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Mobile Communication

Introduction to Mobile Communication wavelengths (2300 channels used for
Contents: cellular phone service)
 History of Mobile Communication
 Advantages and Its Limitations Following table can give clear conception on
 Principles of Cellular MC cellular Ph. Initialization:
History of mobile communications Year Events
 Before 1946, half-duplex push-to-talk
May 1978 First cellular phone was marketed in
telephone system with 120 KHz RF
bandwidth (per channel) was used
 In 1946, first public mobile telephone July 1978 Advanced Mobile Phone System
was introduced in 25 major American (AMPS) start in NA by AT&T and
cities (a single high power Tx is used to Bell system joint venture
cover 50 km) December, Started in Tokyo, Japan and within 5
 In 1950, FCC (Federal Communication 1979 years whole country
Commission) double the number of 1983 Aurora 400 system introduced
channels per area with channel BW 60 instead of AMPS . Next NMT
KHz (Nordic Mobile Telephone) tech. was
 By the mid 1960 FM BW of voice introduced
transmission was cut to 30 KHz Later TACS (Total Access Comm. Sys.)
 By 1976, the Bell Mobile phone service C-Netz, Radicom-2000, RTMI,
for NY city market (10,000,000 people) RTMS technologies were used for
had only 12 channels and could serve 543 mobile comm. Now more
customers sophisticated technology is used
 There was a waiting list of 3,700 people throughout the whole world.
 Service was poor due to call blocking and
usage over the few channels
Why cellular Communication
 During 1950 to 1960, AT&T Bell Limitation of conventional mobile system:
Laboratories and other telephone  Limited service capability
companies developed the theory and  Poor service performance
techniques of cellular radiotelephony  Inefficient frequency spectrum utilization
 The idea is a subscriber will carry a
small-sized Tx-Rx with an assigned RF
channel through which PSTN subscriber
can call mobile subscriber and vice-versa
 In 1973 17th October, Dr. Martin Cooper Conventional
patent to Motorola for radio telephone mobile system
system. Today this cell phone is the
enlarge version of this technology and he
is the father of cell phone.
 In 1st May of 1974 FCC took a step to
establish spectrum of 115 MHz
Principle of cellular system

Mobile Communication

Cellular systems have following principles: Disadvantages of mobile communication
 Frequency to provide a number of
communication channels much greater  Radiation from antenna: Electromagnetic
than the number of frequency allocated to radiation from base station is harmful for
the system human body
 Automatic intercellular transfer to ensure  Recharging:This is a disturbing job for the
continuity of communication subscriber
 Automatic location to mobiles within the  Traffic congestion: The allotment of
network channel is limited than the number of
 Continuous monitoring of communication subscriber
from the mobile to verify quality and  Limited range: AMPS system 25 km
identity to need for cell change maximum. GSM system 10-15 km
 The functions required for all  Lack of cell cites:The establishment of cell
telecommunication network, operation, sites is limited
maintenance, invoicing etc.
Basic components of cellular system
Advantages of cellular mobile system
A basic cellular system consists of three parts:
 Handling:System involving in operating  A mobile unit (mobile station)
cellular sets are very simple  A cell cite (base station)
 Portability: Very light and proper shape  A mobile switching center (MSC) or
 Economy:Cellular system becoming MTSO
economic day by day due to the
competition between various cellular
 Reliability: As it is totally computer
based system so it is more reliable
 Security: Since the system being radio
based, it remains equally vulnerable like
any other radio equipment
 Flexibility: It is integrated with public
telephone network. So subscriber can talk MSC PSTN
a long distance from their apartment.
 Range:This system is having the scope of
increasing the number of cell site
within a particular area. Functions of cellular basic components
 Memory access: A number of phone  Mobile unit: Contains a transceiver, an
numbers can be stored antenna, and control circuitry
 Application in rural area: In respect to  Base station: Consists of several Txs and
BD where T & T can not make service, Rxs and generally
mobile communication can easily make  have towers having several transmitting
communication and receiving antennas. It serves as a
bridge between mobile users in the cell and

Mobile Communication

connects mobile calls via telephone lines Schematic of call from a mobile user to a
or microwave links to the MSCMSC: fixed subscriber
Coordinates the activities of all of the
base stations and connects entire cellular
system to the PSTN. A typical MSC
handle 1,00,000 cellular subscribers and
5,000 simultaneous conversation at a
time and accommodates all billings and
system maintenance functions, as well

Mobile communication channels
Communication between base station and
mobile unit is established by four different
 Voice transmission channels:
o Forward voice channels (voice Schematic of call from a fixed subscriber to
transmission from base station to a mobile user
o Reverse voice channels (voice
transmission from mobile to base
 Channels responsible for initiating mobile
o Forward control channels
o Reverse control channels
Setting up a call and moving it to unused voice
channels. Call initiation and service requests.
Channel changes and handoff instructions
95% channels: voice and data
5% channels: for controls Mobile Systems and Standards
Type of calls provided by cellular phones  Standard mobile systems
Mobile to mobile call  Why GSM system?
 GSM system architecture
Data Data
Base  Function of GSM elements
station station
Voice Voice Some mobile systems
 Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS)
Mobile to fixed phone call
 European Total Access Communication
switching office
 United State Digital Cellular (USDC)

Mobile Communication

Parameter AMPS ETCS USDC  Low mobile and base station costs
specificat specificat  Good subjective voice quality
ion ion  Compatibility with other system such as
Multiple access FDMA FDMA TDMA ISDN
 Ability to support new services
Duplixing FDD FDD FDD
Channel 30 kHz 25 kHz 30 KHz
Development stages of GSM
Reverse channel 824-849 890-915 824-849
Year Important events in the development of
freq. MHz MHz MHz
Forward 869-894 935-960 869-849
1982 A GSM group is established to develop the
Channel freq. MHz MHz MHz
standards for a pan-European cellular
Voice FM FM /4 DPSK mobile system
1985 Adoption of a list of recommendation to be
Data rate 10 kpbs 8kpbs 48.6 kpbs gathered by the group
Spectral 0.33 0.33 1.62 1986 Field tests were performed on different
efficiency bps/Hz bps/Hz bps/Hz radio techniques for air interface
No. of channels 832 1000 3 user 1987 TDMA is chosen as access method
1988 Validation of the GSM system
1989 The responsibility of the GSM
Why universal cellular systems are
specification is passed to the ETSI
1990 Appearance of the phas-1 of the GSM
Different cellular systems were undesirable due
to following reasons:
 The equipment was limited to operate 1991 Commercial launch of the GSM service
only within the boundaries of each 1993 GSM services starts outside Europe
country 1995 Phase-2 of the GSM specifications
 The market for each mobile equipments coverage of rural areas
was limited
To overcome these problems the conference of GSM system architecture
European Posts and Telecommunications
(CEPT) formed, in 1982, the group special BTS
mobile (GSM) for developing a pan-European BTS BSC
mobile cellular radio system. The GSM later BTS

acronym Global System for Mobile MS BTS

communication BTS BSC MSC ISDN
BTS Data
OMC networks
Standard mobile system Operation support
MS subsystem
Standard mobile system should have the Base station subsystem Network switching subsystem Public networks
following criteria:
 Spectrum efficiency
 International roaming GSM system architecture

Mobile Communication

 Mobile Station (MS) consists of  Mobility management
 Mobile equipment or terminal  Radio resources management
 Fixed terminals (~ 20 W)  Communication management
 GSM portable terminals (~ 8 W)  Operation, administration and
 Handheld terminals (~ 2 W, 0.8 maintenance
 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) The GSM functions
 The SIM is a smart card that identifies  Transmission
the terminal. It is protected by a four o User information
digit PIN. To identify the subscriber o Signaling information
to the system it contains some  Radio resources management
parameters of the users such as o Establish, maintain and release
International Mobile Subscriber communication links between MS
Identity (IMSI). The user can have and MSC
access to its subscribed services in any  Mobility management
terminal using SIM card o Location management,
authentication and security
GSM system architecture  Communication management
o Call control
Base Station
Network Switching o Supplementary services
MS Subsystem (NSS)
(BSS) management
o Short message services management
Base Station
Controller Base Transceiver  Operation, Administration and maintenance
Station (BTS)
(BSC) o To monitor and control the system
Controls: as well as to modify the
• A group of BTS
• Manage radio frequency resources Cell size depends on configuration of the elements of the
• Handover transmitting power
• Radio frequency power level
• Frequency hopping
Various GSM interfaces
Manage communication
Network Switching  Mobile users
Subsystem  ISDN BTS

Switching Store information Provides Connect NSS to the MS BTS A interface
function of subscribers of visitor parameters BSC to control and
an MSC and their informatio needed for monitor the system. Abis interface
Connect to
location and n security Control traffic load GSM radio air
services of BSS interface

The GSM functions GSM radio interface
GSM functions are as follows: Interface between MS and fixed infrastructure
 Transmission  Frequency allocation

Mobile Communication

o Uplink direction, MS-BTS (890- TDMA frame. It reduces co-channel
915 MHz) interference
o Downlink direction, BTS-MS  Modulation
(935-960 MHz) o Gaussian minimum shift keying
 Multiple access (GMSK) is a FM modulation
o Mix of FDMA and TDMA o Binary 1 and 0 is modulated by
shifting +-67.708 KHz
25 MHz divided by 124 channels each of 200 GSM is a very complex standard. It can be
KHz frequency band considered as a first serious attempts to fulfill the
requirements for a universal mobile
TDMA frame communication system
Burst, 0.577 ms
The Cellular Concepts-System Design
1 2 8
 Concept of frequency reuse
 Channel assignment strategies
200 KHz  Handoff technique
A TDMA frame consists of 8 burst, 4.615 ms
Each of the 8 bursts is then assigned to a single Definition of cell and frequency reuse
user  Cell:
Each cellular base station is allocated a
Channel structure group of radio channels to be used within a
In GSM there are two type of channels: small geographical area called a cell
 Traffic channel (speech and data) 26  Frequency reuse or frequency planning:
TDMA frame The design process of selecting and
o 24 frame (traffic) allocating channel groups for all of the
o 1 for slow associated control cellular base station within a system is
channel called frequency reuse or frequency
o Last frame is unused planning
 Control channel (network management
and maintenance) Frequency reuse concepts
o Broadcast channel
o Common control channel B
o Dedicated control channels G C
o Associated control channels A
Frequency hopping and modulation G C B
 Frequencu hopping F D A
o To improve quality of channel E F D
frequency hopping is introduce in
GSM system. Frequency hopping
changes the frequency of every

Mobile Communication

Frequency reuse capacity  Call is blocked if there is no
S: Total no of channels available for use unused available channels
K: A group of channels allocated for each cell  Solution
N: No. of cells in which S channels are divided  Channel borrowing strategies
(from neighboring cell)
Total no. of available radio channels, S = KN  Dynamic channel strategies:
 Channels available under an MSC are
The N cells which collectively use the complete used
set of available frequencies is called a cluster. If  The reuse distance of the channels is
a cluster is replicated M times within the system, maintained
the total no. of duplex channels C can be used as
a measure of capacity and is given by Handoff Scenario at cell boundary
C = MKN = MS
Level at point A
Handoff threshold
B Minimum acceptable signal to

Received signal level
maintain the call
G C Level at point B (call is terminated)
A Level at point B
A cluster F D
Level at which handoff is made
(call properly transferred to BS2)
Method of location co-channel cell in a Power margin  = Pr handoff – Pr minimum usable
cellular system A B
BS1 BS2 If  too large unnecessary handoff
The number of cell per cluster: N  i 2  ij  j 2 If  too small call will be lost
To find the nearest co-channel neighbors of a
particular cell, one must do the following: Umbrella cell approach
1) Move i cells along any chain of hexagons
and then
2) Turn 600 counter clockwise and move j

For i = 2, j = 2, Number A
of cell in a cluster, N = 7 B E
F D A Large umbrella cell for Small micro cell for
E F D high speed traffic low speed traffic

Channel assignment strategies
Channel assignment strategies:
 Fixed channel strategies:
 unused channels are used
 Problems