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Classical

NEWTONIAN SYSTEM OF PARTICLES

by

C. P. Frahm

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Mechanics 2. Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

1

ID Sheet: MISN-0-494

Title: Newtonian System of Particles OF PROJECT PHYSNET

The goal of our project is to assist a network of educators and scientists in

Version: 2/1/2000 Evaluation: Stage B0 transferring physics from one person to another. We support manuscript

processing and distribution, along with communication and information

Length: 2 hr; 12 pages

systems. We also work with employers to identify basic scientific skills

Input Skills: as well as physics topics that are needed in science and technology. A

number of our publications are aimed at assisting users in acquiring such

1. Vocabulary: momentum, angular momentum, potential energy

skills.

(MISN-0-493).

2. Evaluate the gradient of a given function (MISN-0-492). Our publications are designed: (i) to be updated quickly in response to

3. Evaluate simple line integrals (MISN-0-492). field tests and new scientific developments; (ii) to be used in both class-

room and professional settings; (iii) to show the prerequisite dependen-

Output Skills (Knowledge): cies existing among the various chunks of physics knowledge and skill,

K1. Define center of mass. as a guide both to mental organization and to use of the materials; and

(iv) to be adapted quickly to specific user needs ranging from single-skill

K2. State Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Define: gravitational

instruction to complete custom textbooks.

field, gravitational potential, lines of force, equipotential surfaces.

K3. Show each of the following for a system of particles: the total New authors, reviewers and field testers are welcome.

momentum is equal to the momentum of the center of mass, the

total angular momentum is equal to the angular momentum of the PROJECT STAFF

center of the center of mass plus the angular momentum about

the center of mass, the total kinetic energy is equal to the kinetic Andrew Schnepp Webmaster

energy of the center of mass plus the kinetic energy relative to the Eugene Kales Graphics

center of mass. Peter Signell Project Director

K4. Derive from Newton’s laws each of the following for a system of

particles: (a) the total external force acting on the system is equal ADVISORY COMMITTEE

to the time rate of change of the total momentum. (b) the total

external torque is equal to the time rate of change of the total

D. Alan Bromley Yale University

angular momentum. (c) the total work done on the system by

E. Leonard Jossem The Ohio State University

non-conservative forces is equal to the change in total mechanical

A. A. Strassenburg S. U. N. Y., Stony Brook

energy.

K5. Starting from Newton’s laws derive the law governing the motion Views expressed in a module are those of the module author(s) and are

of a system with variable mass. not necessarily those of other project participants.

External Resources (Required):

c 2001, Peter Signell for Project PHYSNET, Physics-Astronomy Bldg.,

°

1. J. Marion, Classical Dynamics, Academic Press (1988). Mich. State Univ., E. Lansing, MI 48824; (517) 355-3784. For our liberal

2. D. T. Greenwood, Principles of Dynamics, Prentice-Hall (1965). use policies see:

http://www.physnet.org/home/modules/license.html.

3 4

MISN-0-494 1 MISN-0-494 2

NEWTONIAN SYSTEM OF PARTICLES The quantity M is the total mass of the system Pwhile V is the

velocity of the center of mass. The expression rα is zero

α mα ~

by since:

C. P. Frahm X

mα~rα =

X

~ =

mα (~rα − R)

X

mα~rα −

X

mα R~,

α α α α

1. Introduction ~ − MR

MR ~ = 0.

Physical systems seldom contain only a single particle. Instead there It should be noted that:

are usually many particles making up larger objects whose size or internal P~rel = 0 .

structure cannot be ignored. The larger objects may be rotating, colliding

c. Read Marion from eq. (9.13) to Example 9.2 and also Sect. 9.4

with each other or flying apart. One can in principle apply Newton’s

through Eq. 9.23 and note that:

laws as formulated in the preceding unit to each separate particle of each

object and proceed to make calculations. Unfortunately for most systems L~ com = R ~ × P~ ,

of interest there are so many particles (molecules, for example) to deal

~rα × p~α , p~α ≡ mα~˙rα .

X

with that this procedure is impractical. However, it is still possible to ~ rel

L =

utilize Newton’s mechanics in a very general and powerful way for such α

multi- particle systems. By introducing the concept of the center of mass d. Read Marion Eq. 9.36 through Eq. 9.39 and note that:

of a system of particles, it is possible to deduce some very useful theorems

1

regarding the motion of the system as a whole without having to deal with Tcom = MV 2 ,

each separate particle. This unit is concerned with such analyses of multi- 2

particle systems along with a review of some aspects of Newton’s law of X1

Trel = mα vα2 .

gravitation. α

2

2. The simplest way to derive these laws is to make use of the results of

2. Procedures the previous unit and sum over the particles of the system. (Marion

seems to go through a lot of unnecessary gyrations). Recommended

1. a. Study Equations 9.2 to 9.3 of Marion.

derivations are outlined below.

b. For the second, third, and fourth items in Output Skill K3 (mo-

mentum, angular momentum and kinetic energy), the total for the a. From MISN-0-493 (Newton’s second law for the α-th particle):

system is just the sum (scalar or vector, whichever is appropriate)

of the corresponding quantities for the individual particles. In each dP~α

F~α = .

case, the total can be expressed as the sum of two terms one associ- dt

ated with the motion of the center of mass (denoted by a subscript Summing on all particles gives:

com) and another associated with the motion of the particles rel-

X dP~α d X~ dP~

ative to the center of mass (denoted by a subscript rel ). Thus for

X

F~α = = Pα = .

momentum, one has: α α

dt dt α dt

mα~˙rα = ~˙ + ~˙r)

X X X

P~ ≡ P~α = mα ( R α Now separate F~α into an external part and an internal part (see

α α α Marion Section 9.3 through eq. (9.13):

Ã !

~˙ + ~˙ = M V

X

mα~˙rα = M R F~α = F~α(`) + f~αβ .

X X

= mα R ~ = P~com .

α α β

5 6

MISN-0-494 3 MISN-0-494 4

X X X X internal or external. Similarly, E contains all potential energies

F~α = F~α(`) + f~αβ = F~α(`) ≡ F~α(`) . whether internal or external.

α α α,β α

Note: Other laws such as the impulse law or the conservation laws

Hence: can now be easily derived as in the single particle case.

P~

F~α(`) = . 3. Within the context of classical mechanics the mass of a particle is con-

dt stant. Hence if one wishes to consider an object whose mass is variable,

b. From MISN-0-493 (Torque law for the α-th particle) then that object should, strictly speaking, be thought of as a system of

particles rather than as a single particle. However, if that one object is

~

~ α = d Lα .

N

the dominant one under discussion, then it is often convenient to use a

dt pseudo-particle formulation of Newtonian mechanics which treats the

object as a single entity with a variable mass. Such a formulation can

Summing on all particles

be derived from the impulse law for a system of particles. For a small

~α

X dL ~ time interval ∆t this law takes the form:

X

~α = d X~ dL

N = Lα = .

α α

dt dt α dt F~ (`) ∆t ≈ ∆P~ .

As in part (a): Although the result is the same, it is convenient to consider two cases,

X X X X one when the object gains mass and one where the object loses mass.

~α =

N ~rα × F~α = ~rα × (F~α(`) + f~αβ )

Case 1. Object gains mass (change in mass = ∆m > 0):

α α α β

X X X X time t time t + D t

= ~rα × F~α(`) + ~rα × f~αβ = ~rα × F~α(`) = ~ α(`) ≡ N

N ~ (`) .

α α,β α α

Thus:

~ Dm m

~ (`) = dL .

N ` ` m + Dm

dt v0 v ` `

v + Dv

c. From MISN-0-493 (Mechanical energy law the α-th particle):

F~ (`) ∆t ≈ (m + ∆m)(~v + ∆~v ) − (m~v + ∆m~v0 ) ≈ m∆~v + (~v − ~v0 )∆m .

Wn,α = ∆Eα .

Thus,

d~v dm

Summing over all particles: F~ (`) = m + (~v − ~v0 ) .

X X X dt dt

Wn,α = ∆Eα = ∆ Eα , Case 2. Object loses mass (change in mass = ∆m < 0):

α α α

or

Wn = ∆E ,

where X X

Wn = Wn,α and E = Eα .

α α

7 8

MISN-0-494 5 MISN-0-494 6

Acknowledgments

time t time t + D t

The author would like to thank Illinois State University for support in

the construction of this lesson. Preparation of this module was supported

in part by the National Science Foundation, Division of Science Education

m -Dm m + Dm Development and Research, through Grant #SED 74-20088 to Michigan

` ` ` `

v v0 v + Dv State University.

F~ (`) ∆t ≈ [(m + ∆m)(~v + ∆~v ) − ∆m~v0 ] − m~v ≈ m∆~v + (~v − ~v0 )∆m .

Thus:

d~v dm

F~ (`) = m + (~v − ~v0 ) .

dt dt

Note: ~v is the velocity of the new mass just before it is added to the

object in Case 1, and it is the velocity of the ejected mass just after it

is ejected in Case 2.

4. If one wants to use Newton’s second law in the predictor role to which

we have assigned it, it is necessary to know in advance the force(s)

acting on a particle. This knowledge can be obtained in one of two

ways: first by measuring the force, that is, using the definition of force

in terms of the standard mass; and second, by calculating the value

of the force from another fundamental law (assuming such a law is

known). Within the context of classical mechanics, there is only one

type of force for which the force law is known (at least to a good

approximation). This is, of course, gravitation and the force law is

again due to Newton. There are three other known basic forces in

nature: the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force and the

weak nuclear force. Only for the first of these have we been successful

in determining the force law (i.e. the Lorentz force).

Read Marion, sections 5.1 - 5.3.

5. ¤ Work problems 2-50, 5-7 and 5-8 in Marion, see Example 5.3.

Read section 4-7 of Greenwood.

¤ Work problems 4-1, 4-2, 4-7 and 4-9 in Greenwood.

Bring all problem solutions to the exam.

9 10

11 12

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