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In Flight Scenarios Note: The following scenarios are examples of how MultiScan in AUTO differs from MultiScan in MAN

N (manual mode) or from a standard manual radar.


Quiet, Dark Cockpit (only threat weather is displayed) During auto operation, MultiScan detects and stores in memory all the weather from the surface to well above the aircraft altitude.
MultiScan then compares cell height to the aircraft altitude. If the weather is below the flight path (i.e. non-threat weather), then it is not displayed. The quiet, dark cockpit philosophy prevents
unnecessary clutter while alerting crews to weather threats that are in the aircraft flight path. Note that the radar is able to more accurately determine cell height as the aircraft gets closer to
the cell. Therefore, when weather is close to but below the aircraft altitude, it may fall off the display as the aircraft approaches the cell.
The view is through the HUD From a distance this cell appears
combiner. The Flight Path dangerous. However, upon further
Vector (FPV) is indicating examination it can be seen that it
acceptable overflight clearance is post convective and has very little
so the weather below the substance. It is also slightly below
aircraft is NOT displayed. the aircraft flight path. Therefore,
it is not displayed.

Automatic Temperature Based Gain Above an altitude where the outside air temperature is less than -40C, thunderstorm cells are composed almost entirely of ice crystals, are
non-reflective and are very difficult for radar to detect. When in AUTO, MultiScan compensates for this lack of reflectivity by increasing the gain as temperature decreases. As a result, by the
time the aircraft is at cruise altitude the gain is roughly equivalent to the manual MAX gain position. MultiScan is designed to be operated in AUTO mode with gain set to CAL. Using MAX
gain while in AUTO will result in an over warning condition and pilots may be inclined to make larger deviations than the actual weather conditions require. Note: Significantly more gain is
available during AUTO operation than during MAN operation.
The view from the cockpit Manual CAL Manual MAX AUTO CAL
shows a major line of cells gain shows gain better gain and
whose tops tend to be only the represents the Manual MAX
non-reflective due to the fact thunderstorm Manual actual storm Manual gain are Auto
that they are composed almost cores and CAL Gain threat and MAX Gain essentially CAL Gain
entirely of ice crystals. displays them displays the equivalent.
as green. edges of
the cells.

What does green mean? Older radars with insufficient gain often portrayed thunderstorm cores at cruise altitude as green (see the MAN CAL gain picture above). Because MultiScan
incorporates weather analysis and temperature based gain, significant areas of green may be displayed that are not a threat to the aircraft. In the pictures below, a storm system that is below
the aircraft can be viewed in MAN by decreasing tilt and increasing gain, albeit with ground clutter. However, MultiScan has determined the actual hazard of the clouds that extend to the
aircraft altitude and has painted them as green (non-threat). When transiting this area the aircraft experienced light chop. When using the radar in MAN mode it is always possible to adjust
the radar to get the picture you believe should be present. However, in AUTO mode the radar uses extensive weather analysis to display the actual threat.
A haze layer at the aircraft In MAN, MAX gain and MultiScans analysis has determined
altitude prevents the -2 down tilt are selected that the threat from the cells does
flight crew from telling if indicating a line of not extend to the aircrafts altitude
Manual Auto
thunderstorms are present. thunderstorms in front and has painted the returns as
MAX Gain CAL Gain
of the aircraft. green. Upon transit light chop may
be experienced.

NOTE: Flight crews must understand that there are display differences between AUTO and MAN and that the best threat
information is available in AUTO. AUTO mode with CAL gain is recommended during all phases of flight.
WXR-2100 MultiScan Threat Detection Radar WXR-2100 MultiScan Threat Detection Radar
Controls (Boeing) Features (Boeing)
Captains controls
This view from the cockpit shows significant
40 NM thunderstorm cells at 40 NM, 100 NM and 200 NM.
100 NM A fourth cell that is over the horizon is at 300 NM.
200 NM
300 NM

Features:
1. Weather is displayed from the nose of the
aircraft to 320 NM (the four cells pictured above
Weather below are clearly displayed on the ND).
the flight path
2. Ground clutter is eliminated.
3. Only threat weather is displayed. Weather below
the flight path is eliminated.
First Officers controls
300 NM PAC Alert
4. PAC Alert: Identifies attenuated regions (the
AUTO - AUTO is recommended during all phases of flight. In the AUTO position (button in) the cell at 40 NM is attenuating the radar beam
radar controls tilt and gain and analyze thunderstorm threats to present the best representation preventing weather detection from behind the
of the actual threat. In the MAN position (button out) the radar functions as a traditional radar. 200 NM cell to the yellow PAC bar). PAC Alert is active in
AUTO features including hazard analysis are disabled. both AUTO and MAN for targets within 80 NM
100 NM of the aircraft but only in CAL gain.
L/R (dual systems) L (button out) selects the Left R/T. R (button in) selects the right R/T.
TEST Initiates the radar test sequence for whichever R/T (L or R) is selected. 40 NM 5. Certified turbulence detection to 40 NM on all
Turbulence range scales.
TFR (Transfer) Transfers the opposite side to the users side (i.e. if the Captain presses transfer, Detection
the First Officers radar settings are shown on the Captains side). Note: If both pilots select 6. Predictive windshear.
transfer, a test pattern will be displayed.
Note: 320 NM WX, ground clutter Important: It is recommended that
WX (Weather) Displays weather targets as green, yellow and red threats. elimination and display of only threat MultiScan be used in AUTO with CAL
WX+T (Weather plus Turbulence) - Displays weather targets (see WX above) plus weather are active only during
gain during all phases of flight.
turbulence (magenta). In WX+T mode turbulence is displayed out to 40 NM on all range scales. AUTO operation. Some weather radar display reinterpretation
MAP MAP mode allows ground mapping of terrain. However, weather targets are not removed will be required by flight crews (see page 2
from the display. for examples).

GC (Ground Clutter) Deactivates the ground clutter removal algorithms and displays ground
clutter. This function is deactivated during MAN radar operation. Key Feature:
TILT The tilt knob is disabled during AUTO operation. The tilt knob is enabled during MAN When weather is detected in
(manual) operation. AUTO, MultiScan uses satellite Traditional Threat
based climatology models Radar Detection
GAIN During AUTO operation CAL gain provides the best representation of the actual threat to analyze cells and more
and is recommended. MAX gain significantly increases the receiver sensitivity whereas MIN accurately display actual
gain decreases receiver sensitivity. Full above and below gain control is available during both storm threats.
manual and automatic operation. Increasing gain above CAL during AUTO operation will result
in artificially intense returns that over emphasize the actual threat. (see Automatic Temperature
Based Gain on page 2).
When the triangle on the gain knob is in the 12 oclock position (see picture above), CAL gain is set. Important: Because MultiScan is adjusting WX thresholds to more
Turning the knob fully clockwise selects MAX gain. Fully counter-clockwise selects MIN gain. accurately represent actual storm threats, you will not be able to get the
Caution: Selecting below CAL gain decreases receiver sensitivity and causes thunderstorms to same picture in MAN that is available in AUTO.
appear less hazardous than is actually the case. Below CAL gain should be used only for short time
periods. The control should then be returned to the CAL gain position.

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