Violence and the City

On the Yahwist's Leviathan

Eastern wall of the Temple Mount wall, Jerusalem, from near Gethsemane, Jerusalem. Photograph by Wknight94. Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons user Wknight94,
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eastern_Temple_Mount_wall,_Jerusalem_from_near_Gethsemane.jpg.

Robert S. Kawashima

T
he Yahwist’s “Primeval History” – those passages in everyman. In this regard, one should carefully consider the fact
Genesis 1–11 belonging to the J source1 – is conspicuously that for J, Cain is, as Israel Knohl has aptly noted, the “forefather
concerned with origins: of culture, of sacrifice, of art and of humanity.”2 If the story of Eve, the mother of humanity, is ulti-
technology, etc. (Kawashima 2004). [For a brief explanation of mately about the origin of culture, the story of Cain is ultimately
these “sources,” see the “Editor's Note” on p. 265.] For this rea- about the origin of the city. What J thereby identifies as a – argu-
son, J’s origin stories are often read as myths. It would be more ably the – crucial contributing factor in the creation of the city is
appropriate, however, to read them as faux-myths, not unlike violence. For Cain builds the first city only after commiting the
those found in Plato. For J’s etiologies, even those based upon first homicide. At first glance, the relationship thus established
traditional epics and myths, have been freely composed in order between violence and the city might seem to be ironical (murder
to make historical, sometimes even philosophical, points. Adam leads to progress), or critical (urban life is born of crime). What
and Eve, for example, may represent humanity as such, that is, the I propose instead is that the relationship between violence and
human condition – for which reason, the designation for Adam the city is mythical. Or more precisely, again, that Cain’s story is
in Genesis 2–3 is not actually a proper noun but a common noun, a faux-myth of the city. It will be useful for me to begin with an
“the human” (hā’ādām), while Eve (ḥawwâ) is so named by her explanatory summary of Cain’s rather elliptical biography.
mate because she is “mother of all living [ḥāy]” (3:20). But for Adam and Eve (fig. 1), one recalls, having eaten the forbidden
J, the human condition is not some static reality to be dutifully fruit and thus become “like God, knowing good and evil” (Gen
accepted by mortals as the ineluctable will of the immortals, but 3:5; cf 3:22) – viz., legally competent adults, who may as such
rather a problem to be solved in and through history, ultimately, be held accountable for their actions (Deut 1:39) – are banished
by Israel’s covenant with Yahweh (Kawashima 2014). from the garden, which was apparently, as a related tradition sug-
Through the story of Cain – indeed, through the rest of the gests, adjacent to God’s home atop some mythical “mountain of
Primeval History – J extends his depiction of the human condi- God” (Ezek 28:13–16). Banished from the divine estate, perhaps,
tion. Let us say that this son of Adam constitutes a type of every- but still within walking distance – hence the guards God installs
man – much as scholars interpret Gilgamesh as a Mesopotamian at the entrance to the garden, lest his neighbors to the east return

264  NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015)

This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www.jstor.org/journal/neareastarch.
You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription. See http://www.asor.org/membership/individual.html for more information.

html for more information. have come to espouse an alternate theory.” Alongside this builds the first city. Winona Lake. that is. an unlimited desire. they ought Editor's Note on the Documentary Hypothesis Scholars have long recognized that the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) is a composite text. all those who find in a state of nature. culmination of his life. The Pentateuch: An Introduction to the First Five Books of the Bible. consti- he settles in the land of Nod tutes a natural enemy. For this rea. an innate fear of be- Paradis_Perdu_%28ca. which he Figure 1. should not be taken to mean that I propose to “apply” Hobbes’s son. By which I mean to say that the city. rather than risk a violent death. numerous scholars. 2). myth of the State. See http://www. of the question. the Documentary Hypothesis. man possesses natural reason. Thus assured. however. one theory in particular came to enjoy a broad consensus. Cain’s final act. God he is caught in the grip of concedes Cain’s point and de.4 For this reason. to which multiple authors and editors have contributed. De Cain goes into exile. In recompense do maintain that J explores certain moral and political questions for this premeditated murder.6) – which according to of the city. is the worst possible fate a human being might suffer. I merely note a family resemblance between J’s than sacrifices turned into smoke on an altar (Kawashima 2004: theory of the city and Hobbes’s theory of the State. For some unspecified reason. that is. The Composition of the Pentateuch: Renewing the Documentary Hypothesis. where he mar. but the theory itself continues to exert a great deal of influence. he is “cursed from the ground” and that anticipate Hobbes’s political philosophy in striking ways.asor. Art Gallery. fueled ing a “mark” or “sign” upon by an innate pride or vanity.. God accepts Abel’s offering. that is to be found the origin of the State. however. est” (Hobbes 1991: 93. for this reason. Painting by Paul Gauguin. and against all. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015)  265 This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www. The latter. see also De Homine XI. gitive and a wanderer [nād]” casts his political philoso- (4:11–12). lures far as he makes no reference to Cain in the relevant texts. Joseph Blenkinsopp.6 Man. Cive. according to which the Pentateuch was composed through a continuous process of editorial expansion and accretion. cides to protect him by plac. On view at the Yale University natural appetite. Introduction to the Composition of the Pentateuch. It is in this fear of all. especially in the United States and Israel. a portent of seven. the http://upload. epistle dedicatory). then. constitutes all. namely. This punishment phy in the form of a kind of is too great. experienced by ian. rather pretation of Cain. names after said son.wikimedia. according to J. J’s understanding of urban life is remarkably Hobbes. as a narrative representation of its nature and Hobbes. “to appropriate to itself the fold “vengeance” upon any use of those things in which who would dare to strike him all others have a joint inter- down (4:15). Introduction to Reading the Pentateuch. The in a surprising turn of events. Finally. and the Book of Deuteronomy (D).jpg. Hobbes. Other. that Hobbes was influenced in this but not Cain’s. Ac- cording to this theory.in search of the paradise they have lost (Gen 3:24). 2006. sent into exile by God as “a fu. For I him “out to the field” (4:8). conversely. New Haven: Yale University Press. the invention of the hands of another – a “contra-natural dissolution [mortem vio- city as such. Cain laments. 2012. begins your face . but tion of a violent death at the rather the building of the first city. For men finally a type of “Leviathan”5 (fig. “bring” to God political philosophy to Genesis. 1992. particularly in Germany. and thus the greatest evil. jealous of the recognition his younger regard by his reading of the Bible – perhaps unwittingly. as is well known. ac- for as a nomad “hidden from cording to this myth. his flesh.1890%29.jstor. I read the story of Cain as a myth lentam]” (ibid. or to offer a “Hobbesian” inter- (4:3–4) should be understood to be hand-delivered gifts. and then Abel. You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription. Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons user Trzęsacz. In recent decades. . the Pentateuch consists almost entirely of four source documents: the Yahwistic source (J).org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Paul_Gauguin_-_Le_ namely. function. his natural appetite. come to realize that. IN: Eisenbrauns. 1999. and the process by which they were combined – may continue to be a matter of scholarly debate. inso- brother thus receives from their immortal father figure. the Priestly source (P).. by which small textual units were gradually combined into larger ones. in which me will kill me” (4:14). the “offerings” (minḥâ) Cain. Joel Baden. It is not out 497). Jean-Louis Ska. Hobbes’s famous “war of all ries his wife. My invocation of Hobbes. The following list provides an ecumenical sampling of accessible introductions to the different ways that scholars have reconstructed the process by which the Pentateuch was composed. begets a son.org/membership/individual. Alexander Rofé. New York: Doubleday. whence (Wandering). Enoch. The details of this theory – the precise identification of the Pentateuchal sources. Paradise Lost. In the nineteenth century. is not ing subjected to the humilia- the begetting of a son.3 where he kills him. the Elohistic source (E). that is.org/journal/neareastarch. their provenance.

metmuseum. they possess only the bare rudiments of culture – husbandry and clothing – the vari- ous milestones of civilization having yet to be reached. to relinquish their pride and submit to the State. Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons user Tom Reedy. From the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of the expulsion from the garden – and within a community of only Art. Cain. . in the absence of a civilizing influence. with reference to Job 41:34. J’s Primeval History similarly traces humanity’s halting if inev- itable progress from the state of nature to that of civilization. “naturally” leads to violence. as the “King of the Proud” (1996: 220–21. including. not only does Cain fear a violent death at the hands of others. See http://www. or at least in proximity to. http://images.jpg. wikimedia. again. in her sug- gestive reading of this story. quite understandably. partly lays the blame at God’s feet. And vanity. the constitutive relationship between the mark and the city.jstor. represents that critical moment when the city comes into being. four human beings – members of a single nuclear family.org/journal/neareastarch. in order to establish and maintain a peaceful coexistence with their erstwhile enemies. http://upload. Behemoth and Leviathan. 28. Reminiscent of Hobbes. 3). from Illustrations of the Book of Job. It is this same lawless violence that Cain. the rule of Law. Figure 2. in that vast terra incognita stretching away from Eden and the mountain of God? Here at last we arrive at the ultimate “Hobbesian” significance of Cain. You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription. which she dubs a “foundational myth … of sibling rivalry” (1997: 2). however. Which is to say that they still live in. Skinner 1930: 109). due to the apparent “scarcity” of divine favor: “What kind of God is this who chooses one sacrifice over the other?” she asks (3). It is because of the crucial role that the State plays in the domestication of humanity that Hobbes likens it to Leviathan.org/membership/individual. fig. all. notably. 19). the rule of Law. that Hobbesian state of nature. Adam and Eve. in particular. describing it. but his would-be mur- derers are made to fear that same violent death as well. arising from the universal fear of death. within the span of a single generation – measured from Engraving by William Blake. be vulnerable to a violent death at the hands of another.html for more information. thanks to his mark and the principle of vengeance it signifies.org/CRDImages/dp/original/DP816554. 266  NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015) This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www. Out of this shared natural reason.jpg. in which there is nothing to prevent the unbridled rights of each from ex- tinguishing the very life of the others: Hobbes’s war of all against Figure 3. But at this primitive stage of human existence. it would seem that Cain’s pride simply cannot abide the divine re- gard his brother has come to enjoy. The frontispiece of the book Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes. 4)? Reminiscent of Hobbes. is rather: Why should Abel’s success incite Cain to murder (fig. namely. Leviathan ch. Thus. expects to fall victim to in exile himself (cf Gunkel 1997: 46. thanks to their god-like knowledge. no less – the first murder already takes place. The question J seems to raise.asor. Regina Schwartz. For if Abel had none to protect him out in the field – but presum- ably not so very far from his home and parents – how much more so will Cain.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Leviathan_by_Thomas_Hobbes. may already be cultured beings – as opposed to those natural “liv- ing beings” belonging to the animal kingdom (Gen 2:7. Engraving by Abraham Bosse. in turn.

jpg. could flee to certain designat- ticate the proud and thereby ed cities. Cain is violence and the city calls to able to overcome his fear of mind the “cities of refuge” the Other and thereby create mentioned in various bibli- a space in which men might cal passages (Exod 21:12-14. London.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/Ishtar_gate_in_Pergamon_museum_in_Berlin. From the collection of the Courtauld Institute of Art. at the very least. not unlike Cain’s city. NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015)  267 This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www. that tion. user Emmilwastaken. The relationship estab- ribution that God inscribes lished through Cain between upon Cain’s body.wikimedia.wikimedia. A stitched image showing the Ishtar gate of Babylon in full view. Figure 5 (below). the story of Cain-as. anyone guilty state to Leviathan.asor. You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription.org/membership/individual. close-quartered life does not explicitly mention “in the city” creates a sponta. 19. Deuteronomy same logic. In that the Cain myth is in part this way. Berlin.jstor. Cain slaying Abel. By the Numbers 35. it is true.. Photograph by Radomir Vrbovsky. See http://www. J’s response to that institu- everyman – specifically. of accidental manslaughter strous force able to domes. Painting by Peter Paul Rubens. According mission of man in his natural to these texts.org/journal/neareastarch. but er in a stable commonwealth.7 J. – as Cain knew all too well – of the idea of them. Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons. . who are sufficiently docile as humans do well to avoid each to be capable of living togeth- other as much as possible. that mon. one which acts as a deterrent I would go so far as to argue to crime (Deut 22:23–27). cally. specifi- phy. ther note. Indeed. deterrent to violence. http://upload. one should fur. live together in peace.the city is born. On view at the Pergamom Museum. these cities.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Peter_Paul_Rubens_-_Cain_slaying_Abel_%28Courtauld_Institute%29. in which he would Figure 4 (above). Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons user Botaurus. insofar as the city of ref- plot arc leading from fratri. but also the general sub. Joshua 20). is cide to city – represents not understood to function as a only Cain’s individual biogra. For as long transform them into creatures as there is no fear of reprisal. http://upload.html for more information. but it seems rea- neous system of surveillance sonable to assume that he not to be found “in the field” was aware. vengeance. uge.jpg. thanks to the promise of ret.

a stable foundation for civilized life. a young boy for a bruise.asor. one merely born of sibling rivalry. then. humankind.jpg.org/membership/individual. conversely. it seems no coincidence be granted refuge from the vengeance of the victim’s “redeemer”. so that civilization – the city. might deter crime in the short term.b.wikimedia.. he would be guilty of murder. In both cases. walled (Num 35:4). in particular could kill him with impunity. enclosed space (fig.Moses Writing the Book of Genesis.org/journal/neareastarch. but continue to evolve.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Unmatinapresledeluge. however. It also seems no coinci- ing civilized life had not yet been put into place. Noah and his family. the principle of sanctuary. 5). tends to swerve downward into a violent spiral. language. “lest we be scattered upon the image of Cain’s city: Cain’s mark preemptively deters potential face of the whole earth” (11:4. Lamech has outgrown Cain’s childish violence. that is. to destroy all life on a gate (Josh 20:4) restricting movement in and out of the city earth. whereas if the redeemer killed him – will not only survive. It thus constitutes the inverse decide to build a city and a tower. Light and Colour (Goethe’s Theory) . Thus. music. The threat of vengeance. conversely. a retardant into an accelerant.jstor. deemer. Lamech will be seventy-sevenfold” (4:24). Lamech: “I have killed a man for a wound. the mere threat thereof tends to turn into its actual realisation.the Morning after the Deluge . would have Now. Vengeance alone. Given his anti-social behav- ior. London. mentioned earlier. See http://www. deters further bloodshed in response to blood already shed. it turns out. where they ful act of vengeance is prohibited.9 as a discrete. Cain was afraid of encoun- 268  NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015) This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www. trans- Figure 6. 6). migrates en masse to the land of Shinar. then. but also the cultural legacy of if the killer were to be found outside of this border. The city to Genesis 11. constitutes a space in which an otherwise law. but in the long term. would be extradited sions of his first three sons – tent-dwelling and animal husband- and put to death. but also all traces functioned as a physical barrier between the killer and the re. still united after the flood by a single of refuge. once realized. the flood not only eradicates all life. that the laws characteriz. as Hebrew run amuck would seem to embody that “evil of humankind” ‘îr indicates in general. This would seem to be the lesson we are meant to draw from the vainglori- ous boast of Cain’s descen- dant. http:// upload. cities included (fig. the profes- one guilty of intentional murder. one should keep in mind. was. For however. and thus fitted with which will lead God. Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons user M0tty. It would also have functioned as a symbolic barrier. The wall. to nomadism (Kawashima 2004: 490). a version of Leviathan. the redeemer the antediluvian world. and metalworking (4:20–22) – all have traditional ties is related to the fact. and vengeance. If Cain was avenged sevenfold. (The fact that Cain was not so punished by God ry. fig. 7). From the collection of the Tate. save for those aboard the ark (Gen 6:5–7).) But why should dence that the tale of Lamech immediately precedes that of the the unintentional killer be directed specifically to a city? The flood – at least in J8 – for this monitory example of violent pride “city” (‘îr) of refuge.html for more information. does not provide society with an adequate principle of con- straint. will preserve not only life. of material culture. according within the city’s walls. does not constitute. and moved on to violence for violence’s sake. Painting by forming what was originally Joseph Mallord William Turner. . that Lamech has apparently abandoned the city: n. You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription. however reluctantly. the city functions as a restraint against violence. bloodshed.

but Figure 7. pride and strength in the sight http://upload. Such is the power of this unified hu- manity that their tower will. where they will do. in no way indicates that men have actually outgrown mischief that a unified humankind would otherwise be capable their violent impulses. Accordingly. on the other hand. From the collection of the certainly a symbolic show of Museo Nacional del Prado. raises a new ethical question: How the inclination of the heart of humankind is evil from youth” will any given city-state treat outsiders? (8:21. lating them. which creates a previously nonexistent distinction be- “Never again will I curse the ground because of humankind. On the other hand. vided by language and nationality. but humans. What has changed? Inasmuch as the flood has wiped away all the families of the earth save one. however. of the human condition.wikimedia. having supped with Abraham at all have one language. For the abominable violence of Sodom NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015)  269 This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www.10 Two consequences follow from this revised version Sodom exhibit no fear of violence from one another. but also by blood: all postdi- luvian humans descend from Noah (9:18–19) and thus ul- timately from Cain himself. with the express intention of sexually vio- Humans. For they lawless individuals in the pre-civilized world.asor. God therefore decrees that they who are at not only welcomes them into his home. This harmony. but without. however. Lot. this newly reconfigured human man nature as being after the flood exactly what it was before: landscape. from them” (11:6). then. The Tower of Babel.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Pieter_Brueghel_de_Jonge_-_De_bouw_van_de_toren_van_Babel.org/journal/neareastarch. and they this question. is that the citizens of dividual. as a result. but offers them protec- present united by blood and language. Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons user Botaurus. God circumvents the virtually limitless citizens – remains intact. the remnant of humanity is united not only by language. See http://www. for tween familiars and strangers. continue on to the city of Sodom. of heaven. accost them as a mob. as did the founders of Babel. tion at great personal risk. The men of Sodom. cf 6:5).jstor. reach up to the skies: perhaps not an overtly aggressive or hostile act. they are one people. Note well: whereas Cain feared meeting potentially tonomy vis-à-vis God. it is true. their lawlessness. Two angels of God. on the one hand. What is remarkable. will no longer be able to assert their au. the city they propose to build this time will not constitute a Leviathan. and now nothing they scheme to do will be withheld encounter two very different receptions. He thus reasonably concludes that mortals cannot Genesis 19 provides two paradigmatic answers to precisely be left to their own devices: “Look. now everyone fears being separat- ed from everyone else. Painting by Pieter Brueghel the Younger.org/membership/individual. subjugating its in- habitants to the coercive rule of Law.html for more information. at least for the time being. God himself has already diagnosed hu. Cain. by alienating each the legacy of Cain – the peaceful coexistence within the city of its nation from the others. of. was capable of fratricide. seem to have laid their demons to rest. above. it will con- stitute the objective correla- tive of the perfect harmony of the family of man.tering anyone in exile. Perhaps because of the flood’s ultimate lesson: the greatest threat to their survival lies not within. . as it were.jpg. On the one hand. shall henceforth be di. rather than individual against in. Rather. actually come up against an entire city united against them in one of nation against nation. and this is only the beginning of what they the oaks of Mamre. these two angels have effectively been ushered into a new version of Hobbes’s war. Apparently. You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription. more precisely.

by entertaining angels unawares. but times (fig. a tale whose moral is the the locals well enough up to ethical value of that positive now. is notably rare. The pointed contrast between vine judgement will not func. intercedes with God troduce a second avatar of Le.org/CRDImages/ep/original/DT2014.html for more information. when Lot. Sodom constitutes instead a Thus.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/Russian_-_Hospitality_of_Abraham_-_Walters_371185. is directed. By seeking to harm individual crime.jpg. Abraham. ironically. who seems morality tale about civiliza- to have blended in amongst tion. on behalf of the strangers viathan. Figure 9 (below). they are (Alter 1990). this time between the dwelling in the Jordan plain. brings into focus threat of human reprisal to J’s point. Hospitality of Abraham. On view in the Metrolpolitan Museum of Art. realized whom he was feed- The point of the story of ing (fig. Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons user Kaldari. that is. and he realized whom he was receiv- would actually judge us! Now ing into his home. You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription. not inward.jstor. Lot 270  NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015) This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www. The story of outward.asor.wikimedia. http://images. toward the Other.metmuseum. more- Sodom. Tempera on wood. and the men of Sodom. anonymous. defies the mob in de. and his guests. on the one tion as a practical deterrent to hand. but the threat of di. 8). however. treating only too willing to point out strangers as if they were fam- his status as a foreigner: “This ily (Benveniste 1973). The Burning of Sodom. Figure 8 (above). See http://www. his family. mere hours before Fire and brimstone may rain a number of them threaten down upon the cities of the Lot. in an instructive con. humanity.org/membership/individual. http://upload. is not to in. city as a whole and outsiders. those whom they should have helped. From the collection of the Walters Art Museum.org/journal/neareastarch. collective crime. nor is there we will do worse to you than any evidence that Abraham to them” (19:9). Painting by Camille Corot.jpg. Thus. virtue known as hospitality fense of his guests. one came merely to sojourn there is no indication that Lot [lāgûr] amongst us. the Sodomites condemn trast to the vengeance of man. over. . even in biblical themselves to death by fire. plain for their crimes against with bodily harm (18:20–33). For the wrath of God. Abraham and Lot. 9). as does the on the other.

This being the case. the men of 2. to Abraham. Friedman 1987. In J. Does this not somehow violate the principle of hospitality? The 4. whose “compassion” (ḥemlâ) leads produced by said judgement.JPG. were a menace to strangers.org/journal/neareastarch. The Jordan plain. then. family. Western Jordan. pyrotechnic judgement functioned as a first salvo. In spite of the recent wave of hostility against source criticism. two of Jacob’s sons – Hypothesis: see Kawashima 2010. The gates a son. 10). Shechem falls victim to the vio. whereas Leviathan coerces men into suppressing their natural violent impulses. them. as Knohl (2004) observes: there is no Sethite genealogy. Notes hospitality will lead a select few to willingly reject them. and their sin. whereas Lot and Abraham. 1. from the doomed city (19:16).. And if not. by exhibiting compassion for of Sodom. descends from Cain. again. just as the Dead Sea. represent. that ogy in Genesis 4. one should partly based on the claim that once a genealogy recounts the birth of consider.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Jordanien_Totes_Meer_18. Cain is the Shechem. Courtesy of WikiMedia Commons user Zairon. in retrospect. Figure 10. I This is not to say that J idealizes Israel and its ancestors. would later serve as an instructive his angels to forcibly remove a hesitant Lot. Karl Budde argues that it was Enoch. constitutes the border of the promised land. Reading with the Septuagint.jstor. Simeon and Levi – betray and murder their hosts. to align them with Yahweh. Indeed. Abraham proves himself as a whole. You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription. is crucial. Beach at the Dead Sea. relationship to the Other: Cain feared all strangers. hospitality is arguably the cardinal virtue in J’s moral signal. not Cain. http://upload. in Genesis 34.org/membership/individual. by synecdoche. Thus. 3. no further mention should be made of the father’s acts (1883: NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015)  271 This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www. According to J. tally invokes Yahweh (5:29). Lamech’s naming of Noah. the gates of Canaan those whom he has never even met. Thus. God’s ominous parting words worthy of the regard God already has for him (18:17–19). a crucial turning point in history: “The out- and political vision. God’s selves nomadic strangers in Canaan. a warning to the concern Abraham and Lot show for the Other would seem the Canaanites of the invasion to come. along with his reminder to Israel of the just fate of its predecessors (fig. seem to In fact. To continue to operate within the framework of the Documentary take only the most egregious example. amongst the how very grave! Let me go down and see whether they have done builders of Babel there were no strangers. it was moved to the Sethite genealogy by the Redactor. the men of Sodom altogether according to the outcry which has come up to me.wikimedia. Consider the evolution of the city and its cry against Sodom and Gomorrah. who built this city.html for more information. et al. earns his salvation from said fire.asor. See http://www. as he prepares to take his leave of his host. were their friend. Baden 2012. story of Sodom. whereas Sodom threatened its sole surviving offspring of Adam and Eve. Yahweh dispossessed the Canaanites for the sake of the Israelites. which not coinciden- lence of its guests. Noah son of Lamech thus would-be guests with violence. was originally a part of J’s Cainite geneal- ises of J’s work and of the tradition it is based upon: viz. how great it is. I will know” (18:20–21). . then. And let us not forget one of the central prem.

see Hendel 1987).” whereas J’s flood is meant to punish human evil . . City of Refuge. such to the State. Strauss. ed. 63–67 in epistle dedicatory). Sefer Moshe. cal. & T. eds. Ronald Hendel. 1883. 1987. and Society. 1984. Leo. M. 2010. Joel S. There is reason to believe that in J.html for more information. Baden. The Political Philosophy of Hobbes. Cliffs. Richard Tuck. this origin story . His research thus far has focused primarily on the Hebrew Bible. 146–60 in The Book and the Yahwist. 1–12. Cambridge: Cam- The awkward insertion “and also afterward” (6:4) is both an attempt bridge University Press. Hendel. Ronald S. Chicago: Univer- Benveniste. 120. 1997. Westermann. Claus. the Text: The Bible and Literary Theory. Monotheism. Winona Lake. You may receive the journal through an ASOR membership or subscription. 2d ed. Robert S. 1897. 1996 [1651]. 2008. state in its dealings with other cities (Hobbes 1991: 89–90. breaking this pattern that J reveals the true significance of Cain’s Cohn. Sodom as Nexus. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Robert S. Minneapolis: Augsburg Pub House. 1973. Pp. But in fact. 2012. story. Homo Faber in J’s Primeval History. 2004. GA: family resemblance between Hobbes’s Leviathan and J’s.137. he has also written articles on biblical Hebrew. Kawashima is an associate professor at the University of Florida in the Department of Religion and the Center for Jewish Studies. Berkeley. treating it as a literary artifact within the context of both the ancient Mediterranean world and the literary and intellectual history of the West. The Archaeology of Ancient Israelite Knowledge. is to account for the Hobbes. Pp. Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 116: 483–501.org/membership/individual. For a brief overview. eds. 51–70 in Myth and Scripture: Contem- 10. Edinburgh: T. Chaim Cohen. “sons of godkind. Fred Skolnik. Knohl. in Comparative Literature from the University of California. tween God and Israel. 5). His current book project. Clark. trans. 138). of the story’s original. Sources and Redaction. Clark. André LaCocque has suggested in passing the relevance of Hobbes Dillmann. who would later inhabit the promised land and De Cive). Abel and Alter. 1990. See http://www. Genesis. 2004. which behaves like man in his natural Dexter Callender. JBL 106: 13–26. NJ: Prentice Hall. ter the flood. Haim Hermann and Menachem Elon. and Imagination. August. and Shalom M. 1997 [1910]. and the city. 2007. Regina M. it is precisely by J. Regina M. For the same reason. Of Demigods and the Deluge: Toward an 8. Emile. insofar as the flood kills everything that breathes (Gen 7:22). For the real Ten Methods. not to mention Homer and literary theory.jstor. 1987. Paul. Hermann. Michael Berenbaum and birth of three sons and a daughter (Gen 4:19–24). Pp. I hasten to add that ac. Onslaught against Innocence: Cain. Pp. see Cohn and Elon 2007. OR: Cascade Books. Phílos. References LaCocque. Genesis 1-11: A Commentary. Company. 1963. IN: Eisenbrauns. too. He is the author most notably of Biblical Nar- rative and the Death of the Rhapsode. The Composition of the Pentateuch: Renewing the Skinner. I rely heavily on Strauss’s succinct account of “The Moral Basis” of Friedman. Eugene. Language.D. John. cepting Strauss’s analysis is not a prerequisite for acknowledging the Gunkel. 6. Bernard Gert. Israel. Cain: The Forefather of Humanity. Richard Elliott. already submitted as porary Perspectives on Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press. Genesis: Critically and Exegetically Expound- for the story of Cain (2008: 100 n. Scul- Budde. The point of this story. ed. to resolve this contradiction (cf Dillmann 1897: 242) and also a trace Kawashima. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. Leviathan. J. Pp. 272  NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY 78:4 (2015) This journal was published by the American Schools of Oriental Research and is available on JSTOR at http://www. Documentary Hypothesis. The current location of this origin story is thus illogi. 2d ed. Ricker.58. Robert. Lamech’s song of vengeance follows the 4.asor. Who Wrote the Bible? Englewood Hobbes’s political philosophy (1963: 6–29). Giessen: lion. 9. 273–88 in Indo-European Language sity of Chicago Press. Vol. Covenant and Contingence: The Historical Encounter be- (Gen 6:5–7. .742–45 in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Even if we leave Gen 6:1–4 in its present location. 1930. 7. Thomas. biblical law. Stevenson. Hobbes. Die biblische Urgeschichte (Gen. Biddle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1. is an analysis of Israel’s religious traditions informed by Foucault’s investigations into the history of systems of thought. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press. 1991 [1658. ed. Interpretation of Genesis 6:1-4. Atlanta: Scholars Press. Genesis.org/journal/neareastarch. Schwartz.&T. after all. W. Avi Hurvitz. and Israelite religion. Man and Citizen: (De Homine origin of the Nephilim. Mercer University Press. Schwartz. André. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- culprits here are not the “daughters of humankind” but rather the versity Press. 5. Edinburgh: T. De Cive. ed. trans. The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Oxford: Blackwell. Pp. see also Westermann 1984: 327). Karl. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing (Num 13:33). He received the Ph. Macon. 2014. trans. ed. 122 n. 47–70 in Reading Genesis: does not explain why God chose to flood his creation. logical location. ed. 1642]. distinguishes between the citizen. Gen 6:1–4 originally came af.