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UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

COLLEGE OF LAW

1st Semester 2006-07

POLITICAL LAW

Prof. H. Harry L. Roque, Jr.

I. SCOPE & HISTORY

Political Law, defined
Vicente G. Sinco, Philippine Political Law (p.1)
The Constitution & Constitutional Law
Sinco, (pp.66-77)
Constitutional History
Vicente V. Mendoza, From McKinley’s Instructions to the New Constitution (pp.1-53)
Cesar Adib Majul, The Political & Constitutional Ideas of the Philippine Revolution, (pp.177-205)
Sinco, (pp. 78-108)
The 1935 Constitution
The 1973 Constitution
Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 (1973)
Philippine Bar Association v. COMELEC, 140 SCRA 455 (1985)
The 1987 Constitution
Lawyers’ League for a Better Philippines v. Aquino, G.R. No. 73748, 22 May 1986.
In Re Saturnino Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160 (1986)
De Leon v. Esguerra, 153 SCRA 602 (1987)
Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803)
Francisco v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 160261 (Nov. 10, 2003)
Angara v. Electoral Tribunal, 63 Phil., 139 (1936)

II. THE CONCEPT OF STATE

The Concept of State
Sinco, (pp.3-16)

Elements of a State:
a. People
ART. IV

i. Citizens
ART. IV, §1
R. A. No. 9139
Moy Ya Lim Yao v. Commission on Immigration, 41 SCRA 292 (1971)
In Re Application for Admission to the Bar of Vicente Ching, 316 SCRA 1 (1999)
In Re Florencio Mallare, 59 SCRA 45 (1974)
Aznar v. COMELEC, 185 SCRA 703 (1990)

ii. Natural-born Citizens
ART. IV, §2
Co v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, 199 SCRA 692 (1991)

2
Bengzon III v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, 357 SCRA 545 (2000)

iii. Loss and Reacquisition
ART. IV, §3
R. A. No. 8171
Bengzon III v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, 357 SCRA 545 (2000)
Labo v. COMELEC, 176 SCRA 1 (1989)
Frivaldo v. COMELEC, 257 SCRA 727 (1996)
Valles v. COMELEC, 337 SCRA 543 (2000)
Yu v. Defensor-Santiago, 169 SCRA 364 (1989)
Republic v. Guy, 115 SCRA 244 (1982)
Jao v. Republic, 121 SCRA 358 (1983)

iv. Effect of Marriage
ART. IV, §4

v. Dual Allegiance
ART. IV, §5

Mercado v. Manzano, 307 SCRA 630 (1999)

b. Territory
Art. II

Merlin M. Magallona, A Primer in International Law in Relation to Philippine Law (pp.79-88); Merlin M.
Magallona, A Primer on the Law of the Sea (1997)

c. Government
i. Definition
E. O. No. 292, §2(1),(2),(4), & (10)

ii. De Jure and De Facto governments
Co Kim Chan v. Valdez Tan Keh, 75 Phil. 113 (1945)
In Re Saturnino Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160 (1986)
In Re Letter of Associate Justice Reynato Puno, 210 SCRA 589 (1992)
Estrada v. Desierto, 353 SCRA 452 (2001)

Constituent and Ministrant functions
ACCFA v. CUGCO, 30 SCRA 64 (1969)

iii. Parens Patriae
Government of the Philippine Islands v. Monte de Piedad, 35 Phil. 728 (1916)

d. Sovereignty
Sinco, supra (pp.17-30)
Co Kim Cham v. Valdez Tan Keh, 75 Phil. 113 (1945)
Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77 (1992)
Ruffy v. Chief of Staff, 37 Phil. 875 (1946)
Peralta v. Director of Prisons, 75 Phil. 285 (1945)
Alcantara v. Director of Prisons, 75 Phil. 749 (1945)

State Immunity

Separation of Powers Springer v. Singson. 327. 32 SCRA 466 (1970) Republic v. as amended by P. Veridiano. Dacuycuy. 107 Phil. COMELEC. Purisima. 277 U. Gella. 1 (1922) People v. 162 SCRA 88 (1988) United States v. Auditor General. Government of Phil. 84 Phil. 127 SCRA 69 (1984) . 1445 Sayson v. Chairman. Islands. Intermediate Appellate Court. 603 (1953) Araneta v. Guinto. Villasor. Suits Against Government Agencies Philippine National Railways v. Cuenca. Non-delegation Doctrine Pelaez v. 217 SCRA 401 (1993) National Irrigation Administration v. 43 Phil. 238 SCRA 524 (1994) iii. Ruiz. 21 SCRA 774 (1967) Tolentino v. Dinglasan. Electoral Commission. 54 SCRA 84 (1973) iii. GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE i. COMELEC. 3 Art. Brownell. 68 Phil. 43 SCRA 360 (1972) Ministerio v. IAC. 14 SCRA 464 (1971) Santiago v.A. 173 SCRA 90 (1989) iii. 87 SCRA 294 (1978) Lim v. 41 SCRA 702 (1967) Javellana v. 50 SCRA 30 (1973) Occena v. 34 Phil. 189 (1928) Angara v. Waiver of Immunity Act No. Suability vs. COMELEC. 92 Phil. 344 (1960) United States v. 136 SCRA 487 (1985) Republic v. 194 SCRA 486 (1991) Social Security System v. Republic.S. Alba. Government of the Philippine Islands. Ang Tang Ho. Characterization of Suit Begosa v. 311 (1916) III. §3 i. Rosenthal. 368 (1949) Chiongbian v. 148 SCRA 424 (1987) ii. Orbos. Fontanilla. 15 SCRA 569 (1965) United States v. Feliciano. Rationale for Immunity Sanders v. Philippine Veterans Administration. Liability Merritt v. 139 (1936) ii. 285 SCRA 253 (1995) People v. Amendments & Revision Gonzales v. No. 104 SCRA 1 (1981) Almario v. 63 Phil. 3083 C. No. Executive Secretary. Court of Appeals. Rosario. 148 SCRA 659 (1987) Rodriguez v. XVI. 78 SCRA 470 (1977) Amigable v. 328 (1939) Ynot v.D. 54 SCRA 282 (1973) Republic v. 120 SCRA 707 (1983) iv. City of Cebu. 182 SCRA 644 (1990) The Holy See v.

COMELEC.R. G. Science & Technology. 275 SCRA 604 (1997) Hernandez v. 151445. Executive Secretary. 196 SCRA 221 (1991) xvi. No. The Incorporation Clause Lim v. §2 Defensor-Santiago v. XVI. G. 21 SCRA 774 (1967) Direct Proposal ART. Executive Secretary. 338 SCRA 81 (2000) v. 41 SCRA 702 (1967) Plebiscite Requirement ART. United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources. XVI. 342 SCRA 449 (2000) ix. Alcala. Priority to Education. 4 Proposal ART. 320 SCRA 76 (1999) xii. Protection of the People vi. 270 SCRA 106 (1997) Constitutional Convention ART. Civilian Supremacy Integrated Bar of the Philippines v. Independent Foreign Policy viii. Lantion. Promotion of Social Justice x. 224 SCRA 792 (1993) C & M Timber Corporation v.R. Recognition of the Sanctity of Family Life Silva v. Democracy and Republicanism ii. §3 Tolentino v. Culture and Sports Guingona v. §4 IV. 11 April 2002 iii. v. 272 SCRA 596 (1997) xiv. Carague. Arts. Affirmation of Labor as Primary Social Economic Force . Court of Appeals. Advancement of the Right to a Balanced and Healthful Ecology Oposa v. 151445. 322 SCRA 160 (2000) Lasco v. Separation of Church and State vii. Respect for Human Rights xi. No. XVI. Zamora. Recognition of the Role of the Youth xiii. 11 April 2002 Secretary of Justice v. Factoran. NLRC. COMELEC. XVI. 273 SCRA 402 (1997) xv. Court of Appeals. Executive Secretary. Freedom from Nuclear Weapons BAYAN v. COMELEC. 241 SCRA 681 (1995) iv. Renunciation of War as Instrument of National Policy Lim v. §1 Gonzales v. Recognition of Fundamental Equality Before Law Philippine Telegraph & Telephone Co. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES & STATE POLICIES i.

359 SCRA 698 (2001) Bengson III v. House of Representatives electoral Tribunal. G.R. 17 SCRA 876 (1966) People v. COMELEC. Recognition and promotion of Rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities xxi. Angara. 863 (1960) Jimenez v. Indispensable Role of Private Sector xix. §12 . 248 SCRA 300 (1995) Coquilla v.R. COMELEC. THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT The Nature of Legislative Power Composition and Qualifications ART. §5(3) Ceniza v. COMELEC. Role of Non-Governmental Organizations xxii. 357 SCRA 545 (2001) Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC. Public Estates Authority. COMELEC. Guarantee of Equal Access to Opportunities for Public Service xxv. §5(1) (2) R. VI. 109 Phil. COMELEC. VI. Cabangbang. Self-Reliant and Independent National Economy Tanada v. §4 ART. Honesty and Integrity in the Public Service xxvi. A. 18 SCRA 300 (1966) Parliamentary Immunities Martinez v. 133250. Morfe. 239 SCRA 106 (1994) Mariano v. No. §7 Policy Against Gerrymandering ART. Mathay. 9 July 2002 V. G. 44 SCRA 22 (1972) Osmena v. Pendatun. 31 July 2002 Domino v. Promotion of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform xx. VI. 310 SCRA 546 (1999) Tobias v. Autonomy of Local Governments xxiv. VI. No. COMELEC. VI. No. 242 SCRA 211 (1995) Term of Office ART. Jalosjos. 5 xvii. 7941 Veterans Federation Party v. Policy of Full Public Disclosure Chavez v. 151914. 324 SCRA 689 (2000) Full Disclosure & Conflict of Interest ART. Abalos. VI. 272 SCRA 18 (1997) xviii. 95 SCRA 763 (1980) Equitable Representation ART. VI. §2 ART. § Rule on Vacancies Salaries PHILCONSA v. 342 SCRA 244 (2000) Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party v. Recognition of the Vital Role of Communication and Information xxiii.

113 SCRA 33 (1982) Arroyo v. 27 SCRA 131 (1969) Arroyo v. 298 SCRA 756 (1998) Quorum Requirement ART. Singson. Sandiganbayan. §16(4) United States v. 17 (1949) Power to Control Proceedings ART. 7 SCRA 374 (1963) Astorga v. Subido. §16(3) Osmena v. §15 Officers of the Congress ART. VI. Electoral Commission. §16(5) The Electoral Tribunals ART. 139 (1936) Bondoc v. 10 August 1995 The Journal and the Enrolled Bill Doctrine ART. VI. 109 Phil. Avelino. VI. 63 Phil. De Venecia. Cuenco. Jalosjos. Senate Electoral Tribunal. R. 336 SCRA 458 (2000) Abbas v. Disbursing Officer of the Senate. §19 Angara v. v. COMELEC. De Guzman. Sandiganbayan. 277 SCRA 268 (1997) Adjournments ART. 82 Phil. Pons. VI. §13 Adaza v. VI. 818 (1948) Lazatin v. 166 SCRA 651 (1988) Suanes v. 324 SCRA 689 (2000) Vera v. 192 (1946) Paredes v. G. §16(2) Avelino v. 246 SCRA 384 (1995) Sessions ART. No. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. VI. 56 SCRA 714 (1974) Morales v. 352 SCRA 353 (1999) The Commission on Appointments ART. Pacana. 863 (1960) Defensor-Santiago v. Gimenez. 77 Phil. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. 118364. VI. VI. VI. §14 Puyat v. VI. 201 SCRA 792 (1991) Guerrero v. 135 SCRA 431 (1985) Practice of Law & Financial Interest ART. Pendatun. 6 Incompatible & Forbidden Offices ART. 81 Phil. §16(1) Defensor-Santiago v. VI. 356 SCRA 636 (2001) People v. Pineda. 34 Phil. 180 SCRA 496 (1989) . §17 ART. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. §18 ART. §19 Daza v. 729 (1916) Mabanag v. 78 Phil 1 (1947) Casco Philippine Chemical Co. Lopez Vito. Villegas. Guingona. VI. 168 SCRA 391 (1988) Garcia v.

252 SCRA 695 (1996) The General Appropriations Clause ART. §27 Gonzales v. Guingona. 146 SCRA 446 (1986) E. COMELEC. 191 SCRA 452 (1990) Title & Subject of Bills ART. Jr. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee. Tuvera. Enriquez. VI.. VI. 235 SCRA 630 (1994) Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance. 325 SCRA 630 (1994) Effectivity of Laws Tanada v. No. 200 (1987) Presidential Veto ART. VI. Secretary of Finance. Balagtas. VI. Nazareno. 358 (1955) Bengzon. Mitra. Abalos. 40 Phil. Gonzales. Jr. VI. 87 Phil... §23(1) Emergency Powers ART. VI. Secretary of Finance. Jr. Jr. 21 SCRA 497 (1967) Tobias v. Riders ART.. Mata. Tuvera. VI. §26(1) Central Capiz v. 65 SCRA 517 (1975) ii. 203 SCRA 767 (1991) The Question Hour ART. v. §24 Tolentino v. 187 SCRA 377 (1990) Guingona. Jr. 191 SCRA 452 (1990) . 151 SCRA 208 (1987) Lidasan v. 148 SCRA 208 (1987) PHILCONSA v. Secretary of Finance. VI. 235 SCRA 506 (1994) Gonzales v. §23(2) The Origination Clause ART. Videogram Regulatory Board. O. §25(2) Garcia v. Ramirez. 239 SCRA 106 (1994) Procedure for Passage of Law ART. §25 i. §21 Arnault v. Alba. VI. v. Macaraig. VI. 97 Phil. Transfer of Funds Demetria v. 249 SCRA 628 (1995) Alvarez v. 29 (1950) Arnault v. Macaraig. Jr. §26(2) Tolentino v. 136 SCRA 27 (1985) Tanada v. 249 SCRA 628 (1995) Tolentino v. 883 (1920) Tio v. §22 Power to Declare Existence of State of War ART. 214 SCRA 789 (1992) Inquiries in Aid of Legislation ART. 7 Coseteng v.

VI. Aquino. 249 SCRA 628 (1995) iii. Court of Tax Appeals. VI. Secretary of Finance. 208 SCRA 133 (1992) Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Secretary of Finance. 177 SCRA 668 (1989) Philippine Constitution Association v. Desierto. Exemptions from Taxation Tolentino v. Court of Appeals. 235 SCRA 506 (1994) Bengzon v. 235 SCRA 650 (1994) Pimentel v. Aguirre. Makasiar. VII. Enriquez. §28(1) ii. Court of Appeals. §29 Manosca v. §4 . §2 The Vice-President ART. 252 SCRA 142 (1996) Requirement for Increase in Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court ART. 336 SCRA 201 (2000) Laurel v. 237 SCRA 519 (1994) Fabian v. Enriquez. Drilon. Villalon-Pornillos. §1 Marcos v. §30 First Lepanto Ceramics. 167 SCRA 393 (1988) Qualifications ART VII. 249 SCRA 628 (1995) Tolentino v. Inc. Progressive System of Taxation ART. VI. Secretary of Finance. VII. §3 Term Limits ART. 162 SCRA 106 (1988) Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. VII. THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT ART. 326 SCRA 197 (1994) Abra Valley College. v. 185 SCRA 329 (1990) Aspects of Power to Appropriate i. Uniform and Equitable System of Taxation ART. Manglapus. §31 Initiative and Referendum ART. 295 SCRA 470 (1998) Prohibition Against Grant of Title of Royalty or Nobility ART. §28(1) Tolentino v. Court of Appeals. VI. 325 SCRA 630 (1994) Centeno v. 211 SCRA 219 (1992) iv. 237 SCRA 279 (1994) VI. Inc. Authority to Delegate Tariff Rates Garcia v. 298 SCRA 83 (1998) v. Executive Secretary. 8 Philippine Constitution Association v. VI. Vote Required for Grant of Exemption Limitations on Use of Public Funds ART. 187 SCRA 797 (1990) Beltran v. Garcia. VI. COMELEC. §32 Garcia v. v.

§13 Civil Liberties Union v. 311 SCRA 733 (1999) Manalo v. 29 November 2001. §16 Matibag v. 194 SCRA 317 (1991) Resolution on the Motion for Reconsideration dated 1 August 1991 Dela Cruz v. VII. VII. §14 Midnight Appointments ART. Castillo.R. 312 SCRA 239 (1999) Calderon v. 149036. G. 143 (1955) Villena v. VII. 138489. VII. v. VII. §5 Prohibitions ART. Court of Appeals. Sistoza. 2 April 2002 Executive Control and The “Take Care” Clause ART. Silvosa. §§7-11 Estrada v. Prohibited Appointments ART. §15 De Rama v. Torres. Ramos. Carale. VII.R. VII. 97 Phil. 67 Phil. G.. 208 SCRA 254 (1992) Ad Interim Appointments ART. VII. Desierto. §13 Appointments by Acting President ART. 156 SCRA 549 (1987) Bermudez v. 360 SCRA 718 (2001) Ang-Angco v. 21 SCRA 895 (1967) De Leon v. Carpio. Mison. 353 SCRA 94 (2001) In Re Appointment of Valenzuela. 353 SCRA 452 (2001) Resolution on the Motion for Reconsideration. 253 SCRA 559 (1996) Oath ART. Secretary of the Interior. 451 (1939) Buklod ng Kawaning EIIB v. Commission on Audit. 9 How Elected ART. 298 SCRA 408 (1998) The Appointments Clause ART. Inc. No. 356 SCRA 108 (2001) Multiple Office & Other Activities ART. §6 Rules on Succession ART. Executive Secretary. 178 SCRA 457 (1991) Commander-in-Chief Powers . Pano. Executive Secretary. 9 SCRA 619 (1963) Lacson-Magallanes Co. §17 Mondano v. VII. §16 Sarmiento v. VII. §4 Defensor-Santiago v. No. Benipayo. VII.

G. Zamora. Perez. THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT Judicial Power ART VII. No. 57 Phil.R. 1 Cranch 137.2. 353 (1960) Barrioquinto v. Provincial Warden of Bohol. 152 SCRA 272 (1987) Borrowing Power ART. Lantion. Military Commission No. 63 SCRA 546 (1975) Olaguer v. 347 SCRA 128 (2000) .. Eastern Sea Trading. §20 Foreign Affairs Power ART. 343 SCRA 377 (2000) Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. 166 SCRA 533 (1989) Secretary of Justice v. 357 SCRA 756 (2001) Ruffy v. 146579. Mendoza. 60 (1803) Manila Electric Co. §22 Opening Address ART VII. (concurring). TVA. Gonzales. G. 338 SCRA 81 (2000) Lacson v. 642 (1949) Torres v.34. Executive Secretary. §21 Bayan v. i. Benipayo.. Secretary of Justice. 146631. 148 SCRA 36 (1987) Power over Budget ART VII. Military Commission No. Patriarca. Ed. VII. 301 SCRA 96 (1999) Espuelas v. VII. 26 February 2001. Inc. 146549. v. §1 Marbury v. 341 SCRA 464 (2000) Monsanto v. Singson. 191 SCRA 288 (1990) Daza v. John Gotamco & Sons. 65 Phil. 875 (1946) Aquino v. 170 SCRA 190 (1989) Sabello v. VII. Fernandez. 2 L. VII. Estrada. 269 SCRA 360 (1997) People v. §23 VII. Actual Case or Controversy Cruz v. Factoran. 146528. 2 April 2002 Soriano v. 342 SCRA 449 (2000) Commissioner of Customs v. 180 SCRA 623 (1989) Echegaray v. Chief of Staff. j. Jr. 297 U. 600 (1932) Grave Abuse of Discretion Garcia v. 288 (1936). 75 Phil.. 85 Phil. DECS. §18 Integrated Bar of the Philippines v. 150 SCRA 144(1987) Pardoning Power ART. Board of Investments. Brandeis. 180 SCRA 496 (1989) Prudential Considerations Ashwander v. 10 ART. Jr. 108 Phil.R. 149036. Casido. (concurring) People v. j.S. Pasay Transportation Co. 58 (1937) Matibag v. Nos. Madison. Secretary of Natural Resources. Vera. §19 People v.

Wood. 73 SCRA 333 (1976) Abueva v. VIII. 7 L. 260 SCRA 250 (1996) iii. Ed. 346 SCRA 485 (2000) Anti-graft League of the Philippines. 82 S. 110 Phil. 94 Phil. 331 U. Cuenco. VIII. §11 Salary ART. 186. 301 SCRA 96 (1999) In re Integration of the Bar of the Philippines.S. VIII. Political Questions Baker v. 11 ii. Ripeness Rescue Army v. VIII. Desierto. PAGCOR. 152 SCRA 284 (1987) . 338 SCRA 81 (2000) BAYAN v.S. §9 Term of Office ART. Taxpayer’s Suit Pascual v. Zamora. 100 Phil. 1101 (1957) Sanidad v. Morato. Mantruste Systems Inc. 331 (1960) Telecommunications and Broadcast Attorneys of the Philippines v. PCGG. Aquino. 45 Phil. PAGCOR. 612 (1924) Integrated Bar of the Philippines v. Commission on Internal Revenue. 346 SCRA 485 (2000) iv. v. VIII. 49 SCRA 25 (1972) In re Atty. §10 Nitafan v. 312 SCRA 751 (1999) Fabian v. 334 SCRA 465 (2000) Fortich v. 534 (1954) Echegaray v. 691. Standing Joya v. Municipal Court of Los Angeles. Court of Appeals. 2d 663 (1962) Casibang v. 369 U. 338 SCRA 121-136 (2000) Estrada v. 353 SCRA 452 (2001) ii. 337 SCRA 733 (2000) Jurisdiction ART. 246 SCRA 540 (1995) Integrated Bar of the Philippines v. COMELEC. Secretary of Justice. §8 Appointments to the Judiciary ART. VIII. San Juan. Carr. 92 SCRA 642 (1979) Tanada v. Zamora. 549 (1947) v. 4 & 5. 342 SCRA 449 (2000) Del Mar v. Inc. 179 SCRA 136 (1989) Firestone Ceramics v. Edillon. Mootness Gonzales v. Secretary of Public Works. §§2. §7 The Judicial and Bar Council ART. 84 SCRA 554 (1978) Qualifications ART. Puno. Ct. Narvasa. 225 SCRA 568 (1993) Kilosbayan v. j. Desierto. Court of Appeals. 295 SCRA 470 (1998) In Re Cunanan. COMELEC. (concurring). 289 SCRA 337 (1998) Sandoval v. Executive Secretary. Corona. v.

§3 Prohibition against Administrative Functions ART. 289 SCRA 604 (1998) Period to Decide ART. 221 SCRA 464 (1993) Judge Caoibes. Inc. VIII. 246 SCRA 52 (1995) Fiscal Autonomy ART. THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS Limitations ART. 361 SCRA 395 (2001) Power to Discipline People v. §7 Orocio v. Jr. VIII. §13 Consing v. Vasquez. 173 SCRA 324 (1989) Valdez v. Court of Appeals. §4 Fiscal Autonomy ART. §16 VIII. IX-A. 177 SCRA 14 (1989) Substance of Decisions ART. v. IX-A. Court of Appeals. 227 SCRA 311 (1993) Quasi-Judicial Functions ART. VIII. IX-A. v. §14 Yao v. Court of Appeals. §3 Power to Appoint Employees ART. Court of Appeals.. VIII. 344 SCRA 202 (2000) Francisco v. §5 Power to Promulgate Rules ART. §6 Aruelo. IX-A. Jr. VIII. §2 Salary ART. IX-A. Court of Appeals. 194 SCRA 360 (1991) Komatsu Industries Phils. 213 SCRA 109 (1992) Mison v. §12 In re Judge Manzano. VIII. Commission on Audit. 166 SCRA 246 (1988) Certification Requirement ART. Ombudsman. 12 Administrative Supervision ART. Commission on Audit. Permskul. Gaccott. VIII. v. 187 SCRA 445 (1990) . IX-A. Jr. §15 Annual Report ART. §6 Maceda v.

Executive Secretary. §4 Salary Standardization ART. Ferrer. §1 Gaminde v. Bacal. §5 One-year Ban ART. 276 SCRA 619 (1997) Association of Court of Appeals Employees v. Aguirre. 87 Phil. 259 (1950) Civil Service Commission v. 274 SCRA 414 (1997) Security of Tenure in the Civil Service ART. §8 Civil Liberties Union v. IX-B. Mathay. 194 SCRA 317 (1991) Flores v. §2 Bliss Development Corporation Employees’ Union v. 347 SCRA 655 (2000) Scope of the Civil Service ART. Civil Service Commission. 223 SCRA 568 (1993) Prohibition on Multiple Compensation ART. Civil Service Commission. 13 Cua v. Civil Service Commission. 203 SCRA 596 (1991) Central Personnel Agency ART. Court of Appeals. Court of Appeals. Dacoycoy. 194 SCRA 317 (1991) Santos v. IX-B. IX-B. 345 SCRA 553 (2000) Peralta v. 236 SCRA 469 (1994) Orbos v. Executive Secretary. 323 SCRA 312 (2000) Civil Service Commission v. 38 SCRA 256 (1967) Sadueste v. IX-B. 156 SCRA 582 (1987) Dumayas. 312 SCRA 91 (1999) Garces v. IX-B. 72 Phil. 306 SCRA 425 (1999) Lazo v. Drilon. 237 SCRA 271 (1994) Cuevas v. 197 SCRA 106 (1991) Oath or Affirmation ART. 189 SCRA 459 (1990) Lapinid v. COMELEC. Salas. IX-B. §2(3) Right to Self-Organization Bangalisan v. IX-B. 135 SCRA 25 (1985) The Civil Service Commission Qualifications ART. Civil Service Commission. 259 SCRA 99 (1996) Filipinas Engineering & Machine Shop v. Municipality of Surigao. §7 Civil Liberties Union v. Civil Service Commission. 347 SCRA 338 (2000) Canonizado v. §3 Delos Santos v. Court of Appeals. COMELEC. Ferrer-Calleja. IX-B. v. §6 Prohibition on Multiple Offices ART. 485 (1941) The Commission on Elections . 357 SCRA 358 (2001) Mathay v. Commission on Audit. IX-B. Jr. Mallare.

IX-C. 201 SCRA 210 (1991) Brillantes.R. COMELEC. IX-C. IX-D. 231 SCRA 202 (1994) Development Bank of the Philippines v. Yorac. §1 Powers and Duties ART. COMELEC. Commission on Audit. v. 323 SCRA 778 (1999) Internal Organization ART. §2 Montejo v. G. IX-D. 243 SCRA 422 (1995) Beso v. 357 SCRA 496 (2001) Unido v. IX-C. COMELEC. Board of Election Supervisors. IX-C. §3 Villarosa v. Inc. v. §2 Development Bank of the Philippines v. §10 Expenses for Elections ART. IX-C. §5 Free and Open Party System ART. No. §7 Representation of Political Parties ART. 320 SCRA 507 (1999) Extraordinary Powers ART. §8 Election Period ART. §1 Cayetano v. Presiding Judge. §9 Bona fide Candidates ART. 14 Qualifications ART.10. COMELEC. 88435. IX-C. COMELEC. 319 SCRA 470 (1999) Abad v. 326 SCRA 100 (2000) Laurel v. 207 SCRA 1 (1992) Social Weather Stations. 242 SCRA 415 (1995) Mercado v. IX-C. 104 SCRA 17 (1981) Sanidad v. RTC-Manila. §6 Prohibition on Block Voting ART. Br. COMELEC. Jr. IX-C. IX-C. Aballe. 192 SCRA 358 (1990) Powers & Functions ART. IX-C. §11 Commission on Audit Qualifications ART. §4 National Press Club v. Monsod. COMELEC. 181 SCRA 529 (1990) Recommendation on Pardons ART. Commission on Audit. 16 January 2002 . IX-C.

No. §§289-294 Term of Office of Local Officials ART. 218 SCRA 203 (1993) Annual Report ART. §3 R. Commission on Audit. No. Reyes. G. Bel-Air Village Association. Aguirre. Court of Appeals. Province of Laguna. 200 SCRA 271 (1991) Local Government Code ART. 336 SCRA 201 (2000) Equitable Share from Development of National Wealth ART. No. G. COMELEC. LOCAL GOVERNMENT Local Government Units ART. X. 336 SCRA 201 (2000) Drilon v. 7160. 306 SCRA 750 (1999) PLDT v. 305 SCRA 353 (1999) Ganzon v. 12 November 2002 Adormeo v. §9 . 363 SCRA 522 (2001) Resolutio on Motion for Reconsideration Just Share in National Taxes ART. IX-D. §8 Borja v. §6 Pimentel v. 15 Uy v. Lim. Laguna v. §4 Pablico v. §1 Metro Manila Development Authority v.R. 154512. City of Davao. X. No. 147927. COMELEC. No. Hagedorn. 328 SCRA 607 (2000) Prohibition Against Exemption from Jurisdiction ART. 328 SCRA 836 (2000) Local Autonomy ART. 311 SCRA 602 (1999) Local Sectoral Representation ART. A. §4 IX. §§2-3 City Government of San Pablo. 325 SCRA 135 (1994) Income Generation Powers ART. No. X. 31 July 2002 Pimentel v. §5 Manila Electric Co. §7 R. X. §3 Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. 7160.. 7160 General Supervision ART. Villapando. COMELEC. X. R. Jr. X. 4 February 2002 Lonzanida v. 147870. Court of Appeals. X. 295 SCRA 157 (1996) Socrates v. Aguirre.R. G. IX-D. v. A. X. §2 R. A. X.

Yniguez. 16 Plebiscite Requirement ART. §11 Metro Manila Development Authority v. 353 SCRA 452 (2001) Romulo v. 160 SCRA 771 (1988) Procedure for Impeachment ART. COMELEC. A. X. X. Jr. No.1-12) Estrada v. COMELEC. X. X. 179 SCRA 287 (1989) X. 192 SCRA 100 (1990) Abbas v. §§18-20 Ordillo v. Impeachment Q & A (pp. X. 6713 Impeachable Officers ART. Desierto. v. ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS Public Office as Public Trust ART. X. §15 General Supervision over Autonomous Regions ART. 328 SCRA 836 (2000) Classification of Local Governments ART. COMELEC. 252 SCRA 211 (1995) Tan v. §16 Residual Powers ART.. X. 141 SCRA 263 (1986) In re Gonzalez. X. COMELEC. §2 In re Indorsement from Gonzales. §3 Sison & Hilbay. X. §17 Organic Act for Autonomous Regions ART. COMELEC. X. §4 . §13 Regional Development Councils ART. 214 SCRA 735 (1992) Miranda v. §1 R. 314 SCRA 603 (1999) Cawaling. 147 SCRA 727 (1986) Metropolitan Political Subdivisions ART. X. Executive Secretary. §12 Local Government Coordination ART. Bel-Air Village Association. 368 SCRA 453 (2001) Mariano v. 160 SCRA 771 (1988) The Sandiganbayan ART. Aguirre. X. §14 Autonomous Regions ART. X. §10 Padilla v.

X. XII.R. X. X. X. §3 Chavez v. 17 Uy v. 11 April 2002 Camanag v. 21 March 2002 Rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities ART. G. Sandiganbayan. §18 XI. Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources. R. Court of Appeals. XII. Desierto. Nos. 129682. 244 SCRA 286 (1995) Bureau of Internal Revenue v. §§8-9 Rank ART. XII. G. 12 April 2002 Fiscal Autonomy ART. §5 Social Function of the Use of Property ART. XII. 9 July 2002 Lee v.R. 335 SCRA 561 (2000) Macalino v. X. §11 Jurisdiction ART. §1 The Regalian Doctrine ART. 6 February 2002 Laurel v. Public Estates Authority. §16 Statement of Assets and Liabilities ART. 15 Presidential Ad-Hoc Fact-Finding Committee on Behest Loans v. 244 SCRA 286 (1995) Acop v.R. 115103. §10 Term ART. G. §17 Allegiance ART. X. G. G. Vasquez. Republic. Office of the Ombudsman. 347 SCRA 128 (2000) Miners’ Association of the Philippines v. X. Vasquez. 317 SCRA 272 (1999) Non-Accomodation Clause ART. Factoran. No. Guerrero. §14 Recovery of Unlawfully Acquired Properties ART. §12-13 Almonte v. X. X. 133250. No. 366 SCRA 524 (2001) Pagkatipunan v. XII. §§5-7 Qualifications ART. NATIONAL ECONOMY & PATRIMONY Goals of National Economy ART. 314 SCRA 207 (1999) Raro v. 248 SCRA 566 (1995) Garcia v. Sandiganbayan.R. 140199-140200. No. Mojica. Desierto. §2 Cruz v. 145368. No. 240 SCRA 100 (1995) Classification of Public Lands ART. §6 . Sandiganbayan. X. 354 SCRA 651 (2001) The Office of the Ombudsman ART. 268 SCRA 473 (1997) Almonte v. Ombudsman.

Secretary of the Department of Energy. 393 (1953) King v. 79 Phil. Register of Deeds. 461 (1947) Register of Deeds of Rizal v. 97 Phil.M. §20 Policy on Foreign Loans ART. XII. 155 SCRA 344 (1987) Republic v. GSIS. 120 SCRA 223 (1983) Economic & Planning Agency ART. XII. 246 SCRA 334 (1995) People v. 18 Persons Qualified to Acquire Public Lands ART. §16 Government Takeovers ART. Intermediate Appellate Court. Tuazon & Co. Castro-Bartolome. §12 Practice of Profession ART. 114 SCRA 799 (1982) Director of Lands v. §11 JG Summit Holdings v. Garcia. 326 SCRA 91 (2000) Yap v. XII. Court of Appeals. Land Tenure Administration. XII. 243 SCRA 436 (1995) Bagatsing v. 93 Phil. Hernaez. XII. 312 SCRA 603 (1999) Republic v. Court of Appeals. §19 Garcia v. 596 (1957) J. 239 SCRA 341 (1994) Godinez v. Corona. §21 Sanctions for Violation ART. §§7-8 Krivenko v. Court of Appeals. Quasha. 102 Phil. 58 (1955) Roman Catholic Apostolic Prefect of Davao v. Guzman. Committee on Privatization. 31 SCRA 413 (1970) Meralco v. §17-18 Anti-Trust Clause ART. 281 SCRA 330 (1997) Central Monetary Authority ART. XII. 146 SCRA 509 (1986) Republic v. v. Register of Deeds. Ung Sui Si Temple. 235 SCRA 567 (1994) Ong Ching Po v. §22 . DILG Policy on Private Corporations ART. Court of Appeals. Court of Appeals. §14 Javellana v. XII. 321 SCRA 218 (1999) Tatad v. Pak Luen. XII. 4 SCRA 792 (1962) Filipino First Policy ART. XII. 345 SCRA 143 (2000) Tatad v. XII. §§9-10 Preference to Qualified Filipinos Manila Prince Hotel v. 267 SCRA 408 (1997) Regulation of Franchises ART. XII.

v. 269 SCRA 393 (1997) Bangalisan v. §8 Urban Land Reform and Housing ART. Court of Appeals. §7 Tano v. XIII. Socrates. Jr. §17 Qualifications ART. Science and Technology. 281 SCRA 57 (1997) Agrarian and Natural Resources Reform Basis ART. Commission on Human Rights. XIII. 276 SCRA 619 (1997) Jacinto v. Culture and Sports State Mandate on Education ART. §6 Rights of Subsistence Fishermen ART. XIII. Secretary of Agrarian Reform. 19 SPECIAL INTERESTS Social Justice and Human Rights ART. 229 SCRA 117 (1994) Education. §§1-2 Labor ART. XIII. §§9-10 Health ART. XIII. §§11-13 Women ART. §§1-3 . §14 People’s Organizations ART. §§4-5 Association of Small Landowners in the Philippines v. §3 Philtread Workers Union v. 182 SCRA 51 (1990) Luz Farms v. Arts. §17 Powers and Functions ART. 278 SCRA 154 (1997) Incentive to Landowners ART. XIV. XIII. XIII. Secretary of Agrarian Reform. XIII. XIII. XIII. Court of Appeals. §§15-16 Human Rights The Commission on Human Rights ART. Confesor. §§18-19 Simon v. 175 SCRA 343 (1989) Gonzales. XIII. 192 SCRA 51 (1990) Stewardship Principle ART. XIII. XIII. Alvarez.

§19 The Family Foundation of the Nation ART. XIV. 196 SCRA 221 (1991) Language National Language ART. XIV. XV. §1 Marriage ART. 178 SCRA 637 (1989) Right to Choose Profession ART. XV. XIV. XV. 135 SCRA 706 (1985) Tangonan v. §§14-18 Sports ART. 137 SCRA 245 (1985) Ownership Requirement ART. XIV. XIV. XIV. §4(3)(4) Academic Freedom ART. Court of Appeals. Board of Regents v. Cruz Pano. 161 SCRA 7 (1988) Licup v. §5(5) Guingona. XIV. XIV. 176 SCRA 571 (1989) Alcuaz v. PSBA. TIP. §6 Official Languages ART. §§10-11 Regulation of Technology ART. 176 SCRA 571 (1989) Mindanao University v. 20 U. XV. Judge Ayson. 313 SCRA 404 (1999) University of the Philippines v. University of San Carlos. 215 SCRA 86 (1992) Villar v. 348 SCRA 265 (2000) U. P. P. 356 SCRA 57 (2001) U. §7 Science and Technology Priority for Research and Development ART. DAR. §4 . v. §13 Arts and Culture ART. v. §5(3) Highest Budgetary Priority ART. §12 Protection of Intellectual Property ART. XIV. Carague. §4 Tax Exemption ART. Jr. XIV. Civil Service Commission. §2 Guarantees ART. Court of Appeals. XIV. v. §5(2) Miriam College Foundation v. Judge Ayson. XIV.P. §3 Care for Elderly ART.

Deputy Ombudsman for the Military. 323 SCRA 623 (2000) Ownership of Mass Media ART. 219 SCRA 256 (1993) Other National Symbols ART. GENERAL PROVISIONS The Philippine Flag ART. §4-5 National Police Force ART. 309 SCRA 726 (1999) Alunan III v. XVI. Division Superintendent of Schools in Cebu. §1 Ebralinag v. Asuncion. XVI. §11 . XVI. §2 The Armed Forces of the Philippines ART. XVI. §6 Agbay v. 21 XII. XVI.