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# DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

## UNIT-I SYSTEMS AND THEIR REPRESENTATION

Basic elements in control systems Open and closed loop systems Electrical analogy of
Mechanical and thermal systems Transfer function Synchros AC and DC servomotors Block
diagram reduction techniques Signal flow graphs.

PART-A

## 1. Define Transfer Function. Nov/Dec 2013, Nov/Dec 2010

The Transfer function of a system is defined as the ratio of the laplace transform of output to
Laplace transform of input with zero initial conditions

2. Write Masons gain formula of signal flow graph. May/June 2013,May/June2014, May/June2015,
May/June2016
Masons gain formula states that the overall gain of the system as follows Overall gain,
T = T(S) = transfer function of the system
K= Number of forward path in the signal flow.
PK = forward path gain of the Kth forward path
= 1 (Sum of individual loop gains) + (Sum of gain products of all possible combinations of two non
touching loops) -(Sum of gain products of all possible combinations of three non touching loops) + .
k = ( for that part of the graph which is not touching Kth forward path)

3. Write down the transfer function of the system whose block diagram is shown below. Nov/Dec 2012,
Apr/May 2011

C(s)/R(s)=G1(s)+G2(s)+G3(s)-(G4(s)G5(s))

4. What are the advantages of closed loop systems? May/June 2012,Nov/Dec 2015, Nov/Dec 2012
The advantages of closed loop system are:
Accuracy of such system is always very high because controller modifies and manipulates the
actuating signal such that error in the system will be zero.
Such system sense environmental changes, as well as internal disturbances and accordingly
modifies the error.
In such system, there is reduced effect of non-linearitys and distortions.
5. What are properties of signal flow graph? May/June 2012
The basic properties of signal flow graph are
Signal flow graph is applicable to linear systems.
It consists of nodes and branches.
A node adds the signal of all incoming branches and transmits this sum to all outgoing branches.
Signals travel along branches only in the marked direction and is multiplied by the gain of the
branch.
The algebraic equations must be in the form of cause and effect relationship.

6. What is meant by Block diagram? And what are the basic components of block diagram? Nov/Dec
2011, Nov/Dec 2015, May 2017
A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by each component of
the system and shows the flow of signals.
The basic elements of block diagram are blocks, branch point and summing point.

7. Define open loop and closed loop control system. Apr/May 2011, Nov/Dec 2011
The control system in which the output quantity has no effect upon the input quantity is called open loop
control system. This means that the output is not feedback to the input for correction.
The control system in which the output has an effect upon the input quantity so as to maintain the desired
output values are called closed loop control system.

8. Draw the analogous electrical network for the mechanical system is shown in fig using Force
voltage analogy. Apr/May 2010

## 9. What are the characteristics of negative feedback? May/June 2014

Reduced effects of non-linearities and distortion.
Increased accuracy.
Reduced sensitivity of the ratio of the output to input to variations in system characteristics.
Tendency toward oscillation or instability

## 10. What is signal flow graph?

The graphical representation of the variables of a set of linear algebraic equations representing the
system is called signal flow graph.

11. Why negative feedback is preferred in control systems? Nov 2016, May 2017
The negative feedback results in better stability in steady state and rejects any disturbance signals.

12. Distinguish between open loop and closed loop control systems. May/June2016
Open Loop Closed Loop
Inaccurate Accurate
Simple and Economical Complex and Costlier
The change in output due toThe change in output due to
external disturbance are notexternal disturbance are
corrected corrected automatically
May oscillate and become They
un are generally stable
stable

13. Find the transfer function of the given network shown in fig1. May/June2015

C(s)/R(s)=G1(s) G2(s)/(1+G2(s))

## 14. What is a control system? Nov/Dec 2016

A system consists of a number of components connected together to perform a specific function. In
a system when the output quantity is controlled by varying the input quantity then the system is called
control system.

15. List the basic elements of translational mechanical systems? Nov/Dec 2016
Mass M, Kg, Stiffness of spring K, N/m and Viscous friction coefficient dashpot B, N-sec/m

## 17. What is electrical zero position of a synchro transmitter? AU Nov 2015

The electrical zero of a synchro transmitter is a position of rotor at which one of the coil to coil
voltages is zero. Any angular motion of the rotor is measured with respect to the electrical zero position of
the rotor.

18. What are the difference between a synchro transmitter and a synchro control transformer? Nov
2016
Rotor of synchro transmitter is dumb bell shape. But the rotor of control transformer is
cylindrical.
The rotor winding of synchro transmitter is excited by an AC voltage. In control transformer,
the induced emf is used an output signal.
PART-B

1. Write the differential equations governing the Mechanical rotational system shown in fig.

## Draw the Torque-voltage and Torque-current electrical analogous circuits.

K1
B2 K3

J1 J2 J3

B1
T

2. Determine the overall transfer function C(S)/R(S) for the system shown in fig.

H2

R(S) - +
G1 + G2 G3 G4
+ -
-
H1

3. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical systems shown below. Draw the
force-voltage and force-current electrical analogous circuits and verify by writing mesh
and node equations.

X1 X2

K1 K2

f(t) M1 M2
B12 B2
B1
4. Obtain the closed loop transfer function C(S)/R(S) of the system whose block diagram is
shown in fig

H2

R(S) -
+ +
G1 G2 G3 C(S)
+ - +
+

H1

G4
5. For the system represented by the block diagram shown in fig. Determine C1/R1
and C2/R1

-
R1 C1
+ G1 G2 G3

H2

H1

+
R2 C2
+ +
G4 G5 G6
-

6. Find the overall gain C(s) / R(s) for the signal flow graph shown below.
-H1
G5
G1 G2 G3 G4
R(S) C(S)
4
1 2 3 5

-H2

G6
-H3

UNIT-II

## TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS

Time response Time domain specifications Types of test input I and II order system
response Error coefficients Generalized error series Steady state error Root locus
construction- Effects of P, PI, PID modes of feedback control Time response analysis.

PART-A

## 1. Specify the time domain specifications. May&Dec 2016,

The time domain specifications are 1. Delay time, 2. Rise time, 3. Peak time, 4. Maximum
peak overshoot, 5. Settling time.

## 2. What are the Units of Kp,Kv and Ka? Nov/Dec 2013

Sec-1

3. What is the effect of PI controller on the system performance? Nov/Dec 2013, May/June
2016
The PI controller is increases the order of the system by one, which results in reducing the
steady state error. But the system becomes less stable than the original system.

4. The closed loop transfer function of second order system is given by 400/s2+2s+400.
Determine the damping ratio and natural frequency of oscillation. May/June 2013
Damping ratio=0.05 and natural frequency of oscillation=20 rad/sec

5. Give the steady state errors to a various standard inputs for type-2 system. May/June 2013
Kp=,Kv=,Ka=constant

6. What are transient and steady state response of a control system? Nov/Dec 2012
The output variation during the time, it takes to achieve its final value is known as
transient response. The time required to achieve the final value is called transient response. It is
that part of the time response which remains after complete transient response vanishes from the
system output.

7. With reference to time response of a control system define peak time. Nov/Dec 2012
The time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the first time is peak time.

## 8. List the advantages of generalized error co-efficients. May/June 2012

i) Steady state is function of time.
ii) Steady state can be determined from any type of input.

9. With reference to time response of a control system define rise time. Nov/Dec 2011
The time taken for response to raise from 0% to 100% for the very first time is rise time.
10. How a control system is classified depending on the value of damping? Apr/May 2011
Undamped(=0),critically damped(=1),under damped(<1)and over damped(>1)

11. Why derivative controller is not used in control system? Apr/May 2011, May/June 2012,
Nov2015
The derivative controller produces a control action based on the rate of change of error
signal, and it does not produce corrective measures for any constant error. Hence derivative
controller is not used alone in the control system

## 12. What is meant by peak overshot? Nov/Dec 2010, May 2017

Peak overshoot is defined as the ratio of maximum peak value measured from the
Maximum value to final value

13. What is meant by steady state error? Nov/Dec 2010,Nov/Dec 2016, Nov/Dec 2015
The difference between the desired output and the actual output of the system is called
steady state error, which is indicates the accuracy and plays an important role in designing the
system.

14. Determine the error co-efficients for the system having G(s) H(s)=(s+2)/s(1+0.5s)(1+0.2s).
Apr/May 2010
Kp=,Kv=2/(0.5)(0.2)=20,Ka=0

## 15. What are type-0 and type-1 systems? May/June 2014

If the number of pole lying at the origin is 1 the system is said to be type-1 system.
If the number of pole lying at the origin is 0 the system is said to be type-0 system.

## 16. What is meant by rise time? May/June 2014

The time taken for response to raise from 0% to 100% for the very first time is rise time.

17. Name the test signals used in time response analysis. May/June 2016 ,Nov/Dec 2015
The standard test signals employed for time domain studies are 1. step signal, ramp signal,
parabolic signal, impulse signal.

18. How do you find the type of the system? May/June 2015
The number of poles lying at the origin decides the type number of a control system.

19. Find the unit impulse response of the system H(s) =5s/(s+2) with zero initial conditions.
May/June 2015

## 20. State the basic properties of root locus. Nov 2016.

The root locus technique is used for stability analysis.
Using root locus technique the range of values of k, for as stable system can be determined

21. Give the relation between static and dynamic error coefficients. Nov 2016
C0 = 1/1+Kp , C1 = 1/Kv C2 = 1/Ka

## 22. Determine type and order of the following system G(s)H(s)=10/[s3(s2+2s+1)]

PART B

1. (a) Derive the expressions and draw the response of first order system for unit step input.

(b) Draw the response of second order system for critically damped case and when input is unit
step. (AU May 2017)

2. Derive the expressions for Rise time, Peak time, Peak overshoot, delay time

3 Derive the time domain specifications of a second order system. (May 2016)

4. Derive the expression for the unit step response of a second order (AU Nov 2015)
(i) Under damped and (ii) undamped system

5. Explain the rules to construct root locus of a system (AU Nov 2015)

6. Explain briefly the PID controller action with block diagram and obtain its transfer function model
(AU Nov 2015)

7. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G(S) = 1/S(1+S). The input to
the system is described by r(t)=4+6t. Find the generalized error coefficients and steady state error. (AU
Nov 2015)

## 9. The unity feedback system is characterized by an open loop transfer function is

G(s)= 10 / s(s+2).Determine the rise time, Peak time, percentage of Peak overshoot and settling time
for step input of 12 units. (AU May 2017)
10. A positional control system with velocity feedback is shown in fig. What is the response of the
system for unit step input.

11. (i) Measurements conducted on a Servomechanism show the system response to be c(t)=1+0.2
-60t -1.2 10 t. when subjected to a unit step. Obtain an expression for
closed loop transfer function.

(ii). A positional control system with velocity feedback is shown in fig. What is the response c (t) to
the unit step input. Given that =0.5.and also calculate rise time, peak time, maximum overshoot
and settling time. (AU Nov 2016)

12. Draw the root locus of the following system is given by G(S)H(S) = K(S+1)/S(S2+5S+20) (AU Nov 2016)

13. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function G(s) = 10(s+2)/ s2 (s+1).
Find (a) position, velocity and acceleration error constants.
(b)the steady state error when the input is R(s) where R(s) =3/s 2/s+1/3s3 (AU may 2016)

14. The open loop transfer function of a servo system with unity feedback system is
G(s) = 10/ s(0.1s+1).Evaluate the static error constants of the system. Obtain the steady state error of the
system when subjected to an input given Polynomial r(t) = a +a t +a /2 t2

15. The unity feedback system is characterized by an open loop transfer function is
G(s)= K / s(s+10).Determine the gain K ,so that the system will have a damping ratio of 0.5.For this value
of K, determine settling time,Peak overshoot and time to Peak overshoot for a unit step input.

16. (i) For a servomechanisms with open loop transfer function(S)=10/(S+2)(S+3).What type
Of input signal gives constant steady state error and calculate its value. (AU May 2017)

(ii) Find the static error coefficients for a system whose G(s) H(s) =10/ s (1+s) (1+2s) and also find
the steady state error for r(t)=1+ t + t2/2.
10. (i) Sketch the root locus of the system whose open loop transfer function is G(S)=K/S(S+2)(S+4)
Find the value of K so that damping ratio is 0.5

(ii) A unity feedback system has an amplifier with gain KA=10 and gain ratio G(s) = 1 / s (s+2) in the feed
forward Path .A derivative feedback ,H(s)=s KO is introduced as a minor loop around G(s).Determine
the derivative feedback constant ,KO ,so that the system damping factor is 0.6

UNIT-III

## FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS

Frequency response Bode plot Polar plot Determination of closed loop response from open loop
response - Correlation between frequency domain and time domain specifications- Effect of Lag, lead
and lag-lead compensation on frequency response- Analysis.

PART-A

## 1. State the significance of Nichols plot. Nov/Dec2016

The G(jw) locus or the Nichols plot is sketched on the standard Nichols chart. The meeting
point of M contour with G(jw) locus gives the magnitude of the closed loop system and the meeting
point with N circle gives the argument or phase of the closed loop system.

## 2. What is series compensation? Nov/Dec2016

The compensator is a physical device whose transfer function is denoted as Ge(s). If the
compensator is placed in series with the forward path transfer function of the plant, the scheme is
called series compensation.

## 3. What are frequency domain specifications? May/June 2016,Nov/Dec2015

The frequency domain specifications are resonant peak, resonant frequency,
Bandwidth, Cut-off rate, Gain margin and Phase margin.

## 4. What are M and N circles? Nov/Dec2016, Nov/Dec2015

The magnitude M of closed loop transfer function with unity feedback will be in the form of
circle in complex plane for each constant value of M. The family of these circles is called M circles.
If the phase of closed loop transfer function with unity feedback is , then N=tan . For each constant
value of N, a circle can be drawn in the complex plane. The family of these circles is called N circles.

## 5. Define phase margin. Nov/Dec 2013

It is the amount of phase lag at the gain cross The phase margin , over frequency required to
bring system to the verge of instability.
6. State Nyquist stability criterion for the closed loop system when the open loop system is stable.
Nov/Dec 2013
If the Nyquist plot of the open loop transfer function G(s) corresponding to the nyquist
contour in the S-plane encircles the critical point 1+j0 in the contour in clockwise direction as many
times as the number of right half S-plane poles of G(s),the closed loop system is stable.

7. What is meant by centre frequency in frequency response analysis? Nov/dec 2012, Apr/May
2011
The frequency at which the two asymptotic meet in a magnitude plot is called corner
frequency.

## 8. What is Nichols chart? Nov/dec 2012

The chart consisting if M & N loci in the log magnitude versus phase diagram is called
Nichols chart.

## 9. State the uses of Nichols chart. May/June 2012

The complete closed loop frequency response can be obtained.
The 3db B.W. of the closed loop system can be obtained.
To design the value of K for the given Nr.
The frequency Wr corresponding to the Nr for the closed loop system can be obtained.
Once Mr and Wr are known the various other frequency and time domain specifications can be
obtained.

10. Name the parameters which constitute frequency domain specifications. Nov/Dec 2011
Resonant peak, Resonant frequency, Bandwidth, Cut-off rate, Gain margin and Phase margin.

## 11. List the advantages of Nichols chart? Nov/Dec 2010

It is used to find the closed loop frequency response from open loop frequency response.
Frequency domain specifications can be determined from Nichols chart.
The gain of the system can be adjusted to satisfy the given specification.

12. What are the specifications used in frequency domain analysis? Nov/Dec 2010
Resonant peak, Resonant frequency, Bandwidth ,Cut-off rate, Gain margin and Phase margin.

13. Derive the Transfer function of a lead compensator network. Apr/May 2010

## 14. What is corner frequency? May/June 2014

The frequency at which the two asymptotic meet in a magnitude plot is called corner
frequency.

15. The damping ratio and the un- damped natural frequency of a second order system are 0.5 and
5 respectively. Calculate the resonant frequency. May/June 2014

## 16. What is minimum phase system?

The minimum phase systems are systems with minimum phase transfer functions. In
minimum phase transfer functions, all poles and zero will lie on the left half of S-plane.
17. Define the terms Gain margin and phase margin.
The gain margin, kg is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of the open loop transfer
function at phase cross over G(jfrequency. Gain margin kg = 1 /|pc)| .
It is the amount of phase lag at the gain cross The phase margin , over frequency required to bring
system to the verge of instability.

## 18. What is the use of Nichols chart? May/June 2015

The complete closed loop frequency response can be obtained.
The 3db B.W. of the closed loop system can be obtained.
To design the value of K for the given Nr.
The frequency Wr corresponding to the Nr for the closed loop system can be obtained.
Once Mr and Wr are known the various other frequency and time domain specifications can be
obtained.

19. What are the characteristics of phase lead network? May/June 2015
Increases system bandwidth which usually correlates to reduced rise and settling times and a
susceptibility to high frequency noise.
Increases the phase of the forward-path transfer function in the vicinity of the zero-gain crossover
frequency. This increases the phase margin of the closed-loop system and hence the relative stability.
20. Define phase and gain cross over frequencies. May 2016
The frequency at which, the phase of open loop transfer functions is 180 is called phase
cross over frequency pc.
The gain cross over frequency gc is the frequency at which the magnitude of the open loop
transfer function is unity.

## 21. What is lag-lead compensation? May 2016 , May2017

When sinusoidal signal is applied, both phase lag and phase lead occurs in the output, but in
different frequency regions, phase lag occurs at low frequency region and phase lead occurs in the
high frequency region

22. Draw the approximate polar plot for a Type 0 second order system. AU Nov2015

23. What are two notations of system stability to be satisfied for a linear time-invariant system to
be stable? AU Nov 2016
The two notions of system stability to be satisfied for a linear time-invariant system to be stable are
(i) When the system is excited by a bounded input, the output is bounded.
(ii) In the absence of the input, the output tends to zero irrespective of the initial
conditions.

24. Why frequency domain compensation is normally carried out using Bode plots? AU Nov 2016.
When the system is designed by use of the frequency response analysis, the effect of noise
disturbances and parameters variations are relatively easy to visualize and incorporate corrective
measures.

25. What are the effects and limitations of phase-lag control? AU Nov2016
If the pole introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system, then the lag
compensator increased the order of the system by one.
When a system is stable and does not satisfy the steady state performance specifications then
lag compensation can be employed so that the system is redesigned to satisfy the steady state
requirements.

26. What does a gain margin close to unity or phase margin close to zero indicate? AU Nov2016.
A gain margin close to unity or phase margin close to zero indicates the system is highly
oscillatory.

## 27. What is meant by frequency response? May 2017

A frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the system is a
sinusoidal signal.

PART B

1. Sketch the bode plot showing the magnitude in decibels and phase angle in degrees as a function Of log
frequency for the transfer function, G(S)=75(1+0.2S)/S(S2+16S+100)
From the bode plot, determine the gain cross over frequency.

## 2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is G(S)=K/S(1+S)(1+2S)

Sketch the Polar plot and determine the Gain margin and Phase margin.

3. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over

Frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S)=10/S(1+0.4S)(1+0.1S) (AU May 2016, May 2017)

4. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G(S)=1/S(1+S)2
Sketch the polar plot and determine the gain and phase margin.

5. Construct Bode plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is given below determine
Gain and Phase margin of G(S) =4/S (1+0.5s) (1+0.08s) (AU Nov 2015)

6. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G(S) =1/S(S+1)(2S+1)
Sketch the polar plot and determine the gain and phase margin. (AU Nov2016, May 2017)
7. (i).Discuss the correlation between time and frequency response of second order system.

(ii).How does closed loop frequency response is determined from the open loop frequency response
using Nichols chart? Explain how the gain adjustment is carried out on the Nichols chart.

8. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency,
Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S)=1/S(S2+3S+5) (AU Nov 2016)

9. Sketch the polar plot for the following transfer function and finds Gain cross over frequency,
Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S)=10(S+2)(S+4)/S(S2-3S+10)

10. Construct the polar plot for the function, G(S)= 2(S+1)/S2
Find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin.

11. Plot the Bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and phase cross
over frequencies G(s) =Ks2 / (1+0.2s) (1+0.02s).Determine the value of K for a
gain cross over frequency of 20 rad/sec.

12. Sketch the polar plot for the following transfer function .and find Gain cross over frequency, Phase
cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin.
G(s) = 400/ s (s+2)(s+10)

13. Design a lead compensator for unity feedback system with open loop transfer function
G(S)=K/S(1+S)(S+5)
To satisfy the following specifications.

(i).KV 50

UNIT-IV

## Characteristics equation Routh Hurwitz criterion Nyquist stability criterion- Performance

criteria Lag, lead and lag-lead networks Lag/Lead compensator design using bode plots.

PART-A

## 1. Define BIBO stability. Nov/Dec 2016, Nov/Dec 2010

A linear relaxed system is said to have BIBIO stability if every bounded input results in a
bounded output.

## 2. What is dominant pole? Nov/Dec 2016,Nov/Dec2015

The dominant pole is a pair of complex conjugate pole which decides the transient
response of the system. In higher order systems the dominant poles are very close to origin and all
other poles of the system are widely separated and so they have less effect on transient response
of the system.

## 3. State the necessary conditions for stability. May/June 2016

A linear time- invariant system is stable if the following two notions of system stability are
satisfied.
When the system is by a bounded input, the output is bounded.
In the absence of the input, the output tends towards zero irrespective of initial conditions.

4. How will you find rot locus on real axis? May/June 2016
To find the root loci on real axis, choose the test point on real axis. If the total number of
poles and zeros on the real axis to the right of this test point is odd number then the test point lie
on the root locus. If it is even then the test point does not lie on the root locus.

5. Write necessary and sufficient condition for stability in Rouths stability criterion.
May/June 2013
Rouths criterion states that, the necessary and sufficient condition for the stability is
that, all the elements in the first column of the Rouths array be positive. If the condition is not
met, the system is unstable, and the number of sign changes in the elements of the first column of
Rouths array corresponds to the number of roots of characteristic equation in the right half of
the S-plane.

6. Define Nyquist stability criterion. May/June 2013, Apr/May 2010, Nov/Dec2015, May/June
2012, May 2016, May 2017
If the Nyquist plot of the open loop transfer function G(s) corresponding to the nyquist
contour in the S-plane encircles the critical point 1+j0 in the contour in clockwise direction as
many times as the number of right half S-plane poles of G(s),the closed loop system is stable.

7. State any two limitations of Routh stability criterion. Nov 2012, Nov 2011
The limitations of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria are (1) It is valid only if the
Characteristic equation is algebraic. (2) If any co-efficient of the Characteristic equation is
complex or contains power of e this criterion can not be applied. (3) It gives information about
how many roots are lying in the RHS of S-plane; values of the roots are not available. Also it
cannot distinguish between real & complex roots.
8. State the advantages of Nyquist stability criterion over Rouths stability criterion. Nov/dec
2012
It gives same information about absolute stability as provided by rouths criterion.
Useful for determining the stability of the closed loop system from open loop transfer function
without knowing the roots of characteristic equation. Information regarding frequency response
can be obtained. Very useful for analyzing conditionally stable systems.
It also indicates relative stability giving the values of G.M. and P.M.

## 9. What is root locus? May/June 2012

The path taken by the roots of the open loop transfer function when the loop gain is varied
from 0 to infinity are called root locus.

## 10. Define stability of a system. Apr/May 2011, Nov/dec 2011

Absolutely stable with respect to a parameter of the system, if it is stable for all values of
this parameter.

11. State the rule for obtaining breakaway point in root locus. Apr/May 2011
At break away point the root locus breaks from the real axis to enter into the complex
plane. At break in point the root locus enters the real axis from the complex plane. To find the
break away or break in points, form a equation for K from the characteristic equation and
differentiate the equation of K with respect to s. Then find the roots of the equation dK/dS = 0.
The roots of dK/dS = 0 are break away or break in points provided for this value of root the gain
K should be positive and real.

12. What are the effects of addition of open loop poles? Apr/May 2010
1. Root locus shift towards imaginary axis. 2. System stability relatively decreases.
3. System becomes more oscillatory in nature. 4. Range of operating value of K for system
stability decreases.

## 13. What is meant by relative stability? May/June 2014

Relative stability is the degree of closeness of the system; it is an indication of strength or
degree of stability.

## 14. What is characteristic equation? May 2016, May 2017

The denominator polynomial of C(S)/R(S) is the characteristic equation of the system.

## 15. What is centroid? How it is to be determined?

The meeting point of the asymptotes with the real axis is called centroid. The centroid is
given by
Centroid = (sum of poles sum of zeros) / (n-m)
n-number of poles.
m-number of zeros.

16. How the roots of characteristic are related to stability? AU Nov 2015
If the roots of characteristic equation has positive real part then the impulse response of the
system is not bounded (the impulse response will be finite as t tends to infinity.) hence the system
will be unstable. If the roots have negative real parts then impulse response is bounded. (the
impulse response becomes zero as t tends to infinity). Hence the system will be stable.
17. What is the value of gain K at any given point on Root locus ? May/June 2015
The gain K at a point S= Sa on root locus is given by
K= product of length of vectors from open loop zero to the point Sa
product of length of vectors from open loop poles to the point Sa

18. Draw the electric lag network and its pole-zero plot. AU Nov 2015

19. What is the basis for the selection of particular compensator for a system? AU Nov2015
Lag compensation is employed for a stable system for improvement in steady state performance.
Lead compensation is employed for stable/unstable system for improvement in transient state
performance.
Lag-Lead compensation is employed for stable/unstable system for improvement in both steady
state and transient state performance

PART B

1. (i) Using Routh criterion determine the stability of the system whose characteristics equation is
s4+8s3+18s2+16s+5 =0 (b) S5+4S4+8S3+8S2+7S+4=0 (AU May 2016)

(ii)F(S) = s6 +s5-2s4-3s3-7s2-4s-4 =0.Find the number of roots falling in the RHS plane and LHS
plane.

2.Design suitable lead compensators for a system unity feedback and having open loop transfer function
G(s)= K/ s(s+1) to meet the specifications. Of Kv = 10Sec-1 and phase margin = 35o (AU Nov 2016)

3. Describe the procedure for the design of lag compensator using bode plot. (AU May 2016, May 2017)

4. (i).Design a Lag compensator for the unity feedback system whose closed loop transfer function C(s) /
R(s) = K / (s (s+4) (s+80) + K) is to meet the following specifications P.M 33 . And Kv 30.

5. Derive the transfer function of the lag lead compensator. (AU Nov 2015)

6. Determine the range of values of K for which the system described by the following characteristics
equation is stable. S3+3KS2+(K+2)S+4=0 , (AU Nov 2016)

7. (i) Using Routh criterion determine the stability of the system whose characteristics equation is
s4+8s3+18s2+16s+5 =0 (AU May 2017)

8. Explain in detail the realization of Lag, Lead, lag-lead electrical network.(AU May 2017)

9. Describe the procedure for the design of lead compensator using bode plot. (AU Nov 2015)

10. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by
G(S)=K/(S+2)(S+4)(S2+6S+25) by applying the routh criterion,discuss the stability of the closed loop
system as a function of K. Determine the values of K which will cause sustained oscillations in the
closed loop system. What are the corresponding oscillation frequencies? (AU Nov 2015)
11. Draw the Nyquist plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is G(s) = K / s(s+2)
(s+10).Determine the range of k for which closed loop system is stable.(AU May 2016)

12. Sketch the Nyquist Plot for a system with the open loop transfer function
G(s) H(s) = K (1+0.5s)(1+s) / (1+10s)(s+1). Determine the range of k for which closed loop system is
Stable.

13. (i) Determine the range of K for stability of unity feedback system whose open loop
transfer function is G(s) = K / s (s+1)(s+2)
(ii) The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
G(s) = K (s+1) / s3+as2+2s+1. Determine the value of K and a so that the system oscillates at a
frequency of 2 rad/sec.

14. (i) Construct Routh array and determine the stability of the system represented by the characteristics
equation S5+S4+2S3+2S2+3S+5=0.Comment on the location of the roots of characteristic
equation.
(ii) Construct Routh array and determine the stability of the system represented by the characteristics
equation S7+9S6+24S4+24S3+24S2+23S+15=0comment on the location of the roots of
characteristic equation.
UNIT-V

## STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS

Concept of state variables State models for linear and time invariant Systems Solution of state
and output equation in controllable canonical form Concepts of controllability and observability
Effect of state feedback.

PART-A

## 1. State sampling theorem. Nov/Dec 2016, May/June 2015, Nov/Dec 2010

Sampling theorem states that a band limited continuous time signal with highest frequency fm,
hertz can be uniquely recovered from its samples provided that the sampling rate Fs is greater than or
equal to 2fm samples per second.

2. List the main properties of state transition matrix. Nov/Dec 2016, May/June 2014, Apr/May 2010
The following are the properties of state transition matrix
(0) = eAx0 = I (unit matrix).
(t) = eAt = (e-At)-1 = [(-t)]-1.
(t1+t2) = eA(t1+t2) = (t1) (t2) = (t2) (t1).

## 3. What is zero order hold circuit? May/June 2016

It is a hold circuit. The output of the hold circuit is analog signal whose magnitude equal to
latest sampled value till next sample occurs.

4. Define state and state variable of a model system. May/June 2016, May/June 2013, Nov/dec 2012
The state of a dynamical system is a minimal set of variables(known as state variables) such
that the knowledge of these variables at t-t0 together with the knowledge of the inputs for
t > t0 , completely determines the behavior of the system for t > t0
The variables involved in determining the state of dynamic system are called state variables. Generally
x1(t),x2(t),x3(t).xn(t) are called state variables.

## 5. What are state variables? Nov/Dec 2015

The variables involved in determining the state of dynamic system are called state variables.
Generally x1(t),x2(t),x3(t).xn(t) are called state variables.

## 7. Define state equation. Nov/Dec 2013

The state matrix is in the form of equation is called as state equation.
8. Give the concept of controllability. Nov/Dec 2013, May 2017
A system is said to be completely state controllable if it is possible to transfer the system state
from any initial state X(t0) at any other desired state X(t), in specified finite time by a control vector
U(t).

9. What are the advantages of state space representation? May/June 2013, Nov/Dec 2011
1. The state space analysis can be performed with initial conditions.
2. The variables used to represent the system can be any variables in the system.
3. Using this analysis the internal states of the system at any time instant can be predicted.

## 10. What is meant by sampled data control systems? Nov/dec 2012

In a control system, if the signals in any part/point of the system is discrete
( digital or sampled) then the entire system is said to be sampled data system. Any control system can
be called as sampled data control system, when ever, A digital system (computer/
microprocessor/microcontroller) becomes part of control system.Control components are on the time
sharing mode. Control signals are discrete or digital signals.

11. For a first order differential equation described by x(t)=ax(t)+bu(t), draw the block diagram
form of the state diagram. AU Nov2016

## 12. How the model matrix is determined? May/June 2012

The modal matrix M can be formed from eigen vectors. Let m1,m2,m3,mn be the eigen
vectors of n th order system. Now the modal matrix M is obtained by arranging all the eigen vectors
column wise as shown below. Modal matrix M=[m1 m2 m3. Mn]

## 13. What is meant by quantization? May/June 2012, Apr/May 2011

The process of approximating a discrete time continuous valued signal into a discrete valued
signal is called quantization. If the sampled analog value lies in between two digital adjacent values
then the sampled analog value will be represented by a digital value which is nearer to the analog value
than the other. This process of approximation is called quantization.

## 14. What is alias in sampling process? Nov/Dec 2011

Overlapping the signals is called as aliasing.

15. Name the methods of state space representation of phase variables? Apr/May 2011
(i)State space representation using phase variables
(ii) State space representation using canonical variables

16. Mention the need for state variables. Nov/Dec 2010, May 2016
state space analysis of control system is based on the modern theory which is applicable to all
types of systems like single input single output systems, multiple inputs and multiple outputs systems,
linear and non linear systems, time varying and time invariant systems. Let us consider few basic terms
related to state space analysis of modern theory of control systems.

17. Determine the controllability and observability of the system described by the state equation.
Apr/May 2010, Nov 2015
A general nth order multi-input linear time invariant system
X = AX +Bu. Is completely controllable if and only if the rank of the composite matrix
Qc = [ B:AB : A2B:.. :An-1B] is n
A general nth order multi-input multiple output linear time invariant system
. X = AX +Bu.
Y= CX is completely observable if rank of the composite matrix
Qc = [ CT:ATCT:.. :(AT)n-1B] is n

18. Draw the circuit diagram of sample and hold circuit. May/June 2014

## 19. What are the advantages sampled data control system?

(i) Accuracy increased while compared with analog system
(ii) Speed increased and flexibility improved
(iii) Digital transducers have better resolution
(iv) Highly immune to noise.
(v) Linearizable becomes simple.
(vi) Free from transmission noise.
(vii) Complex algorithms can easily be implemented

## 20. What are phase variables?

The phase variables are defined as those particular state variables which are obtained from one of the
system variable and its derivatives. Usually the variable used is the system output and the remaining
state variables are then derivatives of the output.

## 21. Define Observability of a system. May/June 2015&2016

A system is said to be completely observable if every state X(t) can be completely identified by
measurements of the output Y(t) over a finite time interval.

## 22. State the limitations of state variable feedback. AU Nov 2016.

The state feed back design requires arbitrary pole placements to achieve the desire performance.
The necessary and sufficient condition to be satisfied for arbitrary pole placement is that the system is
completely state controllable.

23. Draw the block diagram representation of state model. May 2017
PART-B

## 1. (i).Write the state equation for a mechanical system shown in fig

2. For the given circuit shown in fig. Obtain State equations the input
voltage source is u(t) and the output y(t) is taken across capacitor c2

## 3. Obtain and briefly explain the state space representation of

Armature controlled dc motor.
Field controlled dc motor.
4. Find the controllable canonical realization of the following systems. Hence obtain the state
space model in controllable canonical form.
H(s)=s2+2s+3 / s4+3s3+12s2+9s+8
H(s)= 2s+9 / s3+8s2+12s+10
5. Find the observable canonical realization of the system.
H(s)=s+2 / s4+4s3+3s2+12s+ 5
(i). Realize H(s)=s(s+2) / (s+1)(s+3)(s+4) in cascade form. Hence obtain the
State model.
6.Find observable canonical form for the transfer functions using Masons gain
formula for the systems.
(i).G(s) = 2 / s3+2s2+4s+8
(ii).G(s) = s+3 / s2+2s+7
7.Hence obtain the model matrix P and diagonalize the given state model.
Check the controllability of the following state space system.