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Element Description

BEAM4 is a uniaxial element with tension, compression, torsion, and bending

capabilities. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the

nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes. Stress

stiffening and large deflection capabilities are included. A consistent tangent stiffness

matrix option is available for use in large deflection (finite rotation) analyses.

Figure 1. BEAM4 3-D Elastic Beam

The element is defined by two or three nodes. For the two-node option. and coordinate systems for this element are shown in Figure 1. Output Data Figure 14. The element x-axis is oriented from node I toward node J. If IXX is not specified or is equal to 0. two area moments of inertia (IZZ and IYY). node locations. the default (θ = 0 ) orientation of the element y-axis is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane. The third node (K). however. For user control of the element orientation about the element x-axis. If both are defined. the torsional moment of inertia (IXX). two thicknesses (TKY and TKZ). the cross-sectional area. IXX should be positive and is usually less than the polar moment of inertia. if used. will be determined as if the distance between the neutral axis and the extreme fiber is one-half of the corresponding thickness. an angle of orientation (θ) about the element x-axis. 3-D BEAM4 Stress Output Assumptions and Restrictions The beam must not have a zero length or area. The element thicknesses are used only in the bending and .0. defines a plane (with I and J) containing the element x and z axes (as shown).01 percent slope of it). and the material properties. use the θ angle (THETA) or the third node option.Input Data The geometry. The beam can have any cross-sectional shape for which the moments of inertia can be computed. The element torsional stiffness decreases with decreasing values of IXX. For the case where the element is parallel to the global Z axis (or within a 0. the element y axis is oriented parallel to the global Y axis (as shown). Several orientations are shown in Figure 1. The moments of inertia. The stresses. it is assumed equal to the polar moment of inertia (IYY+IZZ). the third node option takes precedence. may be zero if large deflections are not used. however.

A.0 l.Iyy.1e6 !young modulus mp. Example 1 The rod shown below has a radius of 0.1.0 !constrain dof at k1 fk.3.2*R.0.18.1.z-thickness.fy. initial strain.75 in.0. If it is subjected to the loading shown.0.orientation !with x.0 k.1. The applied thermal gradients are assumed to be linear across the thickness in both directions and along the length of the element.0.14.beam4 !set element type to 3D elastic beam mp.1. z 18 in x 800 lb E = 1E6 ν = 0.75 !radius A = pi*R**2 !cross-sectional area Izz = 1/4*pi*R**4 !moment of inertia about z Iyy = 1/4*pi*R**4 ! moment of inertia about y Ixx = Izz+Iyy !moment of inertia about x (only valid for circular cross-section) et.u. Ixx k.all !create element for all lines dk.2*R.2.all.1.3.-800 !apply load in z-direction at k3 /pbc.Ixx !geometric attribute: area.thermal stress calculations.0 k.Izz.2.1 !display dof eplot fini .prxy.f.Izz.1 !display loads /pbc.0.3 !poisson’s ratio r.1. determine the state of stress.1.3.fz.3.500 !apply load in y-direction at k3 fk.18.ex.0.3 y 14 in 500 lb /prep7 pi = 4*atan(1) !define value for pi R = 0.2.18 !create line between k1 and k2 with 18 division l.y-thickness.Iyy.14 !create line between k2 and k3 with 14 division lmesh.

ls.ls. Example 2 y h= 0. and Izz..s1 !output s1 pretab.2 !assign stress at +y = R to s1 etable.s1. a local x-z planes are created for elements in order to have the correct orientation for Ixx.25 in b= 1 in 12 in x 5 lb E = 1E7 ν = 0. Iyy.s2 !output s2 pretab.s4 !out put s4 /output.s2.s3 !output s3 pretab. Here./solu solve fini /post1 etable.ls.out !direct output to a file called ex1. !switch output back to screen fini The next example shows the case when the cross-section of the beam is rectangle.5 !assign stress at –z = R to s4 /output.s4.ls.out pretab.ex1.3 6 in z .s3.3 !assign stress at –y = R to s2 etable.4 !assign stress at +z = R to s3 etable.

1 1 Element 1 ) x z 2 ) 2 x local x-z plane z ) local x-z plane z z ) x Element 2 3 3 x /prep7 b=1 h = 0.1.10 !line 2 lsel.b.6.-5 /pbc.line.Iyy.3.A.1 !create x-z plane from line 1 to k3 lsel.beam4 mp.1e7 mp.0.0.1.1.3.1.all !reselect all the lines lmesh.2.1.3.s.1.u.1.0.all..1.prxy.3.s.2.fy.1.1.0.Izz..f.0 k.0 fk.2 !select line 2 latt.1.2.1.12 l.ex.1.1 eplot fini .10 !line 1 l.0.12 k.line.3 r.1.0.0.1 !select line 1 latt..25 A = b*h Izz = 1/12*b*h**3 Iyy = 1/12*h*b**3 Ixx = 1/12*b*h*(b**2+h**2) et..h.all dk.1.0.Ixx k.1 /pbc.3.1 !create x-z plane from line 1 to k4 lsel.

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