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Jazan Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle

(JIGCC) Project

Package No. 06, DOCUMENT


Operation and Maintenance : A61-003-A-022
Sea Water NUMBER
Manual
System REVISION A 00
ISSUED BY SPTC ISSUED DATE 20-Feb-17 PAGE 1 / 132

Operation and Maintenance Manual


(SPTC Transformers)

CHEC Document No : A61-003-A-022

SPTC Document No :

Revision : A00

Date of Issue : 20-Feb-17

NMR Code :

Name Title Date Signature


Prepared By Abdul Rehman Lodhi QA 20-Feb-17

Checked By Mahesh Swami QA 20-Feb-17

Revision History

Rev. Date Description

A00 20-Feb-17 Issued for Approval

CHEC-JIGCC6OOK-72-QC-QPL-0001
Installation, Operation and
Maintenance Manual

SAUDI POWER TRANSFORMERS COMPANY

Saudi Power Transformers Co. http://www.sptc.com.sa/


St. # 111, Second Industrial City Tel: 00966 / (3) 8084096
Dammam Saudi Arabia Fax: 00966 / (3) 8084096
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Transformer: 50/66.5MVA, 132/13.8kV, DYn1, Power Transformer

Year of Manufacture: 2017

Manufacturer: Saudi Power Transformers Company (SPTC)

Customer: China Harbour Engineering Company Ltd. (CHEC)

End-User: JIGCC Project, Saudi Aramco

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

General Index

1 General information ................................................................................................................... 11


1.1 General information ........................................................................................................... 12
1.1.1 . IOM-manual structure .............................................................................................. 12
1.1.2 . Safety instructions and notes .................................................................................. 12
1.1.3 . Use of most important drawings .............................................................................. 12
1.1.4 . General figures used in the text .............................................................................. 13
1.1.5 . Use of checklists and forms .................................................................................... 13
1.1.6 . Special instructions ................................................................................................. 13
1.1.7 . For more information ............................................................................................... 13
1.2 Safety practice for transformers and related electrical equipment .................................... 14
1.2.1 . Basic safety practice ............................................................................................... 14
1.2.2 . Transformer specific safety practice ....................................................................... 14
1.2.3 . Voltage hazards and temporary grounding (earthing) systems for transformers .... 15
1.3 Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS) ................................................................................. 17
1.4 Warranty period and conditions ......................................................................................... 17
1.4.1 . Actions to be taken at installation and commissioning ............................................ 17
1.4.2 . Actions to be taken in case of severe abnormal conditions .................................... 18
1.5 Insurance ........................................................................................................................... 18
1.5.1 . Transfer of risks ....................................................................................................... 18
1.5.2 . Transportation damage ........................................................................................... 18
1.5.3 . Informing Saudi Power Transformers Company (SPTC) ........................................ 18
1.6 Tables ................................................................................................................................ 19
1.6.1 . Correction factors for megger and power factor tests ............................................. 19
1.6.2 . Torque values for bolt-nut connection ..................................................................... 19
1.6.3 . Torque values for SEFCOR connectors .................................................................. 20
1.7 Conversion tables .............................................................................................................. 21
2 General transformer description .............................................................................................. 26
2.1 General electrical and mechanical data ............................................................................ 28
2.1.1 . Nameplate: .............................................................................................................. 28
2.1.2 . General Arrangement Drawing................................................................................ 28
2.1.3 . Schematic Control and Schematic Motor drive unit ................................................ 28
2.1.4 . Test Reports ............................................................................................................ 28
2.1.5 . Overload capability .................................................................................................. 28

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

2.2 Information on mechanical transformer parts .................................................................... 28


2.3 Tank design ....................................................................................................................... 29
2.3.1 . General tank design ................................................................................................ 29
2.3.2 . Tank handling .......................................................................................................... 29
2.3.3 . Protective measures in tank design ........................................................................ 29
2.3.4 . Tank accessories .................................................................................................... 29
2.4 Non-membrane conservator design .................................................................................. 29
2.5 Transformer grounding (earthing) and equipotential bonding ........................................... 30
2.5.1 . Introduction .............................................................................................................. 30
2.5.2 . Parts to be grounded (earthed) ............................................................................... 30
2.6 Transformer Painting ......................................................................................................... 33
2.6.1 . Painting system ....................................................................................................... 33
3 Packing, Transport, Receiving, Storage .................................................................................. 35
3.1 Packing .............................................................................................................................. 36
3.1.1 . General .................................................................................................................... 36
3.1.2 . Transformer body .................................................................................................... 36
3.1.3 . Condenser bushings ............................................................................................... 36
3.1.4 . Hygroscopic electrical parts .................................................................................... 36
3.1.5 . Radiators ................................................................................................................. 36
3.1.6 . Conservator, pipes and cable boxes ....................................................................... 36
3.1.7 . Control cabinets ...................................................................................................... 37
3.2 Transport and handling ...................................................................................................... 37
3.2.1 . General transport and handling notes ..................................................................... 37
3.2.2 . Handling instructions during loading and unloading ............................................... 38
3.2.3 . Blocking and securing ............................................................................................. 39
3.2.4 . Shipping documents ................................................................................................ 39
3.3 Receiving ........................................................................................................................... 39
3.3.1 . Inspection of damage .............................................................................................. 39
3.3.2 . Transformer inspection procedure .......................................................................... 40
3.4 Impact recorder ShockLog RD298 .................................................................................... 42
3.5 Performing internal inspections ......................................................................................... 42
3.5.1 . Reasons to perform an internal inspection .............................................................. 42
3.5.2 . Planning the inspection ........................................................................................... 42
3.5.3 . Procedure of an internal inspection ......................................................................... 43
3.6 Dew point measurement .................................................................................................... 43

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

3.7 Storage .............................................................................................................................. 44


3.7.1 . Storage of the transformer ...................................................................................... 44
3.7.2 . Storage of accessories ............................................................................................ 45
3.7.3 . End of storage ......................................................................................................... 46
4 Assembling and installation ..................................................................................................... 47
4.1 Locating a transformer ....................................................................................................... 49
4.1.1 . Preparation to move a transformer ......................................................................... 49
4.1.2 . Positioning a transformer on its final destination..................................................... 50
4.2 General installation topics ................................................................................................. 52
4.2.1 . Planning of the installation ...................................................................................... 52
4.2.2 . Recommended assembling and energization sequence ........................................ 52
4.2.3 . Collecting and preparing the required equipment ................................................... 52
4.3 Installation of the transformer body ................................................................................... 53
4.3.1 . Grounding the tank .................................................................................................. 53
4.3.2 . Preparation of the transformer before assembling accessories.............................. 53
4.4 Installation of accessories ................................................................................................. 54
4.4.1 . Unpacking accessories ........................................................................................... 54
4.4.2 . Preparing accessories ............................................................................................. 55
4.4.3 . Equipment safety during installation ....................................................................... 55
4.4.4 . General assembling instructions for accessories .................................................... 55
4.5 Installation of Conservator and Pipes ................................................................................ 57
4.6 Installation of radiators....................................................................................................... 59
4.6.1 . Mounting instructions .............................................................................................. 59
4.6.2 . Different types of gaskets used ............................................................................... 60
4.6.3 . Filling radiators for (partially) oil-filled transformers ................................................ 60
4.6.4 . Draining oil from a radiator ...................................................................................... 60
4.6.5 . Disassembling a radiator from a filled transformer.................................................. 61
4.7 Installation of Bushing Turrets ........................................................................................... 62
4.7.1 . Different types ......................................................................................................... 62
4.8 Installation of CTs .............................................................................................................. 62
4.8.1 . Current transformers for bottomconnected bushings (phase / neutral) ............... 62
4.8.2 . Current transformers for draw lead bushings (phase / neutral) ............................. 63
4.9 Installation of HV-DIN Bushings (10 - 52 kV, IEC) ............................................................ 63
4.9.1 . Type ......................................................................................................................... 64
4.9.2 . Mounting instructions .............................................................................................. 65

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.10 .. Installation of condenser bushings .................................................................................... 65


4.10.1 Different types of condenser bushings .................................................................... 65
4.10.2 Mounting instructions .............................................................................................. 67
4.11 .. Installation of cooling fans ................................................................................................. 68
4.11.1 Mounting instructions .............................................................................................. 68
4.12 .. Wiring on the transformer .................................................................................................. 69
4.12.1 Mounting instructions .............................................................................................. 69
4.13 .. Oil quality requirements ..................................................................................................... 69
4.13.1 New transformer oil ................................................................................................. 70
4.13.2 Oil treatment (degassing, streamlining) .................................................................. 70
4.13.3 New treated transformer oil in new equipment........................................................ 70
4.13.4 Transformer oil for transformers in service ............................................................. 71
4.14 .. Pulling vacuum .................................................................................................................. 71
4.14.1 Before pulling vacuum ............................................................................................. 71
4.14.2 Establishing connections ......................................................................................... 72
4.14.3 Pulling vacuum ........................................................................................................ 72
4.14.4 Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................... 72
4.15 .. Oil filling standard .............................................................................................................. 72
4.15.1 Oil filling ................................................................................................................... 72
4.15.2 Filling procedure in the event of process interruption ............................................. 74
4.16 .. Topping up oil after initial vacuum filling ............................................................................ 74
4.17 .. Air venting .......................................................................................................................... 75
4.18 .. Pre-operational tests.......................................................................................................... 75
4.18.1 Mechanical tests and checks .................................................................................. 76
4.18.2 Oil sampling and testing .......................................................................................... 76
4.18.3 Electrical tests ......................................................................................................... 76
4.19 .. Pre-operational tests and checks of accessories .............................................................. 76
4.20 .. Oil sampling and testing .................................................................................................... 78
4.20.1 Sampling.................................................................................................................. 78
4.20.2 Required oil quality tests ......................................................................................... 78
4.20.3 Oil quality requirement ............................................................................................ 78
4.21 .. Megger test (Required) ...................................................................................................... 78
4.21.1 Winding insulation megger test ............................................................................... 78
4.21.2 Core grounding megger test.................................................................................... 79
4.21.3 Accessories insulation megger test ......................................................................... 79

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.22 .. Voltage ratio test (Required) .............................................................................................. 80


4.22.1 Ratio meter method ................................................................................................. 80
4.22.2 Voltage ratio test for turns ratio ............................................................................... 80
4.23 .. Vector group test (Optional) .............................................................................................. 80
4.24 .. Insulation power factor test or TAN (Special) ................................................................. 81
4.25 .. Bushing power factor test (Special test) ............................................................................ 81
4.26 .. Winding resistance test (Special test) ............................................................................... 82
4.27 .. Continuity impedance check (Special test) ....................................................................... 83
4.28 .. Removal of surface moisture ............................................................................................. 83
4.28.1 Removal of surface moisture by vacuum ................................................................ 83
4.28.2 Removal of surface moisture by dry air recycling ................................................... 84
5 Commissioning .......................................................................................................................... 85
5.1 Repeating pre-operational tests ........................................................................................ 87
5.1.1 . Energization follows within 4 weeks after installation and testing ........................... 87
5.1.2 . Energization follows 4 weeks to 6 months after installation and testing ................. 87
5.1.3 . Energization follows later than 6 months after installation and testing ................... 87
5.2 Operational system tests ................................................................................................... 87
5.2.1 . Alarm circuits and contacts ..................................................................................... 87
5.2.2 . Trip circuits and contacts ......................................................................................... 88
5.2.3 . Remote control ........................................................................................................ 88
5.2.4 . Temperature settings .............................................................................................. 88
5.2.5 . Verification of overpressure relief devices .............................................................. 88
5.2.6 . Voltage relation check ............................................................................................. 88
5.3 Energization ....................................................................................................................... 88
5.3.1 . Minimum oil stabilising period after final oil filling.................................................... 89
5.3.2 . First energizing at no load conditions. ..................................................................... 89
5.3.3 . Loading the transformer .......................................................................................... 89
6 Maintenance ............................................................................................................................... 91
6.1 Transformer maintenance ................................................................................................. 93
6.1.1 . Safety during maintenance...................................................................................... 93
6.1.2 . General maintenance guidelines ............................................................................. 93
6.1.3 . External cleaning ..................................................................................................... 93
6.2 Periodic Inspection of transformers in service ................................................................... 94
6.2.1 . Oil levels and silica gel ............................................................................................ 94
6.2.2 . Oil quality ................................................................................................................. 94

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

6.2.3 . Venting .................................................................................................................... 94


6.2.4 . External circuits and control equipment .................................................................. 94
6.2.5 . (On) Load tap changer (O)LTC ............................................................................ 94
6.2.6 . De-energized tap changer DTC ........................................................................... 94
6.2.7 . Cooling system ........................................................................................................ 95
6.2.8 . Fans ......................................................................................................................... 95
6.2.9 . Temperature ............................................................................................................ 95
6.2.10 Inspection of tank, cover, gaskets and valves......................................................... 96
6.2.11 Periodic electrical testing......................................................................................... 96
6.3 Periodic inspection of transformers in storage .................................................................. 96
6.4 Maintenance inspection chart ............................................................................................ 96
6.4.1 . Frequency indications ............................................................................................. 97
6.4.2 . Maintenance activity to perform .............................................................................. 97
6.5 Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................... 100
6.5.1 . Electrical malfunction ............................................................................................ 100
6.5.2 . Mechanical malfunction or malfunction of accessories ......................................... 101
6.6 Oil quality ......................................................................................................................... 102
6.7 Oil sampling ..................................................................................................................... 102
6.7.1 . Taking samples for general oil testing purposes ................................................... 102
6.7.2 . Taking samples for DGA tests............................................................................... 103
6.8 Dielectrical strength ......................................................................................................... 103
6.9 Moisture content .............................................................................................................. 103
6.10 .. Particles in oil ................................................................................................................... 104
6.11 .. Dissolved Gas Analysis on transformer oils from the main tank of a transformer .......... 105
6.12 .. Frequency of analysis ...................................................................................................... 105
6.13 .. Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 105
6.13.1 Actions ................................................................................................................... 106
6.14 .. Replacement of defective parts ....................................................................................... 108
6.14.1 Ordering replacement or spare parts .................................................................... 108
7 Forms, checklists ..................................................................................................................... 109
Receiving inspection report........................................................................................................ 111
Energization Report ................................................................................................................... 112
(1)
Parts ordering form ................................................................................................................ 113
Site commissioning report.......................................................................................................... 114
8 Special instructions ................................................................................................................. 130

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

8.1 Special instructions .......................................................................................................... 130

Index of tables

Table 1 Minimum recommended (temporary) grounding cable size for copper cable ................... 16
Table 2 Temperature correction factors for megger (K 1 ) and power factor or tan tests (K 2 ). ...... 19
Table 3 Max. spanner values for bolt nut connections ................................................................ 19
Table 4 Recommended torque values for SEFCOR connectors.................................................... 20
Table 5 International System of units (SI) (Metric practice) ........................................................... 21
Table 6 Multiplication factors .......................................................................................................... 21
Table 7 United States System ........................................................................................................ 22
Table 8 SI conversion factors ......................................................................................................... 24
Table 9 Conversion table for pressure and stress .......................................................................... 25
Table 10 Dew point measurement .................................................................................................... 44
Table 11 Minimum number of rods required per set under the transformer ..................................... 51
Table 12 Required vacuum pump capacities ................................................................................... 53
Table 13 Oil treatment ...................................................................................................................... 70
Table 14 Required vacuum for flashing surface moisture ................................................................ 84
Table 15 Vacuum hold times for flashing surface moisture.............................................................. 84
Table 16 Maintenance inspection chart ............................................................................................ 99
Table 17 Electrical malfunction troubleshooting chart .................................................................... 100
Table 18 Mechanical malfunction troubleshooting chart ................................................................ 101
Table 19 Water in oil ....................................................................................................................... 104
Table 20 Particles in oil ................................................................................................................... 104
Table 21 Limits for normal values for Saudi Power Transformers Company ................................. 105

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Table of figures

Figure 1 Example of SEFCOR connector ........................................................................................ 20


Figure 2 Parts to be grounded (earthed) ......................................................................................... 31
Figure 3 Outside oil drum storage (method 1) ................................................................................. 45
Figure 4 Outside oil drum storage (method 2) ................................................................................. 45
Figure 5 Sequence of tightening bolt nut connections (1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 -> ) ............................. 56
Figure 6 Different types of gaskets .................................................................................................. 56
Figure 7 Gasket joint ........................................................................................................................ 57
Figure 8 Conservator and pipes assembly ...................................................................................... 58
Figure 9 Example of radiator No. 92 ................................................................................................ 59
Figure 10 Drain plug No. 95 ............................................................................................................... 61
Figure 11 Vent plug No. 94 ................................................................................................................ 61
Figure 12 Throttle valve No. 93 open ................................................................................................ 61
Figure 13 Throttle valve No. 93 closed .............................................................................................. 62
Figure 14 CT Turrets....................................................................................................................... 62
Figure 15 HV DIN Bushings ............................................................................................................... 64
Figure 16 Draw lead condenser bushing ........................................................................................... 66
Figure 17 Bottom connected condenser bushing .............................................................................. 66
Figure 18 Bottom connected (1200 A) ............................................................................................... 67
Figure 19 Lifting instruction condenser bushing ................................................................................ 67
Figure 20 Draw lead (400 A) .............................................................................................................. 67
Figure 21 Equalizing pipe connections .............................................................................................. 71
Figure 22 Transformer filling (without conservator) ........................................................................... 73
Figure 23 Transformer filling with conservator ................................................................................... 74
Figure 24 Core grounding assembly .................................................................................................. 80
Figure 25 Vector group test ............................................................................................................... 81
Figure 26 Bushing testtap .................................................................................................................. 82
Figure 27 Capacitive bushing representation .................................................................................... 82

Annexures
Annexure A Operation and Maintenance Manual for Oil to Oil Bushings
Annexure B Operation and Maintenance Manual for Pfisterer

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1 General information

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1.1 General information


1.1.2 Safety instructions and notes
This transformer Installation, Operation and Maintenance
manual (IOM-manual) is your guide to installing and
All personnel involved in installation, commissioning,
energizing the Saudi Power Transformers Company
operation, maintenance or repair of the equipment must:
transformer(s). This IOM-manual contains important
information for the safe and reliable use of the be suitably qualified and
transformer(s). strictly observe these IOM Instructions
Please read this IOM-manual completely before starting
installation and commissioning. Improper operation or misuse can lead to:
a reduction in the efficiency of the equipment
damage to the equipment and property of the user
NOTE serious or fatal injury
Saudi Power Transformers Company cannot be held
responsible for any damage due to improper
handling, installation, use or maintenance of the Safety instructions in this manual are presented in three
equipment. If you have any doubts about how to different forms to emphasize important information.
proceed, we advise you to contact your Saudi Power
Transformers Company contact person or the
nearest Saudi Power Transformers Company DANGER
representative directly. This kind of information indicates particular danger
Should you feel unconfident about installing and/or to life and health. Disregarding such a warning can
energizing the transformer completely on your own, lead to serious or fatal injury.
feel free to contact us. We will be at your service to
provide more information on complete installation
and commissioning programs or on supervising
programs. CAUTION
This kind of information indicates particular danger
to the equipment or other property of the user.
Serious or fatal injury cannot be excluded.
1.1.1 IOM-manual structure
NOTE
This IOM-manual has a logical structure following the
Notes provide important information on a certain
sequence of activities from transportation over
subject.
commissioning to maintenance. A main index listing the
available chapters is included in the beginning of the
manual.
The IOM-manual consists of 3 parts:
1.1.3 Use of most important drawings
Part A: Installation, Operation and Maintenance
Instructions The text will often refer to specific drawings [part C]. In
Part B: Documentation of Transformer many cases part numbers will be given. These numbers
Accessories refer to the General Arrangement Drawing and the
Part C: Transformer Drawings Materials List, e.g.: Drain Plug No. 95.

In the Manufacturing Data Record Book (MDRB) a The most important drawings are the following:
separate binder the test reports of the transformer and The General Arrangement Drawing: shows a side, top
its accessories are included. and front view of the transformer. The dimensions and
weight of the fully assembled transformer are given, as
well as the weight of the oil. All important components

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

are identified by "item numbers" which relate to the instructions are included in section [8]. The special
Materials List. instructions are specifically written for the transformer.
The Materials List: can be printed on the General
Arrangement Drawing or on a separate document. The NOTE
Materials List gives the type and brand of most Always consult the special instructions section [8] to
accessories. verify if special procedures have to be followed
during installation, operation or maintenance.
Schematic Drawings (of Control & Protection Circuits
and Motor Drive Unit): give information on the connection
between the different protective devices mounted on the
transformer.
1.1.7 For more information
Name Plate (or Rating Plate): gives the main electrical
characteristics.
1.1.7.1 Your Saudi Power Transformers
Company contact person

During production, transportation and installation you


1.1.4 General figures used in the text have continuously been in contact with the Saudi Power
Transformers Company Project Manager. He is the one
The text contains figures that sometimes indicate specific who is responsible for the complete execution of the
types of equipment and/or specific dimensions. These order until the end of the warranty period. In case of any
figures are provided to explain general principles and questions or problems, contact this person and he will
situations. Neither the type nor the dimensions of these help you as soon as possible. Normally, you will have his
figures necessarily apply to the purchased transformer. coordinates at hand.
Only type and dimensions on the drawings [part C] apply
to the purchased transformer.
Saudi Power Transformers Company
This IOM-manual includes a list of figures after the St. # 111 across St. # 152
general index. Second Industrial City, Dammam
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Tel: + 966 / (3) 808 4096 (7:30 am 5 pm)
1.1.5 Use of checklists and forms Fax: + 966 / (3) 808 4096

The text refers to several checklists and forms that can


be found in section [7]. Some of them have to be
completed and forwarded to your Saudi Power 1.1.7.2 Saudi Power Transformers Company
Transformers Company contact person as soon as Services
possible.
Saudi Power Transformers Company service department
For your convenience, we would advise you to make can handle all operation related topics such as:
additional copies of these checklists in order to keep a
complete IOM-manual for future use. The most important installation and commissioning
checklist is the Site commissioning report. This report site testing and inspection
must be completed and returned before energizing the maintenance and repair works
transformer. ordering of repair, spare or additional parts
supervision on above activities

1.1.6 Special instructions

In case the transformer installation, operation or


maintenance requires special instructions, these

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

For problems or questions after the warranty period has Use the padlock and key interlock system where
expired or for additional parts or materials (not included available to protect yourself and others.
in the scope of the order) you can contact SPTC directly.
Do not work under equipment that is raised and
insecurely blocked. Do not walk under equipment that is
suspended from a crane.
Saudi Power Transformers Company
St. # 111, Across St. # 144 Do not walk holding a ladder or any other long object
Second Industrial City near a transformer or overhead lines under voltage.
Dammam Before lifting any object by any means, ensure that its
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia weight can be handled correctly. Use the appropriate
lifting or handling tools.
Tel: +966 / (13) 814 4626
Fax: +966 / (13) 814 4627 Do not work on or adjust moving equipment. Do not work
on or adjust mechanical equipment unless its motive
source has been deactivated.

1.2 Safety practice for transformers and


1.2.2 Transformer specific safety practice
related electrical equipment
Do not walk on a transformer or its parts unless the unit
1.2.1 Basic safety practice has been de-energized.

Every employee must have a safety program and he has Do not walk on a transformer under vacuum. Never
to know how to use it in the event of an accident. perform any electrical tests on a transformer under
vacuum. Do not apply vacuum when it is raining or when
Ensure that safety equipment and tools are always close the transformer is unsupervised.
at hand.
When pressure tests are being performed or when
Keep suitable fire extinguishing equipment and qualified vacuum is being applied, the pressure must be equalized
personnel available. Make sure that the equipment used between the main tank and the (On) Load Tap Changer
is suitable for fire involving oil filled electrical compartment if these compartments are separated by
installations.. Make sure that it is correctly charged and terminal panels which might not be able to withstand
that you know how to use it. pressure differences mechanically. Find out which parts
Always be alert to emergencies. If an accident should will not be able to withstand a complete vacuum.
occur, quickly utilize the safety equipment, emergency Before removing any cover plate or transformer fitting,
tools and equipment at hand. Before you begin a project, ensure that the overpressure inside the transformer is
ensure that at least two people know first aid procedures zero and that the oil level is lower than the opening in
and that they have the proper first aid kits at hand. question.
Ensure that all protective equipment required for the job In the event of a sudden change in the weather bringing
is available to all workers and ensure that it is used penetrating rain or snow, provisions must be made for
correctly. This equipment may include hard-hats, closing the tank quickly and pressurizing it with nitrogen
breathing apparatus, eye protection, gloves, foot in order to preserve the insulation.
protection,
To allow anyone entering a transformer the air has to
Ensure that all electrical circuits to be worked on have support life with a sufficient oxygen level (19.5 %).
been traced and de-energized. Ensure that all safety
grounds have been correctly applied to protect personnel Extreme precautions are to be taken to protect the
against the accidental application of power to these insulation of the transformer from any damage and to
circuits (refer to chapter 2 for more information on prevent the ingress of foreign objects and moisture
temporary grounding.) Do NOT assume that someone during the checking and erection of the transformer.
else has turned off the power, check for yourself.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Whilst the transformer is open, no one may be allowed 1.2.3 Voltage hazards and temporary
on top of it, unless this person has emptied his/her grounding (earthing) systems for
pockets, has checked himself/herself for the presence of
objects such as watch, rings etc. and has removed them.
transformers
These precautions must be taken to prevent objects from
falling into the transformer. 1.2.3.1 Voltage hazards

Anyone going inside a transformer must wear clean The turns ratio between the windings of any power
clothes and clean synthetic-rubber boots. transformer makes them capable of transforming what
Never stand directly on any part of the insulation. are normally considered harmless voltages into
dangerous and even lethal levels.
Clean rags, sheets of paper, etc. are to be used under
the working surfaces in the transformer to prevent Electrical welders, continuity checking instruments and
objects from falling into the windings. insulation testing apparatus are examples of sources of
so-called harmless voltages. Even if these are direct
All tools must be listed. For safety first reasons they current (DC) devices, they are capable of producing
must be attached to the wrists or belt, so that they voltages high enough to be hazardous to human life,
cannot fall into the windings. when the circuits they are connected to are made or
Smoking is not allowed on the transformer, nor is it interrupted.
allowed in the vicinity of an oil-processing plant. Other situations which may present hazardous
Lamps used for lighting the inside of the transformer conditions include the high voltage produced by open
must be the shielded type with a maximum voltage of 36 circuited current transformers (including these which are
V. Debris from a broken lamp bulb may not be able to used for Winding-Temperature-Indicators, WTIs) which
drop out. have current flowing in the primary circuits and the
electrical charge which may by retained by condenser
If in spite of all preventive measures something style bushings after the transformer has been
does fall into the transformer tank and cannot be disconnected from the external circuits. The open circuit
retrieved, do not proceed with the energization and voltage that is developed depends on the design of the
do not perform any electrical tests that may cause CT, but is nearly always dangerously high. NEVER
damage to the transformer. Immediately contact disconnect a CT secondary while the primary circuit is
Saudi Power Transformers Company instead. energized. CTs must be connected to a suitable load or
must be shorted by a link that is suitable for carrying the
rated secondary current.
Correct operation of all protective circuits and protective
devices for the transformer should be checked on a Delta-connected windings that are not connected to any
regular basis. Neglection of these circuits or devices, or external circuit may also retain a charge after the
overriding of the functions of these circuits or devices transformer has been de-energized for a period of time.
could allow minor problems to develop into a major
problems. This may result in a total loss of the
transformer, damage to other equipment and injury of
personnel. DANGER
For personnel and equipment safety reasons:
A pressure relief device incorporates heavy spring in ground the transformer tank as soon as possible,
compression, DO NOT DISMANTLE such a device, ground all bushings whenever possible and connect
unless suitable safeguards have been implemented, CT secondary circuits to a suitable load or short-
otherwise personnel injury may occur. circuit them.
Recommended commissioning checks must be
performed before the first energization of the
transformer.

15
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1.2.3.2 Preventive measures For similar reasons, no slack or loops in the grounding
cables may be allowed.
When personnel is working on de-energized
If multiple grounding cables are used in parallel, they
transformers, winding terminals should be suitably short-
must be twisted or lashed together to prevent
circuited and grounded according to the correct safety
mechanical reaction between the cables during the flow
practice in order to avoid injury or even death (see
of fault current. The grounding clamps must be installed
section below).
touching each other to prevent them from pulling
Unused current transformers must always have their together and from possible loosening during a fault.
secondary windings short-circuited with suitably sized
Groundings are to be applied from each of the
wire to avoid high open circuit voltages.
transformer terminals to the station grounding bus.
Phase-to-phase jumpering after one phase has been
grounded is permissible. This short circuit limits the
a) Recommendations concerning temporary grounding
amount of fault current which circulates through the
(earthing) systems
grounding cable back to the phases. Jumpering is
usually not suitable in HV switchyards due to the large
Temporary groundings, used while personnel are inter-phase clearances.
working on de-energized transformers, must always be
applied in accordance with the approved safety and
operation practices issued by the employer. In addition, b) Minimum grounding (earthing) cable sizes
they must be in accordance with the instructions for the
specific grounding equipment used.
The following minimum grounding cable sizes are
Temporary grounding is required for a number of recommended, in association with suitably sized screw
reasons: type grounding clamps:
Induced voltage from adjacent energized lines.
Fault current feed-over from adjacent lines. Min. cable size per
Lightning strikes anywhere on the circuit. Max fault
Max
phase
Switching equipment malfunction or human error. current
duration of
2
Accident initiated contact with adjacent lines. fault current AWG mm
<22 kAmps 25 cycles 1x2/0 ~1x70
It is important to ground ALL terminals of the transformer 22-34 kAmps 25 cycles 1x4/0 ~1x110
(not just HV circuit) to protect against back-feed from the 34-60 kAmps 25 cycles 2x4/0 ~2x110
low voltage or tertiary voltage circuits. Table 1 Minimum recommended (temporary)
Only screw type grounding clamps may be used. Clip-on grounding cable size for copper cable
clamps are not acceptable. Clamps must always be
securely tightened. Clamps and cable size are to be
selected in accordance with the short circuit capability of
c) Establishing the grounding (earthing) system
the power system at the transformer terminals and for
the maximum duration of time that the fault current will
flow before the protection system de-energizes the
circuit. If the actual fault capacities are not known, DANGER
National Standards provide recommended levels that Ensure that at least one person is present who is
can be used. trained in the correct application of temporary
grounding systems.
Grounding cables are to be securely lashed to structural
members or other fixed objects to prevent violent
whipping of the cable due to electromagnetic forces In order to physically attach temporary groundings in a
developed by the flow of the fault current (violent correct manner, first ensure that the circuits are
whipping may loosen or disconnect the ground clamps). intentionally de-energized. Use an approved voltage
detector to assure yourself that the circuit is dead. Next,

16
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

clean oxides and contaminants from the conductor to be 1.4 Warranty period and conditions
grounded, whether it is cable or busbar. When attaching
the screw type ground (earth) clamp, use the torque Although the equipment is under warranty for a certain
recommended in your safety procedures or by the clamp period, it is advisable to do whatever is necessary to
manufacturer. minimize the impact of abnormal conditions.
Minor problems may cause serious defects in
certain cases.
Never energize a transformer that is not fit for use.
1.3 Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS) Always follow the instructions in this IOM-manual.
In case of doubt, contact Saudi Power Transformers
Material Safety Data Sheets for the potentially hazardous Company.
materials and products are included in the
documentation [part B]. The information in the MSDS
refers only to new materials and products as The applicable warranty period and conditions are
manufactured, before their use in/on a transformer or indicated in the contractual terms and conditions.
electrical product.
The content of Material Safety Data Sheets may include:
Identification of the Substance/Preparation and the 1.4.1 Actions to be taken at installation
Company/Undertaking
and commissioning
Composition/Information of Ingredients
Hazards identification
The warranty becomes operational on the condition that
First aid Measures
following steps have been taken:
Fire-fighting Measures
Accidental Release Measures 1. Before energization: a complete (fax) copy of the
Handling and Storage Site commissioning report has been sent to your
Exposure Controls/Persona Protection Saudi Power Transformers Company contact
Physical and Chemical Properties person. Make sure that all tests and inspections
Stability and Reactivity have been satisfactory before energization.
Especially all securing and protective accessories
Toxicological Information
have to be checked. When not all parameters are
Ecological Information
according to the requirements, do not energize. We
Disposal Considerations will evaluate the report and advise you how to
Transport Information proceed.
Regulatory Information 2. After energization: a complete (fax)copy of the
Other Information Energization report has been received by Saudi
Power Transformers Company latest one week
after energization.
NOTE
The information provided in the Material Safety Data Only upon receiving these 2 reports the contractual
Sheets is correct to the best of our knowledge at the warranty conditions, concerning operational defects, will
date of its publication. The information given is be applied.
designed as a guidance for safe handling, use,
processing, storage, transportation, disposal, and During operation it is recommended to record all events
release and is not to be considered as a warranty or (readings, inspections, tests, network conditions, ) in a
quality specification. The information relates only to transformer log book. This log book should be available
the specific material in combination with any other at the time of an intervention.
materials or in any other process, unless specified in
the MSDS or in this IOM-manual.

17
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1.4.2 Actions to be taken in case of 1. Check for visible damage before unloading
severe abnormal conditions 2. Check the impact recorder for high readings
3. When assessing the damages sustained by packing
and/or contents: describe your findings in the
First of all, take all necessary preventive measures to
transport document intended for the carrier and be
minimize the risks of damage. If the transformer has not
sure to keep a copy. If need be, write down a joint
yet been switched off by own securing systems, make it
statement together with the driver.
manually! A quick response often prevents things from
4. You may subsequently unload.
getting worse. Once personnel are safe and equipment
conditions are stabilized, contact your Saudi Power
Transformers Company contact person and provide as Further procedure or assessment of damages after
much information on the event as possible. Never start receipt:
neither any corrective measures nor re-energizing
without the approval of Saudi Power Transformers a) If you received an insurance certificate and/or in
Company. case land carriage was preceded by MARIN
TRANSPORT
1. follow the instructions on the flip side of the
insurance certificate conscientiously
2. never sign any clean receipts but formulate your
1.5 Insurance reserve in these documents.
3. always inform our insurance department
1.5.1 Transfer of risks b) If you did not receive an insurance certificate and in
case land carriage was not preceded by MARIN
The transfer of risks is closely related to the delivery TRANSPORT
terms and conditions stipulated in the contract or order. 1. hold the carrier immediately liable by registered
We refer to the contractual terms and conditions for more letter
information about which delivery term applies. For more 2. inform our transport and insurance departments
information on delivery terms (FOB, CIF, DDU, ) and immediately
their implications, we refer to the international literature 3. always do what is necessary to limit the present
about this topic. damages and prevent subsequent damages.
c) In case of transport by rail: have the competent
authorities make a report at the arrival station.

1.5.2 Transportation damage


1.5.3 Informing Saudi Power Transformers
NOTE Company
Under no conditions should a damaged shipment or
any part of that shipment be unloaded until the Inform your Saudi Power Transformers Company contact
damage claim has been resolved with the carrier(s). person as soon as possible. We assume all goods have
arrived in good condition if one week after customs
clearance, we have not received any damage report or
statement from the customer. Section [7] contains a
NOTE Receiving inspection report for this purpose. Complete
In case of any doubt, file a hidden damage claim. this report and send it to your Saudi Power Transformers
This allows for later filing of additional claims if Company contact person.
hidden damage is detected during installation or
commissioning.

Upon receiving a transformer and/or its accessories with


visual external or potential (hidden) internal damage:

18
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1.6 Tables Maximum Without gasket (b) With


Torque gasket
1.6.1 Correction factors for megger and values in (c)
Nm (a)
power factor tests
Bolt diameter Steel Stainless All bolt
(8.8) steel (70) types
Multiply the measured insulation resistance by the
bolts bolts
approximate correction factor, given by the table below,
0 M 6 (x 1) 9 6 <6
to bring the measured value back to a 20 C reference
temperature. M 8 (x 1.25) 22 16 <8
M 10 (x 1.5) 45 32 8 - 16
M 12 (x 1.75) 77 56 16 - 24
TC 5 10 15 20 25 30 M 16 (x 2.0) 193 135 32 - 64
K1 0.36 0.50 0.70 1.00 1.40 2.00 M 20 (x 2.5) 369 273
K2 1.03 1.02 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 M 24 (x 3.0) 639 471
M 30 (x 3.5) 1260 897
M 36 (x 4.0) 2340 1632
TC 35 40 45 50 55 60
K1 2.80 4.00 5.60 7.85 11.20 16.00 Table 3 Max. spanner values for bolt nut
K2 1.01 1.02 1.065 1.10 1.17 1.27 connections

TC 65 70 75 80
K1 22.00 32.00 45.00 62.00 Remarks:
K2 1.46 1.56 1.75 2.00 This table applies to bolt nut connections that are not
Table 2 Temperature correction factors for greased ( = 0.14 steel and 0.20 for stainless steel):
megger (K 1 ) and power factor or tan the given values are in Nm and they are values at
tests (K 2 ). 80% of elasticity limit of the material.
values in lbs-ft can be found by multiplying the Nm
values by 0.737
0
Megger test: Resistance at 20 C = Resistance at mean the simple method of 1/4 turns past tight to tighten
oil temperature * K 1 bolts, can be used if an appropriate torque spanner
tool is not available. This however is not
Power factor (or tan ) test: Power factor at 20 C =
0
recommended.
Power factor at mean oil temperature / K 2
Also considered as joints without gasket are (see also
section [4]):
Gasket systems with gasket grooves or gasket
1.6.2 Torque values for bolt-nut
stops
connection High density fiber gaskets

For impregnated cork and nitrile rubber the gasket


material is the limiting factor. The general rule of 10
2 2
N/mm maximum pressure and 2N/mm minimum
1
applies .
Torque values for other bolt nut material combinations
can be found in the specific literature.

1
This pressure range can be obtained by reducing
the gasket thickness to 2/3th of its original value.

19
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1.6.3 Torque values for SEFCOR


connectors

Hardware
Aluminium
Silicon Bronze Galv. Steel
Stainless Steel
Bolt
Dia in-lb ft-lb N-m in-lb ft-lb N-m
(J) 2
5/16 180 15 20.3 120 10 13.6
3/8 240 20 27.1 180 15 20.3
Figure 1 Example of SEFCOR connector
1/2 480 40 54.2 300 25 33.9
5/8 660 55 74.6 480 40 54.2
3/4 840 70 94.9 720 60 81.3
Table 4 Recommended torque values for
SEFCOR connectors.

Remarks
Connectors are not necessarily part of Saudi Power
Transformers Company scope of supply.
Recommended torque values do not necessarily
apply for other connector brands. Please consult
specific documentation.

2
See figure Example of SEFCOR connector

20
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1.7 Conversion tables

Quantity Unit of Symbol Formula


Base units
Length Meter m
Mass Kilogram kg
Time Second s
Electric current Ampere A
Thermodynamic temperature Kelvin K
Amount of substance Mole mol
Luminous intensity Candela cd
Supplementary units
Plane angle Radian rad
Solid angle Steradian sr
Derived units (with special names)
2
Force Newton N Kg m/s
2
Pressure. Stress Pascal Pa N/m
Energy. Work. Quantity of heat Joule J Nm
Power Watt W J/s
Derived units (without special names)
2
Area Square meter m
3
Volume Cubic meter m
Velocity Meter per second m/s
2
Acceleration Meter per second m/s
3
Specific volume Cubic meter per kilogram m /kg
3
Density Kilogram per cubic meter kg/m
Table 5 International System of units (SI) (Metric practice)

Multiplication factor Prefix Symbol


SI Prefixes
18
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 10 Exa E
15
1 000 000 000 000 000 = 10 Peta P
12
1 000 000 000 000 = 10 Tera T
9
1 000 000 000 = 10 Giga G
6
1 000 000 = 10 Mega M
3
1 000 = 10 Kilo k
2
100 = 10 Hecto h
1
10 = 10 Deca da
-1
0.1 = 10 Deci d
-2
0.01 = 10 Centi c
-3
0.001 = 10 Milli m
-6
0.000 001 = 10 Micro
-9
0.000 000 001 = 10 Nano n
-12
0.000 000 000 001 = 10 Pico p
-15
0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10 Femto f
-18
0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10 Atto a
Table 6 Multiplication factors

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Linear measure
Inches Feet Yards Rods Furlongs Miles
1.0 .08333 .02778 .0050505 .00012626 .00001578
12.0 1.0 .33333 .0606061 .00151515 .00018939
36.0 3.0 1.0 .1818182 .00454545 .00056818
198.0 16.5 5.5 1.0 .025 .003125
7920.0 660.0 220.0 40.0 1.0 .125
63360.0 5280.0 1760.0 320.0 8.0 1.0
Square and land measure
Sq.
Sq. feet Sq. yards Sq. rods Acres Sq. miles
inches
1.0 .006944 .000772
144.0 1.0 .111111
1296.0 9.0 1.0 .03306 .000207
39204.0 272.25 30.25 1.0 .00625 .0000098
43560.0 4840.0 160.0 1.0 .0015625
3097600.0 102400.0 640.0 1.0
Avoirdupois weights
Grains Drams Ounces Pounds Tons
1.0 .03657 .002286 .000143 .0000000714
27.34375 1.0 .0625 .003906 .00000196
437.5 16.0 1.0 .0625 .00003125
7000.0 256.0 16.0 1.0 .0005
14000000.0 512000.0 32000.0 2000.0 1.0
Dry measure
Pints Quarts Pecks Cubic feet Bushels
1.0 .5 .0625 .01945 .01563
2.0 1.0 .125 .03891 .03125
16.0 8.0 1.0 .31112 .25
51.42627 25.71314 3.21414 1.0 .80354
64.0 32.0 4.0 1.2445 1.0
Liquid measure
Gills Pints Quarts U.S. Gallons Cubic feet
1.0 .25 .125 .03125 .00418
4.0 1.0 .5 .125 .01671
8.0 2.0 1.0 .250 .03342
32.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 .1337
7.48052 1.0
Table 7 United States System

22
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Quantity Multiply by to obtain

Ounce-force 0.278 014 Newton N


Pound-force 4.448 222 Newton N
Force
Newton 3.596 942 Ounce-force oz.f
Newton 0.224 809 Pound-force lbf
Pound-force-inch 0.112 985 Newton-meter N-m
Pound-force-foot 1.355 818 Newton-meter N-m
Torque
Newton-meter 8.850 748 Pound-force-inch lbf-in
Newton-meter 0.737 562 Pound-force-foot lbf-ft
Pound-force per square
6.894 757 Kilopascal kPa
inch
Foot of water (39.2F) 2.988 98 Kilopascal kPa
Inch of mercury (32F) 3.386 38 Kilopascal kPa
Pressure.Stress
Pound-force per 2
Kilopascal 0.145 038 lbf/in
square inch (psi)
Kilopascal 0.334 562 Foot of water (39.2F)
Kilopascal 0.295 301 Inch of mercury (32F) in Hg
Foot-pound-force 1.355 818 Joule J
3
British thermal unit 1.055 056x10 Joule J
Calorie 4.186 800 Joule J
6
Energy. Work. Kilowatt hour 3.600 000x10 Joule J
Heat Joule 0.737 562 Foot-pound-force ft-lbf
-3
Joule 0.947 817x10 British thermal unit Btu
Joule 0.238 846 Calorie cal
-6
Joule 0.277 778x10 Kilowatt hour kW-h
Foot-pound-force/second 1.355 818 Watt W
British thermal unit per
0.293 071 Watt W
hour
Horsepower (550ft.lbf/s) 0.745 700 Kilowatt kW
Power Foot-pound-
Watt 0.737 562 ft-lbf/s
force/second
British thermal unit
Watt 3.412 141 Btu/h
per hour
Horsepower
Kilowatt 1.341 022 hp
(550ft.lbf/s)
-3
Degree 17.453 29x10 Radian rad
Angle
Radian 57.295 788 Degree
Temperature Degree Fahrenheit tC=( tF-32)/1.8 Degree Celsius C
Degree Celsius tF=1.8x tC+32 Degree Fahrenheit F
Length Inch 25.400 Millimeter mm
Foot 0.304 800 Meter m
Yard 0.914 400 Meter m

23
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Quantity Multiply by to obtain

Mile (U.S.Statute) 1.609 347 Kilometer km


-3
Millimeter 39.370079x10 Inch in
Meter 3.280 840 Foot ft
Meter 1.093673 Yard yd
Kilometer 0.621 370 Mile (U.S.Statute) mi
3 2
Area Square inch 0.645160x10 Square millimeter mm
2
Square foot 0.092 903 Square meter m
2
Square yard 0.836 127 Square meter m
2
Square mile (U.S.Statute) 2.589 998 Square kilometer km
3 2
Acre 4.046 873x10 Square meter m
Acre 0.404 687 Hectare ha
-3 2
Square millimeter 1.550 003x10 Square inch in
2
Square meter 10.763 910 Square foot ft
2
Square meter 1.195 990 Square yard yd
Square mile 2
Square kilometer 0.386 101 mi
(U.S.Statute)
-3
Square meter 0.247 104x10 Acre
Hectare 2.471 044 Acre
3 3
Volume Cubic inch 16.387 06x10 Cubic millimeter mm
-3 3
Cubic foot 28.316 85x10 Cubic meter m
3
Cubic yard 0.764 555 Cubic meter m
Gallon (U.S. liquid) 3.785 412 Liter l
Quart (U.S. liquid) 0.946 353 Liter l
-6 3
Cubic millimeter 61.023 759x10 Cubic inch in
3
Cubic meter 35.314 662 Cubic foot ft
3
Cubic meter 1.307 951 Cubic yard yd
Liter 0.264 172 Gallon (U.S. liquid) gal
Liter 1.056 688 Quart (U.S. liquid) qt
Mass Ounce (avoirdupois) 28.349 52 Gram g
Pound (avoirdupois) 0.453 592 Kilogram kg
3
Short ton 0.907 185x10 Kilogram kg
-3
Gram 35.273 966x10 Ounce (avoirdupois) oz(avdp)
Kilogram 2.204 622 Pound (avoirdupois) lb (avdp)
-3
Kilogram 1.102 311x10 Short ton
Table 8 SI conversion factors

24
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

mm of
mm of
unity bar mbar Pa KPa MPa kgf/cm2 mercury psi
water
(torr)
1 bar 1 1000 100.000 100 0.1 1.01972 750.062 10197.16 14.5038
-3
1 mbar 0.001 1 100 0.1 0.0001 1.01972x10 0.7501 10.1972 0.0145
-5
1 Pa 0.00001 0.01 1 0.001 0.000001 1.01972x10 0.0075 0.10197 0.000145
1 kPa 0.01 10 1000 1 0.001 0.010197 7.5006 101.972 0.145
1Mpa 10 10.000 1.000.000 1000 1 10.1972 7500.62 101972 145.038
1 kgf/cm2 0.981 980.7 98066.5 98.0665 0.09807 1 735.56 10.000 14.2233
1mm of
-3
mercury 0.00133 1.333 133.3 0.13332 0.1333x10 0.001539 1 13.5951 0.01934
(1 Torr)
1 mm of 6
0.000098 0.098 9.807 0.009807 9.807x10- 0.0001 0.07356 1 0.00142
water
-3
1 psi 0.06895 68.95 6895.06 6.895 6.895x10 0.07031 52.717 703.012 1

Table 9 Conversion table for pressure and stress

25
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

2 General transformer description

26
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

27
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

2.1 General electrical and mechanical Total liquid


data Total mass
Shipping mass of heaviest part
The supplied power transformer has been designed
according to specific ratings and characteristics as listed
on the drawings [part C]. The factory inspection results
are provided in the Manufacturing Data Record Book 2.1.3 Schematic Control and Schematic
(MDRB). Motor drive unit

The schematic drawings provide all information


concerning control and protection circuits and the
corresponding settings.
2.1.1 Nameplate:

General electrical data and network conditions, e.g.:


Standard
Transformer type
2.1.4 Test Reports
Vector group
All values measured during factory testing (as requested
Rated power (MVA)
in the order) are listed on the test reports which are
Voltages included in the MDRB.
Frequency
Number of phases .. Excitation current
Tap positions Load and no load losses
Percent impedance voltage
Power frequency test.
Induced test.
Working conditions

maximum altitude above sea level
maximum temperature rise of winding and top oil
temperature
2.1.5 Overload capability
Other information
The transformer is designed to permit loading in
Dielectric insulation levels accordance with the applicable standards. If tested
Connections for operation during factory testing, the test results are available in the
Short-circuit conditions MDRB.

2.1.2 General Arrangement Drawing 2.2 Information on mechanical


General mechanical data transformer parts
Dimensions: length, width, height of the completely Some mechanical parts and other topics require extra
assembled transformer information. This is why the text below provides a short
Untanking height description of some of the major transformer parts. In
Mass core and windings addition, you will find information about the standard
Tank and fittings painting system used for the transformer

0
Oil in: main tank, radiators, conservator (at 20 C)

28
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

2.3 Tank design 2.3.3 Protective measures in tank design

2.3.1 General tank design Although the tank is designed to withstand certain
pressures, a pressure relief device (if requested) protects
The tank is a welded steel construction that is designed it against splitting under high internal pressures caused
to operate over a range of top oil temperatures as per by exceptional working conditions. The tank may be
specified standard or customer specifications. supplied with an optional switch. A gas detector type
Furthermore, the tank-cover-conservator combination Buchholz relay with alarm and trip contacts is a
can sustain the specified pressure and vacuum levels as commonly used accessory for this purpose.
per specifications.
For more specific details on the tank design, we refer to
the General Arrangement Drawing. CAUTION
Do not close a valve that may isolate a full oil-filled
The transformer tank, conservator and radiators are tank, because this can produce a very high internal
most likely designed for full vacuum, but to be sure over- or underpressure due to the thermal expansion
always check the transformer nameplate. of the oil. This can damage the transformer or parts
of it. Besides this, humidity or water can penetrate
and damage the insulation system.
CAUTION
Never apply full vacuum unless the nameplate states
that the tank / conservator has been designed for full DANGER
vacuum. Fault gases generated during operation are
combustible, keep away from fire if gases release.

2.3.2 Tank handling


2.3.4 Tank accessories
The tank / cover has certain handling possibilities which
are indicated on the General Arrangement Drawing. The tank is provided with all necessary accessories
These might be: according to customer specifications and in accordance
with the applicable standard. For more information on
jacking bosses specific accessories, please see documentation.
lifting lugs
moving facilities (wheels)
Anchor lugs are provided to anchor the transformer.

2.4 Non-membrane conservator design


DANGER
Before jacking, lifting or moving a transformer, A non-membrane conservator has been used in order to
always consult the General Arrangement Drawing to take into account the rise and fall of the oil level due to
make sure that the right devices are used. changes in transformer loading and ambient
Do not attempt to jack, lift or move a transformer at temperature. The main tank is connected to the
any time while it is under a vacuum. This applies conservator through a pipe equipped with a valve. The
even if a partial vacuum is present. air space in the conservator is directly in contact with the
oil and it is connected to the atmosphere through a
dehydrating breather.
This system requires a small amount of maintenance;
ensure that the silica gel is replaced when needed. The
period of time between two replacements depends on a
number of factors such as relative humidity and rate of

29
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

change of loading and ambient temperatures. This


cannot be predicted in advance, periodic inspection is
necessary.
To allow sufficient space for oil expansion, the internal
capacity of the conservator is defined by the specified
load and ambient temperatures listed in the standard
and/or specifications. Furthermore, the conservator is
provided with adequate access for cleaning, a shut-off
valve to the main tank, and filling / draining devices.
For most load tap changer transformers the conservator
contains a separate section for the (O)LTC (completely
separate, no liquid or gas intermixing). Some (O)LTC
designs may have a small, separate conservator. These
will be clearly indicated on the General Arrangement
Drawing [part C]

2.5 Transformer grounding (earthing)


and equipotential bonding

2.5.1 Introduction

For safety of both personnel and equipment all metal


parts and accessories of the transformer should be
connected to ground potential.

2.5.2 Parts to be grounded (earthed)

Parts that are not welded to the tank or cover are


connected with tank or cover by means of metal-strip in
the factory. These connections have to be remade during
installations.
Remarks:
Connections made by bolts are not considered as
connected to ground potential.
Remove paint or rust before (re-)making grounding
(earthing) connections.

Client grounding (earthing) connections are always found


in accessible positions near the bottom of the tank (a
minimum of 2 groundings/earthings diagonally located).
For the exact location we refer to the General
Arrangement Drawing [part C]:

30
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Figure 2 Parts to be grounded (earthed)

31
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1. Drycol breather
2. Conservator and parts
3. Tap changer
4. Bushing
5. Cable box
6. Current transformer
7. Lightning arrester
8. Current transformer
9. Marshalling kiosk
Motor drive unit
Drycol breather
10. Oil-air cooler
11. Radiator
12 Fan
13. Oil-water cooler
14. Pump
2
15. Equipotential bonding 25 mm
(M6)
16. Grounding (earthing)
2
connection 70 mm (M12)
17. Ground connection client (flat
30x10 / stainless steel)

32
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

total thickness of the complete system (EP + PUR) is


minimum 160 m.
The grounding (earthing) connections on the transformer
2
are made of flexible copper strips of 70 mm with M12*20 The painting system resists satisfactorily a salt spray test
bolts and washers. in accordance with ASTM-B117 specifications, for more
than 1000 hours.
The equipotential bonding is made of flexible copper
2
strips of 25 mm with M6 bolts and washers.
The connection is made by means of stainless steel bolts
and washers.
2.6.1.3 Qualities of the paint

a) Primer paint (EP)

2.6 Transformer Painting Two components, polyamine adduct cured epoxy paint.
Contains zinc phosphate and mio.
The transformer painting is always in accordance with
the specifications of the customer. Composition:
Remark: Solvents: Xylen,
Preparation and painting of metal parts (conservator, Solids (62%):
pipes, radiators, ...) are equivalent to preparation and - resin: epoxy
painting for the main transformer (unless otherwise - pigments: zinc phosphate, colour pigments
specified). - micaceous iron oxide
- additives

Adhesion after polymerization: cross cut test in


2.6.1 Painting system accordance with ISO 2409, class 0

2.6.1.1 Preparation b) Enamel (PUR)

In accordance with ISO 8501-1 : 1988 or SIS 55055900.


A two components acrylic polyurethane coating with
Sandblasting to class Sa 2 1/2 i.e. derusting to a clean micaceous iron oxid.
metal surface. Previous painting, rust and mill scale are
completely eliminated and a surface with very good Composition:
adherence properties is obtained. Solvents: aromatic hydro carbons
Depending on the specified painting system Zinc Solids (54%):
spraying or Hot-dip-galvanising may also be applied to - resin: acrylic
the outside structures only. - color pigments
- micaceous iron oxid
- additives

Adhesion after polymerization on primer paint: cross cut


2.6.1.2 Painting system
test in accordance with ISO 2409, class: 0
The different coats of paint are applied by spraying. Aspect: matt, gloss meter GARDNER 60: 35% (unless
otherwise specified)
The painting system and color is indicated on the
General Arrangement drawing. The two component Color: see General Arrangement drawing
painting system consists of one or more anti corrosive
primer paint layers (EP) and a finishing coat (PUR). The
minimum total thickness of the EP layer(s) is 100 m, the

33
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Corrosion resistance: salt spray test following ASTM-


B117: 5 % NaCl. After 1000 hours at a thickness of 100
m rust extension max. 0.5 mm.

2.6.1.4 All inner transformer surfaces

Preparation: identical to outside structures


System: a two component epoxyprimer, 30 m, white
Qualities of the paint:
- contains zincphosphate and is oil resistant
- after submerging in oil and in combination with
high temperatures (120 C) there might be only
a slight discolorisation

34
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

3 Packing, Transport, Receiving, Storage

35
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

3.1 Packing

3.1.1 General
3.1.2.1 Seperately deliverd oil
The packing type, dimensions, weights and degree of
protection depend on: Separately delivered oil is usually packed in sealed
(metal)-drums of 200 liters. The drums are collected on
Allowed dimensions and/or weight for handling and standard pallets (4 drums per pallet).
transport
For bigger quantities also special oil-tanks or containers
Means of transportation (railway, road,
can be used.
seatransport, )
Legal obligations concerning transportation
Limitations given by roads, railways,
Limitations due to local handling equipment
Customer specifications 3.1.3 Condenser / oil-oil bushings
Condensor / oil-oil bushings are packed in the original
Each package is marked and contains a packing-list.
wooden box or crate. Each condenser bushing in an
These packing lists will be a usefull tool during
hermetic sealed plastic bag which contains a small
installation on site so make sure that they stay with the
quantity of silica gel (for humidity control).
packages.

3.1.2 Transformer body 3.1.4 Hygroscopic electrical parts

Parts which are under oil or oil-filled under working


The transformer body is not packed (unless otherwise
condition, and which must be dismantled for transport,
specified), sensitive parts (especially on the top) are
are packed under oil or filled with oil. The necessary gas-
protected by wooden barriers or metal caps. Shock
space for the thermal expansion of the oil during
recorders are provided if specified. (See further in this
transport is provided.
section)
If packing under oil or oil-filling is not possible, the parts
All openings of the transformer tank, radiators, cover, oil-
will be pre-impregnated with oil, then packed in hermetic
filled cable boxes, turrets of the bushings or conservator,
sealed plastic bags with a quantity of silica gel (for
etc.., have been sealed by blind flanges. All dismounted
humidity control). The sealed bags are packed in
parts have been packed separately (see below).
wooden boxes.

Remarks:
a) Transformers which are partially filled with oil or
which are empty of oil during transportation, are 3.1.5 Radiators
equipped with an inert gas pressure system. This to
prevent humidity entering the transformer body Radiators are packed on pallets as a standard. Crates or
b) Smaller transformers can be transported completely boxes are provided if specified.
assembled and completely filled with oil. In these
cases there is no need for an inert gas pressure
system. Another advantage is that the installation
time is seriously reduced.
c) For details of dismounted parts for transport, see
3.1.6 Conservator, pipes and cable boxes
the General Arrangement Drawing and Materials
List [part C]. These parts are packed on pallets and protected with a
plastic cover. Crates or boxes are provided if specified.

36
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

DANGER
Take all necessary safety measures during handling
and transportation to prevent personal harm.
3.1.7 Control cabinets Especially pay attention during the lifting or jacking
of a transformer: Never work under a non-secured
Control cabinets are provided with bags of an adequate lifted or jacked transformer.
quantity of silica gel for a storage of some weeks to Never attempt to move a transformer by pushing
prevent condensation water damage. The corners of the against the tank itself or any of the accessories.
cabinets are protected by special profiles. Do not weld other attachments to the tank, nor loop
Control cabinets are packed on pallets and protected cables around the tank or any of the accessories.
with a plastic cover. Crates or boxes are provided if
specified.
Always handle a transformer as gently as possible.
Heavy shocks or impacts can damage the transformer
internally without any external sign of damage. That is
why the prescribed receiving inspection must be followed
3.2 Transport and handling without any deviation. [see further in this section]

In many cases, a transformer has to travel long


distances before reaching its final destination. During this
journey many handling operations are needed for CAUTION
loading, transportation, unloading and transfer to other Should the transformer tank be dropped, contact
carrier types. Saudi Power Transformers Company immediately.
Even dropping a tank 25 mm (1 inch) may cause
It is obvious that during this critical period in the lifetime internal damage or damage the tank.
of the transformer all necessary precautions have to be
taken to assure safe arrival in optimal conditions.
Please note that the means of transportation are
important parameters during the design of a transformer.
This information is used to calculate the maximum
3.2.1 General transport and handling allowed impacts in all directions. During railway
transportation especially the impacts may be higher. As
notes a result, the design has been made accordingly.
First of all, it is very important to have experienced
people on board who can handle a power transformer.
Problems often arise when people are not familiar with CAUTION
handling transformers. Personal harm and damage to Railway transport is only allowed if this method was
the transformer are to be prevented at all costs. specified in the purchase order and if the design has
been made accordingly.

If specified, impact recorders are provided to record the


impacts that occurred during transportation.

37
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

3.2.2 Handling instructions during Ignoring this advice may result in deformation of the tank
loading and unloading and damage to the core and windings.
Saudi Power Transformers Company transformers are
3.2.2.1 Lifting a transformer by crane designed with lifting lugs No. 105 that can lift an
assembled and fully filled transformer.
Usually, the transformer body will be lifted by crane
during loading and unloading. The smaller packages can
be lifted by crane or forklift.
Lifting points are clearly marked by the red painted 3.2.2.2 Jacking a transformer
surfaces. In case of any doubt, consult the General
Arrangement Drawing (or other drawings concerning Also jacking can be a helpful method during loading or
transportation) before lifting. unloading, although handling by crane is preferred.
Jacking, however, becomes more useful for final
positioning of the transformer on its foundation as
described in section [4]
DANGER
Only use lifting points to lift the complete Saudi Power Transformers Company transformers are
transformer or assembly. Always use all lifting always equipped with jacking steps No. 102. These
points together. Consult the General Arrangement jacking steps are designed in such a way that each step
Drawing for the location of these lifting points. can support half the weight of the transformer (in addition
to the required mechanical design safety factors). This is
done to ensure the safety of the transformer when
Only an experienced crew should be allowed to move unbalanced movements are made.
and position a transformer by crane. Ensure that the
capacity of the lifting equipment is suited to the load
being lifted, including the angle from the vertical that the
DANGER
crane boom must provide.
Do not jack the transformer from any other point
Do not attempt to move a transformer by crane if there is than the jacking steps provided.
inadequate space in any direction. The crane boom must Never jack the transformer when it is under
be able to be swung, raised or lowered safely. Take vacuum.
great care concerning other electrical equipment that Always use all jacking points together. In
may be energized, including overhead lines. exceptional cases jacks can be used two by two
at one side of the transformer. In this case, pay
Take care to use spreader bars between the cables, or
attention to the angle of the transformer.
use a lifting beam appropriate in order to keep the lifting
Do not support the transformer for an extended
cable roughly vertical. THE LOADED CABLES
period of time using the jacks only.
SHOULD NEVER ANGLE MORE THAN 15 DEGREES
Add sufficient support blocking under the tank
FROM THE VERTICAL.
base (if a flat base) or under the skids (if a skid
An empty tank or a tank partially stripped of base) as soon as possible.
subassemblies may slope slightly when lifted by lifting Never work under the transformer when it is
lugs. Should the tank begin to tilt significantly, raised solely on jacks.
immediately put the transformer down and investigate
before continuing.
1. For maximum safety and stability, the jacks must be
Attach guide ropes to the skidding eyes at the base of
placed under the jacking steps as centrally as
the tank to guide the tank into position. Do not allow the
possible. A steel or wooden block must always be
transformer to swing freely from the crane. Do not lift the
placed under the jack that must be sitting flat and
load higher than necessary.
level on the ground.
Never attempt to lift the transformer unless the
transformer cover is securely fastened to the tank.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

2. The ground must be capable of supporting the


weight of the transformer with the area of the
ground contact used (defined by the size of the CAUTION
pads under the jacks and the gross weight of the In case of an abnormality during shipment, follow
transformer). the instructions of the Insurance guidelines available
3. The full plunger surface of the jack has to be in section [1].
located completely under the jacking step.
4. Jack the transformer evenly in order to distribute the
stress evenly.
5. While lowering the transformer, ensure that it is
lowered gently and evenly. Release pressure 3.3 Receiving
SLOWLY to avoid dropping the transformer.
The process of receiving a transformer begins when the
rail car, the trailer or the vessel is presented for
unloading. If possible, ensure that the final site or the
3.2.3 Blocking and securing unloading point is inspected, so that the rail car or trailer
can be positioned to make the unloading as easy and as
During transportation, make sure that the transformer straightforward as possible.
body is blocked and secured in all directions. This should It is recommended that the inspection be performed in
be done to prevent the transformer body from shifting. the presence of the representative of the carrier.
a) TRUCK TRANSPORT: The transformer body has to Remarks:
be chained into position or secured into position by
any other means. In case of different loading, unloading or transfer stages
b) RAILWAY TRANSPORT: The transformer body is during transportation, the below guidelines have to be
usually secured by tension rods or chains, welded followed in each stage. This should be done to make
or bolted onto the car body. DO NOT HUMP signs sure that possible damage is detected as early as
should be placed on each end of the rail car loaded possible.
with transformers.
c) TRANSPORT BY SHIP: The transformer body is
usually blocked by timber sections bolted onto wood
decked vessels or by steel blocking, welded onto
metal decked vessels.
3.3.1 Inspection of damage

The process of receiving must include a careful and


thorough inspection of the transformer and accessories
before unloading is permitted or begins. This inspection
CAUTION aims to uncover any damage that may have occurred
If blocking or other securing equipment is loose, during shipment.
bent or missing on arrival, the possibility for
The inspection process must include a thorough
shipping damage exists. See section RECEIVING
inspection of the exterior of the transformer, the bracing,
below for inspection and reporting procedures.
the packing of parts and components that are shipped
detached from the main unit, as well as the inspection of
the impact recorder (if supplied).
It is recommended that the external inspection takes
3.2.4 Shipping documents place as soon as possible. If damage is found, an
immediate internal inspection of the transformer - on the
The contents, routing, destination and the conditions of rail car or on the trailer - is recommended.
the carrier's agreement are carefully documented for
each shipment. Invoices of shipment, bills of loading, Saudi Power Transformers Company has a warranty
etc.., are transmitted to the carrier's agent. A copy of the providing protection against defective design and
packing list accompanies the shipment. manufacturing, but does not accept responsibility for

39
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

damage that occurs while the transformer is in transit. Thermometer for measuring the ambient
Damage that occurs during shipment may be the temperature
responsibility of the carrier. The carrier is relieved of Megger. (nominal voltage of 500 5000 V DC)
responsibility once the shipment has been accepted at Dielectric oil-test equipment
the destination. This is why careful inspection is required
before you accept the shipment.
In case of internal inspection:
Remarks:
Clean plastic boots (if there will be personnel entry)
A Receiving inspection report is included in section [7]. String or cord for securing tools, flashlight etc..
Complete this report and return it to your Saudi Power Clean rags or other clean wiping material
Transformers Company contact person within one week Material, covering manholes or handholes to keep
after the arrival inspection. out moisture laden ambient during inspection
In case of any damage, a claim procedure has to be Dry air installation for injecting dry air to chase away
started immediately. Follow the instructions in the the inert gas (nitrogen)
insurance guidelines available in section [1]

CAUTION
All tools or equipment that will be used over an open
manhole or handhole or that will be taken inside the
3.3.2 Transformer inspection procedure transformer, have to be secured by a cord or string
to a point outside the tank so that they can be pulled
The different steps are the following: out if dropped. Also be aware of the specific weight
1. Preparing for the inspection. of the oil, swimming is not possible.
2. Inspection of the external portion of the transformer
and attachments.
3. Inspection of the accessories and all other
components shipped with the main unit. 3.3.2.2 The external inspection
4. Receiving tests
a) Preliminary inspection
Internal inspection has to be avoided, except when there A preliminary inspection of the shipment must include
might be internal damage. looking for signs of damage to the blocking, guy rods or
cables, signs of impact on covers, control boxes, major
paint scrapes etc.. Note these observations on the form
"Receiving inspection report" in section [7]. Do not
attempt to repair any damage to the transformer main
3.3.2.1 Preparing for the inspection body or to any of the components.After the preliminary
inspection please proceed with the next steps in the
The inspection should take place with a representative of receiving procedure.
the carrier present. All the equipment necessary for the
complete inspection should be gathered before the
inspection process begins. The list of equipment should b) Inspection of the impact recorder and inert gas
include: pressure system
All necessary safety equipment, such as hardhats, If specified, an impact recorder (No. 145) has been
gloves, etc.. installed. This will be indicated on the General
Flashlight Arrangement Drawing
Tools (to open manholes, etc.) See further for more information.
Suitable grounds for grounding the transformer,
bushings and tank Inspect the nitrogen or dry air pressure system (if
Notebook and a camera with flash for recording applicable). If required, an inert gas pressure system has
purposes been installed. This will be indicated on the General
Arrangement Drawing.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

See further for more information. Electrical checks will be performed later during the
commissioning process.
Inspect radiators for dents, scrapped paint,
c) Detailed external inspection damaged or missing fans (if applicable).
Saudi Power Transformers Company has taken all Check all bushings for cracked or damaged
necessary precautions to limit damage during shipping. porcelain. Check for oil around gasketted joints.
However, even the most elaborate steps cannot totally Check the oil level on oil-filled bushings (the
eliminate the possibility of damage during transit. The bushing must be vertical or nearly vertical to check
largest component, and the one most seriously affected this).
by potential damage, is the main tank and the core and Check arresters (if any) for cracked or damaged
winding assembly it contains. That is why the external porcelain.
inspection should begin there. Report all observations on Check the conservator tank (if applicable) for dents
the form "Receiving inspection report". If damage is or scrapes or other signs of damage.
found, photograph the areas of concern to substantiate Check the shipment against the bill of loading and
any claims. Do not remove or open any part of the report any shortages.
shipment until the carrier's representatives have made
their inspection.
Examine the tank for signs of oil leakage, paint
scrapes, dents or other signs of damage. 3.3.2.3 Inspection of accessories
Examine timber bracing, steel blocking, boltdown
rods and cables for signs of shifting of the load. Locate the packing list, so that all accessories can be
checked off as they are inspected. Check for damage to
each crate or package. Open and inspect the contents of
INSPECTION HINTS each package while referring to the packing list. If any
Depressed steel rail cars will usually have steel packing or items are missing, immediately notify the
blocking welded to the car, sitting tightly against the carrier's representative and Saudi Power Transformers
base of the transformer. Shifting of the load can Company.
result in dents in the transformer at the location of
the blocks and/or of the steel blocking itself. Also
look for scratched paint. CAUTION
Flat rail cars and trailers will usually have wooden Hygroscopic materials are protected by packing in
blocking sitting tightly against the base or skid base hermetically sealed plastic bags, including silica gel
of the transformer, bolted to the bed of the car or as indicator for unacceptable moisture penetration.
trailer. Movement of the load may result in broken After inspection, store these materials according to
blocking, pulling out of the bolts or crushing and the instructions on the package (close bags and
splintering of the blocks. Tie down rods or cables store in dry room), or mount them immediately.
may stretch and become loose under high impacts.
Check that they are straight and tight all around.
If the transformer was shipped oil-filled, carefully
look for signs of leakage on welded joints, bolted
and welded flanges and covers. Inspect all valves 3.3.2.4 Standard receiving tests
(drain valves, sampling valves, radiator valves) for
damage or leaks. Check whether the oil level is a) Core grounding megger test
providing the right reading. The core grounding megger test is to be performed
All control cabinets (main control cabinet, LTC whenever possible. We refer to section [4] for detailed
motor drive etc..) should be tightly sealed and information. On a completely assembled and oil-filled
closed. Inspect for damage by water ingress and for unit one can also perform the winding insulation megger
signs of tampering. test. Please note however that the unit has to be oil filled
Check that the de-energized tap changer for safe measurement.
mechanically moves correctly (if applicable).
b) Dew point measurement

41
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

A dew point measurement is required upon arrival of


inert gas filled units when tank pressure is below 0.05
bar. This test gives a good indication of the amount of
moisture the insulation is containing. More detailed
information is given further in this IOM-manual .
3.5 Performing internal inspections
c) Additional receiving tests if damage or water
ingress is suspected 3.5.1 Reasons to perform an internal
Some additional tests have to be performed if internal inspection
damage or water contamination of the insulation system
is suspected. Strictly follow the guidelines described in A full internal inspection is only necessary when there
the testing sections. are good reasons to do this. These reasons can be:
Insulation power factor test. Section [4] gives signs of severe damage on the outside of the
complete information on this test. transformer which indicate that there may also be
Ratio and resistance tests. Section [4] gives internal damage
complete information on this tests. that the impact recorder indicates that there were
excessive forces on the load during shipment [see
In addition, oil tests can be performed to detect moisture earlier in this section]
contamination. For taking oil samples and for oil testing, that the megger test shows far too low readings
please refer to section [6]. The oil tests that are most which cannot be explained by the water content of
important in receiving applications are: the oil. In this case, it is appropriate to first test the
oil before considering a full internal inspection that
Dielectric strength requires draining of the oil.
Water content
Power factor
If it seems that an internal inspection is required, contact
Saudi Power Transformers Company immediately to
inform us about the situation. We will study the
observations and give you advice on how to proceed
3.3.2.5 Internal inspections
with the internal inspection or we will send a certified
technician to perform the inspection.
If internal damage is suspected it is recommended to
perform an internal inspection of the unit. (See further in Please note that an internal inspection exposes the
this section.) transformer to risks. If any damage occurs due to
improper handling (entering, exposure time) of the
transformer, we cannot be held responsible. So please
be careful and strictly follow the guidelines.
3.4 Impact recorder ShockLog RD298

The electronic impact recorder, ShockLog RD298, is a 3-


dimensional, registration type. Before transport, this 3.5.2 Planning the inspection
device will be mounted on the cover of the transformer.
After arrival on site, please note the correct date and It is a good idea to plan the internal inspection in
time during removal of this device and send the advance if possible. Ensure that all equipment is in
registered data for analysis to: proper working order, that all emergency safety
equipment is present and operational and that all
members of the team know their duties.
Saudi Power Transformers Company
Division: Quality Control
St. # 111 across St. # 152
Second Industrial City, Dammam
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

3.5.3 Procedure of an internal inspection Inform Saudi Power Transformers Company and the
carrier what was discovered. If damage was found, file a
Always read and follow the guidelines in the Danger & damage claim, but do not perform any further work until
Safety section [1] Saudi Power Transformers Company gives approval and
guidance.
A full internal inspection requires draining all the oil into
dry, clean tanks of suitable capacity, while filling the
transformer tank with dry air and having a dew point
0
equal to or less than -51 C.
3.6 Dew point measurement

How to perform the dew point measurement can only be


DANGER explained in relation to the equipment that is used. That
Do not attempt to enter a transformer tank, unless is why we refer to the dew point measurement
the internal gas has been tested for sufficient instrument manual.
oxygen content to support life. Testing should be
done with an approved detector. A minimum of Pauwels requires that the moisture level of the insulation
19.5% of oxygen is always required. For security be less than or equal to 1% for a transformer installed in
reasons, a second person must be present. the field. This is reflected in the line drawn in the curve in
Table 10 (based on Piper ).
An assumption inherent in using the curve to estimate
A partial internal inspection is possible if the internal overall transformer dryness is that the gas is in
components can be observed through manholes or equilibrium with the insulation. This means that the vapor
handholes or covers in the tank cover. In this case, a pressures of gas and insulation are equal. This is true if:
minimal quantity of oil has to be drained.
the solid insulation is reasonably uniformly dry (e.g.
For smaller transformers it will be impossible to no large amount of water vapor has been suddenly
physically enter the transformer. This means all and recently introduced by an event such as people
inspections will have to be conducted by removing breathing and perspiring inside the tank during
manholes and handholes, one at a time, to prevent the internal inspection or internal assembly.)
ingress of moisture-laden ambient air by cross breathing.
the gas has been in contact with the solid insulation,
Remarks: in a closed system, for a minimum of 24 hours but
preferably for 48 hours
During the inspection look for:
the temperature of the gas is about equal to the
parts of the transformer structure that are laying on temperature of the solid insulation.
the tank floor or floating in the residual oil. This
includes small pieces of insulation. Look for loose
If these three assumptions are approximately met, then
bolts, washers, nuts, etc.
use the curve in Table 10. Draw a horizontal line from
parts of the transformer and lead structure that the insulation temperature on the vertical axis, and read
appear broken or bent. Look for loose key spacers the minimum required dew point from the horizontal axis.
in the windings, loose clamping and support blocks.
damage around leads. Winding leads that are
disconnected from draw lead bushings for transit
are tied into a loop and secured to the lead support
structure. If these break loose, the end of the lead
can damage other components in the transformer.
strange murkiness or cloudiness of the oil,
especially if water contamination is suspected. Look
for liquid water on the tank floor (liquid water sinks
in oil). Look for evidence of condensation.

Look for signs of corrosion on bare metal parts. Moisture Equilibrium Between Gas Space and
Fibrous materials in Enclosed Electric Equipment /
John D. Piper . AIEE, December 1946, volume 65

43
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

DANGER
For your personal safety and for the safety of the
equipment, always ground all terminals when
transformers are in temporary storage.

3.7.1 Storage of the transformer

If possible, the transformer should be stored in its correct


position on the prepared foundation. This foundation
must be strong enough to support the mass of the
complete transformer, accessories and liquid. It must be
level and must support the transformer base evenly.
If the permanent foundation is not available, then the
transformer must be stored on a solid platform that is
suitably prepared to provide proper support for the
transformer base. Indoor transformers should be stored
Table 10 Dew point measurement indoors.

3.7.1.1 Completely assembled or at least with


3.7 Storage conservator

Liquid-filled transformers are meant to always have their If the correct maintenance activities in section [6] are
insulation covered by oil. Without oil they will survive performed, a completely filled transformer with
satisfactorily for some period of time, such as during conservator can be stored for unlimited time.
shipping. However, prolonged storage without the
Assemble and fill the transformer completely with oil as
insulation immersed may cause future problems, as the
soon as possible, at the latest within 30 days after arrival
insulation will pick up moisture and contaminant. Apart
on site (or maximum 90 days after shipment from the
from this, internal voids may form in the insulation as the
factory). In the intermediate storage period the inert gas
liquid gradually drains out of the insulation.
installation (if applicable) should be checked weekly.
When a transformer has to be stored, the procedures
Mount the silica gel air breather(s) by means of a
below have to be followed for safe storage.
temporary pipe connection to prevent unnecessary
Remarks: under- or overpressure because of ambient
temperature changes.
The higher the voltage and the larger the MVA of a
Activate and check all gas bleeders (if applicable).
transformer, the more important the storage
Connect and supply panel heaters to prevent
conditions. However, it is always better to store the
damage by condensation.
transformer correctly.
Ground all bushings and the tank to prevent
If a transformer is fully assembled, oil-filled and pre-
damage by unexpected lightning (see section [1]).
tested, the general maintenance instructions can be
followed (refer to section [6]). Store accessories in a safe place. (oil drums,
bushings, radiators, conservator, fans, etc..). For
instructions, see below.
Perform the recommended maintenance as
described in the maintenance chapter (section [6]) if
longer periods of storage are required.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

3.7.2.1 Storage of oil shipped in drums


3.7.1.2 Oil-filled transformer with inert gas
Mineral oil in drums may be stored inside a building that
cushion
protects them from water accumulation on the cover. In
this case, local fire regulations must be followed for
When the conservator cannot be installed, the
storage of flammable materials.
transformer can be stored with an inert gas cushion. The
maximum storage period is limited to 6 months. Always Oil drums that are stored outside must be positioned in
do a weekly check of the inert gas pressure that should such way that water cannot accumulate on the top of the
be above 0.05 bar. drum. (water can be draw into the drum during
temperature cycling, thus contaminating the oil).
Connect and supply panel heaters to prevent
damage by condensation. Corroded steel drums may start leaking. This condition
Ground all bushings and the tank to prevent must be avoided by ongoing inspection of the stored
damage by unexpected lightning (see section [1]). drums.
Store accessories in a safe place. (oil drums, There are two acceptable methods of outside drum
bushings, radiators, conservator, fans, etc..). For storage, illustrated below in order of preference:
instructions, see below.

3.7.1.3 Transformers without any oil and


completely filled with an inert gas

Total storage time is limited to 3 months from the time


the transformer has left the factory. The inert gas Figure 3 Outside oil drum storage (method 1)
overpressure must be checked weekly.
Connect and supply panel heaters to prevent Bungs must be set parallel to the ground so that oil
damage by condensation. covers them both. This restricts cross breathing.
Ground all bushings and the tank to prevent
damage by unexpected lightning (see section [1]).
Store accessories in a safe place. (oil drums,
bushings, radiators, conservator, fans, etc..). For
instructions, see below.

3.7.2 Storage of accessories Figure 4 Outside oil drum storage (method 2)

All accessories that are shipped separate from the Cover the drum with a plastic sheet, tied in place to avoid
transformer must also be stored correctly. All shipping water accumulation on the top.
crates or boxes that are opened for the receiving
inspection must be carefully resealed and stored in a dry
0 0
clean atmosphere between +5 C and +30 C. It is
recommended that all accessories, boxes or crates that 3.7.2.2 Bushings
are marked FRAGILE also be stored indoors in a dry,
0
clean room and above +5 C. All accessories stored Bushings are packed in wooden boxes or crates. All
outdoors must be covered and protected from severe condenser / oil- oil bushings (or other bushings with
weather. hygroscopic parts) are packed separately in a
hermetically sealed plastic bag to keep moisture out and

45
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

do contain a bag of desiccant. Prior to storage, check For storage periods exceeding 30 days, it is
that the bushing upper end terminal and wrap is tight and recommended that bags of fresh, dry silica gel be
undamaged. Replace the desiccant if necessary. Ensure attached to the inside of the blanking plate (attachment
that oil-filled bushings are stored with the top of the cap to the blanking plate means it is unlikely the bag will be
0
elevated at a minimum of a 20 angle. accidentally left inside during final assembly).
Remark:
Bushings packed in their original boxes are always
elevated at the right angle
3.7.2.6 Control cabinets
Bushings thus protected from the environment may be
stored outdoors, although if indoor facilities are available, Control cabinets shipped separately from the transformer
it is highly recommended that they be used instead. are usually packed in wooden crates or boxes. Venting
Regularly verify that the desiccant is dry. openings or breathers may be closed to prevent water
ingress. A bag of sufficient silica gel is placed inside the
control box to pick up the moisture of the inside air
during the normal shipping time.
3.7.2.3 Radiators Unpack all control cabinets immediately after arrival.
Verify that the silica gel is dry and that there is no
All radiators and radiator assemblies that are shipped
corrosion damage.
separately have their openings sealed with a shipping
gasket covered by a temporary attached cover plate. Check for loose or broken parts (plug-in relays,
Ensure that all seals are tight before storage. Storage wiring channels etc..).
conditions must ensure that water will not collect and Verify that all venting openings are open and mount
stand around sealed openings. Radiators and radiator breathers.
assemblies should not sit directly on the ground, but Connect heaters to the appropriate power supply. If
should be on timber supports above the ground. heaters cannot be connected to the supply, check
the silica gel weekly and replace it if necessary.
Store the cabinet indoors in a dry, clean room and
0 0
between +5 C and +30 C.

3.7.2.4 Fans

Fans have weatherproof motors and can be stored 3.7.3 End of storage
outside. However, since their shipping positions are not
necessarily the normal working positions it is required
Check the transformer and all stored components again
that they be stored inside in a dry, clean atmosphere and
0 just before final assembling and testing in accordance
above +5 C.
with the standard receiving procedures in section [3].

3.7.2.5 Pumps, conservator and pipework

It is recommended that they be stored inside in a dry,


0
clean atmosphere and above +5 C.
Pumps and connecting pipework are sealed with a
shipping gasket and a temporary cover plate. Check all
sealed openings prior to storage.
If inside storage is impossible, pumps and pipework may
be stored outdoors up to 30 days after the arrival date.

46
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4 Assembling and installation

47
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

48
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.1 Locating a transformer

The instructions below are meant as a guideline to move


a transformer and its accessories safely and with a 4.1.1.2 Inspection of equipment to move
minimum of risk for damages.
Equipment that is to be moved to its final position has to
be ready.
Newly received transformers that are to be moved,
4.1.1 Preparation to move a transformer must first be inspected according to the procedures
listed in section [3] before final positioning on its
A number of items need to be prepared and checked foundation.
before a transformer is moved to its final position on site: Equipment that has been in temporary storage has
to be re-packed or prepared, so that is suitable for
The site has to be prepared correctly and must be the specific movement.
ready for receipt of the unit This refers especially to the disconnection of all
The transformer itself has to be declared fit to equipment, accessories or power that might
move. have been attached for storage purposes.
The transformer has to be prepared to move. If the transformer is under pressure or vacuum for
The transportation route has to be prepared for the storage purposes, relieve the pressure (or the
move. vacuum to atmospheric pressure by using dry
air or nitrogen with a suitable low dew point
0
less than -51 C).

4.1.1.1 Inspection of the final location Always:


Before the transformer is moved to its permanent Disconnect all power supplies.
foundation or to a temporary storage area, the site must
be carefully inspected.
DANGER
Inspect the foundation the transformer will be placed on.
If there is any power to be disconnected, do not take
Ensure that its size and structural properties are correct
any further steps until this has been properly done.
for the transformer load. You might also confirm with the
foundation engineering personnel to be sure. Also
ensure that control wiring conduits or channels are in the
correct position for the transformer control box(es), Unbolt any bolts, nuts or cables that may be
especially if supplied from underground (through the fastening the transformer to its current location (or
foundation surface). carrier). Carefully check that all wires, cables and
groundings (earthings) have been removed and that
Ensure that there are proper clearances around the there are no parts stopping the free transportation
transformer for: of the transformer.
Fire prevention equipment, fire walls, personnel Check the transformer for any equipment or
safety. accessories that must be removed before moving it
Noise barriers, fences, water deluge systems, to the new location (in order to clear any obstacles
ladders, etc... along the route). For equipment or accessories
which must be removed:
Cabling to control cabinets and for opening the
cabinet doors Matchmark the pieces
Disconnect them
Proper personnel access for construction and
Store them carefully in a clean dry place until they
maintenance purposes
are required for re-assembling (see also the
Proper transformer ventilation (roughly speaking,
storage chapter [3])
transformers with cooling fans under the radiators
Clean all remaining openings
need a minimum clearance to the ground of
approximately the diameter of the fan).

49
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Seal the openings carefully, using blanking plates Traffic: sometimes transportation routes will cross
and gaskets. NEVER re-use shipping gaskets other routes such as roads, loading docks, railway
for the final assembly tracks etc. Make arrangements to block, keep clear
Tighten all blanking plates and covers carefully or divert other traffic if required.

Remarks: Finally, expect the unexpected. Bad weather may make


an otherwise smooth surface soft or slippery. A change
Should any equipment be missing or damaged
in weather can cause a firm surface to turn to mush.
upon arrival, contact Saudi Power Transformers
Moving equipment may break down. Expect that some
Company immediately.
delays will occur.
If any equipment is damaged or lost during (dis-)
assembly, order replacement parts through Saudi
Power Transformers Company.

4.1.2 Positioning a transformer on its


final destination
4.1.1.3 Inspection of the route
4.1.2.1 General handling notes, lifting a
Prior to the movement of the transformer a provisional transformer by crane and jacking
route inspection must be performed. The route is
investigated to determine its suitability for the movement Information on general handling notes, lifting a
of the transformer and to assess whether the removal of transformer by crane and jacking can be found in the
street furniture is required. On completion of the route transport section [3].
survey, the movement must be communicated to all
relevant authorities. Inform the local police if escorts are
required.
A number of items must be inspected along the entire 4.1.2.2 Moving a transformer on wheels or steel
route. These items include: rods
Overhead obstructions: verify that there is sufficient
clearance for the transformer and its moving a) Moving a transformer on wheels (if available)
equipment to pass under all overhead obstructions. Transformers supplied with wheels can be moved in
Check for clearance to any overhead electrical directions at right angles to the tank base. Usually these
equipment that may require electrical clearances movements are executed on ground level on special
much larger than just physical ones. tracks.
Side-to-side obstructions: verify that there is Assembling the wheels:
sufficient clearance between buildings, gates,
fences and other equipment. Ensure that sufficient Jack up the transformer using the jacking steps.
clearances are available for the moving equipment Raise the transformer the height required just to
and any turning circles required. Check for install the rollers. Block the transformer with suitable
appropriate clearances to energized electrical timbers or support blocks (for safety purposes)
equipment and carefully mark these for safety. placed near the jacking steps under the lateral skids
The roadway: ensure that the roadway can support or stiffeners.
the load of the moving equipment and its load. Attach the wheels to the mounting pads located
Make sure that it is level enough not to cause under the tank using the necessary four bolts (a
interference. Ensure that any slopes, either up center bolt may also be provided to easily turn the
0
grade or down grade are within the limits of the rollers by 90 on itself). The wheels are quite heavy.
moving equipment to handle. The transformer must Therefore, the smaller the distance they have to be
never be tilted more than 15 degrees from the lifted, the easier the installation will be.
vertical, side-to-side or front to back. This rule also Once the wheels have been attached, use the jacks
applies to skidding a transformer to a pad. For to raise the transformer just enough to remove the
steeper slopes, use a crane. blocking.

50
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Gently lower the transformer until it is resting on the If rods are to be used with timbers, the timbers must
rollers. be steel faced. Each set of rods must have its own
The transformer may be now rolled into position. set of timbers.

Moving at right angles Diameter (mm)


Weight to be
Place a jack under each of the jacking steps, and 25 50 75 100 125 150
moved (tons)
ensure that the surface under the jacks is solid and
45 - 70 52 26 18
suitable for the weight to be lifted. Raise the
transformer the height required just to clear the 70 - 90 70 34 24 18
rollers above the ground. Block both ends of the 90 - 115 86 44 30 22 18
transformer by placing suitable timbers or support 115 - 135 52 36 26 20
blocks (for safety purposes) placed near the jacking 135 - 160 30 24 20
steps under the lateral skids or stiffeners. 160 - 180 34 28 24

0
Unbolt each roller and turn 90 . Bolt each roller into 180 - 210 39 33 30
the new position using all available bolts. 210 - 240 45 36 33
Raise the transformer slightly, and remove the 240 - 270 51 42 36
blocking. 270 - 300 57 48 39
Lower the transformer gently until it is resting on the
Table 11 Minimum number of rods required per
rollers.
set under the transformer
The transformer may now be moved in the new
direction.
Remarks:

To remove the wheels: The table above assumes the use of 3 300 mm (3
- 12 inch) wide steel faced timbers
Follow the guidelines to assemble the wheels in The table above gives the number of rods per set
opposite order. under the transformer.

b) Moving a transformer on steel rods Different steps in moving a transformer on steel rods:
A transformer is moved by "skidding" whenever lifting
and moving by crane is impossible or unpractical. The first step is to prepare the route for moving the
Transformers with a skid base are made to be skidded in transformer:
directions at right angles to the tank base using steel The truck bed, the railcar deck or the transfer car
rods. Transformers with a flat base can be moved in any bed must be jacked up and blocked so that it is
direction. level and firm
Ensure that the supporting surfaces are firm
Remark: The estimated force to start horizontal enough to support the weight of the
movement is 15-20% of the weight to be moved. transformer
Steel rods must all be the same diameter, evenly and Assemble the necessary tools (such as jacks, "tow
closely spaced. Refer to the table below for the minimum and drag" winches etc..), support blocks, rods,
required number of rods in relation to the weight being greased turning plates or greased skids etc,
moved. required for all events of the movement.
Connect appropriately sized cables to the haulage
Use at least three sets of rods side by side. The eyes located near the transformer base. Only pull a
rods must be of sufficient width to suit the transformer by the correct attachment points.
transformer being moved. Do not use a single row Haulage eyes are mentioned on the general
or two rows of rods. arrangement drawing. Utilize a spreader bar if
Rods are preferably iron-pipe profiles, double extra required to limit the strain on the haulage eyes.
strong IPS pipe. Raise the transformer using four hydraulic jacks.
Place the rods on the steel faced timber (or on the
rails in the event of using a transfer cart with

51
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

embedded rails) and roll them under the 4.2.1 Planning of the installation
transformer. The longitudinal skid members serve
as stops for positioning the rollers. When all of the As some equipment or resources are not always readily
rollers are in place, carefully lower the transformer available it is advised to start some weeks or even
onto them. months in advance depending on the available
Move the transformer into the next position. experience. A graphical planning tool (e.g. MS-Project)
Once the transformer is situated on its foundation: can be useful in accomplishing a good installation
Remove the haulage cables program including all necessary steps and resources.
Jack the transformer to remove timbers and/or
rollers from under the transformer
Set the transformer onto its foundation.

4.2.2 Recommended assembling and


Remarks:
energization sequence
For flat base type transformers, timbers and rods must
be positioned in such a way that they support core and Although situations can be different from one case to
windings during movement. The rollers must therefore be another, below sequence is recommended during
centered at one-third the width and two-thirds the width installation and energization of the transformer. This
of the base plate, seen from the movement direction. sequence guarantees the best result with the minimum
If the transformer is to be moved on greased timbers or effort, minimum risk for damages and (oil) contamination.
by machinery movers, the same kind of procedures 1. Installation and preparation of the transformer tank
and/or precautions should be followed. 2. Inspection of availability of all parts and equipment
3. Installation of main accessories:
a) metal parts.conservator, radiators, pipes,
pumps,...
b) bushing turrets and bushings. When all metal
4.2 General installation topics parts have been installed the risk for damaging
bushings while installing these parts is
Although power transformers are designed and minimized.
manufactured to National or International Standards, c) cable boxes
every transformer ends up being designed for a specific 4. Oil treatment (if necessary)
site, as well as a for specific electrical network. Hence 5. Vacuum processing and initial oil filling
they usually are of a completely unique design. For this 6. Topping up the oil
reason, every transformer installation will to be a unique 7. Installation of remaining accessories: fans,
event as well. People involved in the installation have to measurement devices, control cabinets, wiring on
study the specific design and have to use their the transformer. When the transformer has been
experience and this IOM-manual for the installation. A completely filled there is no more risk to spill any oil
well-prepared installation is the first condition to make it on electrical accessories.
a successful event. Furthermore the installation of a 8. Pre-operational tests and checks
transformer requires specialized equipment as well as
services. These services may be sourced internal in your
organization or may be sourced externally (CG Power
Solutions Saudi Arabia CGPSSA). Accurate scheduling
4.2.3 Collecting and preparing the
is required in order to make efficient use of these
sources. We assume in below text that the transformer is required equipment
correctly positioned on its foundation according to the
instructions in the previous chapter and that all 4.2.3.1 Assembling tools and equipment
necessary transformer components and accessories are
available for installation. The following equipment is recommended to have on
hand during installation. By collecting the following
equipment prior to the start of installation, you eliminate
many of the possible delays:

52
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

All necessary safety equipment, such as hardhats, Oil quantity Recommended vacuum pump
flashlights, fire extinghuisers, plastic overboots (for capacity
internal inspection), etc,... < 25 m
3 3
250 m /h
A set of large socket wrenches and optional < 50 m
3 3
500 m /h
compressed air tool for the use of the sockets. < 100 m
3 3
1000 m /h
These will be needed for opening and closing
manhole and handhole covers, for removing Table 12 Required vacuum pump capacities
blanking plates etc..
Crowbar and claw hammer for opening accessory Vacuum gauge
crates etc.. Pipes and valves of suitable size depending on the
A set of large open end wrenches. capacity
Cable cutter(s) The right quantities of transformer oil
Strong nylon ropes and slings for bushing A Megger (500 5000 V DC)
installations. Transformer Turns Ratio meter (or use voltmeter
Strong strings for installation of draw leads (to pull system).
leads through bushings) and for tying tools taken Oil dielectric tester.
inside of the transformer tank. Dewpoint tester.
A crane for installation of heavy components and or
correctly sized blocks and tackle assemblies.
Normal tools for an electrician (for external A dielectric test set especially if benchmark tests are to
wiring and connection). be taken prior to in service
CLEAN tarpaulins, plastic sheeting etc..
Clean rags for cleaning.
Methyl Hydrate (or equivalent) for cleaning
bushings. 4.3 Installation of the transformer body
Powdered talc and/or gasket-glue for use on
gaskets.
4.3.1 Grounding the tank
Dry air cylinders, with pressure regulators and inlet
hose if internal work is to perform.
Once the transformer has been placed on its foundation,
it is important to ground the tank before any more work is
done. For positioning of the grounding pads, refer to the
General Arrangement Drawing No. 115. The grounding
4.2.3.2 Oil filling and processing tools and
leads must be of suitable dimension to be effective.
equipment
Refer to section [1]: Danger and safety notes and section
[2] for general information on transformer grounding.
Once the transformer accessories are installed, it must
be filled. In addition, the following filling and oil treatment
equipment will be required:
CAUTION
Oil processing and pumping equipment, with filters
Correctly ground the transformer tank before doing
etc. This equipment may include:
any assembly or commissioning work.
vacuum degassing and drying function
filtering function
pumping function
Vacuum pump (can be a part of the oil treatment
equipment) 4.3.2 Preparation of the transformer
Capable to obtain the required vacuum before assembling accessories
(recommended 0,2 mbar or lower)
Required capacity depends on transformer oil
While working on an inert gas-filled transformer, pay
quantity
attention to the internal overpressure. It could be up to
0.3 bar at any time. This is especially so while opening

53
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

valves or removing blind flanges. Also bushing turrets In case of any doubt, contact Saudi Power Transformers
are under pressure. Company before energization.
To install certain accessories, the transformer tank will
have to be opened. Depending on the specific shipping
or storage conditions:
Oil has to be (partially) drained and the removed oil 4.4 Installation of accessories
has to be stored in dry and clean containers
Inert gas has to be replaced with breathable dry gas There are a lot of different accessories that can be used
on power transformers. Some guidelines always apply,
whatever the type of accessory to install. Other
guidelines are more specific. We will start by providing
DANGER
general recommendations concerning installation. Next,
Do not attempt to enter a transformer or do not put
we will provide an overview of the most frequently used
your head inside, until:
accessories and their mounting instructions.
The tank has to be evacuated using a vacuum pump
to 50 mm of mercury (absolute); and then to be filled Although not all provided information will apply to the
with dry air; scope of delivery of the transformer, it might be useful to
The tank has finally been checked for sufficient have it at hand for other transformers or for future
oxygen to support life. The check should be extensions.
performed with an approved gas detector. A
Always have a look at the drawings in section [part C]
minimum of 19.5% of oxygen is required. Failure to
and documentation in section [part B] to learn about the
comply with this warning can be fatal.
specific accessories used and to apply the correct
instructions.
When opening a transformer:
Try to open only one manhole or handhole at a time
to prevent cross breathing of the tank (which lets in
moisture). 4.4.1 Unpacking accessories
Do not open a transformer if bad weather threatens,
and try not to open the tank during periods of high Unpack the shipping boxes or crates (except for oil-filled
humidity. Temporary weather shields may be / oil-oil bushings), identify and inspect the parts. It is
necessary as a last resort. important to handle all accessories with care.
Besides following the above measures, always limit
the exposure time of core and windings to 24 hours.
This is the total allowable time the active part may NOTES ON OIL-FILLED (CONDENSER) BUSHINGS:
be exposed to atmospheric conditions. If exposure Oil-filled bushings may not be immediately
time exceeds 24 hours, the vacuum pulling process unpacked. The reason for this is that the top must
has to be extended. remain higher than the bottom so that the air space
does not travel into the insulation. At this point, only
In case of any doubt about humidity of the insulation: identify each bushing. During assembly, unpack only
one bushing at a time: unpack the bushing when it is
Fill the transformer with dry nitrogen or air (dew needed for assembly.
point < -51 C) and wait for 48 hours.
Take a sample and perform a dew point
measurement. If requirements are not met, perform
an extended vacuum processing. [see further in this
section]
Decide whether the insulation is dry or not.

54
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

The bushing porcelain is fragile and must be


protected from damage during unpacking and 4.4.4 General assembling instructions for
installation. Be careful with the tools used to remove accessories
the packing-cover and the clamps used for shipment
of the bushing. Bushing deliveries can be quite long These general instructions should be used for all
and if you damage a bushing, it may take months to accessories, especially when no detailed information is
replace it. available in the documentation [part B] or in other
assembly instructions. However, not all possibilities can
be addressed in this IOM-manual, therefore general
rules for good workmanship should always be taken into
account.
4.4.2 Preparing accessories

Before finally assembling the accessories, make sure all


bolts, nuts, gaskets, etc. are at hand. Put the
accessories in the order in which they will be assembled. 4.4.4.1 Tightening bolts
This will make the installation easier.
Bolted assemblies are generally used for:
Mechanical assemblies without gaskets (supports)
Mechanical assemblies with gaskets (oil pipes,
4.4.3 Equipment safety during installation valves, flanged covers, devices in contact with oil,
bushings, etc..)
Whatever the equipment or accessories to install always Electrical assemblies (bus bar connections, internal
make sure nothing drops into the transformer tank. connections to bushings and/or terminal boards,
Especially during installation of bushings one must be ground connections, etc..)
careful not to drop any parts into the tank.
Bolts, nuts and washers can easily be dropped and even Every bolted assembly must utilize the following
a small washer can cause a permanent transformer hardware sequence: the bolt with a flat washer under the
breakdown. Entering a transformer to recover the lost head, and on the other side a flat washer against the
parts is a serious job, especially when the transformer is flange and a nut. Lock washers or lock nuts are provided
already oil-filled (draining oil, looking for the part, ). for some of the connections (in certain cases the
The worst case is when things have been dropped and external paint locks the nut correctly).
one doesnt know what was dropped or how many parts
Typical bolt tightening sequence: tighten pairs of bolts on
were dropped.
diagonal lines and in two steps to avoid overstressing:
tighten each of the bolts twice, snugly in the first pass
and bring them to the final tightness in the final pass.
CAUTION
Be very careful when handling bolts, nuts and
washers inside the tank or on a transformer cover
with open manholes. You should be careful so as to
avoid dropping these items into the windings or
other insulation structures. We strongly advise you
to use a drop cloth under the internal bushing
terminals to collect dropped parts as well as to count
the number of components taken into the tank. If any
parts are dropped and cannot be retrieved, contact
Saudi Power Transformers Company and do not try
to energize the transformer.

55
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

9 7 1 5 11

3 4

12 6 2 8 10

1
7 6

3 4

5 8
2

Figure 5 Sequence of tightening bolt nut


connections (1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 -> )

4.4.4.2 Gasket systems

a) Used gasket systems on transformer

Figure 6 Different types of gaskets

Non re-usable gasket types (A B)


System A: This is the system that is normally used for
flanged joints on IEC transformers. The gasket material
is impregnated cork. Joints are treated with a typical
sealing compound. The surface of the gasket material
that is exposed to the ambient air and/or sunlight is
treated and painted to prevent degradation of the gasket
material.
System B: This is the system that is normally used for
flanged joints which are mechanically loaded by the
weight of (or force to) the mounted component (radiators,
etc..). The gasket material is a high-density-fiber plate
(IT) (based on aramid fibers). Joints may be treated with
a sealing compound to become a safer joint. The
gaskets are not re-usable.
Re-usable gasket types (C D)
System C: This system is used for typical components
that have gasket-grooves on the apparatus or in the
flange. The gasket may be an O-ring or a flat gasket.

56
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

The gasket material is usually high quality nitrile. For Sometimes, gaskets are made from two or more pieces
some specific components, other base material can be in order to cover the whole gasket surface. If this is the
used. The gasket is powdered (with talc) or treated with case, the following instructions have to be taken into
acid-free Vaseline. The surface of the flanges is treated consideration.
to prevent corrosion. The gaskets might be considered
Replacement or spare gaskets for systems A and D may
re-usable after accurate inspection of the used gasket.
need to be cut and/or adjusted on site as follows:
System D: This system is used where metal gasket stops
must be present (for ANSI and CSA standards). The
gasket material is nitrile or impregnated cork. The gasket
stops prevent overstressing of the gasket material.
Sealing compound may not be used. The gaskets may
be considered re-usable after accurate inspection of the
used gasket. Depending on the expected lifetime of the
gasket system, special gasket material can be provided.

b) Handling re-usable gaskets (C D)


Dismantling
Make sure not to damage the gaskets when an
element is removed from the main tank.
Replacement
Gaskets and metal surfaces have to be free of dust,
oil and other impurities before installation. Figure 7 Gasket joint
The cleaning can be done with a degreasing
product (a solvent based degreaser).
Additives Nitrile rubber gasket joints
No glue or other additives may be used between In case the joint between two pieces is not broken
gaskets and metal surface. during dismantling, no special precautions
have to be taken.
In case the joint is broken, then the connections
NOTE have to be cleaned by peelingoff the sealing
Vaseline is sometimes used for easy mounting of the compound (e.g. with a knife) and after
gaskets. Please note that the use of vaseline is only cleaning, a new sealing compound can be
allowed (however not required and not used such as Curil K2 or AEG Sealing
recommended) on gaskets that are fully located in a Compound or equivalent.
chamber or groves. In case vaseline is used on non- Impregnated cork gasket joints
groved or non-chambered surfaces, the friction Cork gasket joints can be reproduced in the
towards the compression surfaces is no longer required shape with sealing compound. When
sufficient and therefore not allowed. tightening the connection, the cork material will
expand and close the joint.

c) Lifetime of gaskets
The re-usability of the re-usable gaskets is influenced by
time and temperature. However, within a period of 4.5 Installation of Conservator and Pipes
approximately 10 years, normal re-use of gaskets is
allowed. Therefore, we recommend renewing the
gaskets when a gasket is removed after 10 years from
date of manufacture.

d) Making a gasket joint (A D)

57
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Figure 8 Conservator and pipes assembly

58
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1. Unpack all components, check them and clean all Remarks: As small amounts of oil may leak out of
gasket surfaces. closed throttle valves, make sure that an oil can is
2. Mount the conservator support(s). placed underneath the throttle valves. Connect the
3. Mount the conservator on its supports (bolts are not radiators as soon as possible.
to be tightened at this time). with an inert gas and without any oil: the radiators
4. Mount the oil pipes on the cover, including new should be filled during the vacuum-filling process of
gaskets (bolts are not to be tightened at this time): the main tank.
The oil connection between tank and conservator.
The oil connection between bushing turrets and the
oil pipe (if any).
The oil connection between the tap changer head
and its conservator.
5. Mount the vertical oil pipes and their components
including new gaskets (bolts are not to be tightened
at this time):
The oil drain valve(s) (LTC and main conservator).
The pipe to the silica gel breather and the breather
itself.
If all components are in place, tighten the bolts on
the pipe connections in the same sequence as you
have mounted them. Then tighten the bolts on the
conservator support(s).

CAUTION
Before final tightening of oil connections, check the
position of the valves: full oil filled chambers may
not be entirely closed by any valve, because thermal
oil expansion may produce high internal pressures
possibly damaging the transformer or its Figure 9 Example of radiator No. 92
components.

If the oil (vacuum) filling process cannot follow


immediately, insert dry air or nitrogen (dew point < - 4.6.1 Mounting instructions
0
51 C) into the transformer and keep a slight positive
pressure ( 0.2 bar) to prevent moisture ingress. Unpack and check each radiator carefully; remove blind
flanges (the inside should be dry, clean and free from
foreign objects): clean gasket surfaces. For filled
transformer tanks, check whether the throttle valve(s)
No. 93 is (are) closed.
4.6 Installation of radiators
Remove the blind flanges on the throttle valves: clean
the gasket surfaces.
Every transformer uses custom designed radiator
assemblies to provide proper cooling for the specific Mount the radiators (one by one) to the tank with the
design. right side up (top-side = lifting lug); use new gaskets.
Tighten all bolts. Retighten after 24 hours.
The transformer might be shipped:
completely assembled including radiators: no
special installation or filling is required
(partially) filled with oil: the radiators have to be
filled with oil by the transformer tank one by one.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

1. Open the air-vent screw No. 94 on the top of the


CAUTION radiator and valve No. 123 between the conservator
Never lift radiators by the spotwelded side rods. and the tank.
Always use the lifting lugs on top. 2. Partially open the lower throttle valve No. 93.
3. When oil escapes from the air-vent screw, close the
air-vent screw.
Mount stiffener bars (if any) between the radiators. 4. Completely open the upper and the lower throttle
If necessary, touch up the damaged/scratched radiator valve.
surfaces.
Remarks: Remarks:

The same instructions apply for mounting radiators on a During this process, the oil level in the transformer tank
cooler bank. For connecting the cooler bank to the must be checked regularly; the oil level may never sink
transformer we refer to the General Arrangement under the radiator inlet / highest point of the windings to
drawing. avoid moisture, air, or gas ingress. For this reason, it
could be necessary to fill-up oil immediately (refer to oil
filling instructions).

4.6.2 Different types of gaskets used


4.6.2.1 High-density-fiber gasket (IT): 4.6.4 Draining oil from a radiator

This gasket type does not use gasket-stops (see also 1. Close valve No. 123 between the conservator and
section [3] for different gasket types) the main tank and close both throttle valves No. 93
of the radiator No. 92.
Always mount two new gaskets together (2x2mm) and 2. Unscrew the protection cover of the drain plug No.
position them on the valves between the stud-bolts. 95
Using a small amount of a correct sealing compound will 3. Make sure that the air vent No. 94 is fully closed.
help to keep the gaskets in place during installation and 4. Unscrew entirely and make sure that outcoming oil
will limit the risk for leaks. does not drip on the ground.
5. After a while, the oil flow stops due to a vacuum
created in the radiator.
6. Connect a flexible hose or another device to the
4.6.2.2 Impregnated cork gaskets or O-rings: drain plug so that oil spillage is avoided.
7. Open the air vent No. 94
These types of gaskets need a gasket stop (usually by 8. Remove the protection cover.
9. Open the air vent by turning the screw in a
positioning the gasket in groves at the valve-side, see
counterclockwise direction.
also earlier in this section for different gasket types).
10. Incoming air in radiator results in a rapid oil draining
Inspect the O-ring for any damage prior to reusing it via the drain plug.
in the final installation. 11. After draining :
Use fresh cork-gaskets to the radiator valve. A close vent plug No. 94
small amount of petroleum jelly will help to keep the remount protection cover of vent plug
gaskets in place during installation. close drain plug No. 95
remount protection cover of drain plug

4.6.3 Filling radiators for (partially) oil-


filled transformers

Fill the radiators one by one as follows:

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.6.5 Disassembling a radiator from a


filled transformer

It might be necessary to disassemble one or more oil-


filled radiators during installation activities. Follow below
guidelines.
1. Remove the fans and fan supports
2. Close valve No. 123 between conservator and main
tank.
3. Close throttle valves No. 93 and drain oil.
4. Unscrew nuts underneath and on top of the throttle
valves.
5. Remove radiators by means of a lifting device.
6. Place a blank flange on the throttle valves of the
transformer when the radiators are removed for
longer than 1 hour. If the radiators are to be used
again, provide them also with a blank flange.
Figure 11 Vent plug No. 94

Figure 10 Drain plug No. 95


Figure 12 Throttle valve No. 93 open

Part numbers refer to DIN 42558

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.7.1 Different types

Figure 13 Throttle valve No. 93 closed

4.7 Installation of Bushing Turrets

Due to shipping size restrictions, it may have been


necessary to remove the bushing turrets from the
transformer during transportation. These compartments
are dismantled as an assembly and blind flanged. If
there are CTs in the turrets they are filled with oil. Figure 14 CT Turrets
Turrets without CTs are not filled with oil and are not
always blind flanged. These must be reinstalled prior to
vacuum filling the transformer.
For transformers shipped without oil it is important to
open only a minimum number of compartments on the 4.8 Installation of CTs
transformer at the same time in order to minimize
exposure time of core and windings. Therefore remove 4.8.1 Current transformers for bottom
blanking plates one by one and install one bushing turret
at a time. connected bushings (phase /
neutral)
4.8.1.1 Dismounting

1. Disconnect bushing leads from network.


2. Remove HV bushing.
3. Disconnect cables in terminal box No. 32 on front-
and backside of terminal.
4. Unscrew nuts on base plate.
5. Disconnect grounding connection between base
plate and cover.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

6. Remove base plate. 4.9 Installation of HV-DIN Bushings (10 -


Turn base plate over so that current transformer 52 kV, IEC)
arrangement is on the top side.
7. Unscrew 4 nuts.
In general, 10-52 kV DIN bushings will not be removed
Remove Bakelite base plate, protecting cork ring,
for shipment. However, in certain cases removal of the
distance tubes and fixing blocks.
upper connector and/or porcelain may be required for
Disconnect grounding connection between
shipment. The bushing is pre-assembled for packing.
current transformer core and base plate.
Refer to the specific documentation for the specific
8. Remove current transformer from base plate.
bushings used for the transformer.

4.8.1.2 Mounting

Reverse procedure.

4.8.2 Current transformers for draw lead


bushings (phase / neutral)
4.8.2.1 Dismounting

1. Disconnect bushing leads from network.


2. Close valve No. 123 between conservator and
Buchholz.
3. Drain oil in main tank.
4. Disconnect cables in terminal box No. 32 on front-
and backside of terminal
5. Remove HV bushing.
6. Unscrew nuts on base plate.
7. Disconnect grounding connection between base
plate and cover.
8. Remove base plate.
Turn base plate over so that current transformer
arrangement is on the top side.
9. Unscrew 4 nuts.
Remove Bakelite base plate, protecting cork ring,
distance tubes and fixing blocks.
Disconnect grounding connection between
current transformer core and base plate.
10 Remove current transformer from base plate.

4.8.2.2 Mounting

Reverse procedure.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.9.1 Type

Figure 15 HV DIN Bushings

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.9.2 Mounting instructions incorporate a capacitive tap, where the final capacitive
foil (the ground layer) is brought out through a special
1. Dismantle the pre-assembled bushing and clean it. test tap. This test tap may be used for monitoring
2. Remove the blind flange on the transformer tank purposes as well as for testing the bushing. The test tap
(cover), remove the shipping gasket and clean up must be directly grounded or fixed to the ground over the
the gasket surface. Cover the opening for foreign monitoring device.
parts, dust and moisture.
3. Screw the copper stem in the threaded hole (see
detail A), in the internal connection, tighten them
with the correct torque (see documentation for the
4.10.1 Different types of condenser
specific bushing), so that the contact surface is
correctly tightened, using nut and conter-nut on the bushings
top side of the stem.Mount the porcelain (together
with the fixation ring) over the stem, using a new Remarks:
gasket. Make sure that the porcelain is correctly Check the General Arrangement drawing to find out
seated on the base, look for the correct positioning which bushing type is used.
of the porcelain over the upper part (turn the
porcelain so that the locking ring on the upper part Some of the bushings may come with a corona shield
of the stem does not damage the porcelain) of the that is usually manufactured from spun aluminum and is
stem. Draw the draw lead in the porcelain (in case quite delicate. The shield must not be bended. The
of a draw lead conductor). coronal shields are usually shipped separate from the
4. Mount the upper gaskets, the press rings and the bushings, in well-padded packaging. Ensure that the
lock nut, without tightening them. shield is properly attached to the bushing and all
5. Tighten the fixation ring carefully, first by hand and mounting bolts are tightened prior to installing the
then progressively tighten the bolts with the correct bushing.
torque (see documentation for the specific bushing).
6. Tighten the lock nut with the correct torque (see
documentation for the specific bushing).
7. Mount the upper connector (and arcing horns if
applicable).

NOTE
For draw lead bushings (for current ratings of 630
Amps and below), the lower part of the copper stem
is replaced by a flexible copper conductor. There are
no internal connections to be made in that case.

4.10 Installation of condenser bushings

Condenser type bushings incorporate a capacitive


voltage grading system to carefully control the electric
field inside the bushing. This allows a minimum partial
discharge design that is very important in many
applications, especially when voltage ratings increase.
Most condenser bushings are oil-filled and the internal
parts are oil impregnated. Condenser bushings often

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.10.1.1 Draw lead condenser bushings 4.10.1.2 Bottom connected condenser bushings

Figure 16 Draw lead condenser bushing

Draw lead bushings are designed up to 400/800 amps


depending on the specific bushing design. For higher
currents, the bottom connected design will be used.
Draw lead condenser bushings are hollow bushings
through which the draw lead has to be pulled during
installation. No other access is necessary. Figure 17 Bottom connected condenser bushing
The winding lead cable is brazed or connected to the Bottom connected condenser bushings are bushings for
terminal-stud at the factory. The cable is coiled and tied a current of 800 (400) amps or more.
securely to the blind flange or to the active part assembly
for shipment. A bottom connected condenser bushing has a solid core
to which the internal winding lead has to be connected
through a separate handhole.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.10.2.1 Draw lead condenser bushings

Figure 18 Bottom connected (1200 A)


Figure 20 Draw lead (400 A)

1. Unpack the bushing keeping it tilted with the top


side higher than the bottom side to avoid air
bubbles penetrating the insulation at the bottom.
4.10.2 Mounting instructions 2. Check the bushing carefully (for oil leaks as well).
Check the center tube and remove the plastic
sealing plugs if present.
3. Remove the outer terminal cap on the top of the
bushing.
4. Clean the porcelain using clean rags, moisturized
with Methyl Hydrate if needed.
5. If the terminals are dirty, clean them with clean, dry
rags (moisturized with Methyl Hydrate if necessary)
or use a soft brush.
6. Remove the blind flange on the transformer tank
(cover), pull out the draw lead and check for
damage, remove the shipping gasket and clean the
gasket surface.
7. Place a new gasket on the cover and cover the
opening for foreign parts, dust and moisture.
8. Sling the bushing at the correct angle according to
Figure 19
9. Attach a strong cord or wire to the terminal stud and
pull it through the central tube of the bushing.
10. Slowly draw the draw lead cable in the bushing
while the bushing is placed into position. Fix the
Figure 19 Lifting instruction condenser bushing bushing flange into position and mount the upper
terminal stud and cap (refer to the specific
documentation for the bushing).

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

11. Tighten the top terminal arrangement and the flange 11 Ground the bushing for personnel safety as well as
bolts with the correct torque according to the to ensure that the transformer will not be damaged
specific documentation. due to lightning.
12. Ground the bushing for personnel safety as well as
to ensure that the transformer will not be damaged
due to lightning.
4.10.2.3 Oil to Oil Bushings

For installation of Oil to Oil bushings kindly refer


CAUTION
Annexure A
When slowly lowering the bushing through the turret
or mounting hole in the tank, make sure that you do
not damage the current transformers mounted
4.10.2.4 Bottom connected bushings
around the entry hole. There is only a small
clearance available between the bushing and the
The same figures and caution Remarks apply as for
current transformer. Bushings mounted at an angle
draw lead condenser bushings.
must be lowered into position maintaining that
angle.
4.10.2.5 Pfisterer

For installation of pfisterer kindly refer annexure B


4.10.2.2 Bottom connected bushings

4.11 Installation of cooling fans


The same figures and caution Remarks apply as forl
draw lead condenser bushings. Cooling fans are used where additional forced air
1. Unpack the bushing keeping it tilted with the top capacities or upratings have been specified. Their
side higher than the bottom side to avoid air operation is automatically controlled by temperature
bubbles penetrating the insulation at the bottom. measurement devices (manual control is possible).
2. Check the bushing carefully (also for oil leaks) and When the liquid temperature or winding temperature
clean the porcelain using clean rags (moisturized reaches the temperature setting, it switches the fans on.
with Methyl Hydrate if necessary). The fan units are usually attached to the radiators, but
3. If the terminals are dirty, clean them with clean, dry may sometimes be mounted on brackets affixed to the
rags (moisturized with Methyl Hydrate if necessary) main tank. We refer to the General Arrangement drawing
or use a soft brush. for more details on the amount of fans used, the type
4. Remove the blind flange on the transformer tank and mounting positions.
(cover), remove the shipping gasket and clean the
gasket surface.
5. Place a new gasket on the cover and cover the
opening for foreign parts, dust and moisture.
6. Sling the bushing at the correct angle according to 4.11.1 Mounting instructions
Figure 19.
7. Mount the bushing into position. Tighten the 1. Unpack the fans and check them for damage.
bushing flange bolts according to the specific 2. Mechanically mount the fans on the radiators or on
documentation for the bushing. the brackets. If anti-vibration pads are used, careful
8. Make the internal connection through the handhole stress-free mounting is required to prevent
or manhole. overstressing during operation.
9. Tighten the bolts according to the specific 3. Connect the fans to a temporary power supply and
information for this bushing. check for abnormal vibration.
10 Close the handhole or manhole carefully.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4. Wire or plug the fans into the appropriate junction 1. Remove the protection on the cable-end and check
box and check for the right air flow. Correct the wire marking with the wiring diagram.
direction of fan rotation is given with an arrow on 2. Clean wire ends (and contact-pins of cable-plugs, if
the fan housing. any).
5. Remove drain plugs from the holes in the fan 3. Fix the cable in the cable channel.
motors to allow condensation to escape. 4. Introduce the cable into the cable gland.
5. Check with the wiring diagram.
6. Connect the wires to the right terminal.
7. Tighten the cable gland.
4.12 Wiring on the transformer
Once again, make sure that the right connection has
The wiring on the transformer is always completed and been established.
checked during assembly in the factory. However, the
connection between transformer and remote control
cabinets is only made as a temporary base for testing.
During disassembly for shipment of the transformer,
4.13 Oil quality requirements
some parts with an electrical connection must be
disconnected. This will result in free cable-ends (or free
The oil quality is very important for the reliability of the
plug-ends) that can be situated on the dismantled part or
transformer. Oil filling and oil treatment procedures have
on the transformer. Free cable-ends will be coiled and
an enormous impact on the oil quality. This is why the
protected by plastic bags or another protection and tied
procedures below should be followed strictly.
to the transformer tank or assemblies. The wires of free
cable-ends are marked with the same terminal number The specific filling and treatment procedure to follow
as the terminal to which they have to be connected depends on:
during the final wiring on site.
The transformer design
Current transformer circuits have been short-circuited The oil supply method
before and during transportation for safety purposes. The voltage class (Un < 70 kV Un > 70 kV)
This short circuit wire has to be removed at the time of The method of shipment of the transformer
final wiring and/or testing.
The following wiring types are used: In the explanation below we assume that:
Cabling with a certain cable type. The cables are The transformer has been assembled according to
mounted into stainless steel cable channels the previous guidelines.
(possibly with covers) that are fixed to the The transformer is filled with an inert gas and does
transformer tank or assembly. This is the normal not contain any oil.
standard for IEC transformers.
Wiring into conduits (galvanized or in aluminum)
that are fixed on the transformer tank or assembly. Remarks:
This is the normal standard for ANSI and CSA Starting from an empty, inert gas filled transformer,
transformers. vacuum filling can be performed in one step (commonly
Plug-in cable connections, used for some typical used for small transformers and for sealed transformers
accessories (Qualitrol apparatus, fans, etc.). or for transformers with a positive pressure system) or in
two steps (commonly used for large transformers): first
filling the tank and then filling up the conservator.

4.12.1 Mounting instructions All necessary oil filling and oil treatment equipment
is available.
After mechanical installation of the parts that are to be New transformer oil of the right quality is available
electrically connected: (see below).

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

3
Minimum Pressure
NOTE
T (C) Pa Mbar Torr
Oil quality and care in handling are extremely
40 5 0.05 0.04
important for the proper functioning of the
50 10 0.1 0.075
transformer.
60 20 0.2 0.15
70 40 0.4 0.3
80 100 1.0 0.75
90 400 4.0 3.0
4.13.1 New transformer oil 100 1000 10.0 7.5
Table 13 Oil treatment
New transformer oil can be available in drums or in
containers. Normally, new transformer oil is not
degassed and has to be treated (streamlined) according
to the processing parameters below. Before using any See section [5].
transformer oil to fill (or top up) a transformer, the oil
Required oil quality after oil treatment:
quality should be in accordance with the applicable
standards: Dielectric strength: 75 kV (IEC 60156)
IEC 60296 Water content: see section 5
ASTM D 3487-88
Tangent (90 C): 0.5 %
If temporary storage of the oil is required, prevent air and
water from entering the container. Test the oil again just
4.13.2 Oil treatment (degassing, before filling.
streamlining) Remarks:
Some filling installations are equipped with integrated
Oil treatment is used to improve the oil quality by filtering
degassing features and do not require separate
and degassing the oil.
degassing. In this case, oil samples should be taken at a
Transfer the oil from the barrels into a dry and clean regular basis before the oil enters the transformer.
container of suitable size (preferably the same size as
the amount of oil to be treated). Connect the treatment
installation in a closed loop to the container and circulate
the oil volume 3 times. The vacuum should be 1 mbar or
less. 4.13.3 New treated transformer oil in new
equipment
Non-inhibited transformer oils: treatment should be
2
performed at a temperature of 60 C (maximum 65 C).
Oil quality should be in accordance with the applicable
Inhibited transformer oils: due to the volatile character of standards and Saudi Power Transformers Company
the inhibitor one should limit the temperature in order to specifications:
prevent loss of inhibitor. Conditions that have been found
satisfactory for most inhibited mineral oil processing can IEC 60422
be found in the table below. In general, one should limit ASTM
the treatment temperature for inhibited transformer oils to Saudi Power Transformers Company specifications:
50 C. see further in this section and section [5].

2
Temperature at the outlet of the degassing installation 3
Reference: ASTM D 3787

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.13.4 Transformer oil for transformers in case a connection with valve is used, the valve should
service be open while pulling vacuum and closed when the
transformer is energised.
Same as above (4.13.3) applies. If the conservator is of a membrane type, the membrane
is NOT capable of withstanding a vacuum or
overpressure. Install the necessary pressure equalizing
pipe (B) between the expansion membrane, the
conservator compartment of the transformer and the
4.14 Pulling vacuum conservator compartment of the (O)LTC.
The purpose of pulling vacuum is to lower the pressure
inside the transformer tank below the partial pressure of
water vapor at the temperature of the insulation. The CAUTION
more the vacuum is lowered below the partial pressure, Mount the necessary equalizing pipes between all
the better the removal of the surface moisture will be. hydraulic chambers that cannot resist full vacuum
by itself before drawing a vacuum or before starting
any filling process. Check the General Arrangement
drawing, the documentation and nameplate for more
details on vacuum resistance. Especially have a look
4.14.1 Before pulling vacuum at the tap changer and its conservator, membrane
type conservators etc.
Test if there are any leaks. This can easily be done by
applying a pressure of 0.15 up to 0.2 bar with dry air or
nitrogen. If leaks are detected, close them. B Transformercompartment

OLTC-compartment
Ensure that all radiator valves are opened.
Expansion tank
If the transformer is equipped with non-vacuum/pressure
tight accessories (such as a gas detection apparatus,
vacuuminstallation
drycol breathers, pressure relief devices, etc.) block A

these until the vacuum process is completed or remove


them.
OLTC
tank

CAUTION
In case a Drycol dehydrating breather is installed on
the conservator, or if a gas analyzer and electronic Figure 21 Equalizing pipe connections
devices such as a Hydran is installed on the tank,
do NOT allow either a vacuum to be drawn on, or oil
to be injected into the apparatus. Ensure that either
the valves on this apparatus are closed off on both
DANGER
inlet and outlet sides or that the devices are removed
Never perform an electrical test on a transformer
for the period of pulling vacuum and filling.
under vacuum. Internal flashovers may occur at
voltages as low as 200 V, causing severe damage.
Do not attempt to climb on a transformer, or walk
If the transformer is equipped with a(n) (on) load tap around on any part of the cover, while the
changer, refer to the appropriate (O)LTC documentation transformer is under vacuum. This is unsafe for
included in this IOM. Prior to pulling vacuum or personnel and equipment.
performing a leak test using overpressureing be aware
that, an equalizing pipe (A) is installed between the
(O)LTC compartment and the tank during transportation.
Maintain this connection untill starting to pull vacuum. In

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.14.2 Establishing connections The vacuum pump requires servicing and/or new
sealing oil.
Connect the vacuum connecting point on the conservator The vacuum connections or the transformer itself
No. 125 with the internal part of the atmoseal bag (via are leaking.
dehydrating breather connection flange, on top of There is significant moisture in the tank and the
conservator). The vacuum connection should be made vapor pressure of the moisture is limiting the
as short as possible. Ensure that a shut off valve is vacuum to drop to the specified level.
installed. Please refer to the Figure in "Filling
Procedures" included in this IOM.
Try the following procedure to determine the cause of the
Connect a vacuum proof transparent hose (L3) problem. While the vacuum pump is running, close the
between the oil sampling device on the bottom filter valves (for a minimum of 30 min.) between the vacuum
valve No. 112 and the connecting line of the pump and the transformer tank.
vacuum pump (L2) on top of the conservator (or
Compare the level of vacuum on the tank and on
tank if no conservator is present) to visualize the oil
the pump side of the valves that are closed. If the
level during filling. This transparent hose should be
tank pressure increases quite fast, the transformer
at least 50 cm (20) longer than necessary.
is leaking.
Connect the oil pump installation (VP, F) to the
If the vacuum pump side of the valves does not
bottom filter valve (No. 112 - L1). A filter and
drop down quickly, the pump capacity is too small
degassing installation (if non-degassed oil is used)
or probably requires servicing.
should be part of the installation procedure in order
If the vacuum pump side of the valves drops down
to filter out all the water particles and impurities.
quickly and the transformer tank pressure increases
Open all the cooling systems isolation valves No.
slowly, then there is excess moisture in the tank.
93 if this has not been done already.

Correct the problem and restart the vacuum procedure.


Should repair on the vacuum pump or on the vacuum
4.14.3 Pulling vacuum connections take some time, then refill the transformer
with dry gas. Should the transformer require repairing,
Start the vacuum pump, open all the vacuum lines to the then the tank MUST be refilled with dry gas before
transformer tank (and other vacuum proof attempting repairs.
compartments) and then draw a vacuum 6.7 mbar or If the problem is excessive moisture, an extended
less, absolute. Hold this vacuum for at least 8 hours vacuum procedure can be applied and special attention
(increased with 1 hour per 8 hours exposure time) to should be paid to the oil quality before energization. See
assure all gas is removed from the insulation structures. end of this section.

DANGER
Never leave a transformer under vacuum 4.15 Oil filling standard
unattended.
4.15.1 Oil filling
A vacuum of minimum 13 mbar must be maintained
4.14.4 Troubleshooting during the entire filling process. This means the valve of
the oil supply pipe has to be throttled to maintain this
If the specified vacuum cannot be reached or vacuum. This is necessary because, while entering the
maintained, one or more of the following may be the tank, the oil will give off dissolved gasses that must be
case: evacuated by the vacuum pump. The oil-filling valve
must be adjusted to maintain a positive pressure up to
The vacuum pump is too small for the size of the the throttled valve.
transformer.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

If degassed oil is used to fill the transformer, the quantity minutes later, bleed all bleeder points on the transformer.
of oil flowing into the tank should not exceed 12 mm (0.5 Restart the pumps and proceed with a number of cycles.
inch) per minute, even if the required vacuum can be
Ensure that the (O)LTC compartment (and its
held at a higher filling rate. This rule should be followed
conservator) is correctly filled.
to ensure all voids are correctly filled with oil.
In the case of a conservator design transformer, bleed
The use of oil treatment equipment (streamliner) with an
air from manholes, bushing turrets, cooling component
integrated vacuum degassing chamber is preferable. In
systems etc., using the bleeder screws or valves on the
this way residual dissolved gasses are removed while
equipment. Mount the air breather(s).
the oil enters the transformer tank. The risk for a process
interruption will be limited as well. Recheck the transformer oil level and top up if necessary
(see further).
Remarks:
Certain transformers with a maximum voltage class of 34
kV may be filled with non-degassed oil. The oil should be
entered on the top of the tank using a special spray-
nozzle. The rate of oil admitted to the tank should not
exceed 33 liters or 12 mm per minute, even if the
required vacuum can be held at a higher rate. This rule
should be followed to ensure degassing of the oil during
filling and to ensure all voids are correctly filled with oil.
Check the dielectric strength of the oil during filling in
samples taken from the transformer side of the oil
treatment equipment. If a test indicates a lowering of
strength, the filters must be replaced before continuing. Figure 22 Transformer filling (without conservator)

Continue to fill under vacuum until the oil level gauge


reads the correct level. V = Oil storage tank
Remarks: F = High vacuum filter (streamliner)
VP = Vacuum pump (streamliner)
In case of first step filling of a transformer equipped with S = Sampling device (drain plug) of installation
a conservator (refer to Figure 22) fill up to approx. 100 L1 = Filling line of the transformer tank
mm below the highest point of the cover. The main L2 = Connecting pipe of the vacuum pump
insulation must be covered with oil completely. L3 = Vacuum proof, transparent hose
When the oil level in the transformer main tank (or in the T = Transformer Tank
conservator) is correct, stop the oil filling and stop the M = Vacuum measuring device
vacuum pump. Break the vacuum using dry air or C = Conservator with atmoseal bag
nitrogen, whichever is available. The gas supply should
be 0.15 bar or less, until a pressure of about 0.15 up to
0.2 bar is obtained in the transformer. Dismantle the
vacuum and oil-filling equipment from the transformer.
Mount silica gel air breathers (if there are any).
Open the valves on the non-vacuum/pressure tight
accessories (such as a gas detection apparatus, drycol
breathers, pressure relief devices, etc.). Unblock items
that were blocked for overpressure protection.
If the transformer is equipped with oil pumps, vent these
pumps. Furthermore, it is recommended to occasionally
run the pumps. The procedure is to run the pumps for an
hour or so, then stop the pumps and about 15 to 30

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

CAUTION
The purpose of vacuum filling is to remove all gas
from the insulation structure. The presence of gas in
the insulation may cause failures and/or may
develop partial discharges that can develop into an
internal failure. In addition, the
interpretation/analysis of dissolved gasses will be
not correct. Therefore, it is very important that the
vacuum filling is performed strictly in accordance
with these instructions.

Figure 23 Transformer filling with conservator 4.16 Topping up oil after initial vacuum
filling
This procedure can be used after the initial vacuum filling
of the main tank (leave filling line L1 connected to the
4.15.2 Filling procedure in the event of bottom filter valve No. 112) or for transformers that are
process interruption shipped (partially) oil-filled (connect the filling line L1 to
the top oil filter valve No. 111). Please note that initial
The procedure of pulling vacuum and oil filling is meant filling of an empty transformer should always be done
to be a smooth and uninterrupted process. Should the following the vacuum filling procedure described above
process be interrupted for any reason, then: or by using the oil-spray-system. In certain
circumstances only topping up the oil might be done
Stop the flow of oil into the transformer tank. Attempt to without following the vacuum filling procedure. However
return power to the process equipment as soon as if vacuum filling equipment is available, vacuum filling is
possible. Upon the resumption of power, inspect the to be prefered in any case as this method prevents air
vacuum gauge.
bubles to be trapped in the transformer.
If the internal tank pressure is below 13 mbar: proceed
Conservator design type transformers and Un < 70
with the filling process.
kV may be topped up with degassed oil, directly
If the tank pressure is between 13 and 32 mbar: first pull pumped through a suitable filter (1 to 5 m) into the
vacuum below 6.7 mbar, then continue with the filling conservator without drawing vacuum.
process. Conservator design type transformers and Un > 70
kV must be topped up under vacuum; the same
If the tank pressure is above 32 mbar: drain the oil from
procedure applies as for initial vacuum filling.
the tank and begin the vacuum filling process all over
However, the vacuum hold time before filling may
again (from the start).
be reduced to 4 hours.
Non-conservator design type transformers only
need correction of the oil level using degassed oil.
If radiators are not mounted before the initial
vacuum filling, mount and fill them according to the
mounting and filling instructions for radiators (see
earlier in this section).

Remarks:
If no degassed oil is available, use streamlining
equipment and apply the correct processing parameters
(depending on the oil type used).

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

2. Transformers with forced oil circulation using pumps


should be vented a first time after complete oil
CAUTION filling. Have the pumps run for at least two hours.
Never attempt to top up a transformer with oil that The oil has to stabilize for several hours and a
has not first been tested for adequate dielectric second venting sequence should be performed.
strength. Special care should be taken for oil that 3. After completion of the venting procedure:
has been stored outside in drums. Securely close all vent plugs and replace protection
caps (if present).
Clean all spilled oil around the vent plugs so that it
cannot be mistaken for oil leaks.

4.17 Air venting


4.18 Pre-operational tests
Once the filling process has been completed, all vent
plugs should be opened until all air bubbles have been At this point, the transformer has been installed,
evacuated. The most appropriate venting sequence is completely filled and should be ready for energization.
first opening the lower vent plugs and then the higher However, in many cases, energization will not directly
ones. follow completion of the installation and filling process.
This is so because other related equipment (such as
For example: circuit breakers, remote control, ) has to be ready first.
Radiators It can take weeks to complete the entire substation after
Cover completion of the transformer installation.
Overpressure valve Whatever the time in-between, we recommend
(O)LTC proceeding with the installation and filling procedure as
Bushing turrets soon as possible for the following important reasons:
Bushings
Equipment safety: the best practice to store a
Buchholz transformer is completely assembled, filled and well
Conservator maintained.
Equipment completeness: during erection activities
Remarks: one can easily check whether all necessary
materials are available. Missing and defective parts
1. If an expansion membrane of the conservator type will be discovered and can be replaced in time.
No. 96 has been used and topping up has been
done without applying vacuum: put overpressure on
the pipe to the dehydrating breather No. 23 on the To ensure Equipment functionality both mechanical and
membrane, open the vent screws and wait until oil electrical tests on the transformer and its accessories are
runs out. If required, adjust the oil level by using the recommended as soon as installation and filling have
lower filter valve No. 112. Install the dehydrating been completed. This will allow you to perform all
breather (according to the specific installation necessary tests without exceeding the available time
procedures available in the documentation limits. Please use a copy of the Site commissioning
section[7]). report in section [9] to register all applicable test results.
When complete filling or topping up has been done If immediate energization is possible after testing this is,
following the vacuum procedure, no more air should of course, to be recommended and will result in the
be trapped in the conservator or other parts of the highest efficiency.
transformer.
Do not re-open the vent plugs No. 99 on the Section [4], Putting into Operation, provides an
conservator after filling and venting has been done overview of the periods a transformer is allowed to wait
as described above. If you do re-open the vent for energization. Depending on the length of the waiting
plugs, air can enter the conservator and the filling or period, some or all tests should be repeated.
topping up procedure should be repeated.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Once the transformer has been fully assembled and oil


filled, a number of tests and checks are required to DANGER
ensure safe energization of the transformer. - Never perform DC tests other than the ones
described below. These types of tests may
overstress the insulation system and/or disturb the
magnetic features and may cause damage to the
transformer.
4.18.1 Mechanical tests and checks - Never perform an electrical test on a transformer
under vacuum.
First of all, a thorough inspection of the transformer and
its accessories should be performed to ensure safe
electrical tests and reliable test results. Required tests:
Megger test
Winding megger test
Core grounding megger test
4.18.2 Oil sampling and testing Voltage ratio test

At the end of the mechanical inspection of the Optional test:


transformer it is required to take the necessary oil
samples for oil testing. Vector group test

Special tests:
Insulation power factor test
4.18.3 Electrical tests Bushing power factor test
Winding resistance test
If the oil quality meets the specifications, you can Continuity / impedance check
proceed with the electrical tests. Before starting any
voltage tests, make sure that the current transformers
are correctly short-circuited.
Required tests have to be performed in all cases. 4.19 Pre-operational tests and checks of
Although the optional test, the vector group test, is an accessories
often performed field test, it is not necessary. In the Site
commissioning report section [9] test sheets are General items
available for the required and optional tests.
Check for remaining equipment or tools on the
Special tests are only to be performed if there are transformer cover or other parts
indications of potential problems or defects. Check for leaks or other damages
If Saudi Power Transformers Company is doing the Check for damaged painting
erection and commissioning, contractual specifications Check the presence of the Nameplate (or Rating
concerning site testing have precedence over the plate)
sequence below. Check grounding connections
Remarks:
The transformer tank, all external metal parts and
Tests and checks related to the specific network or to
accessories should be permanently grounded according
remote controls, as well as cable tests are not included
to the correct safety and operation practice and in
in this section.
accordance with instructions for the specific equipment
being used.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

All bushings have to remain grounded until final Current transformers


energization of the unit (except to perform the electrical
tests). All current transformers secondary windings must
either be connected to a load or be shorted out.
All cables that are connected to the transformer If it is suspected that the current transformer core
should be adequately grounded. has become magnetized, this must be corrected, as
it will adversely affect the operation of connected
loads, especially protective relays.
Valves and associated items
Connect a 100 ohm variable resistor of sufficient
Check that all bolted joints are correctly tightened wattage based on the secondary output voltage at
and that there are no leaks. 150 % secondary current across the secondary
Make sure that all valves (including radiator valves) winding, then slowly reduce the current to zero.
are in the operation position. Remove the resistor and connect the current
Ensure that all venting openings are closed. transformer to its load or short it.

(Air) breathers Load tap changers


Check the color of the silica gel and replace if Check the protective relay.
necessary. Check oil locks. Check the motor drive after it has been electrically
connected. Check at least the following:
Overcurrent motor protection.
Gas detector / Buchholz relays
Step by step function.
De-block floaters (if applicable). Mechanical and electrical overrunning protection.
Bleed the air from the appropriate device. Other trip and alarm functions as per specification.
Remote control function (if present).
Bushings
De-energized tap changer
Ensure that all bushings and bushing turrets are
correctly air bled. Check for leaks, especially on Check the trip contact (if present).
bolted flanges and the bushing top terminals. Check and padlock the tap changer into position.
Ensure that capacitive test taps on condenser type
bushings are correctly grounded or connected. Cooling system
Check for sufficient voltage clearances.
Check oil pumps, fans and their control system.
Check for leaks. Observe operation for at least one
Temperature gauges hour.
Temperature gauges are set in the factory at the Check if all condensation release plugs are
values indicated on the documentation or to removed on electrical motors.
customer requested values. Overcurrent motor protections.
Check and set temperature controllers.
Check the flow indicators for the correct flow
Pressure devices
direction.
Pressure relief devices are set in the factory; check Other trip and alarm functions as per specification.
that the device is unblocked. Do not open the Remote control function (if present).
device; strong loaded springs inside it may
endanger the personnel.
If pressurized gas equipment is supplied, check the
regulator for correct operation.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

CAUTION
4.21 Megger test (Required)
For transformers with OFAF cooling (Oil Forced Air
Forced), oil pumps always have to be in operation if The purpose of the megger test is to detect internal
the transformer is energized, even at no load: pumps movement of parts that may have shorted out some of
always have to run. the insulation on the core and on the windings and leads,
as well as to check for excessive moisture
contamination.
Remarks:
For all megger tests a good estimate of the inner
4.20 Oil sampling and testing transformer temperature is required. For oil-filled
transformers the oil temperature gauge can give a
4.20.1 Sampling good estimation. Be aware of the atmospherical
influences.
For the sampling procedure we refer to the maintenance Multiply the measured insulation resistance by the
section [5] further on in this IOM Manual. correction factors, given by the table in section [0],
0
to bring the measured value back to a 20 C
reference temperature.
Insulation resistances measured without oil filling on
a nitrogen-filled transformer are not comparable
4.20.2 Required oil quality tests with the measured values in the factory. Below
values are given for an oil-filled transformer.
After oil filling and before performing electrical tests two
oil tests are required. Write the test results on a copy of
the Site commissioning report.
Dielectric strength 4.21.1 Winding insulation megger test
Moisture or water content
A megger test on a transformer winding is a single-
phase test. When testing the HV winding, ground all LV
More information on these oil tests and additional oil
and TV bushings, connect all HV bushings together, and
tests is provided in the maintenance section [5]. The
megger the HV bushings to ground. Wait for one minute
additional tests may be necessary if there are indications
and repeat the test. Do this for 10 subsequent
of potential problems or if specific maintenance
measurements. Follow the same way for all megger tests
procedures require reference values (e.g. DGA analysis).
of all windings. The polarization index is the
measurement after 10 minutes divided by the one after
one minute.
Use a megger voltage of 5000 V DC (1000 V DC for a
4.20.3 Oil quality requirement nitrogen-filled transformer). The bushings must be
cleaned and dry. Do not use pieces of strings etc.., to
Minimum dielectric strength of transformer oil must be hold leads apart, as they may damp and introduce a
met: see section [5]. leakage path sufficient to greatly distort the true
Maximum moisture content as a function of the readings. High atmospheric humidity will also influence
temperature must be met: see section [5]. the test results.

More detailed oil specifications are given in the In the case of a two-winding transformer, the following
applicable standards IEC 60422 and ASTM. winding megger tests should be performed:
HV windings to ground, with LV windings grounded.
LV windings to ground, with HV windings grounded.
Connect all HV and LV windings together and
megger to ground.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Complete the Insulation resistance measurement part


of the site commissioning report for 2-winding NOTE
transformers . Some transformers have more than one core in the
main tank.
In the case of a three-winding transformer, the following
winding megger tests should be performed:
HV windings to ground, with LV and TV windings Each core grounding is brought out to a separate
grounded. insulation bushing and the purpose is marked near
LV windings to ground, with HV and TV windings each bushing.
grounded. The measurement has to be done for each
TV windings to ground, with HV and LV windings individual core.
grounded.
Connect all HV, LV and TV windings together and After testing:
megger to ground.
1. Reconnect the core grounding link between the
core bushing and grounding point.
Complete the Insulation resistance measurement part
of the site commissioning report for 3-winding on bushing on grounding point
transformers. stud
Maximum torque 40 Nm (30 20 to 30 Nm (14.8 to
Required values: spanner value lbf.ft) 21.1 lbf.ft)

Megger values: minimum 10 Mohm/kV with a


minimum of 400 Mohm. 2. Put the nitrile rubber gasket back into place on the
Polarization index: minimum 1 box frame.
3. Put the cover back into place and tighten with
bolts/nuts

4.21.2 Core grounding megger test

The core grounding megger test is used to determine the 4.21.3 Accessories insulation megger test
state of the core clamping structure, core to ground
and/or clamp to ground insulation. The core is tested by The insulation of accessories should be meggered with a
accessing the core ground bushing located on the cover megger voltage of 500 V DC.
of the tank No. 137.
The test is conducted by using a megger voltage of 1000
V DC. All windings must be shorted and grounded before
starting this test.
Both core grounding and clamp grounding megger
values should exceed 100 Mohms corrected to 20C
according to the correction table in the table section [0].
1. Open the access hole towards the terminals No.
137 by unbolting the access cover. The atmosphere
in this box is air.
2. Disconnect the core grounding link by unscrewing
the bolts on the core bushing and grounding point.
The core is now disconnected from ground
potential.
3. Perform a megger test between bushing and
grounding point.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

4.22.1 Ratio meter method

Follow the instruction that comes with the instrument you


will be using. The turns ratio between the transformer
windings can be obtained from the transformer
nameplate. Remember to take into account the phase
relationships of the windings that are being measured.
The measured ratio must be within the tolerance as
specified in the standards.
The null meter on the ratio instrument should be steady
while the test is performed. If the needle on the
instrument jumps about or if it is not possible to null the
meter, this may indicate incorrect instrument use,
incorrect or poor measurement lead connection, open or
shorted turns in one or more windings.

4.22.2 Voltage ratio test for turns ratio


Figure 24 Core grounding assembly
Connect the voltage power supply to the HV windings.
Two voltmeters must be used; one connected to the HV
windings and one to the LV windings. They should be
read simultaneously. The ratio of the readings of both
4.22 Voltage ratio test (Required) voltmeters should correspond with the nameplate ratio.
The values must be within the tolerance as specified in
the standards (taking into account the accuracy of the
used voltmeters).
DANGER
Always use a low voltage power supply (maximum
400 V) and connect it to the HV windings so that ALL
OTHER INDUCED VOLTAGES WILL BE STEPPED
4.23 Vector group test (Optional)
DOWN. Pay special attention to the bushings during
this test.
The vector group test is used to ensure that the internal
connections have been made correctly. The vector group
can be checked by using the alternating voltage method.
The voltage ratio test is used to ensure that internal
connections have been made correctly. The test can be Connect one point of the HV windings to one point of the
performed with a transformer turns ratio meter or by LV windings (see the figure below for example).
using the voltage ratio check. The measured values Connect a low voltage power supply to the full HV
should be within the tolerances given in the Test Reports windings. Record readings of the applied voltage and the
in section [8]. superposed voltages (as shown on the figure below for
For transformers with tap changing equipment, on load example). Compare the measured values with the
and/or de-energized, it is recommended that the ratio be calculated values applicable for the transformer vector
measured on all taps. Do not change taps whilst the group. Check if all values are correct.
voltage is being applied to the transformer. Example: vector group Yd1; Three-phase voltage supply
on HV windings.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

2. There may be problems to test in the field if power


frequency interference is nearby. Some test sets
work at a higher frequency to reduce the
interference problem.
3. Considering the potential lack of experience, the
number of intervening factors and the absence of
standards relating to measuring instruments, you
have to be careful with the interpretation of
insulation power factor tests. Therefore, when site
tests are comparably performed, the changes
observed from one test result to the next are more
important than the absolute values of the individual
tests.

Perform the test between:


HV and LV with TV windings grounded (if present).
LV and HV with TV windings grounded (if present).
TV (if present) and HV with LV windings grounded.

Normal values for transformers in service have to be


below 1 % (50 Hz and corrected to 20C); for factory new
transformers even below 0.5 % is recommended. Values
above 2 % call for immediate examination.

Figure 25 Vector group test 4.25 Bushing power factor test (Special
test)

HV bushings require attention during the whole life of a


transformer. The bushing power factor test can be
4.24 Insulation power factor test or TAN performed using a dissipation/power factor bridge or a
(Special) Doble test set. The transformer lead must be
disconnected from the bushing for this test. It is relatively
The insulation power factor test is also called tangens simple to do this for draw lead bushings, but oil must be
delta test (tan ). The test results are used to help drained for bottom connected and Oil to Oil bushings.
determine the dryness of the insulation system in the
main transformer and the bushings (see further).
The measuring method depends on the equipment used.
We refer to the guidelines of the specific equipment.
Remarks:
1. The bushings have to be clean and dry. Do not use
pieces of strings etc. to hold leads apart, as they
may damp and introduce a leakage path sufficient
to greatly distort the true reading. High atmospheric
humidity will also influence the test results.

connect these points together

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

CAUTION
The bushing test terminal grounding cap MUST be
Grounding put into place at the end of the test. Operation of the
spring bushing without grounding the tap electrode will
very likely cause flashover due to the high open
Tap
electrode
circuit voltage produced at the tap.

Insulating
bushing

4.26 Winding resistance test (Special test)

Measuring of resistances is not required. It may however


be a practical test in the field, although a continuity
Figure 26 Bushing testtap impedance check is a better test (see further).
Please note that resistance measurement results may be
Bushing
influenced by:
center
conductor Heating up of the windings during the test.
Contact resistance of all connection points during
C1 the test.

Test cap
Contact resistance of a tap changer. In case of
important deviations, operate the load tap changer
C2
many times with about 10 % current (as described
Ground below under "continuity check"): this will clean the
surface contacts. De-energized tap changers
should be operated only mechanically!

If the measured resistance values change by using


Figure 27 Capacitive bushing representation another measuring current, this indicates that the
measuring system is influenced by one of the above
Evaluation of the test results should be based on the points.
bushing test certificates in the documentation section [7].
The resistance of the windings may be measured by
Some testing notes and suggestions: using a resistance bridge. There is a large number of
The bushings must be clean and dry. High bridges on the market, but the two most known are:
atmospheric humidity will also influence the test The Kelvin bridge, for the measurement of
results. resistances lower than one ohm.
Remove the test cap with the grounding spring and The Wheatstone bridge, for the measurement of
connect the power factor test equipment. resistances of one ohm or higher.
The power factor test should be performed at about
the same temperature as the factory test to allow
correlation of test results. The power factor reading Some modern bridges can cover a wider resistance
depends on the temperature, and the less range than these traditional bridges.
correction that has to be applied, the better. Test The operation of the bridge will be explained in the
from the test cap to the top cap, from the test cap to instructions that come with it. However, there are some
ground and from the top cap to ground. The values points to watch out for when measuring transformer
of C1 and C2 can be derived. Expect to have a resistance.
difference between the factory test values and the
field test results (commonly ~ 10 %). All CTs in the transformer must be shorted so that no
remanence is introduced into the CT-core. This would

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

adversely affect the operation of the transformer Supply voltage = 10 % or less of the impedance
protection system. voltage. (expressed in % of the rated voltage on the
Nameplate or Ratingplate).
DANGER Current supply = 10 % or less of the rated current
Read the following points concerning the energy (refer to the Nameplate or Ratingplate).
stored in the winding during this test.
The power may be supplied to the HV windings or to the
LV windings, depending on the available power supply.
Although a power supply of only 12 volts is used, the The not supplied windings are to be shorted with
amount of energy stored in the inductive reactance of the adequately sized shorting leads. Refer to the transformer
windings is quite large. Switching the circuit on is safe, Nameplate (or Ratingplate).
but interrupting the current at the completion of each test
can be dangerous. Please pay attention to the Once all connections are made, switch the power on and
following: read the supply voltages and currents. Switch off the
supply and repeat the test for each position of the de-
Use a resistance bridge that is specifically suitable energized or load tap changer. Do not operate the load
for measuring highly inductive loads. tap changer while the supply is switched on.
Break the circuit slowly dissipated in an arc, or
shunt the winding through a resistance before In the case of unbalanced currents, voltages or
opening the circuit. discontinuity, something is wrong with the internal
Before disconnecting the leads from the connections or there is a malfunction on the load tap
transformer, ensure that all stored energy has been changer.
dissipated.

Failure to do this may endanger personnel and the


transformer. 4.28 Removal of surface moisture
Temperature conversions can be calculated as follows:
If the dew point test that was performed (at arrival or for
Ts + 235 exposure times > 24 hours) indicates an unacceptable
Rs = Rm( ) Where: dew point temperature, an extended vacuum processing
Tm + 235
can be used to flash off surface moisture. This can be
Rs = the resistance at desired temperature done to see if this improves the situation before
Rm = measured resistance attempting more complicated and costly drying out
Ts = desired reference temperature procedures.
Tm = temperature at which resistance was masured.
For aluminum windings, change the factor 235 to 225.

4.28.1 Removal of surface moisture by


vacuum
4.27 Continuity impedance check (Special
test) The purpose behind the application of vacuum is to lower
the pressure inside the transformer tank to something
The continuity impedance test is meant to check the below the partial pressure of water vapor at the
impedance and all internal connections, including the temperature of the insulation. The more the vacuum is
continuity of the current for the windings and all tap lowered below the partial pressure, the better the
connections. At the same time, the main function of the removal of the surface moisture. This process does not
load tap changer can be checked. The current should be work well for moisture deep within solid insulation, as it
limited to a maximum of 10 % of the rated current. would take an extremely long time for the moisture to
Use an AC power voltage supply. The needed supply work its way out to the surface from deep in the interior.
can be defined as follows:

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

The vacuum to be drawn depends on the temperature of After the required hold time has been achived, break the
the insulation (removal of moisture by vacuum of vacuum with dry air or nitrogen that has a dew point
moisture in freezing weather is unpractical without the lower than desired for the transformer. Repeat the dew
application of heat). The drying process will be point test after a period of at least 24 hours this period
accelerated by providing a lower vacuum than listed. is needed for the moisture content of the gas and
insulation to stabilize. If the dew point is satisfactory,
proceed with the final vacuum for filling. If the dew point
Insulation Partial Required is still not satisfactory, contact Saudi Power
Temperature Pressure of vacuum Transformers Company for further instructions.
C water vapor Microns
Microns
25 105 100 or lower
20 85 80 or lower
15 50 45 or lower
4.28.2 Removal of surface moisture by dry
10 36 32 or lower air recycling
5 26 23 or lower
2 22 20 or lower A simple method for removal of surface moisture can be
useful in some cases: i.e. when vacuum equipment is not
Table 14 Required vacuum for flashing surface directly at hand.
moisture
Recycle transformer with dry air and maintain at all
The hold time, or the duration that the vacuum must be times a positive pressure on the tank (minimum
held, depends on the relative humidity of the ambient air 0.05 bar and maximum 0.2 bar)
that entered the transformer during the exposure period, Inflation point and bleeding point of dry air is
the time of the exposure, the amount of air infiltration and preferably diagonally located.
the temperature at the time the vacuum is applied. Total quantity of dry air required is about three
Unfortunately, the relative humidity and the amount of times the tank volume of transformer.
infiltration is a very difficult thing to monitor. Extending The total tank volume can be taken from oil content
the vacuum hold time for longer than the table below as shown on the nameplate.
suggests is recommendable. After passingthrough a volume of dry air, equal to
3 times the tank volume, the bleeding point has to
be closed and a positive pressure as mentioned
Relative Hold time Hours above, has to be maintained for at least 3 days.
humidity Expo- Insula- Insula- Insula-
of ambient sure tion tion tion
air time temp temp temp Re-measure dew point as described above.
(hours) 21C or 10C to under
higher 21C 10C
10 6 9 12
20 12 18 24
10 to 25% 30 18 27 36
40 24 36 48
50 30 45 60
10 15 23 30
20 25 38 50
25 to 50%
30 40 60 80
40 55 83 110
10 20 30 40
50 to 70%
20 40 60 80
Table 15 Vacuum hold times for flashing surface
moisture

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

5 Commissioning

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

5.1 Repeating pre-operational tests

The transformer should now be in operational condition


with all related equipment (circuit breakers, remote 5.1.3 Energization follows later than 6
control,) installed and tested. months after installation and testing
Pre-operational tests and checks on the transformer
have been performed to section [3] Repeating these In this case all tests and checks as well as the air venting
tests and checks is not necessary if energization follows procedure should be repeated before energization.
within a few days or maximum within a few weeks.
However, depending on the works that are performed
after assembling and testing the transformer and
depending on the time to energization, it may be required 5.2 Operational system tests
to repeat some tests and checks just before
energization. Once the transformer has been (re-)checked and (re-
)tested, some operational tests on the complete system
transformer, network and remote control facilities are
required.
5.1.1 Energization follows within 4 weeks Below instructions are meant as a general guideline. For
after installation and testing more information, refer to the General Arrangement
drawing, the Nameplate, Schematic drawings and
documentation included in this IOM manual. Also use the
It is important to know if in this short period no other
information about the network configuration, remote
activities have been performed on the transformer that
control and protection system.
could possibly influence the fitness for use.
Write down the test results on a copy of the Site
In case no such activities took place, proceed with
commissioning report section [9]
the commissioning procedure.
In case some activities took place: repeat the
necessary tests and checks according to section [3]

If applicable, check also if all connections of the 5.2.1 Alarm circuits and contacts
ELASTIMOLD or PFISTERER type have been sealed
voltage proof. Otherwise the transformer may not be Alarms are mentioned as a warning for an abnormal
energized. situation on the transformer or its accessories that needs
observation, action and follow up. There is no need to
place the transformer out of service.
The most commonly used alarms are:
5.1.2 Energization follows 4 weeks to 6 Slow gas production (Buchholz or gas relay).
months after installation and testing Temperature alarms (first stage oil and/or winding
temperature).
Repeat: Oil level alarms (low and/or high level).
Internal pressure alarms.
Air venting procedure according to section [3]
Alarms on the cooling circuits (supply failures, oil
All pre-operational tests and checks of accessories flow failures, etc.).
according to section [3]
LTC alarms (supply failures, etc.).

If applicable, check also if all connections of the


Please consult also the Nameplate and Schematic
ELASTIMOLD or PFISTERER type have been sealed
drawings in the drawing section.
voltage proof. Otherwise the transformer may not be
energized.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

If an alarm is generated on the transformer, it should be


checked if this alarm switches on the related alarms on
the entire system (such as signal lamps, flag relays, CAUTION
buzzers, remote indicators, etc.). Temperature settings values on Saudi Power
Transformers Company drawings

5.2.2 Trip circuits and contacts Carefully check the settings of:
The thermostat(s)
Trip contacts on the transformer or on accessories Oil thermometer(s)
immediately place the transformer out of service in any Winding Temperature Indicators (WTIs) for the
abnormal situation that can damage the equipment or its different windings
environment.
The most commonly used trip contacts are:
Quick gas production (Buchholz or gas relay). 5.2.5 Verification of overpressure relief
Quick internal pressure rises.
devices
Network protection relays (fed by current and/or
voltage transformers on the transformer).
The same remarks apply as for the temperature settings.
(O)LTC failure. etc.

If a trip is generated on the transformer, it should be


checked if this trip immediately switches off the
transformer from the network. 5.2.6 Voltage relation check

Before switching on, a final check of the voltage relation


between all incoming and outgoing voltages should be
performed.
5.2.3 Remote control

Depending on the actual network control system, it


should be checked that all functions work satisfactory
both on the transformer (in the control cabinets) and in 5.3 Energization
the remote control mode. The Site commissioning
report is indicating both: Once the transformer is fully assembled, checked and
tested as described above, and after final checks and
M.K.: Marshalling Kiosk or Transformer Control testing of the protection equipment, the transformer may
Cabinet be energized. If the ambient temperature is not lower
Client: All remote control equipment from the client than -20C.

DANGER
5.2.4 Temperature settings If the ambient temperature is very low or can be
expected (below -20C), special precautions should
Make sure all temperature settings are correct and equal be taken before energanization. Contact Saudi Power
to or lower than the values on Saudi Power Transformers
Transformers Company for further instructions.
Company drawings (Nameplate and/or Schematic
drawings). Never use higher settings than the ones
indicated on these drawings, as this can cause too slow
reaction (or no reaction at all) of the protective devices. It is useful to start here with a log-book, recording all
Needless to say that serious damage may occur. important readings and observations for each

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

transformer, will be helpfull for the maintenance and for 5.3.2 First energizing at no load
identifying problems during the life time of the conditions.
transformer. It is highly recommended to take an oil
sample for DGA prior to energisation. This analysis
Set the (O)LTC/DTC for the right voltage ratio. Lock the
forms a benchmark for all future DGAs.
DTC drive against mal-operation while the transformer is
under voltage.
To reduce the inrush-current during the first energizing, it
is advisable to set the (O)LTC two or three steps out of
5.3.1 Minimum oil stabilising period after the voltage ratio, so that more turns are in service (refer
final oil filling to the Nameplate). This can only be done if the
transformer is of a variable flux design.
The transformer oil should be stabilised after final oil
1. Switch on the voltage:
filling. This condition will be normally fulfilled if the
2. Check the secondary voltage (and eventually the
transformer has been filled some days or weeks before
tertiary voltage).
energisation.
3. Check the no load current.

NOTE
5.3.1.1 Transformer with forced oil circulation During the first energizing, a noise-peak can be
using pumps detected. This peak will be dissapear after a few
minutes upto an hour.
Have the pumps run for at least 2 hours and wait for :
minimum 8 hours if high voltage 245 kV
A general observation of and around the equipment is
minimum 24 hours if high voltage > 245 kV
suggested and should include a general awareness of
what is happening to all the equipment located in the
electrical substation. Unusual noises and disturbances
CAUTION should be investigated. such as :
The pumps may not be switched on if oil
temperature is below 10 C. In this case follow the Fans, pumps, etc.. operating when they should not
required waiting times for transformers without Circuit breakers or other equipment operating at
pumps, energise at no load conditions and wait until odd moments.
oil temperature raised above -10C. Proceed with LTC taps changes too frequent or no changes at all.
pumps running. Oil leaks. Small quantities of oil can spread over
large areas and can collect a lot of dust very
quickly.

5.3.1.2 Transformers without forced oil


circulation using pumps.
5.3.3 Loading the transformer
Wait for :
minimum 16 hours if high voltage 245 kV DANGER
minimum 48 hours if high voltage > 245 kV Do not energize the transformer at operation load
within 24 hours after putting at no load condition.

Set the (O)LTC in the right position and check the


outgoing voltage. (If parallel-operation with other
transformers is provided, the voltage ratio should be the
same for all transformers). If an AVR (automatic voltage

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

regulator) is provided, the tap changer will automaticly


run to the right position.
1. Switch on the load
2. Check and record the following:
Voltages and load currents
Ambient temperature, oil and winding
termperatures and oil level(s).

Condition of accessories (as dehydrating breathers, fans,


pumps etc...)

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6 Maintenance

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6.1 Transformer maintenance c) Unusual service conditions: It happens


sometimes that units have to be relocated to
6.1.1 Safety during maintenance another location. Due to this new environment, it
may happen that the originally agreed upon
performances of the unit are not 100 % as
Remember that hazardous voltage is present on an
designed for. Therefore, the intention of having a
energized transformer, so proper safety precautions
transformer operated under unusual operating
must always be observed when working on this
duty, frequency of operation, difficulty of
equipment. Consult the safety instruction in section [0]
maintenance, parallel operation, reverse power
before starting any maintenance activities.
operation, unbalanced voltage conditions, or
special insulation requirements must be brought
to the attention of your nearest Saudi Power
DANGER Transformers Company Representative.
Never perform maintenance or attempt to climb on
any part of a transformer unless all proper safety
precautions have been taken, including de-
energizing and proper terminal grounding. 6.1.3 External cleaning

Use an oil solvent to thoroughly remove all oil that


appears on the outside of the tank or on the gaskets.
This oil, later showing up on the painted surface, often
6.1.2 General maintenance guidelines gives the false impression of a leak.

Transformers are very reliable electrical equipment if well The bushing porcelains must be kept free from dust and
maintained and working under normal operation dirt and have to be inspected at least once a year.
conditions. Nevertheless, failures due to improper Abnormal conditions such as sandstorms, salt deposits,
maintenance or abnormal operation conditions may dust, or chemical fumes require regular cleaning to avoid
cause the transformer to be out of service for a long accumulations to the external surface. Accepted
time. This will especially be the case when custom made methods of hot line washing or cleaning with solvents
parts have to be ordered and installed. As power supply may be used.
may often be critical, it is absolutely worth spending the Keep the heat radiating surfaces of the transformer
necessary time on a good maintenance program. clean. External surfaces of forced oil heat exchangers
Remarks: should be periodically cleaned as a particular dusty
location may dictate. Transformers near the seacoast or
1. Transformer logbook: It is recommended to record in corrosive atmosphere areas should be painted
readings and observations for every transformer in regularly to prevent corroding or rusting of metal parts.
a logbook. This should not only be done during the
warranty period but during the complete lifetime of If it becomes necessary to remove a radiator or air-
the transformer. cooled oil cooler, first close the valves, top and bottom,
2. Special service conditions: Special attention must and bolt them in the closed position. Next, drain the oil
be paid when the transformer operates under from the radiator by removing the drain plug from the
abnormal conditions. bottom header and the vent plug from the top. After
a) Bushings exposed to dust or chemically laden draining the oil, remove the radiator. If the radiator/cooler
air must be kept clean to prevent flashovers from is removed for any length of time, the transformer valves
occurring due to the formation of conducting should be sealed with gaskets and covered with suitable
deposits on the porcelain. plates. This also applies to the radiator-cooler openings.
b) Transformers installed near a seacoast must be All breathers and small openings in pressure relief valves
kept well painted to avoid corrosion by salt air. (and pressure vacuum bleeders on sealed tank system
and inert gas system units) must be kept clean and in
operating condition.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

All ground buses and wiring leads to ground must be Venting is also required when components are replaced
kept in good condition. Proper relay operation depends which are situated in places where oil is involved.
on low ground resistance. Ground resistance must be
measured annually

6.2.4 External circuits and control


equipment
6.2 Periodic Inspection of transformers
in service The following must be inspected 30 days after
installation and once a year after that.
6.2.1 Oil levels and silica gel Control circuit voltage.
Excess heating of parts - evidence by discoloration
The oil levels in the tank and load tap changer of metal parts, charred insulation, or odor.
mechanism compartment should be checked at two-
Freedom of moving parts (binding or sticking is not
week intervals during the first month of operation and
allowed).
annually after that.
Excessive noise in relay coils.
Check the condition of the silica gel in the air breathers Excessive arcing in opening circuits.
weekly. Replace if necessary. Proper functioning of timing devices, sequencing of
devices, relief device alarm contacts, thermometer
contacts, etc.
Check the heaters in the control cabinets.
Also check temperature settings. These settings
6.2.2 Oil quality can be lower than the ones indicated on the
schematic diagrams but never higher.
Regular testing of the oil quality is required. Dielectrical
Evidence of water or liquids in control cabinets and
strength and water content are standard oil tests to be
in air-filled cable boxes.
performed on an annual basis. DGA is highly
recommended as well.

6.2.5 (On) Load tap changer (O)LTC


6.2.3 Venting We refer to the specific documentation of the (O)LTC for
maintenance instructions. Also check the oil quality and
At moments when the transformer is not energized, it is oil level on a regular basis.
advised to use this opportunity to vent the air or gas
bubbles from the different places where air vents are
installed. Like on top of radiators, manholes, pipes,
conservators with atmoseal bag, etc., wherever
applicable. 6.2.6 De-energized tap changer DTC
The basic conditions that must be fulfilled before venting Beside the specific maintenance instructions in the
is allowed are the following: documentation, the DTC has to be switched over its total
the transformer is de-energized and suitable range for at least ten times and this has to be done
grounding has been done minimum twice a year.
the internal pressure is higher than the ambient
pressure
venting is only allowed on places filled with oil. This
is not always the case when related to nitrogen
cushioned sealed tank systems.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

6.2.7 Cooling system condensation) and check also that the fan blades can
rotate without any obstruction of foreign objects (like
Regarding naturally cooled transformers and birds nests etc.).
transformers equipped with air-cooled oil coolers, there
is, in general, no need for taking special steps to keep
the inner side (oil circuit) of the cooling surfaces clean,
as long as the oil is in good condition. If, however,
6.2.9 Temperature
formation of sludge in the oil has set in, the sludge may
deposit in horizontal surfaces in radiators and coolers. In
The life of a transformer is highly dependent on the
such a case, the radiators and the coolers should be
temperature prevailing in the windings and the core of
rinsed in connection with the changing of oil and
the transformer under operation. It is therefore important
overhauling of the transformer. If the sludge does not
loosen by flushing with oil, use benzine, trichlorethylene, that the temperature is continually kept under
etc., and afterwards flush with oil. observation (e.g. via a remote sensing system towards a
dispatch center).
The other side that is exposed to the elements by dust,
Even with a low temperature of the cooling medium
sand, etc., has to be cleaned as mentioned before.
(ambient air), the transformer can be overloaded. Hence
the permissible overload must not be judged only from
the temperature rise of the oil above the cooling medium,
because the temperature drop winding-oil increases with
6.2.8 Fans the 1.6th power of the increase of load. The ANSI/IEC
Loading Guide may be used on condition that the
6.2.8.1 Bearings assumed characteristics at rated load as mentioned in
the applicable standard, will be replaced by actual
Fan motors are executed with sealed ball bearings characteristics after testing. This means that the actual
lubricated with heavy-duty grease that do not require any ratio for no load and load losses including the actual top
maintenance as experienced by our fan suppliers and oil and average winding rise has to be used for good
also by Saudi Power Transformers Companys after judgment on allowable overload situations.
service engineers during many decades. The bearings In case of doubt, Saudi Power Transformers Company
are from the so-called maintenance free type; it is has to be consulted.
advisable to know the general maintenance instructions
on bearings as mentioned by bearing, motor and fan Normally, it is not possible to place a temperature
manufacturers. measuring device directly on the windings of a
transformer, except in a few special cases where fiber
optics are mounted in the windings to measure direct
temperatures. Saudi Power Transformers Company uses
a method by means of which an artificially obtained
6.2.8.2 Periodical fan operation temperature is measured, which follows the temperature
in one or more of the windings of the transformers.
During extended periods of reduced transformer capacity
not requiring fan operation, it is required that the fans be This device is installed if the design specifications called
activated on a periodical base (bi weekly for 1 hour), to for a Winding Temperature Indicator or WTI. In case a
assure satisfactory operation when required. This is valid WTI is not installed, the top oil temperature indicator
for all electrical motors of fans, pumps etc. related to the ambient temperature will give a reasonable
indication about the load conditions.
If, without an increase in load or change in environmental
conditions, there is a tendency for the temperature of a
6.2.8.3 Other transformer to rise, the reason may be that in some way
the cooling is reduced (e.g.: fans out of service).
Make sure that the drain holes (closed with a plastic plug Another reason for abnormal temperature may be that
upon delivery) are open (to allow draining of the oil has started to form sludge deposits in the

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

radiators, on the windings and/or on the core of the


transformer. The cooling of the active part is then
6.2.11.2 Accessories
reduced, and its temperature will increase. However, the
latter situation is considered to be a very abnormal one.
Test all accessories once a year. Examine all
If abnormal temperature rises have been found, the instruments, electrical cables and conductors, signaling
thermometer should first be checked for proper and operating devices to the control room or control
functioning. board. Megger testing is also recommended once a year.
The overload capacity is sometimes limited by the
accessories of the transformer (e.g. bushings, tap
changers, etc.) After every continuous overload of 20 %
or more, an investigation is recommended. 6.3 Periodic inspection of transformers
in storage

1. Keep the bushings and the external surfaces clean.


6.2.10 Inspection of tank, cover, gaskets 2. Check the gas pressure if a gas pressure
and valves installation is still connected.
3. Keep the unconnected valves closed.
4. Check the silica gel air dryer at least once a month;
Tank, cover, gaskets and valves require annual
replace the silica gel if necessary. Check also the
inspection for leakage, etc. All required replacements or
level of the oil lock. The color change must start at
adjustments should be accomplished as soon as
the oil lock side of the air breather, otherwise air is
possible.
coming in through a leak.
Groundings: Check the transformer grounding 5. Check the oil level of the transformer once a month
connections and all groundings of accessories. (in case of a dropping oil level, inspect the tank for
possible leaks).
Painting: Check the transformer painting and
6. Check whether the panel heater in the control
repaint (parts) if necessary.
cabinet is functioning, especially before and during
Gaskets: We refer to the installation chapter, wintertime.
section [3] for advice on whether to re-use gaskets or 7. Check the external painted surfaces and the cable
not. box for paint damage or corrosion once a year.
Valves: In case leakage is detected on the driving shaft,
re-tighten the compression gland. Use only graphite-free In case of any irregularity, repair it as soon as possible or
sealing material when changing packings. contact the manufacturer Saudi Power Transformers
Company.

6.2.11 Periodic electrical testing CAUTION


Store the transformer in a dry, cool and properly
6.2.11.1 Power factor test ventilated area.

It is recommended to perform a power factor test


whenever the unit has been de-energized for longer
periods (> 1 month) or when the unit is opened for any
reason. In addition, it is recommended to perform the 6.4 Maintenance inspection chart
test on an annual basis.
The maintenance inspection chart (see table below) lists
We refer to section [3] for more information about this suggested rules for performing inspections, recordings
test and the required values. and maintenance.
Remarks:

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Not all items necessarily apply to the specific


transformer, because some accessories or features may
not be available.

6.4.1 Frequency indications

D = daily (especially during the first weeks of


energization)
W = weekly
M = monthly
S = semi-annually (6 months)
A = annually
WR = when required
F = according to the (O)LTC documentation
section [7].

6.4.2 Maintenance activity to perform

1. Visual inspection and reading


2. Cleaning and examination
3. Taking oil sample, testing for dielectrical strength,
water content and DGA.
4. Filtering
5. Lubrication
6. Operating test
7. Testing electrical circuits
8. Megger test electrical circuits
9. Inspection / cleaning of contacts
10 Changing contacts

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Maintenance activity to perform

COMPONENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Painting of tank, cover and metal


A
parts: repaint if necessary
Condition of gaskets, absence of oil
leaks: retighten or replace gaskets if A
necessary
Conservator A
Radiators: similar temperature on
bottom side of all radiators (indication A
for formation of sludge)
Fans attached on radiators A S A A A
Fans: plugs on drain holes removed? A
Coolers with fans incorporated A S A A A
Coolers water-cooled, (oil side) WR
S-
Coolers water-cooled, (water side)
WR
Valves WR
Oil pumps with motor WR A A A
4
Oil of transformer main tank A WR
Bushings A
Magnetic oil level indicators D WR A A A
Buchholz relay W WR A A A
Temperature indicator(s) D WR A A A
Thermostats WR A A A
Flow indicators for oil and water D WR A A A
Pressure gauges for oil and water D WR A A A
Pressure relief device M A A A A
Dehydrating breather for main tank W WR
Nitrogen cushion on sealed tank 5
D
system
Nitrogen equipment for units with inert
gas pressure system (positive D WR A A A
pressure nitrogen system)
Manual driving mechanism for de-
A A A A A
energized tap changer (DTC)
Load tap changer: F
6
- Main contacts of LTC F S
7
- Oil of LTC compartment A WR
- Oil level indicator of LTC D WR A A A
- Thermostat WR A A A

Remarks indicated in the table


4
If the transformer is operating in extremely high ambient temperatures and/or high loads or overloads, sampling and analysis should be performed
on a more frequent basis.
5
During cold ambient temperatures the nitrogen pressures will drop. The first weeks after putting the nitrogen blanket on the top of the oil are critical
as well, since the nitrogen will dissolve in oil and the nitrogen pressure tends to drop below the minus 5 PSI setting of the pressure/vacuum bleeder
on the main tank. It is required to adjust the nitrogen pressure up to + 5 PSI.
6
The (O)LTC and DTC have to be switched over the total range for at least 10 (ten) times.
7
First oil check has to be performed after about 20.000 tap changes, regardless of which (O)LTC-type is used in the transformer. More detailed
information on (O)LTC maintenance can be found in the available documentation.

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

Maintenance activity to perform

COMPONENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

- Pressure relief device M A A A A


- Motor drive unit A S A A A
- Automatic system for operation A A A
- Dehydrating breather for LTC W
Lightning arresters A A
Protective relays A A A A
All groundings (including CT
A A
groundings)
Re-tightening of all bolts + nuts at
S
electrical connections
3
De-energized tap changer (DTC) ( )S
Table 16 Maintenance inspection chart

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

6.5 Troubleshooting

6.5.1 Electrical malfunction

Electrical malfunction. Observations made


The power supply tripped while switching on the transformer.
Abnormal high noise after several hours of service.
Overheating at no load
Overheating at normal load
Unequal or unstable voltages on phases at equal load on all phases.
Trip by internal transformer fault (Buchholz, Pressure relay, Load tap changer,)
Trip by external protection relays during normal service (Time current, ground fault, etc.)
Possible cause of malfunction Rectification measures
X Supply voltage is too high, leading to Do not exceed 105% of the ref. voltage;
excessive inrush current / core loss. reset the tap changer in the right position.
X X Wrong protection relay setting. (inrush Check and reset protection relays.
current, etc.)
X X Circulation current between parallel Check all parallel operation conditions; set
transformers. tap changers for the same voltage ratio.
X Loose parts on the core/windings; Switch off; consult the manufacturer.
possibly caused by transport damage.
X Cooling system is insufficient. Check that valves of all coolers are in the
right working position. Check air, oil and
water supply. Check fan / oil pump
operation.
Note:
At OFAF cooling, oil pumps always have to
be in operation (even at no load)
X X Overloading. Reduce load.
Fault on the thermometer. Check the thermometer.
Ambient temperature is too high. Check for faults in the secondary network.
X X Heavy peek loads, start currents etc. Check for change of the load.
Bad contacts on internal or external Consult the manufacturer for further actions.
connections. Internal transformer or tap
changer fault.
X Malfunction of the measuring instrument. Check the measuring instrument.
Internal transformer fault. Switch off; consult the manufacturer.
X Fault or short-circuit in the secondary Check the secondary network.
network. Repeat all checks and tests as if it were the
Internal transformer fault. first energization. Consult the manufacturer.
Table 17 Electrical malfunction troubleshooting chart

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

6.5.2 Mechanical malfunction or malfunction of accessories

Observations made
Oil level is not correct.
Alarm on Buchholz, gas relay.
Alarm on temperature devices.
Fans or oil pumps do not work.
Insulation resistance is too low.
Power factor is too low.
Visual oil leaks.
Possible cause of malfunction Rectification measures
X Level indicator is defective. Repair or replace level indicator.
Low oil level due to oil leak(s). Locate oil leak(s); repair leak(s).
Replace leaking device or gasket(s).
X Insufficient air venting during erection. Gas analysis is recommended.
Fault gas production. Consult manufacturer for further actions.
X The ambient temperature is too high. Reduce load.
Overloading.
Malfunction of the temperature devices. Check / replace temperature device.
Malfunction of the cooling system.
X Defect on temperature detecting system. Check detecting system.
Devices are defective. Replace defective devices.
X Contamination on bushings, etc. Clean-up external bushings, terminals,
Penetration of humidity in the insulation Consult the manufacturer.
system.
X Degradation of the insulation system. Clean-up external bushings, terminals,
Consult the manufacturer.
X Defective gaskets. Tighten bolts.
Replace gaskets.
Table 18 Mechanical malfunction troubleshooting chart

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

to be in line with the applicable standards. The


instructions below are a general guideline in oil
sampling but do not replace the applicable
6.6 Oil quality standards (see explanation given for the individual
tests).
One of the most important parameters in transformer
maintenance is the oil quality. Testing the oil quality
on a regular basis gives good indications on the oil CAUTION
quality itself and on the working conditions of the Sampling when the transformer tank is under
transformer. Before taking any steps towards oil negative pressure may cause an air bubble to be
replacement, be sure that the cause of the problem drawn into the tank. This may result in
has been found and eliminated. catastrophic dielectric failure (and explosion).
Remarks:
Changing the oil in a transformer has to be in line
Since the test results of a sample may be very odd,
with the filling procedures described earlier in this
we recommend taking a second sample at the same
IOM Manual. The change should be as complete as
time. In case of doubt the second sample can be
possible, because usually a mixture of old and new
used for confirmation.
oil will soon acquire the properties of the poorer
quality.
Important oil characteristics to test:
Color and appearance 6.7.1 Taking samples for general oil
Dielectrical strength ( ) testing purposes
Water content (*)
Neutralization value The instructions below must be followed for
Sediment and/or precipitable sludge dielectric strength, water content, power factor and
Dielectric dissipation factor interfacial tension. Testing has to be in line with
Resistivity ASTM D 923 or IEC 60475.
DGA (*)
Use a clean dry screw cap bottle with a
Presence of inhibitor
capacity of one liter for collecting samples.
Presence of particles (*) Clear glass bottles are considered best, as the
visual characteristics and the condition of the
Testing and evaluating the above parameters has to oil can be ascertained quickly. Store and ship
be in accordance with IEC 60422 or corresponding the oil sample in a dark box, as exposure to
ASTM standards. bright light for prolonged periods may affect
certain properties.
Samples are to be taken from the sampling
valve of the transformer tank (or from the outlet
of the treatment equipment) or from the bottom
6.7 Oil sampling of the drum. If the transformer has just been
filled, then it should be allowed to settle for up
Accurate sampling methods are extremely important to three days for a large transformer. Up to 8
for the reliability of the test results. Oil sampling has hours waiting time is required for a drum.
Samples taken too soon may produce incorrect
test results (e.g. dielectric strength will test
Saudi Power Transformers Company gives more
severe values than IEC 60422 or corresponding low). If the transformer is or has been
ASTM standards and/or additional information. operating, samples can be taken at any time.
Further information about this can be found later in Drain off sufficient liquid to be sure that a true
this IOM manual. specimen of the main tank oil is obtained, and
not one that has been stagnant in the pipework

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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

or in the valve. Therefore, drain off three or four clean and filled with oil, completely free of gas
liters of oil into a clean bucket before taking the bubbles. Close the 3-way valve to the syringe.
oil sample. Rinse the clean container several Close the sampling valve and remove the
times with oil prior to taking the actual sample. syringe. Place the syringe in the syringe box.
The oil can contain a large amount of dissolved
water, invisible to the eyes but easily detected
Take the spare sample following the same
by test. If the sample bottle contains liquid
procedure.
water, contact Saudi Power Transformers
Company immediately. It is preferred that the
temperature of the oil be equal or warmer than
the ambient air to prevent contamination by
condensation. 6.8 Dielectric strength
A period of 12 hours should be observed
between taking the sample and performing Oil sampling has to be in line with ASTM D 923 or
tests, to allow the oil to stabilize and become IEC 60475. The test should be performed in a well-
homogeneous. equipped laboratory according to the applicable
standards.
Required values for transformers in service:
6.7.2 Taking samples for DGA tests > 60 kV/2.5 mm (as tested per IEC 60156)
> 30 kV/2.54 mm (as tested per ASTM D 877)
For DGA tests it is always recommended to take a
spare sample. This spare sample can be used if
something happens to the first sample, or if the If values are lower, the oil should be filtered or
analysis is very odd. Testing has to be in line with streamlined. Test the oil annually or even more
ASTM D 3613 or IEC 60567. frequently if the operation condition of the
transformer questions the continuity of the oil quality
Use dry clean syringes, equipped with a 3-way in general.
syringe valve. Record the transformer serial
number, the ambient temperature, the oil Low insulating oil strength may also be an indication
temperature and the date of sampling. that the transformer insulation contains excess
moisture. Further evaluation should be made such
The sample is to be taken from the oil sampling
as power factor tests and taking oil samples to
valve. The location of this valve is indicated on
determine moisture content in oil.
the General Arrangement drawing.
If oil circulating pumps are installed on the Remarks:
transformer, they should be operated for a
If some work has been carried out on a transformer
minimum period of one hour before taking any
and the oil has, during that time, been exposed to
oil samples.
the humidity of the air, the breakdown value of the
Allow 3 to 4 liters of oil to run into a clean
oil should be checked.
bucket to ensure a true sampling of the tank oil.
Attach the 3-way syringe valve and the
sampling syringe to the sampling valve (using
an adaptor).
Open the sampling valve very slowly and allow 6.9 Moisture content
the oil to flow through the 3-way valve into the
clean bucket without injecting air bubbles into Transformer oil is hygroscopic and therefore it
the stream. Avoid bubbles in the sample by absorbs moisture from the air. The absorption of
using the 3-way syringe. moisture is minimized by the oil preservation
Flush the syringe by using the 3-way valve. Let system. The oil conservator system with a silica gel
the oil in the syringe and push the oil to the breather also minimizes the entry of moisture as
bucket, using the syringe plunger. Repeat this long as the silica gel is properly renewed or
procedure several times until the syringe is regenerated as soon as its ability to absorb moisture

103
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

begins to diminish. Check also whether the oil lock If severe formation of particles has set in, the oil
in the silica gel breather is properly filled with oil changes its color and gets darker. The appearance
(check maximum and minimum oil level indications of the oil is usually muddy. By filtering, it is possible
in lock). to remove the sludge but, having once started, the
formation of sludge will increase with time. Such oil
Moisture content in ppm is related to the operation
should be completely changed as soon as the
conditions of the transformer. Moisture in oil can
service conditions permit it.
lead to reduction of the dielectric strength in oil and
windings. The table below gives the maximum For the reasons mentioned above, Saudi Power
allowable ppm of water in oil. Transformers Compnay has produced its own
criteria for particles in new transformer oil. We take
these criteria into account before testing a
Maximum water transformer. The same values can be used for
Temperature ( C) transformers in service.
content (ppm)
- 20 5
- 10 9 Maximum amount of
0 16 Particle size particles in 10 ml
10 20 sample (0.338 fl.oz)
Table 19 Water in oil all Particles 1.5 m
2500
of which :
Particles 5 m 1500
Particles 20 m 30
Example: Particles 30 m 10
In case 50 ppm moisture is detected in oil that is Table 20 Particles in oil
sampled at 10 C oil temperature, free water has
been created already and this water might have
Since each measurement will produce different
been absorbed inside the windings and other critical
results, it is a practical matter to provide 5 or 6
parts of the transformer. This is a dangerous
measurements. The average of measurements is
situation for the transformer.
then the base for the determination whether the
particles are within the required limits.
Remarks:

6.10 Particles in oil Another process of ageing, associated with the


formation of sludge, is the increase of the content of
The breakdown strength of oil decreases when the free acids in the oil. If this content does not exceed
moisture content increases at the same sample 0.5 mg KOH per g (500 ppm) and apart from this the
temperature. A further reduction in the breakdown oil shows good properties, then it is fit for use. If this
strength of oil occurs when iron, copper, aluminum is not the case, the oil should be changed. New
or cellulose particles are situated in the oil and tests transformer oil as supplied by Saudi Power
in this field show that the dielectric strength of the oil Transformers Company Transformers contains an
is very poor in this case. acidity (free acids in the oil) lower than 0.1 mg
KOH/gr.
Larger and conducting particles decrease the
breakdown voltage most, whereas fine particles can Should the flash point, when tested according to ISO
be agglomerated or be dispersed, so that particle 2719 or ASTM D92, be less than 130 degrees and
chains can be developed. It is also known that should the oil also smell burnt, then a decomposition
particles may cause partial discharges. (cracking) of the oil may have occurred. In that case
a DGA should be performed and/or the transformer
should be inspected (lifted or the manholes opened)
to make sure that there is no local overheating of
The indicated temperature is the lowest
temperature the oil can reach, non-service core or windings.
conditions considered as well.

104
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

$
5000 ppm for transformers with sealed conservations system
(atmoseal), 10000 ppm for transformers with open breather
conservation system

6.11 Dissolved Gas Analysis on ** If a communicating OLTC-conservator is in use, this value will
be 270ppm
transformer oils from the main if a communicating OLTC-conservator is in use, this value will
tank of a transformer be 1 ml/day

Sampling has to be done in accordance with IEC


60567 or ASTM 3613 Remarks:

Analysis has to be performed in accordance with IMPORTANT: In many cases, acetylene


IEC 60567 (C 2 H 2 ) is a sign of severe electrical
problems. Therefore, the presence of
acetylene always should be considered as
serious and treated as such.
6.12 Frequency of analysis
If C 2 H 2 /H 2 -ratio is higher than 2, a
DGA should be performed as frequently as possible, contamination from the OLTC-compartment is
but at least once a year as long as the values probable. If this is the case, DGA of the main
remain below the limits of Table 21. See also 6.13.1 tank can be unreliable.
for actions in case of values exceeding the limits of
table 1.
If CO 2 /CO-ratio is lower than 3, paper
deterioration is possible. This has to be
checked with a FAL-analysis (specific analysis
6.13 Evaluation for paper deterioration). For evaluation: contact
Saudi Power Transformers Company.
Compare the results with the values in table 1.
Rates of Rates of
Values for rates of production tend to be higher
Symbol Concentrations in relatively new transformers and can exceed
Name gas production* production
Gas [ppm]
[ml/day] [ppml/day] the values in table 1 for new transformers (<1
Hydrogen H2 150 5 year).
Methane CH 4 130 0.33
Carbondioxide CO 2 5000/10000$ 30 When calculating rates of production, intervals
Carbonmonoxide CO 1000 3 should be longer than 2 weeks to provide an
Ethane C2H6 90 0.25 acceptable accuracy of results.
Ethylene C2H4 50 2
Acetylene C2H2 5 ** 0.1 Rates of new samples should be calculated
relative to the latest historical sample, not to the
Table 21 Limits for normal values for Saudi sample that needed to be confirmed when the
Power Transformers Company period between the two successive samples is
too short for reliable evaluation of rates,
* Rates of production [ml/day] = (c x V) / (t x 1000)
c = difference in concentration over the observed period
[ppm] ppm = l/l
V = volume of the transformer [I]
t = expired period between measurements [days]

To have a reliable rate, intervals should be longer than 2 weeks

rates of production [ppm/day] = c/t


c = difference in concentration over the observed period
[ppm]
t = expired period between measurements [ period]

105
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

6.13.1 Actions

6.13.1.1 First DGA-sample of a transformer

NO
First DGA-sample of Evaluate with respect to
a transformer historical data

YES
NO
NORMAL-status
Level gas > table
Concentration gas1?
> Resample 1 year
table 1?

YES

Level C2H2 > table


Concentration C2H21?
> NO ALERT-status
Alert condition
table 1? Check ASAP
Resample rate
immediately

YES

ALARM-status
Contact Saudi Power
Transformers Company
Check rate immediately

106
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

6.13.1.2 Historical DGA-data are available


NO Evaluate as first DGA-
Historical DGA data available ? sample of a transformer

YES

NO
Concentration gas > table 1? NORMAL-status
Resample 1 year
YES

Concentration C2H2 > NO


table 1?

YES
NO ALERT-status
Rate C2H2 > table 1? Contact SPTC ASAP
Resample 3 months
YES
ALARM-status
Contact SPTC immediately NO
Resample immediately

NO
ALARM-status Rate new sample > table 1?
Consider to shut down
Contact SPTC YES
Immediately
Shut down!
Resample within 2-4
Inform SPTC
weeks
immediately

NO
ALERT-status
Rate gas > table 1?
Resample 6 months
YES

Take new sample ASAP

NO NORMAL Condition
Concentration gas > table 1?
Resample 1 year

YES
NO ALERT-status
Rate gas > table 1?
Resample 6 months

YES

ALERT-status
Contact SPTC ASAP
for evaluation and
further actions

107
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

6.14 Replacement of defective parts

Always follow the applicable safety instructions when


working on a transformer. Follow the installation
instructions (section [3]), use the available drawings
(section [6]) and/or specific documentation (section [7])
for the part or accessory to replace or repair.
In case of any difficulty contact your Saudi Power
Transformers Company contact person or CG Power
Solution Saudi Arabia for advice or assistance.

6.14.1 Ordering replacement or spare


parts

Replacement or spare parts should be ordered through


the responsible Saudi Power Transformers Company
division:
Warranty related aspects: contact your Saudi Power
Transformers Company contact person.
Non warranty related aspects: contact CG Power
Solutions Saudi Arabia CGPSSA. Their coordinates
are available in section [0].

Use the Parts ordering form in section [9], provide all


the relevant information (transformer serial number, part
description and numbers on General Arrangement
Drawing, ) and send it to either your contact person or
CGPSSA.

108
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

7 Forms, checklists

109
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

110
Receiving inspection report

Date of report:
Transformer Serial No:
1 Customer and Equipment information

A Customer information
Customer Name:
Contractor Name:
User name:
Purchase Order No:
Additional information:

B Equipment information
Rating: MVA KV
Arrival location:
Date of arrival:
Transport by: VESSEL TRAIN TRUCK PLANE
Additional Information:

2 Arrival conditions of the equipment


Equipment inspected by
(name and function):
Has the transformer been subjected to all recommended
YES NO
arrival inspections and tests?
Visual external inspection of the transformer: OK NOK
Inspection of all means for blocking and securing: OK NOK
Absence of oil leaks: OK NOK
Inspection of the impact recorder: OK NOK
Recorder type and serial number:
Highest readings or recordings:
Inspection of the inert gas pressure system OK NOK
Tank pressure (> 0.05 bar):
Pressure of gas bottle in use (> 3 bar):
Is the equipment (transformer and parts) undamaged and
YES NO
complete? (if No, specify below)
Remarks on arrival of the equipment:

3 Appendices

4 Date, name(s), function and signature(s)

Remarks: Complete this report and send it to your Saudi Power Transformers Co. contact person.
If there is any damage or missing material, follow the procedures mentioned in the IOM manual.

111
Energization Report

Date of report:
Transformer Serial No:
1 Customer and Equipment information

A Customer information
Customer Name:
Contractor Name:
User name:
Purchase Order No:
Additional information:

B Equipment information
Rating: MVA KV
Site location:
Delivery date:
Additional Information

2 Energization information
Energization date:
Energization hour:
Atmospheric condition:
Ambient temperature:
Additional information
concerning energization
conditions:

Have all the tests and inspections listed in the Site commissioning report
YES NO
been performed?
Has a copy of the Site commissioning report been sent to Saudi Power
Transformers Company (in case erection and commissioning has not YES NO
been done or supervised by Saudi Power Transformers Company)?
Has energization been successful and without any problems?
YES NO
Remarks on energization:

3 Appendices

4 Date, name(s), function and signature(s)

Remark: Saudi Power Transformers Company (SPTC) will confirm receipt of this report.

112
Parts ordering form (1)

Parts price request

1 Customer information
A Customer information
Customer:
(1)
Customer P/O No :
Contact Person:
Tel:
Fax:
Additional information:

B Transformer information
Transformer serial No:
Rating: MVA KV
Date of energization:

2 Information on parts delivery


Type of parts: Replacement of defective parts Spare parts
Delivery terms:
Delivery address:

Tel:
Fax:
3 Parts
(2)
Item No Description Type/Specifications # Unit Price Total Price

Currency: Total price:


4 Date, name, function and signature
Date Name and function Signature

(1) When ordering parts: an official Purchase Order with reference to our quotation is required.
(2) Item Nos are provided on the General Arrangement drawing and materials list (in IOM manual).

113
Site commissioning report

Cover sheet

Project

Customer

customer reference

Order number

Site
Country
CG Power Solution
Saudi Arabia reference

Serial number
MVA
HV
MV
LV
Vector group

Attached test result sheets

Date

114
Mechanical inspection Tx.Nr.

Before start of erection.


damage no damage
Visual inspection of main tank for transport damages
damage no damage
Visual inspection of crates containing transformer parts. If there is a
visible damage, write a report.
If possible, take photgraphs of this damage and notify the client/insurance company.

Remarks :

Inspection of shock indicator or shock recorder.


Type : Enregistreur Indicateur Electron.
Longitudinal dir. : 0.5 g Y/N Y/N Y/N
Transversal dir. : 0.8 g Y/N Y/N Y/N
Vertical dir: 0.3 g Y/N Y/N Y/N

If applicable, measurement of core-to-tank insulation (CG Power Solutions Saudi Arabia IR or IR3))

After erection

General check

OK NOK NA
ground connections of all accessories mm mm
distance between lightning rods & ground
check position of all valves
Position of flap valves (radiators)
oil level transformer
oil level tap changer
desaeration of relevant parts
absence of oil leaks
absence of tools on transformer
markings, terminal plate, rating plate
air breather(s) : oil lock, silica gel condition
painting

Saudi Power Transformers Clients


Companys representative representative
Name Name
Signature Signature :
CGPSSA MI

115
Mechanical & electrical checks Tx.Nr.

ON LOAD TAP CHANGER.


OK NOK NA
Are all the necessary supply voltages present ?
Synchronisation of motor drive / tap changer
Manual test of end posistions
Electrical test of end positions
Local electrical control of tap changer
Remote electrical control of tap changer
Heating : functioning and control

OFF LOAD TAP CHANGER

OK NOK NA
Synchronisation of drive / tap changer
Functional test
Funtioning of mechanical interlocks

LINKS INSTALLED UNDER TX COVER

OK NOK NA Voltage
Check position of links --> operating voltage

CONTROL CABINET
OK NOK NA
External wiring completed
Current transformers connected or short circuited
All wiring insulation tested with 500V (except remote)
position ind / AKM Trafoguard / DIGEM
Tightmess of connections
Phase rotation of incoming supply
Rotation of each fan
Rotation of each pump

Operational tests & checks of measuring andcontrolling devices

OK NOK NA
Manual control of fan operation
Thermal device control of fan operation
Manual coantrol of pump operation
Thermal device control of pump operation
Breaker contact operation of pump control
Oil flow indicator(s)
Automatic change over of supply voltage
Heating : functioning and control
Indication of Fans working and contact (if applicable)
Indication of Pumps wordking + contact (if applicable)
Indication of Tap changer running + contact (if applicable)

Saudi Power Transformers Clients representative


Companys representative
Name: Name:
Signature: Signature:
CGPSSA
ME

116
ALARM CONTACTS Tx.Nr.

C.C. CLIENT NA
Buchholz transformer
Buchholz cable boxes
Oil level transformer minimum
Oil level tap changer maximum
Oil level tap changer minimum
Oil temperature alarms
Winding temperature alarms (primary)
Winding temperature alarms (secondary)
Winding temperature alarms (tertiary)
MCB cooling supply
C.C. supply-control relay(s)
MCB tap changer supply
Tap changer suppy-control relay
Aux.contacts of fan MCBs
Aux. contacts of pump MCBs

TRIP CONTACTS

C.C. CLIENT NA
Buchholz transformer
Tap changer protective relay
Buchholz cable boxes
Overpressure relief device 1
Overpressure relief device 2
Overpressure relief device on cable boxes
Oil temperature trip
Winding temperature trip (primary)
Winding temperature trip (secondary)
Winding temperature trip (tertiary)
Non return flap valve (Sergi)

INDICATION CONTACTS

C.C.. CLIENT NA
Check all applicable signalisation contacts

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
ATC

117
Tx.Nr.
Temperature settings values on Saudi Power Transformers Company
drawings

Thermostat degrees C NA
start fans (pumps)
alarm
trip
Oil thermometer degrees C NA
st
stop fans (pumps) or alarm 1 stage
nd
start fans (pumps) or alarm 2 stage
alarm
trip

WTI (primary) degrees C NA


stop fans / pumps (1)
start fans / pumps (2)
stop fans / pumps (2)
start fans / pumps (2)
alarm (1)
alarm (2) or trip

WTI (secondary) degrees C NA


stop fans / pumps (1)
sart fans / pumps (1)
stop fans / pumps (2)
start fans / pumps (2)
alarm (1)
alarm (2) or trip

WTI (tertiary) degrees C NA


stop fans / pumps (1)
start fans / pumps (1)
stop fans / pumps (2)
start fans / pumps (2)
alarm (1)
alarm (2) or trip

Verification of overpressure relief device


mbar NA
overpressure relief device 1 on transformer

overpressure relief device 2 on transformer

overpressure relief device on cable boxes

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
TS

118
Insulation resistance measurement Tx.Nr.

Date :
Atmospheric condition
Ambient temperature
Oil Temperature
Tap changer position
Megger
Make
Type :

HV LV + Tank LV HV + Tank
Applied voltage kV Applied voltage kV

1 min 1 min
2 min 2 min
3 min 3 min
4 min 4 min
5 min 5 min
6 min 6 min
7 min 7 min
8 min 8 min
9 min 9 min
10 min 10 min

Polarization Index (value 10 min / value 1 min)

Core Tank insulation resistance measurement

Applied voltage max.. 5000 V.

Measured value M

Make sure the link is re-established and tightened after measurement

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
IR2

119
Insulation resistance measurement Tx.Nr.

Date :
Atmospheric condition
Ambient temperature
Oil Temperature
Tap changer position
Megger
Make
Type :

HV MV + LV +Tank MV HV + LV + Tank LV HV + MV + Tank


applied voltage Applied voltage Applied voltage
kV kV kV

1 min 1 min 1 min


2 min 2 min 2 min
3 min 3 min 3 min
4 min 4 min 4 min
5 min 5 min 5 min
6 min 6 min 6 min
7 min 7 min 7 min
8 min 8 min 8 min
9 min 9 min 9 min
10 min 10 min 10 min

Polarization Index (valeu 10 min / valeur 1 min)

Core Tank insulation resistance measurement

Applied voltage max.. 5000 V.

Measured valur M

Make sure link is established and tightened after measure

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
IR3

120
Oil test results Tx.Nr.

Sampling date
Atmosperic condition
Ambient temperature
Oil temperature

Testing date
Ambient temperature
Oil temperature

Dielectrical strength

Instrument used
Make
Type :

Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3


Sampling Location Sampling Location Sampling Location

1 kV 1 kV 1 kV
2 kV 2 kV 2 kV
3 kV 3 kV 3 kV
4 kV 4 kV 4 kV
5 kV 5 kV 5 kV
6 kV 6 kV 6 kV

Average kV/2.5mm Average kV/2.5mm Average kV/2.5mm

PPM water content

Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

ppm ppm ppm

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Client s representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
OT

121
Voltage ratio test Tx. Nr.

Test performed by bridge


Test performed by voltmeter

Instrument make :
Instrument type :

if V-metre A-B V B-C V C-A V

if by V-meter, note measured phases and volts


if by bridge, note injected phases, measured phases and values

tap.pos.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
VR

122
Vector group test Tx.Nr.

Applied voltage
AB V
BC V
CA V

Measured voltage V
V
V
V
V
V

Equations

Vector group =

A
A a
a

b
c
b

c c

C B C B

A
A

C B
C B

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
VG

123
Winding resistance measurement Tx.Nr.

note selected terminals


tap pos
1 _ _ _
2 _ _ _
3 _ _ _
4 _ _ _
5 _ _ _
6 _ _ _
7 _ _ _
8 _ _ _
9 _ _ _
10 _ _ _
11 _ _ _
12 _ _ _
13 _ _ _
14 _ _ _
15 _ _ _
16 _ _ _
17 _ _ _
18 _ _ _
19 _ _ _
20 _ _ _
21 _ _ _
22 _ _ _
23 _ _ _
24 _ _ _
25 _ _ _
26 _ _ _
27 _ _ _
28 _ _ _
29 _ _ _
30 _ _ _

Secondary winding ;
_
_ Oil Temperature
_
Winding temperature
Tertiary winding :
_
_
_

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
WR

124
Tg delta measurement Tx.Nr.

Date
Atmospheric condition
Ambient temperature
Oil temperature
Tap changer position
Test device
Make
Type

HV LV + Tank % L-GND(CH- L&CG-G red)


HV Tank % L-Guard(CH-G red)
HV LV % (CH-L red)
LV Tank % H-Guard(CL-G red)
LV HV + Tank % H-GND(CH-L&CL-G red)

HV MV + LV + Tank % MAKE THE NECESSARY CONNECTIONS ON THE TERMINALS

MV HV + LV + Tank %
LV HV + MV + Tank %
HV + MV - LV + Tank %
HV + LV - MV + Tank %
MT + LV - HV + Tank %

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
TD

125
Current transformer checks Tx.Nr.

Location : Name
Specs. Ratio
Insulation resistance with 2500V P1=
Kneepoint voltage determination NA P2=
Voltage S1=
Current S2=
Connections tightened or shorted

Location Name
Specs. Ratio
Insulation resistance with 2500V P1 =
Kneepoint voltage determination NA P2 =
Voltage S1 =
Current S2 =
Connections tightened or shorted

Location Name
Specs. Ratio
Insulation resistance with 2500 V P1 =
Kneepoint voltage determination NA P2 =
Voltage S1 =
Current S2 =
Connections tightened or shorted

Location Name
Specs. Ratio
Insulation resistance with 2500V P1 =
Kneepoint voltage determination NA P2 =
Voltage S1 =
Current S2 =
Connections tightened or shorted

Location Nom
Specs. Rapport
Insulation resistance with 2500 V P1 =
Kneepoint voltage determination NA P2 =
Voltage S1 =
Current S2 =
Connections tightened or shorted

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
CT

126
Zero phase sequence impedance determination Tx.Nr.

1) Short circuit on HV winding

3) LV winding open, no load

3) Apply single phase voltage between Hv winding and HV neutral (220 240 V)

4) Measure currents going to each phase

measured line current average current ZPS Impedance


tap pos applied V A B C (A+B+C)/3 applied V / av.Curr.

lowest
nominal
highest

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
ZPSI

127
Automatic voltage regulation check Tx.Nr.

Device(Type)
Make
Serial Number

Simulate the P.T. voltage and balance the relay on this voltage (no presignal). While the bandwidth is set at 1%,
increase the voltage by approximately 1.2 %. After the set time delay the tap should move to a lower position (more
winding turns in primary).
Lower the simulated P.T. voltage to approximately 1.2 % below the desired P.T. voltage.
The tap should move to a higher position (less winding turns in primary).

Y N
Did the relay pass this function test ?

OK NOK NA

Check undervoltage blocking

Check overvoltage rapid return

Check various time delays features

Saudi Power Transformers Companys Clients representative


representative
Name Name
Signature Signature
CGPSSA
AVR

128
CONCLUSION Tx.Nr.

Corrections to be made.

Other remarks.

The transformer is / is not ready to be energized

Remark regarding minimum rest period before energizing.

Transformer equipped with oil pumps :


let the pumps operate for 2 hours
if HV is lower than 245 kV : minimum rest period of 8 hours
if HV is higher than 245 kV : minimum rest period of 24 hours

Transformer without oil pumps :


If HV is loweer than 245 kV : minimum rest period of 16 hours after filling
If HV is higher than 245 kV : minimum rest period of 48 hours after filling

Representative SPTC/CGPSSA Representative Client

Name : Name :

Signature Signature

Date : Date :

129
Installation, Operation and Maintenance Instructions

8 Special Instructions

8.1 Special instructions

No special instructions applicable.

130