Basic elements in control systems Open and closed loop systems Electrical analogy of
Mechanical and thermal systems Transfer function Synchros AC and DC servomotors Block
diagram reduction techniques Signal flow graphs.
PARTA
2. Write Masons gain formula of signal flow graph. May/June 2013,May/June2014, May/June2015,
May/June2016
Masons gain formula states that the overall gain of the system as follows Overall gain,
T = T(S) = transfer function of the system
K= Number of forward path in the signal flow.
PK = forward path gain of the Kth forward path
= 1 (Sum of individual loop gains) + (Sum of gain products of all possible combinations of two non
touching loops) (Sum of gain products of all possible combinations of three non touching loops) + .
k = ( for that part of the graph which is not touching Kth forward path)
3. Write down the transfer function of the system whose block diagram is shown below. Nov/Dec 2012,
Apr/May 2011
C(s)/R(s)=G1(s)+G2(s)+G3(s)(G4(s)G5(s))
4. What are the advantages of closed loop systems? May/June 2012,Nov/Dec 2015, Nov/Dec 2012
The advantages of closed loop system are:
Accuracy of such system is always very high because controller modifies and manipulates the
actuating signal such that error in the system will be zero.
Such system sense environmental changes, as well as internal disturbances and accordingly
modifies the error.
In such system, there is reduced effect of nonlinearitys and distortions.
5. What are properties of signal flow graph? May/June 2012
The basic properties of signal flow graph are
Signal flow graph is applicable to linear systems.
It consists of nodes and branches.
A node adds the signal of all incoming branches and transmits this sum to all outgoing branches.
Signals travel along branches only in the marked direction and is multiplied by the gain of the
branch.
The algebraic equations must be in the form of cause and effect relationship.
6. What is meant by Block diagram? And what are the basic components of block diagram? Nov/Dec
2011, Nov/Dec 2015, May 2017
A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by each component of
the system and shows the flow of signals.
The basic elements of block diagram are blocks, branch point and summing point.
7. Define open loop and closed loop control system. Apr/May 2011, Nov/Dec 2011
The control system in which the output quantity has no effect upon the input quantity is called open loop
control system. This means that the output is not feedback to the input for correction.
The control system in which the output has an effect upon the input quantity so as to maintain the desired
output values are called closed loop control system.
8. Draw the analogous electrical network for the mechanical system is shown in fig using Force
voltage analogy. Apr/May 2010
11. Why negative feedback is preferred in control systems? Nov 2016, May 2017
The negative feedback results in better stability in steady state and rejects any disturbance signals.
12. Distinguish between open loop and closed loop control systems. May/June2016
Open Loop Closed Loop
Inaccurate Accurate
Simple and Economical Complex and Costlier
The change in output due toThe change in output due to
external disturbance are notexternal disturbance are
corrected corrected automatically
May oscillate and become They
un are generally stable
stable
13. Find the transfer function of the given network shown in fig1. May/June2015
C(s)/R(s)=G1(s) G2(s)/(1+G2(s))
15. List the basic elements of translational mechanical systems? Nov/Dec 2016
Mass M, Kg, Stiffness of spring K, N/m and Viscous friction coefficient dashpot B, Nsec/m
18. What are the difference between a synchro transmitter and a synchro control transformer? Nov
2016
Rotor of synchro transmitter is dumb bell shape. But the rotor of control transformer is
cylindrical.
The rotor winding of synchro transmitter is excited by an AC voltage. In control transformer,
the induced emf is used an output signal.
PARTB
1. Write the differential equations governing the Mechanical rotational system shown in fig.
K1
B2 K3
J1 J2 J3
B1
T
2. Determine the overall transfer function C(S)/R(S) for the system shown in fig.
H2
R(S)  +
G1 + G2 G3 G4
+ 

H1
3. Write the differential equations governing the mechanical systems shown below. Draw the
forcevoltage and forcecurrent electrical analogous circuits and verify by writing mesh
and node equations.
X1 X2
K1 K2
f(t) M1 M2
B12 B2
B1
4. Obtain the closed loop transfer function C(S)/R(S) of the system whose block diagram is
shown in fig
H2
R(S) 
+ +
G1 G2 G3 C(S)
+  +
+
H1
G4
5. For the system represented by the block diagram shown in fig. Determine C1/R1
and C2/R1

R1 C1
+ G1 G2 G3
H2
H1
+
R2 C2
+ +
G4 G5 G6

6. Find the overall gain C(s) / R(s) for the signal flow graph shown below.
H1
G5
G1 G2 G3 G4
R(S) C(S)
4
1 2 3 5
H2
G6
H3
UNITII
Time response Time domain specifications Types of test input I and II order system
response Error coefficients Generalized error series Steady state error Root locus
construction Effects of P, PI, PID modes of feedback control Time response analysis.
PARTA
3. What is the effect of PI controller on the system performance? Nov/Dec 2013, May/June
2016
The PI controller is increases the order of the system by one, which results in reducing the
steady state error. But the system becomes less stable than the original system.
4. The closed loop transfer function of second order system is given by 400/s2+2s+400.
Determine the damping ratio and natural frequency of oscillation. May/June 2013
Damping ratio=0.05 and natural frequency of oscillation=20 rad/sec
5. Give the steady state errors to a various standard inputs for type2 system. May/June 2013
Kp=,Kv=,Ka=constant
6. What are transient and steady state response of a control system? Nov/Dec 2012
The output variation during the time, it takes to achieve its final value is known as
transient response. The time required to achieve the final value is called transient response. It is
that part of the time response which remains after complete transient response vanishes from the
system output.
7. With reference to time response of a control system define peak time. Nov/Dec 2012
The time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the first time is peak time.
9. With reference to time response of a control system define rise time. Nov/Dec 2011
The time taken for response to raise from 0% to 100% for the very first time is rise time.
10. How a control system is classified depending on the value of damping? Apr/May 2011
Undamped(=0),critically damped(=1),under damped(<1)and over damped(>1)
11. Why derivative controller is not used in control system? Apr/May 2011, May/June 2012,
Nov2015
The derivative controller produces a control action based on the rate of change of error
signal, and it does not produce corrective measures for any constant error. Hence derivative
controller is not used alone in the control system
13. What is meant by steady state error? Nov/Dec 2010,Nov/Dec 2016, Nov/Dec 2015
The difference between the desired output and the actual output of the system is called
steady state error, which is indicates the accuracy and plays an important role in designing the
system.
14. Determine the error coefficients for the system having G(s) H(s)=(s+2)/s(1+0.5s)(1+0.2s).
Apr/May 2010
Kp=,Kv=2/(0.5)(0.2)=20,Ka=0
17. Name the test signals used in time response analysis. May/June 2016 ,Nov/Dec 2015
The standard test signals employed for time domain studies are 1. step signal, ramp signal,
parabolic signal, impulse signal.
18. How do you find the type of the system? May/June 2015
The number of poles lying at the origin decides the type number of a control system.
19. Find the unit impulse response of the system H(s) =5s/(s+2) with zero initial conditions.
May/June 2015
21. Give the relation between static and dynamic error coefficients. Nov 2016
C0 = 1/1+Kp , C1 = 1/Kv C2 = 1/Ka
1. (a) Derive the expressions and draw the response of first order system for unit step input.
(b) Draw the response of second order system for critically damped case and when input is unit
step. (AU May 2017)
2. Derive the expressions for Rise time, Peak time, Peak overshoot, delay time
3 Derive the time domain specifications of a second order system. (May 2016)
4. Derive the expression for the unit step response of a second order (AU Nov 2015)
(i) Under damped and (ii) undamped system
5. Explain the rules to construct root locus of a system (AU Nov 2015)
6. Explain briefly the PID controller action with block diagram and obtain its transfer function model
(AU Nov 2015)
7. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G(S) = 1/S(1+S). The input to
the system is described by r(t)=4+6t. Find the generalized error coefficients and steady state error. (AU
Nov 2015)
11. (i) Measurements conducted on a Servomechanism show the system response to be c(t)=1+0.2
60t 1.2 10 t. when subjected to a unit step. Obtain an expression for
closed loop transfer function.
(ii). A positional control system with velocity feedback is shown in fig. What is the response c (t) to
the unit step input. Given that =0.5.and also calculate rise time, peak time, maximum overshoot
and settling time. (AU Nov 2016)
12. Draw the root locus of the following system is given by G(S)H(S) = K(S+1)/S(S2+5S+20) (AU Nov 2016)
13. For a unity feedback control system the open loop transfer function G(s) = 10(s+2)/ s2 (s+1).
Find (a) position, velocity and acceleration error constants.
(b)the steady state error when the input is R(s) where R(s) =3/s 2/s+1/3s3 (AU may 2016)
14. The open loop transfer function of a servo system with unity feedback system is
G(s) = 10/ s(0.1s+1).Evaluate the static error constants of the system. Obtain the steady state error of the
system when subjected to an input given Polynomial r(t) = a +a t +a /2 t2
15. The unity feedback system is characterized by an open loop transfer function is
G(s)= K / s(s+10).Determine the gain K ,so that the system will have a damping ratio of 0.5.For this value
of K, determine settling time,Peak overshoot and time to Peak overshoot for a unit step input.
16. (i) For a servomechanisms with open loop transfer function(S)=10/(S+2)(S+3).What type
Of input signal gives constant steady state error and calculate its value. (AU May 2017)
(ii) Find the static error coefficients for a system whose G(s) H(s) =10/ s (1+s) (1+2s) and also find
the steady state error for r(t)=1+ t + t2/2.
10. (i) Sketch the root locus of the system whose open loop transfer function is G(S)=K/S(S+2)(S+4)
Find the value of K so that damping ratio is 0.5
(ii) A unity feedback system has an amplifier with gain KA=10 and gain ratio G(s) = 1 / s (s+2) in the feed
forward Path .A derivative feedback ,H(s)=s KO is introduced as a minor loop around G(s).Determine
the derivative feedback constant ,KO ,so that the system damping factor is 0.6
UNITIII
Frequency response Bode plot Polar plot Determination of closed loop response from open loop
response  Correlation between frequency domain and time domain specifications Effect of Lag, lead
and laglead compensation on frequency response Analysis.
PARTA
7. What is meant by centre frequency in frequency response analysis? Nov/dec 2012, Apr/May
2011
The frequency at which the two asymptotic meet in a magnitude plot is called corner
frequency.
10. Name the parameters which constitute frequency domain specifications. Nov/Dec 2011
Resonant peak, Resonant frequency, Bandwidth, Cutoff rate, Gain margin and Phase margin.
12. What are the specifications used in frequency domain analysis? Nov/Dec 2010
Resonant peak, Resonant frequency, Bandwidth ,Cutoff rate, Gain margin and Phase margin.
13. Derive the Transfer function of a lead compensator network. Apr/May 2010
15. The damping ratio and the un damped natural frequency of a second order system are 0.5 and
5 respectively. Calculate the resonant frequency. May/June 2014
Resonant frequency= rad/sec
19. What are the characteristics of phase lead network? May/June 2015
Increases system bandwidth which usually correlates to reduced rise and settling times and a
susceptibility to high frequency noise.
Increases the phase of the forwardpath transfer function in the vicinity of the zerogain crossover
frequency. This increases the phase margin of the closedloop system and hence the relative stability.
20. Define phase and gain cross over frequencies. May 2016
The frequency at which, the phase of open loop transfer functions is 180 is called phase
cross over frequency pc.
The gain cross over frequency gc is the frequency at which the magnitude of the open loop
transfer function is unity.
22. Draw the approximate polar plot for a Type 0 second order system. AU Nov2015
23. What are two notations of system stability to be satisfied for a linear timeinvariant system to
be stable? AU Nov 2016
The two notions of system stability to be satisfied for a linear timeinvariant system to be stable are
(i) When the system is excited by a bounded input, the output is bounded.
(ii) In the absence of the input, the output tends to zero irrespective of the initial
conditions.
24. Why frequency domain compensation is normally carried out using Bode plots? AU Nov 2016.
When the system is designed by use of the frequency response analysis, the effect of noise
disturbances and parameters variations are relatively easy to visualize and incorporate corrective
measures.
25. What are the effects and limitations of phaselag control? AU Nov2016
If the pole introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system, then the lag
compensator increased the order of the system by one.
When a system is stable and does not satisfy the steady state performance specifications then
lag compensation can be employed so that the system is redesigned to satisfy the steady state
requirements.
26. What does a gain margin close to unity or phase margin close to zero indicate? AU Nov2016.
A gain margin close to unity or phase margin close to zero indicates the system is highly
oscillatory.
A frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the system is a
sinusoidal signal.
PART B
1. Sketch the bode plot showing the magnitude in decibels and phase angle in degrees as a function Of log
frequency for the transfer function, G(S)=75(1+0.2S)/S(S2+16S+100)
From the bode plot, determine the gain cross over frequency.
Sketch the Polar plot and determine the Gain margin and Phase margin.
3. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over
Frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S)=10/S(1+0.4S)(1+0.1S) (AU May 2016, May 2017)
4. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G(S)=1/S(1+S)2
Sketch the polar plot and determine the gain and phase margin.
5. Construct Bode plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is given below determine
Gain and Phase margin of G(S) =4/S (1+0.5s) (1+0.08s) (AU Nov 2015)
6. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G(S) =1/S(S+1)(2S+1)
Sketch the polar plot and determine the gain and phase margin. (AU Nov2016, May 2017)
7. (i).Discuss the correlation between time and frequency response of second order system.
(ii).How does closed loop frequency response is determined from the open loop frequency response
using Nichols chart? Explain how the gain adjustment is carried out on the Nichols chart.
8. Sketch the Bode plot and hence find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency,
Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S)=1/S(S2+3S+5) (AU Nov 2016)
9. Sketch the polar plot for the following transfer function and finds Gain cross over frequency,
Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin. G(S)=10(S+2)(S+4)/S(S23S+10)
10. Construct the polar plot for the function, G(S)= 2(S+1)/S2
Find Gain cross over frequency, Phase cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin.
11. Plot the Bode diagram for the following transfer function and obtain the gain and phase cross
over frequencies G(s) =Ks2 / (1+0.2s) (1+0.02s).Determine the value of K for a
gain cross over frequency of 20 rad/sec.
12. Sketch the polar plot for the following transfer function .and find Gain cross over frequency, Phase
cross over frequency, Gain margin and Phase margin.
G(s) = 400/ s (s+2)(s+10)
13. Design a lead compensator for unity feedback system with open loop transfer function
G(S)=K/S(1+S)(S+5)
To satisfy the following specifications.
(i).KV 50
PARTA
4. How will you find rot locus on real axis? May/June 2016
To find the root loci on real axis, choose the test point on real axis. If the total number of
poles and zeros on the real axis to the right of this test point is odd number then the test point lie
on the root locus. If it is even then the test point does not lie on the root locus.
5. Write necessary and sufficient condition for stability in Rouths stability criterion.
May/June 2013
Rouths criterion states that, the necessary and sufficient condition for the stability is
that, all the elements in the first column of the Rouths array be positive. If the condition is not
met, the system is unstable, and the number of sign changes in the elements of the first column of
Rouths array corresponds to the number of roots of characteristic equation in the right half of
the Splane.
6. Define Nyquist stability criterion. May/June 2013, Apr/May 2010, Nov/Dec2015, May/June
2012, May 2016, May 2017
If the Nyquist plot of the open loop transfer function G(s) corresponding to the nyquist
contour in the Splane encircles the critical point 1+j0 in the contour in clockwise direction as
many times as the number of right half Splane poles of G(s),the closed loop system is stable.
7. State any two limitations of Routh stability criterion. Nov 2012, Nov 2011
The limitations of the RouthHurwitz stability criteria are (1) It is valid only if the
Characteristic equation is algebraic. (2) If any coefficient of the Characteristic equation is
complex or contains power of e this criterion can not be applied. (3) It gives information about
how many roots are lying in the RHS of Splane; values of the roots are not available. Also it
cannot distinguish between real & complex roots.
8. State the advantages of Nyquist stability criterion over Rouths stability criterion. Nov/dec
2012
It gives same information about absolute stability as provided by rouths criterion.
Useful for determining the stability of the closed loop system from open loop transfer function
without knowing the roots of characteristic equation. Information regarding frequency response
can be obtained. Very useful for analyzing conditionally stable systems.
It also indicates relative stability giving the values of G.M. and P.M.
11. State the rule for obtaining breakaway point in root locus. Apr/May 2011
At break away point the root locus breaks from the real axis to enter into the complex
plane. At break in point the root locus enters the real axis from the complex plane. To find the
break away or break in points, form a equation for K from the characteristic equation and
differentiate the equation of K with respect to s. Then find the roots of the equation dK/dS = 0.
The roots of dK/dS = 0 are break away or break in points provided for this value of root the gain
K should be positive and real.
12. What are the effects of addition of open loop poles? Apr/May 2010
1. Root locus shift towards imaginary axis. 2. System stability relatively decreases.
3. System becomes more oscillatory in nature. 4. Range of operating value of K for system
stability decreases.
16. How the roots of characteristic are related to stability? AU Nov 2015
If the roots of characteristic equation has positive real part then the impulse response of the
system is not bounded (the impulse response will be finite as t tends to infinity.) hence the system
will be unstable. If the roots have negative real parts then impulse response is bounded. (the
impulse response becomes zero as t tends to infinity). Hence the system will be stable.
17. What is the value of gain K at any given point on Root locus ? May/June 2015
The gain K at a point S= Sa on root locus is given by
K= product of length of vectors from open loop zero to the point Sa
product of length of vectors from open loop poles to the point Sa
18. Draw the electric lag network and its polezero plot. AU Nov 2015
19. What is the basis for the selection of particular compensator for a system? AU Nov2015
Lag compensation is employed for a stable system for improvement in steady state performance.
Lead compensation is employed for stable/unstable system for improvement in transient state
performance.
LagLead compensation is employed for stable/unstable system for improvement in both steady
state and transient state performance
PART B
1. (i) Using Routh criterion determine the stability of the system whose characteristics equation is
s4+8s3+18s2+16s+5 =0 (b) S5+4S4+8S3+8S2+7S+4=0 (AU May 2016)
(ii)F(S) = s6 +s52s43s37s24s4 =0.Find the number of roots falling in the RHS plane and LHS
plane.
2.Design suitable lead compensators for a system unity feedback and having open loop transfer function
G(s)= K/ s(s+1) to meet the specifications. Of Kv = 10Sec1 and phase margin = 35o (AU Nov 2016)
3. Describe the procedure for the design of lag compensator using bode plot. (AU May 2016, May 2017)
4. (i).Design a Lag compensator for the unity feedback system whose closed loop transfer function C(s) /
R(s) = K / (s (s+4) (s+80) + K) is to meet the following specifications P.M 33 . And Kv 30.
5. Derive the transfer function of the lag lead compensator. (AU Nov 2015)
6. Determine the range of values of K for which the system described by the following characteristics
equation is stable. S3+3KS2+(K+2)S+4=0 , (AU Nov 2016)
7. (i) Using Routh criterion determine the stability of the system whose characteristics equation is
s4+8s3+18s2+16s+5 =0 (AU May 2017)
8. Explain in detail the realization of Lag, Lead, laglead electrical network.(AU May 2017)
9. Describe the procedure for the design of lead compensator using bode plot. (AU Nov 2015)
10. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by
G(S)=K/(S+2)(S+4)(S2+6S+25) by applying the routh criterion,discuss the stability of the closed loop
system as a function of K. Determine the values of K which will cause sustained oscillations in the
closed loop system. What are the corresponding oscillation frequencies? (AU Nov 2015)
11. Draw the Nyquist plot for the system whose open loop transfer function is G(s) = K / s(s+2)
(s+10).Determine the range of k for which closed loop system is stable.(AU May 2016)
12. Sketch the Nyquist Plot for a system with the open loop transfer function
G(s) H(s) = K (1+0.5s)(1+s) / (1+10s)(s+1). Determine the range of k for which closed loop system is
Stable.
13. (i) Determine the range of K for stability of unity feedback system whose open loop
transfer function is G(s) = K / s (s+1)(s+2)
(ii) The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
G(s) = K (s+1) / s3+as2+2s+1. Determine the value of K and a so that the system oscillates at a
frequency of 2 rad/sec.
14. (i) Construct Routh array and determine the stability of the system represented by the characteristics
equation S5+S4+2S3+2S2+3S+5=0.Comment on the location of the roots of characteristic
equation.
(ii) Construct Routh array and determine the stability of the system represented by the characteristics
equation S7+9S6+24S4+24S3+24S2+23S+15=0comment on the location of the roots of
characteristic equation.
UNITV
Concept of state variables State models for linear and time invariant Systems Solution of state
and output equation in controllable canonical form Concepts of controllability and observability
Effect of state feedback.
PARTA
2. List the main properties of state transition matrix. Nov/Dec 2016, May/June 2014, Apr/May 2010
The following are the properties of state transition matrix
(0) = eAx0 = I (unit matrix).
(t) = eAt = (eAt)1 = [(t)]1.
(t1+t2) = eA(t1+t2) = (t1) (t2) = (t2) (t1).
4. Define state and state variable of a model system. May/June 2016, May/June 2013, Nov/dec 2012
The state of a dynamical system is a minimal set of variables(known as state variables) such
that the knowledge of these variables at tt0 together with the knowledge of the inputs for
t > t0 , completely determines the behavior of the system for t > t0
The variables involved in determining the state of dynamic system are called state variables. Generally
x1(t),x2(t),x3(t).xn(t) are called state variables.
9. What are the advantages of state space representation? May/June 2013, Nov/Dec 2011
1. The state space analysis can be performed with initial conditions.
2. The variables used to represent the system can be any variables in the system.
3. Using this analysis the internal states of the system at any time instant can be predicted.
11. For a first order differential equation described by x(t)=ax(t)+bu(t), draw the block diagram
form of the state diagram. AU Nov2016
15. Name the methods of state space representation of phase variables? Apr/May 2011
(i)State space representation using phase variables
(ii) State space representation using canonical variables
16. Mention the need for state variables. Nov/Dec 2010, May 2016
state space analysis of control system is based on the modern theory which is applicable to all
types of systems like single input single output systems, multiple inputs and multiple outputs systems,
linear and non linear systems, time varying and time invariant systems. Let us consider few basic terms
related to state space analysis of modern theory of control systems.
17. Determine the controllability and observability of the system described by the state equation.
Apr/May 2010, Nov 2015
A general nth order multiinput linear time invariant system
X = AX +Bu. Is completely controllable if and only if the rank of the composite matrix
Qc = [ B:AB : A2B:.. :An1B] is n
A general nth order multiinput multiple output linear time invariant system
. X = AX +Bu.
Y= CX is completely observable if rank of the composite matrix
Qc = [ CT:ATCT:.. :(AT)n1B] is n
18. Draw the circuit diagram of sample and hold circuit. May/June 2014
23. Draw the block diagram representation of state model. May 2017
PARTB
2. For the given circuit shown in fig. Obtain State equations the input
voltage source is u(t) and the output y(t) is taken across capacitor c2