all shelters are categorized as buuls. % was willing to resettle. Child_Headed_HH 52% Table 10: Access to NFIs People_with_chronic_illness 48% Time-period % People_with_mental_health_problems 33% Mats 9% Traumatized_survivors_of_violence % Plastic Sheeting 3% Other % Blankets 50% Jerry can 42% Washbasin 12% Knives 73% Cooking pots 83% Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 6|P a g e .24 persons per household and each household occupies 2. % opted The data reflected under the shelter facts are to locally integrate. 50% access to Female_Headed_HH 81% blankets and 83% access to cooking pots.50% of KII reported they did not know their SHELTER FACTS preferred option for Durable Solutions. The mapping exercise incorporates (1) case studies where all HHs living in pre-selected Table 8a: preferred option for durable solution settlements (or sections of settlements) were Durable solution mapped out as well as (2) random sampling of Local Integration % households within the remaining settlements. 42% access to jerry cans. surveys. In total. In total. 423 density points were taken during the exercise. derived from the data from the density HH while 50% preferred to return. On average. there are 7. with doors. the IDP population has 9% access to Elderly_living_alone 71% mats. 73% of all the structures are fixed to end their displacement. No on-going conflict 25% Table 9: Shelter typologies Access to land 29% What % Access to improved shelter Buul with 1 layer 15% % Access to health care Buul with 2 layers 3% % Access to education Buul with >2 layers 2% % Vernacular Buul % Access to markets % Tents 1% Other 46% Timber frame / plastic sheeting 9% Timber shelter 1% Table 8b: Vulnerable populations Corrugated Iron Sheet 68% Time-period % Solid house 1% Disabled 95% In general.

Connection to municipal is broken % According to the data collected. 60% of hand Unknown 28% washing stations had soap. Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 7|P a g e . 10 of the Pump or generator broken % latrines had hand washing next to it. Of this 100% of them are functioning and 100% of health Septic tank not connected 3% facilities reported to have a lockable room. 538 latrines were captured in all Storage tanks broken 38% settlements and in total 617 dropping holes were Taps broken 9% reported17. WASH FACTS Time-period % In total. but according to their the health facilities. Public 100% The storage capacity of all the water-tanks is around 1697.5 m2. points reported In total. 3% of the surrounding communities had said that the price of water had 100% of health facilities reported having access increased. 266 water points were captured in all Typology % settlements.49 Somali Shillings is paid per jerry can. 6% of latrines were Water trucking stopped % segregated male/female. with a total of 260 taps. structures and not according to the dropping holes. In Other 25% total. 94% of latrines were categorized as functional and a total of 91 households were Water contaminated 9% reported using them. 11% of all Insecurity % latrines were categorized as communal and 57% Dominated by host comm. to water. In total. 10 rooms were reported in all the health Unknown 25% facilities. On average. % were reported as lockable. 0 doctors and 1 midwifes employed in 17 All latrines were mapped out. there are 2 nurses. Table 14: Typologies of Health Facilities In total. 1 community health workers. it was reported that Private % 627. Other 19% Table 11: Reasons of non-functionality latrines Time-period % Pit is full 31% HEALTH FACILITY FACTS Super structure cracked 3% Security % 2 Health facilities were captured. 61% of all latrines are reported to be maintained. 50% % of the health facilities reported Table 13: Reasons of non-functionality water having access to electricity. Primary Health Care Unit % Table 12: Typologies of water points Time-period % Mobile health clinics % Burkad 7% Hospital % Water tank 87% Other % Tank and tap 2% Table 15a: Services available Water-trucking % Services % 4% Maternal health services 50% Water Kiosk % Vaccination services 50% Other piped systems % Paediatric services % Protected well w/o pump % Outpatient services 50% Protected well with pump % Inpatient services % Unprotected well River % Table 15b: Running of the health facility Services % Other % INGO % LNGO % 96% of all water points were categorized as functional. 22% are Health Centres 100% connected to the municipal water system.

Table 16: Maintenance of solar posts The number of schools with access to latrines Who % was reported at 100%. 1 solar lighting posts were mapped out. and 71% are segregated male/female. with a functionality rate of 100%. reported. Table 14: Access to services in the school 2 community centres were mapped out with Services at schools % 50% having access to latrines. 508 IDP 0 garbage collection points in 24 settlements children have access to these schools. 39 classrooms were committee takes care of the maintenance. Community Access to municipal water 14% support activities were reported at 100%. In total. Of these 100% are NGO/INGO % functioning. Community Committee 100% 14% of all schools reported being connected to Unknown % the municipal water system. Rainwater harvesting % Table 17: Activities reported at the com centre Access to borehole % Activity % Access to watertank 57% Community support 100% Access to shallow well % Nutrition programmes % Other 14% Learning opportunities % None 29% Recreation % Entertainment % In total. 1329 male students and 860 female students are enrolled in the schools. In 100% of all cases. 0 markets and 0 kiosks were mapped out. This part of the exercise was skipped due to the high number of kiosks available in the settlements. EDUCATION FACTS % of solar posts are reported to improve night activities and 100% was reported to improve the security. Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 8|P a g e . the community 7 schools were mapped out of which 86% were functioning. OTHER FACILITIES In total. Table: price of Sorghum (according to KII) Reason % Much cheaper than normal % Cheaper than normal % Normal 100% Higher than normal % Much higher than normal % Table 16: Price of Maize (according to KII) Reason % Much cheaper than normal % Cheaper than normal % Normal 92% Higher than normal 4% Much higher than normal 4% In total. were mapped out.

the results are extremely suggestive and serve as a starting point for improved programming interventions in this area. It is recommended to further continue the efforts in ensuring improved land tenure. health and school facilities. Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 9|P a g e . This is not sufficient enough to calculate average surface areas.com Health cluster to look at the functionality of the Mohamed Jama: mohamed.org available upon request. Shelter Cluster Coordinator Somaliland Region It is recommended to the Wash. It is therefore recommended to increase the number of case studies and to ensure that random surveys are done in all other (sub-) settlements. random surveys were not done in all settlements. It is recommended that the maps produced are updated on a regular basis with the support of inter-cluster coordination (For example each eviction should be mapped out). The assessment databases as well as the Somalia Shelter Cluster Coordinator methodology and data collection tools are Martijn Goddeeris: goddeeri@unhcr. mid. 18 The methodology adopted does not provide a basis for a statistical assessment of the resulting density estimate and so p-values and/or confidence intervals could not be prepared.no different wash. RECOMMENDATIONS18 CONTACTS This report only comprises 50% of the collected data.and long-term solutions. UNOCHA. protection concerns and durable solutions. The data collected regarding densities was limited to one case study only. with confidential information removed.jama@nrc. There is a strong need to examine the potential usefulness of setting up a separate working group on HLP. It is recommended for UNHCR to take into consideration the data collected that relates to persons with specific needs. Forced evictions remain a constant threat to the sustainability of short. It is recommended to UNHCR to triangulate the data collected regarding shelter density in their household estimation exercise. government and other stakeholders should be incorporated in the final validation workshop. Education and Asha Mohamed: ashakoos@gmail. Nevertheless. Furthermore. The Shelter Cluster should further develop the mapping tools to become more statistically representative of the population. Strong advocacy towards all stakeholders will be a key activity.

(2) Random sampling was not done adequate (3) the classification methodology (low/medium/high) can be seen as too subjective (4) Household estimates need the buy-in of all stakeholders. It will be difficult to per household. ICCG…). There seems to be a strong correlation in- between the density/typology and the average surface area each household occupies. Although the exercise provides a good base for further discussions on household estimates. Table: average Burco surface areas Average high Average Medium Average Low 350. average space in-between the shelters… 21 (1) Definition of IDP needs to be clarified. ANNEX: Household Estimate The aim of the density checks is to conduct a Case-study 1 Koosar C: case-study was done quick turnaround household assessment with properly. questions regarding shelter-typology19 and shelter-density20.00 m2/HH 1000.00 m2/HH 19 All shelters were classified into three groups: buuls. 20 Definition of Shelter Density: households are classified into low/medium/high shelter density. there seems to be a correlation in-between shelter-density/shelter- typology and the surface area that each household occupies in the settlement. but was limited to a very small section data that helps to calculate average surface areas of the total sub-settlement. It is therefore recommended that the data collected regarding shelter density is triangulated with secondary and other primary data to validate any household estimate in close collaboration with all stakeholders (government. migrants and host communities could be included in this exercise. Urban poor. UNOCHA.00 m2/HH 890. The mapping exercise incorporates (1) case studies where all HHs living in pre-selected settlements (or sections of settlements) were mapped out as well as (2) random sampling of households within the remaining settlements.00 m2/HH 750. The average surface areas (for each respective density/typology) can used to provide two different household estimates (according to typology and shelter-density).00 m2/HH Average buuls Average T-Sh Average P-Sh 320. (5) Perimeter is not accurate enough. The household survey includes rely on this data. width of the access roads. From the data collected from the case-studies average surface areas are derived for low/medium/high shelter density and for buuls/T-shelters/P- shelters. the exercise acknowledges the limitations and constraints21 of the exercise.00 m2/HH 880. The following parameters were taken into account: free space around the shelter. transitional shelters and permanent shelters. Mapping Infrastructure Exercise: Burco 10 | P a g e . In general.