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Understanding Frank

SMART

Understanding
SENSORS
Third Edition Randy Frank Understanding
Now in its third edition, Understanding Smart Sensors is the most complete, up-to-date,
and authoritative summary of the latest applications and developments impacting smart
sensors in a single volume. This thoroughly expanded and revised edition of an Artech
bestseller contains a wealth of new material, including:

SMART SENSORS
Critical coverage of sensor fusion and energy harvesting;
The latest details on wireless technology;
The roles and challenges involved with sensor apps and cloud sensing,
Greater emphasis on applications throughout the book;
Dozens of figures and examples of current technologies from over 50 companies.

SMART
Utilizing the latest in smart sensors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and
microelectronic research and development, readers get the technical and practical
information they need to keep their designs and products on the cutting edge. Plus,
engineers see how network (wired and wireless) connectivity continues to impact smart
sensor development and the emerging need for trusted sensing.

SENSORS
By combining information on micromachining and microelectronics, this is the first book
that links these two important aspects of smart sensor technology so professionals dont
have to keep multiple references on hand. This comprehensive resource also includes
an extensive list of smart sensor acronyms and a glossary of key terms. With an effective
blend of historical information and the latest content, the third edition of Understanding
Smart Sensors provides a unique combination of foundational and future-changing
information.

Third Edition
Randy Frank is the president of Randy Frank and Associates in Scottsdale, Arizona. A well-
established author and holder of three patents, Mr. Frank received his B.S. and M.S. in
electrical engineering, as well as his M.B.A. in management, from Wayne State University
in Detroit, Michigan. He is a Society of Automotive Engineers Fellow, former chairman
and a member of the SAE Sensors Standards Committee, an IEEE Fellow, and a former
Third Edition

member of the IEEE 1451 Smart Transducer Interface standards committee.

Include bar code:

ISBN-13: 978-1-60807-507-2
ISBN-10: 1-60807-507-9

BOSTON LONDON

www.artechhouse.com
Randy Frank
Contents

Preface xvii

CHAPTER 1
Smart Sensor Basics 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Mechanical-Electronic Transitions in Sensing 3
1.3 Nature of Sensors 4
1.4 Integration of Micromachining and Microelectronics 9
1.5 Application Example 11
1.6 Summary 13
References 13
Selected Bibliography 14

CHAPTER 2
Micromachining 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Bulk Micromachining 18
2.3 Wafer Bonding 20
2.3.1 Silicon-on-Silicon Bonding 20
2.3.2 Silicon-on-Glass (Anodic) Bonding 21
2.3.3 Silicon Fusion Bonding 22
2.3.4 Wafer Bonding for More Complex Structures and Adding ICs 22
2.4 Surface Micromachining 24
2.4.1 Squeeze-Film Damping 26
2.4.2 Stiction 26
2.4.3 Particulate Control 26
2.4.4 Combinations of Surface and Bulk Micromachining 27
2.5 Other Micromachining Techniques 28
2.5.1 The LIGA Process 28
2.5.2 Dry Etching Processes 29
2.5.3 Micromilling 30
2.5.4 Lasers in Micromachining 31
2.6 Combining MEMS with IC Fabrication 32
2.7 Other Micromachined Materials 34
2.7.1 Diamond as an Alternate Sensor Material 34

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viii Contents

2.7.2 Metal Oxides and Piezoelectric Sensing 35


2.7.3 Films on Microstructures 36
2.7.4 Micromachining Metal Structures 37
2.7.5 Carbon Nanotube MEMS 38
2.8 MEMS Foundry Services and Software Tools 38
2.9 Application Example 40
2.10 Summary 42
References 42
Selected Bibliography 45

CHAPTER 3
The Nature of Semiconductor Sensor Output 47
3.1 Introduction 47
3.2 Sensor Output Characteristics 47
3.2.1 Wheatstone Bridge 48
3.2.2 Piezoresistivity in Silicon 49
3.2.3 Semiconductor Sensor Definitions 51
3.2.4 Static Versus Dynamic Operation 53
3.3 Other Sensing Technologies 53
3.3.1 Capacitive Sensing 53
3.3.2 Piezoelectric Sensing 54
3.3.3 The Hall-Effect 55
3.3.4 Chemical Sensors 56
3.3.5 Improving Sensor Characteristics 56
3.4 Digital Output Sensors 57
3.4.1 Incremental Optical Encoders 57
3.4.2 Digital Techniques 59
3.5 Noise/Interference Aspects 59
3.6 Low Power, Low Voltage Sensors 60
3.6.1 Impedance 61
3.7 Analysis of Sensitivity Improvement 61
3.7.1 Thin Diaphragm 61
3.7.2 Increase Diaphragm Area 61
3.7.3 Improve Topology 61
3.8 Application Example 62
3.9 Summary 64
References 64

CHAPTER 4
Getting Sensor Information Into the Microcontroller 67
4.1 Introduction 67
4.2 Amplification and Signal Conditioning 68
4.2.1 Instrumentation Amplifiers 69
4.2.2 Sleep-Mode Circuitry for Reducing Power 70
4.2.3 Rail to Rail Operational Amplifiers 71
4.2.4 Switched-Capacitor Amplifier 72
Contents ix

4.2.5 Barometer Application Circuit 73


4.2.6 4- to 20-mA Signal Transmitter 73
4.2.7 Schmitt Trigger 74
4.3 Separate Versus Integrated Signal Conditioning 75
4.3.1 Integrated Signal Conditioning 75
4.3.2 External Signal Conditioning 76
4.4 Digital Conversion 76
4.4.1 A/D Converters 77
4.4.2 Performance of A/D Converters 79
4.4.3 Implications of A/D Accuracy and Errors 80
4.5 On-Line Tool for Evaluating a Sensor Interface Design 81
4.6 Application Example 81
4.7 Summary 81
References 83
Selected Bibliography 84

CHAPTER 5
Using MCUs/DSPs to Increase Sensor IQ 85
5.1 Introduction 85
5.1.1 Other IC Technologies 85
5.1.2 Logic Requirements 86
5.2 MCU Control 86
5.3 MCUs for Sensor Interface 87
5.3.1 Peripherals 87
5.3.2 Memory 88
5.3.3 Input/Output 89
5.3.4 On-Board A/D Conversion 90
5.3.5 Power Saving Capability 90
5.3.6 Local Voltage or Current Regulation 92
5.4 DSP Control 92
5.4.1 Digital Signal Controllers 93
5.4.2 Field Programmable Gate Arrays 93
5.4.3 Algorithms Versus Look-Up Tables 93
5.5 Techniques and Systems Considerations 95
5.5.1 Linearization 95
5.5.2 PWM Control 96
5.5.3 Autozero and Autorange 96
5.5.4 Diagnostics 98
5.5.5 Reducing EMC/RFI 98
5.5.6 Indirect (Computed not Sensed) Versus Direct Sensing 98
5.6 Software, Tools, and Support 99
5.6.1 Design-in Support 99
5.7 Sensor Integration 100
5.8 Application Example 101
5.9 Summary 102
References 103
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CHAPTER 6
Communications for Smart Sensors 107
6.1 Introduction 107
6.2 Background and Definitions 107
6.2.1 Definitions 108
6.2.2 Background 108
6.3 Sources (Organizations) and Standards 109
6.4 Automotive Protocols 112
6.4.1 CAN Protocol 113
6.4.2 LIN Protocol 115
6.4.3 Media Oriented Systems Transport 115
6.4.4 FlexRay 116
6.4.5 Other Automotive Protocol Aspects 116
6.5 Industrial Networks 117
6.5.1 Example Industrial Protocols 117
6.6 Protocols in Other Applications 117
6.7 Protocols in Silicon 118
6.7.1 MCU with Integrated CAN 118
6.7.2 LIN Implementation 120
6.7.3 Ethernet Controller 120
6.8 Transitioning Between Protocols 120
6.9 Application Example 121
6.10 Summary 123
References 123
Additional References 124

CHAPTER 7
Control Techniques 125
7.1 Introduction 125
7.1.1 Programmable Logic Controllers 125
7.1.2 Open- Versus Closed-Loop Systems 126
7.1.3 PID Control 126
7.2 State Machines 128
7.3 Fuzzy Logic 129
7.4 Neural Networks 132
7.5 Combined Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks 134
7.6 Adaptive Control 134
7.6.1 Observers for Sensing 135
7.7 Other Control Areas 137
7.7.1 RISC Versus CISC 138
7.8 Impact of Artificial Intelligence 139
7.9 Application Example 141
7.10 Summary 142
References 143
Contents xi

CHAPTER 8
Wireless Sensing 147
8.1 Introduction 147
8.1.1 The RF Spectrum 148
8.1.2 Spread Spectrum 149
8.2 Wireless Data and Communications 150
8.3 Wireless Sensing Networks 151
8.3.1 ZigBee 152
8.3.2 ZigBee-Like Wireless 152
8.3.3 ANT+ 152
8.3.4 6LoWPAN 153
8.3.5 Near Field Communication (NFC) 153
8.3.6 Z-Wave 153
8.3.7 Dust Networks 154
8.3.8 Other RF Wireless Solutions 154
8.3.9 Optical Signal Transmission 154
8.4 Industrial Wireless Sensing Networks 154
8.5 RF Sensing 155
8.5.1 Surface Acoustic Wave Devices 155
8.5.2 Radar 156
8.5.3 Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) 157
8.5.4 Global Positioning System 158
8.5.5 Remote Emissions Sensing 159
8.5.6 Remote Keyless Entry 159
8.5.7 Intelligent Transportation System 160
8.5.8 RF-ID 162
8.5.9 Other Remote Sensing 163
8.6 Telemetry 163
8.7 RF MEMS 166
8.8 Application Example 167
8.9 Summary 168
References 169
Selected Bibliography 171

CHAPTER 9
MEMS Beyond Sensors 173
9.1 Introduction 173
9.2 MEMS Actuators 174
9.2.1 Microvalves 174
9.2.2 Micromotors 176
9.2.3 Micropumps 177
9.2.4 Microdynamometer 179
9.2.5 Microsteam Engine 180
9.2.6 Actuators in Other Semiconductor Materials 180
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9.3 Other Micromachined Structures 181


9.3.1 Cooling Channels 182
9.3.2 Microoptics 183
9.3.3 Microgripper 183
9.3.4 Microprobes 185
9.3.5 Micromirrors 186
9.3.6 Heating Elements 187
9.3.7 Thermionic Emitters 187
9.3.8 Field Emission Devices 188
9.3.9 Unfoldable Microelements 188
9.3.10 Micronozzles 190
9.3.11 Interconnects for Stacked Wafers 191
9.3.12 Nanoguitar 191
9.4 Application Example 192
9.5 Summary 194
References 194

CHAPTER 10
Packaging, Testing, and Reliability Implications of Smarter Sensors 197
10.1 Introduction 197
10.2 Semiconductor Packaging Applied to Sensors 197
10.2.1 Increased Pin Count 200
10.3 Hybrid Packaging 201
10.3.1 Ceramic Packaging and Ceramic Substrates 201
10.3.2 Multichip Modules 201
10.3.3 Dual-Chip Packaging 202
10.3.4 BGA Packaging 202
10.4 Common Packaging for Sensors 203
10.4.1 Plastic Packaging 204
10.4.2 Surface-Mount Packaging 204
10.4.3 Flip-Chip 205
10.4.4 Wafer-Level Packaging 206
10.4.5 3-D Packaging 207
10.5 Reliability Implications 209
10.5.1 The Physics of Failure 211
10.5.2 Wafer-Level Sensor Reliability 212
10.6 Testing Smarter Sensors 214
10.7 Application Example 214
10.8 Summary 215
References 216

CHAPTER 11
Mechatronics and Sensing Systems 219
11.1 Introduction 219
11.1.1 Integration and Mechatronics 219
Contents xiii

11.2 Smart-Power ICs 220


11.3 Embedded Sensing 222
11.3.1 Temperature Sensing 222
11.3.2 Current Sensing in Power ICs 225
11.3.3 Diagnostics 225
11.3.4 MEMS Relays 228
11.4 Other System Aspects 228
11.4.1 Batteries 229
11.4.2 Field Emission Displays 230
11.4.3 System Voltage Transients, Electrostatic Discharge, and
Electromagnetic Interference 230
11.5 Application Example 232
11.6 Summary 233
References 233

CHAPTER 12
Standards for Smart Sensing 235
12.1 Introduction 235
12.2 Setting the Standards for Smart Sensors and Systems 235
12.3 IEEE 1451.1 237
12.3.1 Network-Capable Application Processor 237
12.3.2 Network Communication Models 240
12.4 IEEE 1451.2 241
12.4.1 STIM 241
12.4 2 Transducer Electronic Data Sheet 243
12.4.3 TII 245
12.4.4 Calibration/Correction Engine 245
12.4.5 Sourcing Power to STIMs 247
12.4.6 Representing Physical Units in the TEDS 248
12.5 IEEE 1451.3 249
12.6 IEEE 1451.4 250
12.7 IEEE 1451.5 250
12.8 IEEE P1451.6 252
12.9 IEEE 1451.7 252
12.10 Extending the System to the Network 252
12.11 Application Example 252
12.12 Summary 254
References 255
Selected Bibliography 256

CHAPTER 13
More Standards Impacting Sensors 257
13.1 Introduction 257
13.2 Sensor Plug and Play 257
13.3 Universal Serial Bus 259
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13.4 Development Tools Establish De Facto Standards 260


13.5 Alternate Standards 261
13.5.1 Airplane Networks 261
13.5.2 Automotive Safety Network 262
13.5.3 Another Automotive Safety Network 263
13.5.4 Automotive Sensor Protocol 264
13.6 Consumer/Cell Phone Apps 267
13.7 Application Example 268
13.8 Summary 269
References 269

CHAPTER 14
Sensor Fusion 271
14.1 Introduction 271
14.2 Sensor and Other Fusion Background 271
14.3 Automotive Applications 273
14.3.1 Ranging and Vision 274
14.3.2 Sensor Fusion for Virtual Sensors 275
14.3.3 Autonomous Driving 276
14.4 Industrial (Robotic) Applications 277
14.5 Consumer Applications 278
14.5.1 Fusion Software in the Sensor 278
14.5.2 Separate Fusion Software 279
14.5.3 Flexible Fusion Software 279
14.5.4 Agnostic Sensor Fusion 279
14.5.5 Simulation and Testing 280
14.6 Application Example 281
14.7 Summary 282
References 282
Selected Bibliography 284

CHAPTER 15
Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Nodes 285
15.1 Introduction 285
15.2 Applications Drive Technology Implementation and Development 285
15.2.1 Structural Health Monitoring 285
15.2.2 Building Automations Systems 286
15.2.3 Industrial Applications 286
15.2.4 Automotive 286
15.2.5 Aircraft 286
15.2.6 Portable Consumer 287
15.2.7 Remote Distributed Applications 287
15.3 Complete System Consideration 287
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15.4 EH Technologies 288


15.4.1 Thermoelectric EH 288
15.4.2 Piezoelectric EH 291
15.4.3 Photovoltaic EH 293
15.4.4 Electromagnetic EH 294
15.4.5 RF EH 294
15.4.6 Electromechanical EH 294
15.4.7 Multiple Energy Sources 295
15.4.8 Future Concepts 296
15.5 Energy Storage 297
15.5.1 Batteries 297
15.5.2 Ultracapacitors 298
15.6 Energy Budget 298
15.6.1 Power Management ICs 298
15.6.2 MCUs 299
15.6.3 Wireless Transmission 300
15.6.4 Sensor Power Consumption 301
15.7 Development Systems 302
15.8 Application Example 304
15.9 Summary 304
References 306
Selected Bibliography 308

CHAPTER 16
The Next Phase of Sensing Systems 309
16.1 Introduction 309
16.2 Future Sensor Plus Semiconductor Capabilities 310
16.2.1 Monolithic Versus Package-Level Integration 311
16.3 Future System Requirements 313
16.3.1 Sensing in Automobiles 313
16.3.2 Sensing in Smart Phones 315
16.3.3 Health Care Sensors 316
16.4 Software, Sensing, and the System 316
16.4.1 Sensor Apps 317
16.4.2 Cloud Sensing 319
16.5 Trusted Sensing 320
16.6 Alternate Views of Smart Sensing 321
16.7 The Smart Loop 322
16.8 Application Example 323
16.9 Summary 324
Acknowledgment 325
References 325
Selected Bibliography 327