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Process of making:

1. Distillation - physical reaction/separation of fermented solutions to produce distilled
beverages with higher content of alcohol.

2. Fermentation -a chemical reaction in which carbohydrates such as sugar is converted into
acid (food) or an alcohol (beverage). In wines, grapes are crushed to
release the sugar-rich juices, which are then either transferred quickly away
from the skins or left to rest for a time to absorb some of the flavor, tannins,
and color of the skins. Yeast is then added, and the grape juice is allowed to
ferment for a number of weeks, at which point it is moved to different
containers and fermented at a slower rate, and eventually aged or bottled.

Types of alcoholic beverages:

1. Beer - a short fermentation process and a short ageing process (1-2 weeks)
typically resulting in an alcohol content of 4%-6% ABV. Beer is naturally
carbonated beverage.

2. Wine - involves a longer (complete) fermentation process and relatively long aging
process (months/years) sometimes decades resulting in an alcohol content
between 7-18%. Sparkling wine is generally made by adding a small amount of
sugar before bottling, which causes a secondary fermentation to continue in a

3. Spirit - a distilled beverage that contains no added sugar and has at least 30% ABV.

- absinthe, brandy, eau-de-vie, german schnaps, grappa

4. Liqueur - is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavored with fruits, herbs, spices, flavors,
seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream.
a. dissolving of flavoring liquefier which means “to dissolve”.
b. infusions (plants, fruits, leaves, herbs) soak to a desired flavor.
c. distillation

Liqueurs: fruit liqueur, coffee liqueur, chocolate liqueur, schrapps liqueur

 Amaretto - (Italy) made of almonds 28% ABV.
 Amarula - (South Africa) made of marula fruit 17% ABV.
 Bailey’s - (Ireland) made of Irish dairy cream and Irish whiskey 17%ABV balanced
with chocolate flavors.
 Schnapps - type of distilled alcoholic beverage.
 Cointreau - (France) made of ripe Seville oranges and lemons 40% ABV.
 Drambuie - (Scotland) made of 15years old scotch whiskey, herbs, and heather honey
40% ABV.
 Kahlua - (Mexico) made of dark brown coffee, cane spirits, vanilla, cone syrup and
vodka 26.5 %ABV.
 Sambuca - (Italy) anis-seed flavored liqueur 42% ABV.

5. Cordial - is any invigorating and stimulating preparation; e.g. peppermint cordial,
blackcurrant cordial. The term derives from obsolete medicinal usage.

6. Elixir - a pharmaceutical preparation containing an active ingredient (morphine) that is
dissolved in a solution that contains some percentage usually 40-60% of ethyl
alcohol and is designed to be taken orally, (often made from vodka or grappa)

Fermented beverages
• Beer- made from starch and cereals
• Wine- made from grapes
• Cider- made from apples and pears
• Rice wine- made from wheat, corn, rice

Distilled beverages
• Tequila, mescal made from Agave plant.
• Irish whiskey, Japanese Whiskey, Scotch Whiskey made from Barley.
• Arack made from coconut
• Armagnac, Brandy, Cognac made from grapes
• Bourbon whiskey, corn whiskey, Tennessee whiskey made from maize
• Grappa, Marc made from pomace
• Rye whiskey made from rye
• Aguardiente, Cachaca, Rum made from sugarcane and molasses
• Canadian Whisky, Vodka, Whiskey made from various cereals, potato
• Eau-de-vie, Schnaps made from fruits.