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SOCIAL RESEARCH

:

PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES
The purpose of this research is to determine reasons of minimal usage of pedestrian
bridges by the general public and what steps can be taken to increase usage.

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Institute of Business Management

Term Research Report on

SOCIAL RESEARCH;
PEDESTRAIN BRIDGES

SUBMISION DATE: 2nd May 2010

COURSE TITLE: Method of Business Research
COURSE CODE: MKT404I

SUBMITTED TO: Mr. Kamil Yosuf

SUBMITTED BY:
Adnan Dohadwala 2008-3-39-8454
Sadaf Haque 2008-3-39-8422
Javaria Said 2008-3-39--8423
Hasan Raza Rivzi 2008-3-39-8421
Abdul Aleem Khan 2008-1-41-8765

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Letter of Acknowledgement

We would like to express our whole hearted thanks to Almighty Allah by whose grace &
blessings we have the knowledge, insight and opportunity to complete this report.

We would also be thankful to our lecturer, Mr. Kamil Yosuf for helping and guiding us in
completing this report. We have learned a lot through our experience of gathering
information relating to research related subject. Not only this, we have become more
familiar with the different aspects of business and social research.

We would also want to thank all the other personal’s who assisted & supported us
during data gathering, and analysis.

Researching skills . Sampling and Error . Mr. Kamil Yosuf . Analytical skills . I. Data Gathering and Sorting .Executive.) has authorized us to submit a report on the “Social Research on Pedestrian Bridges” at the end of term on date May 2nd 2010. The report should be able to highlight the following skills: . our course instructor for Method of Business Research (MKT. Letter of Authorization To: The Readers From: Adnan Dohadwala Group Leader As a student of MBA. Understanding of Research Methodology . Problem solving skills . Research Presentation skills .

Adnan Dohadwala Group Leader . Letter of Transmittal Date: 2nd May 2010 Mr. Please be kind enough to grade us on this report and let us have your comments. Kamil Yosuf Lecturer Method of Business Research IoBM Karachi Subject: Social Research Report on Pedestrian Bridges Dear Sir. Emails: adohadwala@gmail.khan@yahoo. The various areas and challenges were analyzed during the data gathering from various sources.com Sincerely. Here is the final report on Pedestrian Bridges – Identifying reasons of minimal usage of pedestrian bridges by the general public and what steps can be taken to increase usage.III.com Contact #: 0333-3748474 javaria.com sadaf.said@gmail.com abdulaleem. feel free to contact us. sorting and presentation skills. I thank you for your precious knowledge and time.rizvi86@gmail. as you aided to submit as a term project at IoBM/CBM for our course of Method Business Research.com hasan. In case of any discrepancies and further clarification or recommendations. The report is a brief portrayal of the research analysis and data gathering.fadas@gmail.

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Road infrastructure and pedestrian environment ...................................................................... Table of Content I........................................... 13 IX.................................................. 11 b................ 19 ............ Approach to the problem ........................ Letter of Transmittal ............................................................................................................................ 11 a..................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 IX.................................................................................................... 17 Hypothesis .................................... Data collection from primary sources ............................................................................................................... 6 IV................................................. Information needs ................................................................... 14 a............................................................................................................................. List of graphs ........................................................................... 18 Population and sampling ............ 17 Research Objective ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Introduction ....... 18 Data Collection tools ............. List of appendices ............................................................................. Letter of Acknowledgement ................................................................................................... Data collection from secondary sources.................................................................................................... 3 II................................................................. 16 b........................................................................................................................................................ 5 IV........................................................ 14 Social Costs ............................ 12 c................................................ Background............................................. 10 VIII....................................................... List of exhibits ..................................................................................................... 6 V........................................ Research design ..................... 4 III.... 18 b........................................................................ 18 d................................ 8 VI.. 18 Type of Study .... Letter of Authorization....................................................................................................................... Statement of the problem .............................................................................................................................................................. 14 Human Costs ............................................... 18 Instrumentation/Analysis ..................... Type of research design ........................................................................................................ Conclusions ...................................... 18 a................................................ Recommendations ............................................................. Major findings ............................. Executive summary ..... 18 c.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 VII............. Table of Content ..................... 17 X................................

..................................................................................................................... Data analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Data analysis ............................................................................................................................................................... 27 XIII....................... 21 b................ 20 Sampling -Respondent profile ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 31 b...... 20 XI................................................................................................................. 32 .......................................................................... Questionnaires and forms ....................................................................................... Scaling techniques......... Field work ................................................................................. 20 h.............................. 21 a..................................................... Graphs ..................................... Limitations and caveats ...................... 19 g................................... 19 e....... 21 Statistical Analysis ............................................................................................ 31 Reference................. 7 Method of data collection ...................................................................................... 19 f.......................................... Methodology ... Sampling techniques ........................................................ 28 XIV................................ Statistical output/data analysis............................................................................................... 21 Graphical Analysis......................................................................... Conclusions and recommendations ... Appendix ............................................................................................................................................................ 31 c...................................................................................................................................... 31 a........... 22 XII.......................................................... Questionnaire development and pretesting ........................

19 Figure 2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 23 Figure 8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 26 Figure 16-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 26 Figure 17-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 20 Figure 3--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 26 Figure 18-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 22 Figure 6--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 24 Figure 11-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 23 Figure 7--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 25 Figure 15-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 24 Figure 12-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 8 V. List of graphs Figure 1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 22 Figure 5--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 20 Figure 4--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 24 Figure 10-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 27 . 23 Figure 9--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 25 Figure 14-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 26 Figure 19-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 24 Figure 13-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

31 Data collection ---------------------------------------------------------------------------.CD . List of appendices Questionnaire----------------------------------------------------------------------------. 9 VI.

10 VII. Presentation on Pedestrian bridges research ( PPT slide show) . Questionnaire for data collection ( PDF file) . Soft copy of Report on Social research on Pedestrian bridges ( PDF file) . Data entry and graphs ( Excel file) . List of exhibits CD (Group Pandora) Title: Social Research on Pedestrian Bridges Contents of CD: .

our group decided to conduct an exploratory study on the behest of our MBR teacher. it is disheartening to note that the day to day dangers of pedestrians remain the same. Also people think that pedestrian bridges should have facilities for handicapped people and kids vehicles and prams as well. We did a survey. 11 VIII. Executive summary With the amount of effort the Government and especially the City District Government Karachi is putting into development of transport infrastructure. To understand why pedestrians don’t use these bridges despite the obvious benefits.5% and 81. Laziness (23%) and bad placement (28%) were highlighted as the major reasons people do not cross bridges – also some (17%) thinks that if they use roads instead of bridges – it would save them time. Of these the majority (46%) used roads to cross as they are considered to be more convenient rather than waiting for zebra crossings to be available or to climb overhead bridges. . of more than 200 pedestrians to understand the following:  What are the reasons due to which pedestrians don’t use overhead bridges?  What can be done to encourage usage?  And to discover whether there is any relation of location with usage a. The reasons they cited were safety and civic awareness. According to Dawn News. This is despite the fact that the Government has built over 100 Pedestrian bridges in Karachi alone.1% Since our survey was mostly based on school going or working individuals who usually cross roads only when getting to work or to school. majority of the respondents (46%) cross the road 0-1 time only. using a questionnaire we developed. every day 1 person dies due to road accidents. Major findings Through statistical analysis we concluded that we are 90% confident that the percentage of respondents who don’t use bridges due to placement is between 69. Kamil Yousuf as part of our course requirement. But they would use bridges if they had attractive functional bridges (20%) available with better lights(12%) and at a lower height (10%). Also 52% of the people revealed that they do not have pedestrian bridges available in the areas they cross the roads from. An interesting fact uncovered is that generally people (88%) want their kids to use pedestrian bridges whereas the rest suggested zebra crossings depending on the availability.

majority of the respondents (46%) cross the road 0-1 time only. Interestingly not many have encountered it. The majority of the sample (40%) considered Grills and wires as an effective way.1% Since our survey was mostly based on school going or working individuals who usually cross roads only when getting to work or to school. An interesting fact uncovered is that generally people (88%) want their kids to use pedestrian bridges whereas the rest suggested zebra crossings depending on the availability. one acts smarter. Moreover people believe that they need to be discouraged from crossing roads instead of just building more and more pedestrian bridges. A slight minority also suggested security cameras as an appropriate measure – when one is watched. A slight minority also suggested security cameras as an appropriate measure – when one is watched.5% and 81. b. Moreover people believe that they need to be discouraged from crossing roads instead of just building more and more pedestrian bridges. But they would use bridges if they had attractive functional bridges (20%) available with better lights(12%) and at a lower height (10%). The majority of the sample (40%) considered Grills and wires as an effective way. 12 Another thing highlighted was that people do not think that pedestrian bridges are safer options as compared to roads as they are scared of theft (68%) and harassment (70%). Of these the majority (46%) used roads to cross as they are considered to be more convenient rather than waiting for zebra crossings to be available or to climb overhead bridges. Laziness (23%) and bad placement (28%) were highlighted as the major reasons people do not cross bridges – also some (17%) thinks that if they use roads instead of bridges – it would save them time. The reasons they cited were safety and civic awareness. Also people think that pedestrian bridges should have facilities for handicapped people and kids vehicles and prams as well. Conclusions Through statistical analysis we concluded that we are 90% confident that the percentage of respondents who don’t use bridges due to placement is between 69. one acts smarter. Also 52% of the people revealed that they do not have pedestrian bridges available in the areas they cross the roads from. . Interestingly not many have encountered it. Another thing highlighted was that people do not think that pedestrian bridges are safer options as compared to roads as they are scared of theft (68%) and harassment (70%).

Landmark design e. Recommendations Based on our findings and conclusions. People should want to use the bridges. People should not need to be forced to cross roads from bridges by putting grills on road. Approaches to the bridge h. Safety for the user i. Hospitals c. 13 c. 3. well maintained. Schools/ Colleges b. Maintenance of the bridge k. Form of the structure g. sturdy and convenient. Experience of the pedestrian f. Location of the bridge b. Pedestrian bridges should be made at a. Further more the following principles should be considered while designing of pedestrian bridges: a. Lighting of the bridge j. Bus stops 2. Market places d. Integration with the environment d. Color of the bridge . our recommendations to the Government are as follows 1. 4. Awareness campaigns should be carried out. People will use bridges when they are well placed. Signal free corridors e. Accessibility to the public c.

These investments have mostly ignored the importance of road users’ education –often the main cause of chaos on our roads . In other instances. new road building and widening projects have reduced the width or simply removed footpaths in a number of places. Nearly all trips made by people entail some walking. telephone boxes. shop keepers. meaning vehicles rarely ever give right of way to pedestrians (note: a very high number of pedestrian casualties occur while attempting to cross roads). a large number of citizens walk as part of their daily social. making it difficult and dangerous for people. Road crossings are badly designed and often not marked. Background In most developing world cities. Pedestrian convenience and safety are often a blind spot or a low priority for authorities. poles. transformers. either directly to a destination or to another mode of transport. almost 21 percent of daily trips are made entirely on foot. Every trip begins and ends with a walking trip. to cross. To accommodate ever-increasing number of vehicles in Karachi. poorly designed. inadequate – often misused.and basic pedestrian mobility and safety features. badly maintained and sometimes dangerous. Footpaths do not follow a standardized design and are for the most part decrepit. Introduction a. encroached upon by cars. especially women and children. Human Costs People walking on city roads in developing countries are much more at risk of injury or . 14 IX. authorities have embarked on upgrading and expanding road infrastructure as a way of dealing with growing traffic congestion. poorly maintained. signage and the like. a large percentage walk some or large part of their daily commute. Signal- free corridors have eliminated at-grade crossings. bridges and underpasses have created new pedestrian accessibility and safety issues. to put it mildly. and recent investments in road infrastructure by CDGK bear this out. and of the nearly 66 percent of the commuters who use different modes of public transport. Road infrastructure and pedestrian environment The pedestrian infrastructure in Karachi is. All of this makes for a chaotic and unpleasant walking experience for millions of people every day. and livelihood activities. In Karachi. postal boxes. vendors. flyovers. recreational. For instance. The extent to which pedestrian infrastructure allows people to walk with ease and safety determines quality of the pedestrian environment and the overall transportation network.

crushing. Pedestrians suffered the second highest number of injuries (both minor and serious). there were 32. During 2008. 15 death than they are in developed countries – according to one study. The Global Walkability Index: ‘Talk The Walk And Walk The Talk’. 2 Includes serious and minor injuries. internal injuries..497 injuries2 resulting from road accidents in Karachi (see table below for breakdown). between 86 and 172 percent greater risk1. severe cuts etc. Comparison of data on pedestrian injuries and fatalities between 2008 and 2009 shows an increase of 18 percent (from 212 to 251) and 6 percent (from 799 to 766) in the number who were seriously injured or died as a result of road accidents. 56 percent were those riding on bicycles and motorcycles and 26 percent were pedestrians.3 1 Krambeck. burns (excluding friction burns). but had the highest rate of fatalities. Karachi. Karachi. Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre. or any of the following injuries whether or not they are detained in hospital: fractures. JPMC. and Shah. Table 1: Comparison of Road User Group Injuries and Fatalities between 2008-2009 Source: Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Centre. concussions. In Karachi. road accidents kill and maim thousands of people each year and the numbers are growing. of the total fatalities of bicycle/motorcycle riders have decrease by 6 percent. H. . bruises or cuts not judged to be severe. Of the total number injured. RTIRPC defines serious as injury for which a person is detained in hospital as an in-patient. Jitu. However. 3 Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Centre (RTIRPC) – Department of Neurosurgery. and minor means: injuries such as sprain. while pedestrians have increase by 26 percent.

The former mayor of Bogotá. 16 Social Costs Beyond death and injury. and other productive activities. The absence of an enabling pedestrian environment also reflects poorly on the dignity and respect accorded to citizens by the state. love and loyalty are examples.” In congested low-income housing settlements in Karachi. August 2009.org/info/placemakingtools/placemakers/epenalosa 5 Preliminary Survey of Pedestrian Infrastructure in Four Areas of Karachi. but most other important things in life cannot be measured either: Friendship. Walking everyday in a chaotic road environment like that of Karachi can be both unpleasant and unsafe. an unsafe and inconvenient pedestrian environment impedes social and economic mobility of poor people.pps. argues that inadequate and poorly maintained road and cycling infrastructure is a sign of a lack of democracy in a society. Arif Pervaiz. These spaces need to be developed and expanded. and on how outsiders (potential investors) view the city. ‘it says that those who walk or cycle are not equal citizens to those who ride in cars’. beauty. footpaths and surrounding land serve as places for social interaction. such developments would give citizens a sense of pride and ownership in the city. Enrique Penalosa. Moreover. Besides its immediate benefits to poor communities. . He believes “…importance of pedestrian public spaces cannot be measured. Parks and other pedestrian places are essential to a city's happiness4.5 4 http://www. it reduces the time and energy that people could otherwise devote to work. family.

” Hypothesis Our null hypothesis is H0= Location of bridges is directly proportional to usage. we set out to answer three questions. Our questions were:  What are the reasons due to which pedestrians don’t use overhead bridges? To ask questions that help determine what are the major reasons due to which people don’t use bridges.  Relation of location with usage To use statistics to analyze whether there is any relation to where bridges are placed and usage by pedestrians. Our alternate hypothesis is H1= Location of bridges is not directly proportional to usage.  How to encourage usage? To talk to pedestrians and discover what steps can be taken by the government which will encourage pedestrians to increase use of bridges. each question related to a separate purpose of the research. Approach to the problem To resolve this problem. Statement of the problem Research Objective Our research objective is as follows “To determine reasons of minimal usage of pedestrian bridges by the general public and what steps can be taken to increase usage. . IX.b.

Data collection from secondary sources Secondary data has been extracted from various newspaper sources and the internet – web articles ( please see footnotes and introduction). Descriptive and analytical study Data Collection tools  Secondary research articles  Questionnaire Survey with customers (See attached the survey in appendix) Instrumentation/Analysis  Graphical analysis (Pie and bar charts)  Statistical analysis Time dimension: Cross sectional Research environment: Field setting Participant’s perception: Actual routine The degree of research question crystallization: Exploratory study Method of data collection: Survey Sampling Design -Non-Probability sampling: Convenience sampling b. Type of research design The research is designed as an “Exploratory Research” Population and sampling Population: Karachi citizens Sampling method: Convenience sampling /non probability sampling Type of Study Depth: Cross sectional study Nature: Explorative. 18 X. Information needs We needed to find out  Why people didn’t use pedestrian bridges  What steps could be taken to increase usage  Does placement have anything to do with people not using bridges c. . Research design a.

i. Data collection from primary sources Method of data collection Methods of primary data collection Online  Survey surveys Online Surveys 33% Email Surveys Self Adminis Self Administered surveys tered surveys  Observation Email 55% surveys 12% Figure 1 e. 19 d.e. their frequency and their preferences.  Reasons The questions in this part were designed to understand why people don’t use bridges and how they can be encouraged to use them. Respondents only evaluated a single object. We also asked questions about their attitude when kids were involved.  Placement The questions in this part were designed to understand respondent’s preferences regarding placement of bridges.  Civic Sense The questions in this part were designed to determine what people think about pedestrian bridges and their knowledge of civic sense. Questionnaire development and pretesting The questionnaire was divided into 5 Headings:  Usage The questions in this part were designed to determine if the respondent used pedestrian bridges. Scaling techniques We used Non-Comparative Scaling.  Demographics Basic information to determine demographics of respondent . f.

20 g. Field work Target size: 200 citizens Achieved: 210 citizens Sampling error: Response error Total responses Uncomple ted 2% Complete d 98% Figure 3 . Sampling techniques Sampling -Respondent profile ◦ Target respondent : Pedestrians ◦ Citizens : Karachi ◦ Gender : 71% male 29% females ◦ Occupation : Employed. Students Home based ◦ Age : 15-60 yrs ◦ Income : Not relevant Figure 2 h.

28% .6428 or 64. Data analysis Statistical Analysis The hypothesis states that: Ho= Location and placement of bridges is directly proportional to usage H1= Location and placement of bridges is not directly proportional to usage Using the Interval estimation of population proportion formula – ‘P’ is ˆ  z / 2 ˆ (1  p p ˆ) p n p= proportion of sample who are in favor q= proportion of sample who are against q=1-p n= numbers in sample Sample error is 10% (assumption) α =10% (1.X. Graphical analysis: o This method was adopted to present and analyze the survey questions b. Methodology The research has been based on the following two sorts of data analysis depending on the requirements of the research: . Statistical analysis : o This method has been used to prove the hypothesis using the interval estimation of population proportion. . Data analysis a.α) 100% Confidence Interval will be 135 out of 210 respondents don’t use pedestrian bridges because of bad placements p= 135/210 =0.

05 Z α /2 = +1.1% Interpretation: We are 90% confident that the percentage of respondents who don’t use bridges due to placement is between 69.3572 or 35.811 69.695<P<0.1% Graphical Analysis How many times in a day do you cross a road in a day The figure illustrates how majority of the respondents (46%) cross the road 0-1 0-1 times 2-3 times 4-5 times > 6 times time only whereas as the other major part (34%) crosses roads 2-3 times a 2% 9% day. Figure 4 Also the ones.10 α /2= 0. 22 Hence q= 0.72% α=0.5% and 81. 0% Road Overhead Zebra bridges Crossing Series1 46% 32% 23% Figure 5 .table) 90% Confidence Interval will be = 0.058 0.645 (from z.5% <P<81. Roads were considered to 30% be more convenient rather than 20% waiting for zebra crossings to be 10% available or to climb overhead bridges. The reason behind such a response is that the sample was usually based on 35% 54% school going or working individuals who usually cross roads only when getting to work or to school and back to home.753+_0. use roads in Where do you cross the road from? majority (46%) and the rest of them 50% either use overhead bridges or zebra 40% Percnetage crossings. who cross.

crossing Pedestrian 37% people considered bridges pedestrian bridges as a 43% cheaper and convenient option when compared to Figure 7 zebra crossings. 23 Do you have pedestrian bridges Also 52% of the people revealed that available in areas you pass they do not have pedestrian bridges frequently available in the areas they cross the roads from. 35% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Monthl Once in Daily Weekly Yearly y a while Series1 21% 21% 17% 5% 35% . Figure 8 Usage frequency (over head bridges) Also not a lot of people use the 40% overhead bridges on a daily 35% basis. Even thought the Yes government has built 116 bridges already but a lot of areas are still not No equipped with facilities like overhead 48% bridges. underground crossings and guards. 52% Cheaper/Convenient method of crossing roads Underground crossing Figure 6 8% Guards 12% Zebra Moreover when inquired. majority of the 30% population used overhead Percentages bridges once in a while i.e.

facilities for? A small minority (9%) also wanted the 9% Motorcyclists pedestrian bridges to provide for 9% motorcyclists and bicycles as well whereas 40% Bicyclists the rest considered it irrelevant since roads can provide way for bicycles and Handicapped people motorcycles. The vehicles would only make 42% Kids vehicles and the bridges unsafe for pedestrians. 24 Figure 9 When with kids you will cross Why suggest kids to cross from bridges? from? 90% 80% 70% 12% 60% 50% 40% 30% Bridge 20% 10% 0% Road To teach civic 88% Safety Others sense Series1 82% 18% 0% Figure 10 Where would you suggest kids to cross from? Pedestrian bridges Also when inquired regarding Zebra crossing where would people want their kids to cross roads from- Roads approximately 80% wanted them to use pedestrian bridges 0% 50% 100% whereas the rest suggested Pedestrian zebra crossings depending on Roads Zebra crossing bridges the availability. The reasons Series1 1% 21% 78% beings safety and civic Figure 11 awareness. Figure 12 People also wanted pedestrian bridges to Do you think pedestrian have facilities for handicapped people and bridges should also provide kids vehicles and prams as well. Prams .

People also felt safer if they were able to see the roads instead of billboards while crossing the bridges . 25 Reasons for not using pedestrian bridges Age factor (Generally) Tiredness Height phobia Medical Reasons Due to Beggars Save time Bad placement Not strongly built Laziness 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Figure 13 Laziness and bad placement are also one of the major reasons people do not cross bridges – also a vast majority thinks that if they use roads instead of bridges – it saves them time. better lights and lower height would increase usage. Suggestions to increase usage You could see the road Better lights 9% 12% They had escalators 17% Shops on the bridge Lower height 6% 10% Attaractive bridges More grills on road 20% 21% Police intervention 5% Figure 14 Our research also highlighted that attractive functional bridges.

The majority of the sample (40%) considered Grills and wires as an effective way to prevent people from using roads for crossing purposes. 26 Do they make you feel safe? Are you afraid of theft? Yes 5% No No 32% Yes 68% 95% Figure 16 Figure 15 Another thing highlighted is that people generally think that Figure 17 pedestrian bridges are safer options Are you afraid of harrasment? as compared to roads. Also people Yes have some misconceptions and are 30% scared while using bridges of theft and harassment but not many No 70% people have encountered it. . What would discourage road crossing? Other Security Camera 0% 17% Grills 40% Fines 16% Walls Wires 8% 12% Trees/Shrubs 7% Figure 18 Moreover people believe that they need to be discouraged from crossing roads instead of just building more and more pedestrian bridges. one acts smarter. A slight minority also suggested security cameras as an appropriate measure – when one is watched.

Even though the public does consider pedestrian bridges a necessity – only a minority (i. the rest either crossing from roads or zebra crossings. XII.please see chart 2) use overhead bridges.e. Limitations and caveats Our limitation in this research was as follows:  Limited data availability on internet  Survey results biasness errors  Time constraints . With the increasing traffic and signal free corridors – the majority of the citizens highlighted the importance of the City District Government Karachi (CDGK)’s efforts as appreciative towards the infrastructure development. 32% . 27 Is bridges a good step taken by the Govt? 97% 3% Yes No Figure 19 Conflicting the current observed situation – approximately 100% of the people consider pedestrian bridges as a rational step taken by the Government.

Based on this we believe that the points to be considered by Government are.  Sturdy and  Convenient. Also people strongly think that pedestrian bridges should be made at  Schools/ Colleges  Hospitals  Market places  Signal free corridors  Bus stops Also zebra crossing should be present at Round-about and underpasses. Conclusions and recommendations After our research we concluded that even if people want to and despite the government’s best efforts pedestrian bridges are still not in easy access. People should want to use the bridges. This is because people want a bridge immediately in front of their destination and are not willing to walk any distance to cross the road. Awareness campaigns should be carried out.  Well maintained. 1. People should not need to be forced to cross roads from bridges by putting grills on road. Further more the following principles should be considered while designing of pedestrian bridges: . People will use bridges when they are  Well placed. This is because that despite being literate – people do not have civic awareness. 3.XIII. This shows the mentality of the general public and their road sense. people believe that they need to be discouraged from road crossing. People’s opinion regarding requirement of bridges should be taken in account while planning. That is they will only use bridges if they are unable to cross from any other way. Another disturbing fact that we discovered is that rather than encouraging use of bridges. 2.

. Sleeker. These opportunities include maximizing or framing views and using street furniture and other design features to create an attractive environment. APPROACHES: Approach ramps should be designed as part of the bridge composition and integrated in the landform and landscape. The angle of the bridge and its approaches should be designed to suit both groups and reduce opportunities for collision. more elegant structures may be possible. SAFETY: The safety of users must be considered in the bridge location and design. Ramps and stairs should be located as close as possible. Any ramps should be incorporated into the approaches to the bridge and their slope minimized. minimize the length of ramps and staircases by taking advantage of the topography or using noise bunds and earth mounds as landings. which allows more flexibility to the form of the bridge and the choice of materials. EXPERIENCE: Compared with vehicle bridges. ACCESSIBILITY: Bridges should be accessible to all pedestrians and cyclists. safety screens should be integrated in the overall bridge design. A landmark structure will not be appropriate in all situations. The finished texture and color of the bridge can also play an important role in highlighting all or part of its form. Isolated locations should be avoided. If the bridge is to be used by cyclists as well as pedestrians. the bridge should be wide enough to accommodate both groups and it may be necessary to provide separate paths. This includes mobility impaired people who may require ramps. LANDMARK DESIGN: Bridges can be prominent structures offering opportunities to create new landmarks and to incorporate the cultural and historic values of the area into the design. The natural topography should also be considered in determining suitable locations for pedestrian bridges. Wherever possible. This will ensure that the use of the bridge is maximized. If needed. pedestrian bridges provide a greater opportunity to create an interesting experience for users as they travel slower and spend more time on the bridge. 29 LOCATION: Pedestrian bridges should be located to serve identified desire lines as much as possible. It also includes seeking opportunities to create new connections to existing cycle and pedestrian networks. Barriers and handrails perform an important safety function. INTEGRATION: Bridges are elements within the wider urban fabric and should be integrated into their context. FORM: Pedestrian bridges carry lighter loads than traffic bridges. In special circumstances lifts may be required. This includes relating the structures to the character and scale of the surrounding urban form or landscape to ensure that the design fits in well. but care should be taken to ensure they are not visually dominant.

6 6 Urban Design Principles _ Pedestrian Bridges. This can include planting on the bridge itself which can be beneficial when integrating a bridge into a landscape setting. especially in a rural setting. MAINTENANCE: Select durable materials and finishes that do not significantly degrade in appearance over time. New Zealand Transport Agency. Planting can also be used to good effect at the ends of pedestrian bridges in order to reduce the visual impact of ramps and associated structures. low maintenance planting can be a feature of pedestrian bridge design. either through the design itself or the use of protective boxing. When used to highlight particular elements it should form part of a coherent. . Color must be used carefully as it draws the eye. The protection of lighting from vandalism must also be considered. LANDSCAPING: Well considered. 30 LIGHTING: Most bridges will be used at night and therefore require lighting to ensure the safety of users. ordered composition. COLOUR: Color provides opportunities to give consistency to a family of bridges and to reinforce the landmark quality of a stand alone structure. Bespoke lighting can be used as a design feature but care must be taken to avoid light spilling into the surrounding environment. anti-graffiti coating should be applied as part of the bridge construction phase to the full extent of piers and barriers to prevent patchy application and appearance at later stages. Where required.

Appendix a. 31 XIV. Statistical output/Data collection c. Questionnaires and forms b. Graphs (Please find questionnaire on next page and data collection and graphs in the excel file in the CD – due to excessive data it could not be included in report printable form) .

The Global Walkability Index: ‘Talk The Walk And Walk The Talk’..pps. August 2009. Krambeck. Karachi. Preliminary Survey of Pedestrian Infrastructure in Four Areas of Karachi. b. Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Centre (RTIRPC) – Department of Neurosurgery. c. Urban Design Principles _ Pedestrian Bridges. H. . e. 32 Reference a. Arif Pervaiz. New Zealand Transport Agency. Jitu. Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre.org/info/placemakingtools/placemakers/epenalosa d. and Shah. http://www.