Water Reduction and Reuse

in the Petroleum Industry

Presented by
Tom Sandy, P.E.
Principal Technologist,
Global Water and Process Practice Director

November 2005

• Systematic Approach
• How Water is Used in the Industry
• Water Reuse Opportunities
• Water Use in Exploration and Production
• Relationship of Water to Energy
• Water Reuse Practices and Challenges in
the Industry
• Case Studies


Systematic Approach

The Systematic Approach


Step 1—Establish Leadership
and Commitment
• Drivers
• Stakeholders
• The business case
• Leadership, goals, and
• Establishing commitment


Step 2—Frame the Problem • Set boundary limits • Conduct a baseline materials balance • Gather and summarize data • Perform materials accounting The resulting list depends on extent and complexity of the boundary limits. 6 .

Step 3—Develop Alternatives • Develop objectives • Identify opportunities for water reuse − Reviewing baseline water and material balance − Benchmarking − Using industry-standard water management strategies − Reviewing available water / wastewater treatment technologies − Using process analysis tools. including process simulation tools and process integration approaches • Generate alternatives • Refine alternatives 7 .

Consensus-building .Business/production plan .Project delivery analyses 8 .Optimization of solutions across objectives . Step 4—Select a Course of Action • Major areas of concern: .Prioritization of alternatives .

Step 5—Implement the Course of Action • Planning • Conceptual design • Design and cost estimating • Construction • Startup and operation • Monitoring and documentation 9 .

Step 6—Review and Update • An ongoing process—not a single project – Goals too costly to achieve in one phase – Economic drivers not yet strong enough • Iterative approach—periodic management review process 10 .

How Water is Used in the Industry .

(source: confidential CH2M HILL project) 12 . Typical Water Uses in Refineries • ~65-90 gallons used per 11% barrel of crude (Energetics. 1998) Fire Water/ Construction 20% Water Boiler Feed • Main areas of water use Water – Steam production 10% Water for – Cooling service 48% Process Units – Removal of water-soluble Cooling Tower Makeup 5% inorganic compounds Backwashes 6% • Two types of water use and Rinses – Consumptive: evaporative losses Potable Water – Return flow: wastewater Major water uses at a large refinery and petrochemical complex.

Flow of water through a typical North American refinery that uses a closed circuit cooling water system Blowdown BFW Stream System Plant Water Supply Utility Water Raw Process Units WWTP Water Discharge Treatment Cooling System Evaporative & Blowdown Drift Losses Reject / Blowdown 13 .

Return Flow: Contact Water • Crude Desalter – Extracts water-soluble inorganics from crude • Quench Water – Dramatically reduces temperature to aid reactions • Alkylation Wastewater – Used for KOH to extract hydrofluoric acid catalyst • Steam Distillation – Various cracking unit operations for hydrocarbon separation • Cooling Water Leaks – Various heat exchangers 14 .

g.Return Flow: Non-Contact Water • Once-Through Cooling Water – Possible leaks – Temperature issues • Potable and Sanitary Systems • Aids in Production Process or Serves Utility Function (e. heating or cooling) 15 .

0 Isomerization 1. 1998. “Industrial Water Use and its Energy Implications 16 . de-waxing) Source: Energetics.1 Visbreaking 2.0 Sweetening/Merox Process Little or no wastewater generated Sulfur Removal/Claus Process Process wastewater Lubricating Oil Manufacture (de-asphalting.0 Catalytic Hydrocracking 2.0 Catalytic Reforming 6. Steam stripping solvent extraction.0 Coking 1.0 Alkylation 2.Wastewater Generation by Refinery Unit Process Process WW Flow (Gallon/BBL of Oil) Crude Distillation (Atmospheric & Vacuum) 26.0 Ethers Manufacture Pretreatment wash water (recycled) Catalytic Hydrotreating 1.0 Fluid Catalytic Cracking 15.6 Crude Oil Desalting 2.

Water Reuse Opportunities .

etc. alkylation.Water Reuse: Steam Systems Highest water quality requirements = smallest reuse in refineries • Heat transfer fluid Ö reused as much as economically feasible • Boiler blowdown Öreturn to feedwater supply. as much as economically feasible • Non-contact steam condensate Ö boiler feedwater use – high pressure boiler blowdown for medium to low pressure boilers • Contaminated steam condensate Ö crude desalting. or discharge as cooling tower makeup. • Remote dispersed heating Ö no condensate return to atmosphere • Unneeded/unusable steam Ö vented to atmosphere 18 .

scale deposition. treated wastewater. biological fouling.Water Reuse: Cooling Systems Evaporative losses = largest consumptive use in refineries • Treatment to prevent: corrosion. and stormwater runoff are great candidates for cooling tower makeup • Depending upon cycles may be used for some process operations with low water quality requirements 19 . solids deposition • Blowdown to limit buildup of dissolved species or control cycles of concentration • Boiler blowdown.

Water Reuse: Process Operations • Oily condensate Ö desalting washwater • Phenolic compounds from stripped sour water Ö returned to crude Ö stripped sour water returned for desalting washwater and/or alkylation water 20 .

Water Use in Exploration and Production .

Water Use in Exploration/Production • Use negligible except in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) »Waterflood »Steamflood 22 .

Waterflood • Must remove suspended solids & oxygen. must disinfect rigorously • Major opportunity for reuse – Treated municipal effluent – Brackish non-potable groundwater – Seawater – High TDS wastewater • Biggest barrier: proximity to source 23 .

Steamflood • Injects high-pressure steam to produce heavy crude (API 15 or lower) by heating reservoir rock and oil • Reuses water as steam for re-injection • May use treated municipal wastewater or brackish water • May use once-through boilers tolerate high TDS and dissolved silica • Disposes waste into brackish aquifer or depleted oil reservoir 24 .

Relationship of Water to Energy .

Water-Energy Relationship • Steam Generation. Distribution & Use – Transfers heat to various energy users – Losses occur through: • Water/steam leaks and steam vents • Deliberate discharge of contaminated condensate • Non-economically feasible condensate – Losses influenced by: • System size • Quality of water sources & treatment processes • Cost of energy • Facility age • Steam Loss = Clean Water to Environment 26 .

Water Reuse Practices and Challenges in the Industry .

Rel ative Importanc e to Dec is ion to Im pl eme nt W ate r Reus e -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Sy nergis tic utility efficienc ies Cos t of raw water Cos t of wastewater disposal Value of recovered m aterials Drivers Time to mark et Financial incentives Regulator y collaboration Public im age Environm ental regulations Motivator Industry benc hm arking Water r es ource limitations Rec eiving water quality Diffic ult to meet discharge stds Water r ights iss ues Waste dispos al is sues Pr oduct quality conc erns Pr ice competition Example Forcefield Diagram of Water Reuse Motivators Capital c onstraints/ROI requir em ents implement implement Increasing Decreasing water reuse motivator to water reuse motivator to 28 .

25 0.5 0.A Balance Provides Lowest Life Cycle Cost Increasing costs 1 = Zero 0 = Zero Water Water Recycle/Reuse Discharge 0 0.75 1 Increasing water reuse 29 .

Water Reuse Practices and Challenges in the Industry Consumption Water Higher of Raw Water Management Water and Planning Utilization Discharge to Strategies Efficiencies Environment 30 .

Strategies to Tighten the Water Balance • Higher level of internal treatment / reuse of wastewater • Design of cooling towers to increase sensible heat transfer/reduce evaporative losses • Treatment of cooling water makeup or sidestream to minimize amount of blowdown required • Increased use of wastewater from external sources for water supply 31 .

Refinery Case Study .

Case Study: Refinery Expansion • Originally built in 1950s • Located near major river & 1. Representative only of a typical facility.000. 33 .000+ city • Modified recently to: – Accept higher API gravity feedstock – Reduce sulfur in gas & diesel – Expand overall capacity Photo source: Wikipedia.

reliable. safe operation • Remain within existing water withdrawal licensed volume • Remain within existing subsurface injection well capacity • Be able to obtain wastewater discharge permit 34 .Objectives of the Revised Water Management Plan • Achieve low-cost.

Strategies to Minimize River Water Use & Deepwell Disposal • Demineralization of all boiler feedwater via RO system • Softening of RO reject stream from boiler feedwater • Deepwell disposal for high TDS wastewater only • Major upgrade of refinery WWT system – Low Velocity Vortex Separator – Tertiary Media Filtration • Reuse of effluent as cooling tower makeup water 35 .

All flows in US Gallons Per Minute (USGPM) 64 Blowdown 765 BFW BFW Steam Steam System System Plant Plant Water Supply 113 Utility Water 2. Typical Refinery: Before Upgrade Water flow of typical North American refinery using a closed circuit cooling water system.138 Cooling Cooling System System to Surface 508 Discharge 975 to Deepwell 163 Blowdown Evaporative & Drift 36 .016 Raw Process Process 322 568 Raw WWTP WWTP Water Water Units Units Discharge Treatment Treatment 1.

494 776 Water Reuse Evaporative 151 & Drift Blowdown 299 Discharge 32 to Deepwell 37 . Typical Refinery: After Expansion All flows in USGPM.801 Treatment Treatment 1. 28 88 Blowdown 1.649 Steam Steam System System BFW BFW 919 Plant Plant 437 Treatment Treatment Process Process Units Units WWTP WWTP 259 Utility Water Discharge 76 to Surface Raw Raw 579 Water Water Cooling Cooling System System 2.

Case Study Results • Significant increase in plant capacity • Change of product mix • Minimized total water use • Reduction of surface water discharge 38 .

Water Treatment and Reuse in Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Bitumen Exploration Case Study .

Where and What • Alberta. Canada has the second largest oil reserves after Saudi Arabia • The oil is in the form of bitumen • The bitumen is combined with sand (hence tarsands) and is found in limited quantities at the surface • Most bitumen needs to be mined by subsurface mining 40 .

41 . – In the shallow deposits (less than 75m from surface to the top of the oil sands formation): truck-and- shovel mining followed by water-based extraction process – In the deeper deposits (greater than 75m from surface to the top of the oil sands formation). reduce its viscosity.Recovery Techniques • Two methods are used for the recovery of crude bitumen from oil sands deposits. and bring it to the surface. Most in situ recovery is achieved by injecting steam into the oil sands formation to heat the bitumen. bitumen is separated from the sand “in situ” (in place) and is pumped to the surface through wells.

Companies and Recovery Method 42 .

Scale of Surface Mining 43 .

300 feet in length with about 16 feet of vertical separation.300 and 3. generally between 2. where it heats the bitumen that then flows by gravity to the deeper producing well. Steam is injected into the shallower well.Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) • SAGD involves drilling two parallel horizontal wells. 44 .

• Produced water flow rate: 25.5 MGD 45 .4 barrels of water are injected (and come back with about 10% loss) for every barrel of oil.000 barrels of bitumen per day. • Typical steam to oil ratio: 2.Plant Size • 25.4 x 42 = 2.000 x 2.4 to 1 meaning 2.

SAGD Site Aerial View 46 .

silica. organics) removal – Disposal (deep well or Zero Liquid Discharge [ZLD]) 47 .Process Variations • Common Treatment: – Bitumen-water separation – Water treatment – steam generation • Variations – Diluent use in bitumen-water separation – Contaminant (TDS.

Water Availability and Disposal Options • Water is scarce in the region (arid) • Usable groundwater quantities limited • Alberta discharge regulations very strict • Result: Necessity of maximizing reuse • Majority of the water reused as once through steam generator boiler feed water (BFW). 48 .

000 – 10.000 ppm • Silica : < 50 ppm • Hardness : < 1 ppm as CaCO3 • Oil : < 5 ppm (measured as Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) 49 .OTSG Boiler Feed Water Specs • Major BFW Parameters • Total Dissolved Solids: 8.

000 – 50. Produced Water and Boiler Blowdown Composition Parameter Produced Boiler Water Blowdown TDS 1.000 ppm ppm Silica 300 – 400 ppm 150 – 200 ppm Hardness < 50 ppm < 4 ppm (as CaCO3) Oil 20 – 100 ppm < 20 ppm (measured as TPH) 50 .000 – 5.000 25.

Treatment Requirements • Produced Water: Silica Removal – Options • Warm or Hot lime softening (Magnesium treatment) • Evaporation • Boiler Blowdown: Partial Disposal – Options • Disposal well • Evaporator – Brine Crystallizer 51 .

Boiler Feed Water.Warm Lime Softener. Low Pressure Blowdown Samples Warm Lime Boiler Feed Low Pressure Softener Rapid Water Blowdown Mix Zone 52 .

Softening. ZLD Blowdown Cogen Bitumen Product Steam WACs Steamgen Flashtreater HTS Wells Make- up Afterfilters Chemistry Surge water Tank Z Chemistry Warm Lime Softener L DGF D Chemistry MonoSep Centrifuge De-Oiled Oil Removal Filters Water Tank Sludge to landfill for disposal 53 .Flow Schematic 1 No Diluent.

Flow Schematic 2 Diluent. Knock Out Chemistry Skim up Afterfilters Chemistry water Tank Warm Lime Softener ISF Centrifuge Sludge Chemistry Produced Oil Removal Filters Disposal Water Storage well Tank 54 . Softening. Disposal Well Blowdown Ponds Steamgens Diluent Bitumen Steam WACs Treaters Free Water Wells Make.

Flow Schematic 3 Evaporators and Disposal Well Blowdown Steamgens Disposal Diluent Bitumen Well Steam Free Water Treaters Disposal Knock Water Wells Out Treatment Chemistry Skim Chemistry Tank Evaporators ISF Chemistry 55 .

Challenges • Operation of a system with large number of interactive processes • Performance of bitumen–water separation • Heat exchanger fouling • Warm lime softener performance in the presence of organics • Maintaining salt removal capability (ZLD and disposal well) 56 .