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ost of us can remember the last thing we made, but
does everyone remember their first woodworking
project? I never completed mine, an overly ambitious
attempt to build a working cuckoo clock in my weekly
junior school lesson, but it remains in my memory as a collection of
plywood pieces fully charged with excitement and potential. For the
lucky ones and I suspect thats the vast majority of the readers of
this magazine this is the feeling that drives every new project and
sustains an existing one, and is something that will never go away.
Theres something about our craft that not only gives us
enormous pleasure right from the start of a job, but somehow
enables us to express ourselves and to feel the satisfaction of
triumphing over a specific set of often difficult circumstances
as things progress. The true woodworker will possess an
indomitable spirit, a pragmatic way of looking at things and
be reluctant to walk away when the going gets tough.
Its true that there may be times when a particular job has not
gone as well as intended, and maybe the scrap pile or fireplace
has seen a brief flurry of action again, but the true woodworkers
among us will take a deep breath, have a cup of tea or a good
nights sleep, and make a fresh start with a clear mind and a
renewed sense of purpose. At least we now have the knowledge
of what not to do, and this is a very valuable commodity, even if
its a hard-earned and sometimes expensive one.
When it comes to materials, Im not going to suggest doubling
your timber purchase list just in case something goes wrong; not
only is this a bit on the negative side but also doubly tough on
The Editor proudly presents the latest project to leave the workshop the wallet. Theres no harm, however, in getting a bit extra in
for practice purposes and to enable a swift replacement of
the occasional component if required, especially if it has to
be machined to a set size first.
All things considered, through the bad and the good, Im very
glad to be a part of this extended woodworking family, and
strongly suspect that the rest of its members are too, wherever
in the world your bench might be.

You can contact Mark on

If you cant always find a copy of the Please reserve/deliver my copy of The Woodworker on a regular
basis, starting with issue
magazine, help is at hand! Complete
Title First name
this form and hand it in at your local Surname
store, and theyll ensure that a copy Address
of each issue is reserved for you.
Some stores may even be able to
arrange for it to be delivered to your Postcode
home. Just ask! Telephone number The Woodworker Summer 2011 3

If you dont want to miss an issue
CONTENTS Whats in store for
you this month

Desperately seeking shed
windows, Robin Gates goes
skip-diving for old cabinet doors,
repairs Victorian leadlights,
makes trim from a maple log
and tries a Japanese saw

26 Flat panels with ease
Producing a wide, solid table-top
that wont warp doesnt need to
be difficult. Michael Forster looks
into the causes and the solutions

32 Swill to power
Owen Jones is single-handedly NEXT
keeping the South Cumbrian
tradition of swill making alive
36 Archive 28 OCTOBER
We look at a wall bookshelf from
The Woodworker of January 1947

46 Williams woodwork
We bring you an interesting letter 62 Behold, the thingamajig! despite the wartime risk, people
from William Pearson, a college Mike Riley challenges himself were still woodworking and avidly
lecturer in carpentry and joinery. to try something different and making a variety of projects
Having been recently employed ends up making a handy item
in a similar role at the Editors own using some workshop offcuts 90 The mysteries of HJ Shop
local technical college, we entirely Now working as a skilled
sympathise with his opinions 72 Wartime woodworking cabinetmaker, Peter Baker tells
Looking back through archive copies us about putting on a good show,
48 The art of wainscoting of Hobbies Handbook, Francine the concept of potential productivity
Mark Griffiths offers advice on Kirsch shares some of the wonderful and the unfortunate side of Trades
how to go about panelling a room content with us and shows that Unionism

40 58 72
4 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
To celebrate their 60th
anniversary, Felder are running Autumn 2016
a fantastic competition in
Published by MyTime Media Ltd
conjunction with The Woodworker Suite 25, Eden House, Enterprise Way,
and Good Woodworking Edenbridge, Kent TN8 6HF
magazines to find three of the UK & overseas
best furniture makers across the Tel: +44 (0)1689 869 840
UK theres also some fantastic
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Tel: +44 1604 828 748

40 Setting up a woodturning workshop Tel: 01733 688 964
If youre thinking about setting up EDITORIAL
your own woodturning workshop, Group Editor: Tegan Foley
then this indispensable guide from Editor: Mark Cass
Bob Chapman will provide you with a Email:
wealth of sound advice, hints and tips PRODUCTION
Designer: Nik Harber
58 An exercise in adding texture Retouching Manager: Brian Vickers
Colin Simpson experiments with Advertising Production: Robin Gray
texture paste and airbrushing to ADVERTISING
create a piece that looks as if it Business Development Manager: David Holden
is emerging from a shell Tel: 01689 869 867
Online Sales: David Holden
66 Turn your own tools Email:
Buying turning tools can be costly, so Tel: 01689 869 867
how about making your own? Niall MARKETING & SUBSCRIPTIONS
Yates takes you through the steps Subscriptions Manager: Kate Hall

Subscriptions: Sarah Pradhan
for making a basic set, from sourcing Tel: +44(0)1858 438 798
the steel, tempering and hardening
it, to turning custom tool handles MANAGEMENT
Group Advertising Manager: Rhona Bolger

Tel: 01689 869 891
Chief Executive: Owen Davies
WORKSHOP ESSENTIALS Chairman: Peter Harkness
PRIZE BUNDLES 78 Axminster AHRD16B bench
To celebrate our Autumn special, were radial drill
giving away 15 prize bundles containing 80 Blklder workwear range
some fantastic workshop kit 83 Wolf Professional 20V combi MyTime Media Ltd. 2016
All rights reserved ISSN 1752-3524
see page 30 drill & impact driver kit The Publishers written consent must be obtained before any part
of this publication may be reproduced in any form whatsoever,
for more details 84 Trend Adjustable Trade Lock Jig including photocopiers, and information retrieval systems. All
reasonable care is taken in the preparation of the magazine
contents, but the publishers cannot be held legally responsible for
errors in the contents of this magazine or for any loss however
arising from such errors, including loss resulting from negligence of

our staff. Reliance placed upon the contents of this magazine is at
readers own risk.
The Woodworker & Woodturner, ISSN 1752-3524, is
published monthly with an additional issue in summer by
3 Welcome MYTIME MEDIA Ltd, Enterprise House, Enterprise Way,
Edenbridge, Kent TN8 6HF, UK.
The US annual subscription price is 59GBP (equivalent to
8 AOB & diary approximately 98USD). Airfreight and mailing in the USA by
agent named Worldnet Shipping Inc., 156-15, 146th Avenue,
11 Timber directory 2nd Floor, Jamaica, NY 11434, USA.
Periodicals postage paid at Jamaica NY 11431.
US Postmaster: Send address changes to The Woodworker
13 News from D&M Tools & Woodturner, Worldnet Shipping Inc., 156-15, 146th Avenue,
2nd Floor, Jamaica, NY 11434, USA
Subscription records are maintained at 3
25 Readers letters Queensbridge, The Lakes, Northampton, NNA 7BF.
Air Business Ltd is acting as our mailing agent
36 Archive
64 Subscriptions
89 Marketplace

78 90 Timeslip

D&M Tools has been family owned and managed since 1978.
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NEWS The latest from the world of woodwork

In brief...
7 Turning a pestle & mortar
for the kitchen
12 Spindle moulding
14 & 18 Sharpening with Tormek
1718 Wood machining
2021 Beginners routing *
2021 Woodcarving with
ANY OTHER BUSINESS to attend to a variety of leaks. Its an undulating
Paul Gardner
Forget January, autumn is traditionally the time flat roof in mastic asphalt, the size of a five-a-side
2526 Beginners woodturning
for a new start. Just think about it: the schools football pitch and dotted about with structural
(2 days)
go back, evening classes are signed up for, and glazing and numerous cracks and fissures. 28 Pyrography Ben Beddows *
general preparations for the winter months ahead Hopefully my bitumen paint and 15m of flashing 301 Nutcracker Wooden
are begun. Here at The Woodworker we like to think will keep the worst of the rainwater out of my Figures
that we can make a small contribution to the work, place, and any other drier spots in the vicinity * Course held in
even if its just something of an encouraging nature. will be appreciated by all who pass underneath. Sittingbourne, Kent
When it comes to preparations and getting the Heavy rain is expected before long, and as soon as Axminster Tools & Machinery
place in order, The Woodworker workshop is still I perceive a marked improvement (fingers crossed!) Unit 10 Weycroft Avenue
some distance away from being the clean and I shall clean off the vaulted ceilings and freshen it Axminster, Devon EX13 5PH
efficient environment that most of us dream all up with some new paint. A spot more lighting, Tel: 08009 751 905
of. The good news is that Ive finished the new an ambient dust extractor/filter and itll be closer Web:
benching, fitted extra vices and am in the process to the pro shop that surely is the target for all
of redistributing acquired clutter some of which of us woodworkers fortunate enough to have a 2123 Steam-bent & inlaid tray
I really cant throw away as I just know it will come workshop we can call our own. So, my advice is to 2730 Starting out in woodturning
in useful any day soon! on new shelves and in make a start now, and see what sort of a difference West Dean College
West Dean, near Chichester
recycled cupboards. you can make. And if anyone has any interesting
West Sussex PO18 0QZ
Ive even been up on the roof (a complicated workshop-related stories, wed love to hear them.
Tel: 01243 811 301
journey but fortunately a safe one this time!) Mark

2223 Weekend woodcarving

anywhere, while ensuring you have the course
correct abrasive for an application or the 2830 Traditional longbow
correct saw blade for your jigsaw in the Weald & Downland
shopping cart. All products from the current Open Air Museum
range are stored in the Bosch cloud from Chichester, West Sussex
which the app sources its information. PO18 0EU
Tel: 01243 811 363
Better service & warranty Web:
BOSCH POCKET ASSISTANT APP Processing of services, such as the
This new app extends the free Bosch Toolbox registration of own power tools for the 12 Wood machining
app and helps you find the right tool or accessory. extended three-year warranty, is also 1014 Making an inlaid tray
All it takes is a simple scan of a Bosch product simplified. Instead of typing details 2428 & 303 French polishing
or accessory packaging using a smartphone, such as the product serial number into & modern hand finishes
John Lloyd Fine Furniture
and you have instant access to all available the registration forms, all you need to
Bankside Farm, Ditchling
information about the product, including technical do is scan the product using the app
Common, Burgess Hill
details and videos. This is all possible thanks to a the product is then identified, and
East Sussex RH15 0SJ
new product identification function implemented the data entered. The same applies to Tel: 01444 480 388
by Bosch in this form for the first time worldwide. ordering repairs or registration of tools Web: www.
It combines various technologies to ensure that for TrackMyTools.
reliable results are obtained. The new app not The Bosch Pocket
only recognises the scanned product, it also gives Assistant is now available 1516 Wood finishing
recommendations on which accessories are best as a free add-on to the 1721 Dovetailing & drawer fitting
suited to which products and allows you to order Bosch Toolbox app in the Chris Tribe, The Cornmill
tools and accessories directly online via the app. Google Play Store and in Railway Road, Ilkley
the Apple App Store for West Yorkshire LS29 8HT
Cloud-based solution smartphones with Android Tel: 01943 602 836
Now you can obtain information at anytime, and iOS operating systems. Web: www.


8 7am-8pm
CALL The7Woodworker
days a week July 2016
ONLINE Shop 24/7!
0808 168 28 28 E
"Out of trust,
I only work with
- Josche Frankenberger, prop makerr and furniture
urniture designer

New range of FEIN oscillating tools now with:

3 seconds
It makes tool changes possible in just .
At the same time, it guarantees a perfect fit for accessories
and therefore maximum power transmission. Resulting in even
more work progress in every application. FEIN.UnitedKingdom FEIN_UK

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* Both offers valid until 31st December 2016
The latest from the world of woodwork NEWS

In brief...
Adhectic Ltd FH Ives Stiles & Bates
Tel: 01235 520 738 Tel: 01268 732 373 Tel: 01304 366 360
Web: Web: Web:
(Abingdon) (Essex) (Kent)
A Harrison Fulham Timber Scadding Timber
Tel: 01536 725 192 Tel: 0208 685 5340 Tel: 01179 556 032
Web: Web: Web:
(Northants) (London) (Bristol)
Bennetts Timber G&S Specialist Timber St. Andrews Timber & Building Supplies
Tel: 01472 350 151 Tel: 01768 891 445 Tel: 01316 611 333
Web: Web: Web:
(Lincolnshire) (Cumbria) (Scotland)
Black Isle Woodturning Good Timber Surrey Timbers Ltd
Tel: 07842 189 743 Tel: 01327 344 550 Tel: 01483 457 826
Web: Web: Web:
(Scotland) (Northamptonshire) (Guildford)
Brodies Timber Interesting Timbers Sykes Timber
Tel: 01350 727 723 Tel: 01761 241 333 Tel: 01827 718 951
Web: Web: Web:
(Perthshire) (Emborough) (Warwickshire)
Brooks Brothers Timber ISCA Woodcrafts The Timber Mill
Tel: 01621 877 400 Tel: 01633 810 148/07854 349 045 Tel: 07966 396 419
Web: Web: Web:
(Essex) (Newport, South Wales) (Cornwall)
C&G Barrett Ltd, Cilfiegan Sawmill John Davis Woodturning Centre The Wood Recycling Store
Tel: 01291 672 805 Tel: 01264 811 070 Tel: 01273 570 500
Web: Web: Web:
(Monmouthshire, South Wales) (Hampshire) (East Sussex)
D Emmerson Timber Joyce Timber Thorogood Timber Ltd
Tel: 01507 524 728 Tel: 0208 883 1610 Tel: 01206 233 100
Web: Web: Web:
(Lincolnshire) (London) (Essex)
Earlswood Interiors Lincolnshire Woodcraft Timberman
Tel: 01564 703 706 Tel: 01780 757 825 Tel: 01267 232 621
Web: Web: Web:
(Solihull) (Stamford) (Carmarthenshire)
English Woodlands Timber Nottage Timber Waterloo Timber Ltd
Tel: 01730 816 941 Tel: 01656 745 959 Tel: 01200 423 263
Web: Web: Web: No website
(West Sussex) (Bridgend, South Wales) (Lancs)
Exotic Hardwoods Ockenden Timber Wenban Smith
Tel: 01732 355 626 Tel: 01588 620 884 Tel: 01903 230 311
Web: Web: Web:
(Kent) (Powys) (Worthing)
EO Burton, Thorndon Sawmills Olivers Woodturning W L West & Sons Ltd
Tel: 01277 260 810 Tel: 01622 370 280 Tel: 01798 861 611
Web: Web: Web:
(Essex) (Kent) (Surrey)
Eynsham Park Sawmill Oxford Wood Recycling Yandle & Sons Ltd
Tel: 01993 881 391 Tel: 01235 861 228 Tel: 01935 822 207
Web: Web: Web:
(Oxfordshire) (Oxfordshire) (Somerset)

CALL 7am-8pm 7 days a week ONLINE Shop 24/7! The Woodworker July 2016 TOD
11 AY
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Whats new from

D&M GUIDE PRICE: see website D&M GUIDE PRICE: 219.99
XR FLEXVOLT is a new range of 54V
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runtime and performance that has machine that offers excellent performance and exceptional value
never been seen before. For the first for money. The finely ground cast-iron bed, along with the cast-iron
time, professional tradesmen can headstock, tailstock and toolrest, greatly reduce vibration and
reliably undertake heavy-duty construction applications without provide ample strength for the lathe to cope with heavy-duty work.
the need for mains power. The capacities of this machine and its overall size make it a perfect
This innovation means that you can have 54V power across choice for the smaller workshop. It is also ideal as a second lathe
a whole range of tools without the inconvenience of a cable. for regular use on small work and its portability means it can be
DeWalt XR FLEXVOLT is the only battery on the market that used at demonstrations and shows.
can switch from 54V to 18V, making it backward-compatible
with your existing XR power tools.



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area and volume and features a calculator function for instant
adding and subtracting of measurements. It has Bluetooth
connectivity to sync directly to a phone (not included), tablet
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The power of the XR FLEXVOLT battery opens up new avenues

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Take the XR FLEXVOLT DCS7485 table saw (above) as just
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that promise to redefine the very notion of cordless technology.

WOODWORK Repurposed shed windows

Desperately seeking shed windows, Robin Gates goes skip-diving for old cabinet doors,
repairs Victorian leadlights, makes trim from a maple log and tries a Japanese saw

orking in a garden shed end of shed construction being of 12mm up in bicycles and a brake lever prodded me
improves my view of the tongue & grooved timber throughout, floor where it hurts. With a surge of blood to my
world. When the door swings included so there isnt that sinking feeling sawing arm I decided it was time for action.
shut and my hands grow busy with you get from a weary chipboard floor. Id been harbouring the notion that
tools and timber, worries evaporate like The pent roof means headroom must ready-made shed windows would be
condensation from a window pane and be taken into account when planning what on sale locally and Id simply have to
I see things in a new light. Or at least goes where. Although there is 6ft 4in under buy and fit them to the apertures Id saw,
that was the case until I moved into ceiling beams on the east side this falls to 5ft but if they did exist, I couldnt find them.
a shed without a single window. I was 7in in the west, so the bench would go under However, what I did find was a display
plunged into gloom. a west window to avoid banging my head. cabinet in a skip outside a charity shop.
This shed isnt quite the timber-framed For now there were no windows, I worked The cabinet itself was genuine rubbish
building of a carpenters dream but as by the light of the open door, in a draughty but the glazed doors had solid wood
common-or-garden sheds go it isnt a few square feet, squinting at a pencilled line frames and an applied lead lattice which,
bad one, about 10 years old yet bearing unsure which side of it I was sawing, and as windows, I saw adding a bit of old-world
up well to the see-sawing sun and rain of the sheds dark hinterland remained the charm to my shed. For a donation I found
a changing climate. It stands at the sturdier silky kingdom of countless spiders. Still, myself manoeuvring the unwieldy object
it was fun, being stranded there on one from skip to car.
occasion during an autumn gale when Cutting holes in the side of an intact
lightning bolts were fizzing to earth as structure feels like a step into the unknown,
though Thor had traded his hammer like meddling with the interior walls of
for an arc welder. a house: will the ceiling collapse? As I
But every now and then a gusting turned the brace and bit to make holes for
north-easterly would grip the open the pad saw I wondered if I might be about
door and fling it hard against the shed to qualify for a Darwin Award, standing saw

1 as if to say: When are you going to do

something about windows?
in hand with the wreckage of a shed around
me. Timidly I joined up the dots with the
Victorian leadlights undergoing repairs saw and removed the pieces.
Prodded into action But I neednt have worried; whoever
Rushing into the shed one day to look for put up this shed didnt skimp on fastenings.
something, blinded by the contrast between With the wood out and the windows up, all
broad daylight and the dark, I got tangled seemed as solid as ever. It was rough and

2 3 4
Painting the frames Joining up the holes with the pad saw Removing the tongue & grooved pieces
14 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
Display cabinet doors
repurposed as shed windows The Woodworker Autumn 2016 15

WOODWORK Repurposed shed windows

landed them on the counter amid a shower aperture coincided with a joint in the T&G
of dust the shopkeeper seemed not to so the top plank was simply pulled free,
recognise them, and then downhearted and as the others followed suit the daylight
as he read the price tags. flooded in (photo 4). It sounds daft now but
Although the glass and lead cambs were I felt a real sense of freedom. A window is a
undamaged, no doubt preserved through wonderful thing.
tough times by leads flexibility, the frames After cleaning up the aperture with a
were broken at the corners and only held chisel and apron plane (photo 6), I needed

5 together by old putty. Fitting these was

not going to be so quick and easy. I toyed
some narrow trim to support screw heads
on the inside of the shed, because the
Ripping through the bottom plank with the idea of making new frames, but holes were so close to the edges. For
was put off by the likelihood of wrecking the first of the leadlights, I used recycled
the glass panels in the process. Indecision mahogany but for the second there was
set in and the windows resumed their nothing suitable to hand, at least not
hibernation in a corner of the shed. ready-made.
With the advancing spring, and the What I did have was a slender log of
urge for sorting out that comes with it, field maple Id brought home from the
I surveyed the frames in a more optimistic woods and which had split neatly down
mood and decided they could be saved. the middle. Maple is a tough timber and
Their old pine released a resiny aroma laid would be perfect for the job.

6 down like a fine wine a century ago as I cut

back to sound timber with saw and chisel,
With the carpenters axe I roughly squared
up a half log (photo 7), smoothed it further
Tidying an edge with the apron plane repairing splits with screws and glue, and with the jack plane (photo 9) and then
using graving pieces across the broken ripped it into four with my six-point Spear
ready carpentry, more state of emergency corners. They were workmanlike repairs, & Jackson freshly filed for the purpose.
than stately home, but how the shed had meeting a need for solidity more than I didnt fiddle with rulers and gauges;
been transformed: I could close the door classy joinery, but I was aiming for the marking the piece for sawing by eye
at last, and work in the soft light of day repairs to dovetail with the general wear and pencil was good enough (photo 10).
reflecting from the ivy outside. and tear and not stand out as new parts.
Spiders set up home in the corners of Portable vice
the new windows and I might have carried Teapot lid fit The rip saw ripped the maple end to end
on like this indefinitely, tucked into one light A feature of the frame lending itself to with barely pause to clear the dust, but the
corner, if I hadnt ventured off piste in an a snug fit was the lip and flange created
antiques shop one afternoon. by the rebate, promising to let it drop into
place as tidily as a teapot lid. After planing
Lucky find the lip a tad deeper Id fasten from inside
Leaning in obscurity behind a forest of rusty using screws passing through the walls
garden tools, where it seemed no customer into the lip outside.
had set foot in this millennium, I made the Cutting apertures for these windows was
lucky find of three Victorian stained-glass essentially the same as for the repurposed
leadlights around 450 520mm and only 6 cabinet doors but speeded up by switching
each (photo 1). They were of the top-hung from pad saw to cross-cut hand saw or rip
awning type, with a flower-like stained glass saw, as appropriate, when the kerf was long
motif giving a touch of Art Nouveau. When I enough for the wider blade. The top of the
Flattening the maple with the Bismarck
jack plane

7 8 10
Squaring up half a maple log with the The maple about ready for planing Marking for ripping to thickness by eye
carpenters axe and pencil
16 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
impressive part of this operation was If you fancy a new corner vice, then take
the role of the portable woodworkers vice a look at Lee Valleys In-Line model, which
(photo 11). Sometimes called a corner is a near copy of the Stanley 702.
vice this is the most versatile piece of
workholding kit Ive acquired in a long time. 75p saving!
Constructionally its a hybrid of a vice and After the rough surfaces from the rip saw had
a G-cramp, with jaws perpendicular to been smoothed, I was left with maple strips
the edge and top of the bench, holding about 4mm-thick and 16mm wide (photo
the work in ways which a fixed vice 16). Then I happened to be visiting the local
struggles to imitate (photo 13).
The cramp component attaches to any
DIY store for garden plants and, on the way
out, laden with flower pots, glanced through 11
flat surface up to 60mm-thick, while also the timber racks only to find I could have The maple in the corner vice for ripping into
being the fixed jaw. The moving jaw is bought 4 12 900mm pine stripwood at four pieces
adjusted by a smoothly turning main screw 75p a piece! Well, price and convenience are
and has two guide bars, which are effective not everything when woodwork is your hobby,
in preventing racking. But its the L-shaped besides which my timber is locally-grown
jaws which make the vice so user-friendly, maple with satisfaction in its every millimetre.
holding timber securely horizontal, vertical Certainly the fine-grained maple behaved
or at any angle between the two. well under the drill and countersink when
This vice was made in Birmingham by making clearance holes (photo 17), and
the long-gone tool makers Parry & Bott, but the six gauge 30mm screws tightened firmly
the design is rooted in a US patent granted into the narrow pieces without so much as
to engineer Christian Bodmer of The a hint of a split. The frame was a firm push
Stanley Works in June 1930. Stanley corner fit in the aperture but, imagining the worst,
vices are much easier to find, especially the I saw myself dislodging it with the auger
Stanley 702, which has a single guide bar
and the main screw mounted lower so that
while making pilot holes and it crashing
to the ground, so engaged my wife as a 12
the bench itself can support the work. I also safety net poised on the steps outside The pieces as they came from the saw
have a 702 but find myself using the P&B (photo 18).
because its so well made, simply adding a Having mitred the maple strips and Japanese keyhole saw
levelling block if I want to enlist the bench offered them up for fitting it was a juggle My old Footprint pad saw is a favourite
for extra support while planing (photo 14). to get them to sit level because the tool, it worked hard and well on this project,
plain-sawn planks of the shed had more but when it was over I began to consider
cups than a WI tea tent, but I managed alternatives. With the blade being so
to lower the highest spots with a chisel narrow there isnt much surface area
without thinning the wood excessively. to dissipate the heat build-up caused
Id wondered if this whole operation by friction during a longish cut. And as the
might weaken the structure but once pulled blade gets hot and perhaps a little soft, the
into place by a dozen screws the windows possibility of a hiccup in the kerf causing
seem to have added rigidity to the shed it to buckle is an ever-present danger.
besides light, and now that all the windows So I took the plunge with a complete
are installed my one regret is that I didnt do reversal to my Western way of thinking
this sooner. The windows have restored my and, for about 12, bought a Japanese

13 view of the world, and Im just hoping the

extra light will bring a parallel improvement
keyhole saw, which cuts on the pull stroke
instead of the push, thus eliminating the
The P&B corner vice clamps to any surface in the quality of my woodwork! buckling problem altogether. There were
up to 60mm-thick

14 15 16
The versatile P&B corner vice with a levelling Trying the bench under a leadlight window Smoothing away the saw marks with the
block for edge planing some ash Stanley No.4 The Woodworker Autumn 2016 17
WOODWORK Repurposed shed windows

Drilling clearance holes before fitting the
maple strips

no specs available for the saw so here

are some key measurements and my 18
impressions for anyone interested. My wife Omi acted as the safety net while fastenings were added
Firstly, weight and size. The Japanese
saw is much lighter at just 59g compared thicker and more rigid than I expected. Test: in sawing a series of 40mm radius
to 170g for the pad saw, which is reflected Most Japanese saws have much thinner curves in recycled 10mm-thick mahogany
in a less solid feel in use but then again the blades than their western counterparts, (photo 21), I found the Japanese saw cut
pull saw technique is a lighter action and removing less wood and requiring less much faster across the grain than with it,
it feels right for the job. The toothed length effort because of that, but in the leaving a tidy kerf with only a little tear-out
of the Japanese blade is shorter at 175mm micrometer the Japanese saw measured on the exit and very smooth surfaces
versus 258mm for the pad saw, and the 1.24mm versus 1.32mm for the pad saw. (photo 22). The pad saw is slower at
pad saw blade can be set at any preferred Thats negligible difference the kerf cross-cutting but that could be improved
length. Both blades are about 6mm wide at widths for these saws are almost identical. by filing more fleam.
the first tooth (critical for starting a cut from Thirdly, teeth. The Japanese saw has 4.5 Conclusion: pulling a narrow Japanese
a hole) while the Japanese saw is wider teeth per cm (photo 24), the pad saw only blade is easier than pushing a western
at the handle, about 14mm versus 10mm. 3.5. Both saws have low rake suited to one. Ill definitely be using this keyhole
Secondly, blade thickness. The blade was ripping but the Japanese has greater fleam. saw again.

20 21
The Japanese keyhole saw and the western Japanese saw cutting to a 40mm radius in
pad saw 10mm-thick (recycled) mahogany

Stained glass floral motif in a leadlight window

22 23 24
Only a little tear-out on the exit of the kerf Close up on teeth, which are more cross-cut 4.5 teeth to the centimetre
than rip
18 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
COMPETITION Celebrating 60 years of Felder

with Felder
To celebrate their 60th anniversary, Felder are running a fantastic

WIN competition in conjunction with The Woodworker and Good

Woodworking magazines to find three of the best furniture makers

1 OF 3
across the UK theres also some great prizes up for grabs

4in,to0ta0l 0
Over the next four months, we will be running this fantastic
competition in conjunction with Felder Group UK to discover
who can make the best piece of furniture. The competition
is open to anyone over the age of 18, regardless of skill level.
The piece you enter can be any size, from a small bedside
cabinet up to a large wardrobe the choice is yours! Simply
decide on the piece youd like to make, document the process,
then submit it by following the entry details below.

OVER 1,200

Important information
100 TOOLING CREDIT Due to email server size limitations, please ensure to
send low resolution photos. For ease of judging, attach
all photos and text to one email rather than sending
multiple emails, which could potentially get lost
Please outline your name, address, age and the
ENTRY DETAILS piece of furniture youve entered at the start of the
email (preferably in the subject heading)
To enter the competition, you must email a selection of step-by-step and process Please note that finalists must cover the costs
photos of your hand-made piece of furniture, which documents its build from start of transport to the judging ceremony as well as any
to finish (no more than eight photos, please), along with a short description of the costs involved in transporting their piece of furniture
Entry is open to UK residents with a permanent
piece and the processes used to make it (no more than 500 words, please).
UK address
The closing date for entries is 17 February 2017.
Expert judges Pieces will be judged on Friday 17 March 2017,
Felder Group UK will select five finalists from all those who enter, so please ensure you are free on that date in
each of whom will be invited to bring their piece to the Milton Keynes case your entry is chosen as one of the final five
All entries should be emailed to tegan.foley@
showroom on Friday 17 March 2017 to be judged by an expert panel, and should be sent no later than 17
consisting of master craftsman and furniture maker, Peter Sefton; February 2017 postal entries will not be accepted
award-winning furniture and cabinetmaking expert, John Lloyd; Only one entry per person; multiple entries will be
Felder Group UK director, Matthew Applegarth; and Good discarded. Employees of MyTimeMedia Ltd and Felder
Group UK are not eligible to enter this competition
Woodworking editor, Tegan Foley
To view our competition terms and conditions in full,
please visit
20 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
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Clarke WV7 Bolted 180/205/78 24.99 29.99 OF AIR TOOLS DISC SANDER
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16/510* 3 HP 14.5 50ltr 209.00 263.98 250.80 300w motor
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Powerful Great for 3mm to PRICE .98 CUT 44INC.VAT
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Flow rate of 850M3/h bit guide ensures WAS 26.36 inc.VAT CRT40 Includes
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CDE35B 750W 450 M3/h 56Ltrs 129.98 155.98 CCD240 24V 1 39.98 47.98 Kit includes: 230V motor
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1m exible drive 40x accessories/consumables 139 EXC.VAT
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vacuum cleaners tough moulded case supply disc speed:
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82mm output power 305mm
cutting workshop, garage etc. CONSN18LiB
width of motor to (1 x 60 grit
CVAC20P 1250W 16/12ltr 47.99 57.59 be run sanding disc
CVAC20SS* 1400W 16/12ltr 59.98 71.98 included)
M OTOR OF CUT CVAC25SS* 1400W 19/17ltr 64.99 77.99 PHASE
Clarke CEP1 650W 2mm 23.99 28.79 CVAC30SSR*1400W 24/21ltr 86.99 104.39 SPARE NAILS /

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Ideal for surface removal, (0-45) BO4555*
WORKBENCH sanding and nishing
Includes bench dogs and guide holes for CON185 PORTABLE
variable work positioning 2 Heavy Duty Vices ABRASIVE SANDING
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LxWxH 1520x620x855mm cap. 125mm and
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Planing depths

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Makita 9911 650W 75-270 94.99 113.99 # was 68.39 inc.VAT
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SHELVING BENCHES in minutes using only a
29EX.VAT PLANERS & & wide work pieces, front
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WHEN YOU BUY Ideal for
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17.99 INC.VAT Dual purpose, 330mm table
CHOICE OF 5 COLOURS for both nishing FROM ONLY height 16mm
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distributed) distributed) EXTRA WIDE MODEL DIMS
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Strong 12 mm INDUSTRIAL WxDxH(mm) EXC.VAT INC.VAT CPT600 6" 120mm 169.98 203.98 143INC.VAT

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For fast, accurate
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TC-SM 2534 95mm depth of cut Produce fast,

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Converts your router
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Ideal for enthusiasts/ routers (up to 155mm dia. Base plate)
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(WOOD/STEEL) VAT VAT 325mm distance between centres 200mm 35INC.VAT
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Clarke CJS380* 420W 55/6mm 12.99 15.59 max. turning capacity (dia) 0.2HP motor 12" FROM ONLY AVAILABLE
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750W 80/10mm 24.99 29.99
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V OPEN MON-FRI 8.30-6.00,
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01522 543 036
0151 709 4484
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CHESTER 43-45 St. James Street. CH1 3EY 01244 311258 LONDON CATFORD 289/291 Southend Lane SE6 3RS 0208 695 5684 SOUTHEND 1139-1141 London Rd. Leigh on Sea 01702 483 742
COLCHESTER 4 North Station Rd. CO1 1RE 01206 762831 LONDON 6 Kendal Parade, Edmonton N18 020 8803 0861 STOKE-ON-TRENT 382-396 Waterloo Rd. Hanley 01782 287321
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International Boatbuilding Training College

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for the
Dear Mark, and thanks to Jonathan Wells at Record Coronet
Im the son-in-law of Peter Whittle who was Power, can now inform you of the following. CL1 lathe
an occasional contributor to The Woodworker. The lathe is a Coronet CL1, and the
He was a great supporter and admirer of accessory in question is for holding the
the magazine and all his family have many toolrest when the headstock is manoeuvred
pieces of his work, not only the lovely toys for turning larger items. If you remove
he made and whose patterns he shared in the headstock from the bed bars it can be
the magazine but also other one-offs. swivelled round and held on its own to the
Sadly he died recently, and in the process bench. The bed bars nearest the headstock The accessory
of redistributing his tools to good homes, are then held in place using another angle in question
we found this piece of his lathe left over and strap and brackets (same as the ones used holds the
wondered if you could identify its purpose? for the tailstock end). The accessory pictured toolrest when
Many thanks, is then mounted to the bed bars and the the headstock
Pete Miles toolrest mounted to that. Apparently spare is manoeuvred
brackets are available from Record Power as for turning
Hi Pete, Coronet were incorporated some years ago, larger items
Sorry to hear about Peter, but youll be glad and share many common parts.
to learn that weve done a bit of sleuthing,

DOOR PANEL DILEMMA Even though the doors dont look too bad DRAWING QUALITY
Hi Mark, in the photo, if any of them are even slightly Hi Mark,
I was wondering if you can help me with twisted, it will make the whole project even I just had a look through the October issue
a current project? I have four door panels harder to pull off. and was greatly saddened by the quality
two pairs (see photo) that I want to put Once you factor in three sets of rebates of the drawings. They seemed to be of
up in a double doorway so that they fold to close snugly for light tightness, then youre a mixed and varied nature, and many
in on themselves. Firstly, the doors need really giving yourself some work to do. And had missing dimensions, misaligned
to be square, then a half quadrant needs have you considered the bolts and other views and small, hard to read dimensions.
to be taken off each side so that the doors ironware youll need to stop them from Is there anything that can be done?
are light tight when closed. I also need flapping about when closed? If the light issue Jason Moore
to fix on hinges to the bi-folds, and where is important and youre set on using those
the doors fit onto the door frame. There doors, Id recommend you edge joint two of Hi Jason,
may be a better way to achieve all this each and use them as a simple pair of rebated I can only apologise wholeheartedly for the
please advise. double doors. Good luck recent standard of drawings in the magazine,
Many thanks, with it, and please let me its mostly down to budget cuts and the
Brian Hargreaves know how you get on. unaffordability of a permanent illustrator.
While I will endeavour to avoid this happening
Hi Brian, again, it occurs to me that there may be a
Well youve got yourself a challenge there and Brian certainly has a tricky reader or two out there who would like to try
no mistake. Multiple sets of bi-fold doors are task on his hands with their hand at a spot of technical drawing?
notoriously tricky, especially if youre adapting these doors, but were If you enjoy CAD or similar, please get in
four old doors to make two matching sets. sure hell pull it off! touch and well see what we can do. Mark

Dont forget, were always keen to see your photos, so please dont hesitate to send them in if youve snapped something of interest recently.
Email me at the usual address: The Woodworker Autumn 2016 25

WOODWORK Flat panels
1 This large flat panel was an appropriate case
for veneered MDF with a solid edging strip

Flat panels
with ease

Producing a wide, solid table-top that wont warp doesnt need to

be difficult. Michael Forster looks into the causes and the solutions

heyre deceptively simple-looking solid maybe because its going to get timber will release moisture into the air
things, flat panels. With modern some wear and you need to be able to and contract. This, if not managed, can
machinery it might seem that sand it back occasionally, or perhaps have all kinds of effects including opening
producing a flat, solid panel should you want a classic look with decorative joints and splitting. So, clearly, one would
now be childs play no more of all that panel-work (photo 3). And that raises not use timber intended for outdoor use for
arduous hand planing; just run it through (among others) the topic of seasonal a cabinet destined to be in a centrally heated
a thicknesser, then perhaps the drum movement. The wider the panel, the more room or furniture grade timber for building
sander and Roberts your siblings brother. the movement will show. To manage it, we a garden shed to stand out in the rain.
However, most of us will know it isnt that need to understand something about how This suitability is generally measured
simple by a country mile. And because movement happens, and have some basic in terms of moisture content drier
we know that, its easy to be intimidated woodworking hand-skills at our disposal. timber being specified for furniture than for
into seeking easier alternatives after Two significant factors in timber fencing. A good timber yard should be both
all, there seem to be new forms of sheet movement are moisture content and willing and able to advise and if in doubt its
material evolving almost hourly, so the way the board is cut from the log. helpful to tell them what the timber is for
who needs all the hassle of unstable Both of these need to be considered they might also sometimes advise about
solid wood when a nice bit of veneered when ordering supplies of timber. the idiosyncrasies of particular species
MDF will fit the bill? For some projects, for specified functions. Then theres the
thats true, and Ive been known to take Moisture content matter of how the log has been sliced up.
that course myself a number of times In very simple terms, if the atmosphere
(photo 1), even choosing veneer for its is moister than the timber, then the timber Stress relief
positive advantages (photo 2). will absorb moisture and expand as the Slicing up a tree trunk to produce planks
Sometimes, though, it just has to be fibres fill up, while in the converse case releases stresses in the timber, and the
26 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
2 3 4
... and veneering this decorative box meant I could create ... but for this raised and fielded Plain sawn timber has the annular rings
a four-way bookmatch where the top meets the front... panel there was no option but running across, which leaves the board
to joint up some wide boards vulnerable to cupping

effect of that is directly related to the perpendicular (or something close to it) plain-sawn, which is not what I want
way the cutting is orientated. The most to the wide surfaces. This is much more but is what I consider economic. So, lets
economical (and therefore most common) expensive to do, which is reflected in suppose that I want a board 200mm wide
approach is simply to slice the log along the cost but for fine furniture work is and 20mm-thick. The obvious thing to do
its length (plain-sawn), so that each plank a worthwhile expense. As will readily be would be to rip the board on edge to take
has the curves of the annular rings running, appreciated, theres a lot less scope for off, say, 25mm (photo 7) but by the time
in various degrees, laterally across the the annular rings to straighten out in the board had settled it would be more
width (photo 4). The releasing of the timber cut this way, and the result is suited to the aforementioned feeding trough
stresses allows the annular rings to begin vastly improved stability (photo 6). than a table-top! Instead, Im going to rip it
to straighten up, and the effect is cupping on its side rather than its edge and produce
something easily found in boards sold Buying & preparing timber quartersawn boards (photo 8) and its
in general DIY stores. Make a table-top As I indicated earlier and hopefully is immediately clear that the annular rings
from a wide board cut this way and it will now clearer its vital to have the purpose are much more favourably orientated. As
end up as more of a feeding trough than in mind when buying, and to ensure that the a further precaution, when joining them Ill
a dining table, as I learned to my cost as a moisture content will be appropriate for the reverse one of the boards so that the annular
teenager making a coffee table (photo 5). environment. So for a wide panel thats to rings are angled the opposite way (photo 9),
One way I could have guarded against be used in a living room wed be specifying and this will give me a much more stable
this would have been to rip the board a low moisture content and, for preference, board. Ill come to how to carry out the
into several narrower ones, turn over quartersawn. However, that second point jointing operation shortly but we havent
each alternate segment and glue them might mean burrowing deep into our finished with the preparation aspect yet.
back together to form one board but pockets when the bill came in. So nows
with the direction of the annular rings the time to think about whether theres Acclimatisation
alternating. This would not prevent the a cheaper way we can get the benefits I dont enjoy the luxury of a heated
movement but would even it out to of quartersawn timber and the good let alone air conditioned timber store.
create a series of subtle undulations news is that there is. My timber racks are in the machine
rather than a single and very obvious curve. Although most of my work is relatively shop, AKA garage, and after a while
A better way of cutting the log is to small-scale, I like, wherever possible, to in that environment will definitely have
quarter-saw, by which method the cuts purchase my timber in boards about 200mm more moisture in them than I want in
are arranged so that the annular rings run wide 100mm-thick. These invariably come my furniture. Furthermore, the moisture

5 6 7
as happened to this teenage project Quartersawn timber allows much less scope This may seem an easy way of getting a wide
for the rings to straighten and results in a board, but itll give us much more trouble in
much more stable board the long run The Woodworker Autumn 2016 27
WOODWORK Flat panels

content will vary the deeper into the

board I cut obviously the fibres near
the surfaces breathe more than those at
the centre. So theres another excuse (and
its not as if it needs much encouragement)
for the timber to move which means
that the next stage of preparation will be a
couple of weeks in my home to acclimatise.
For this reason, I prepare the boards a little
over-size to allow for truing up later.

8 Only after giving time for that to take

place will I return the boards to the
After a time in the offcuts rack, the quartered board is still flat while the plain-sawn one is machine shop for final flattening and
distinctly cupped dimensioning at the planer and thicknesser.
Im now ready to combine my two narrow
boards into one wider version, for which I
turn to one of my favourite tools: my trusty
jack plane. And for this task I change from
a cambered to a straight cutter.

Get the edge

The first thing to do is arrange the boards,
taking into account the grain with regard
to both appearance and stability. To ensure
they stay that way round throughout the
process, I mark them with a triangle (photo
10). What we need to do now is prepare
two (or more, depending on the size of

9 10 panel we need) mating edges that fit

together perfectly all the way along, so
Reversing the annular rings when arranging The cabinetmakers triangle is a simple way closely that once glued up the join will
for glue-up will even out what little movement of ensuring the carefully-prepared boards only be detectable by looking for changes
there is and minimise the effect of cupping are not then glued up in the wrong order in the grain. Unless youve got a much

Taking twin shavings from two boards
together its best to use a straight,
rather than radiused, cutter for this

11 12 Pencil reference marks on each end of the
boards help me to take stopped shavings,
Ive deliberately planed these two boards to demonstrate how they compensate thereby creating a microscopic hollow in
visibly out of square on assembly the length
28 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
better power planer than I have (and/or gluing up impossible. Secondly, with the advance, setting the cramps on the
are better at using it, which you very well two ends together the cramp will pull the bench with the appropriate jaw opening
may be) this is much more likely to be middle up tight convex boards would and ensuring that brushes, cleaning cloths
accomplished by hand. In fact, however rock and resist that process. Thirdly, it and water are to hand. Three sash cramps
good the planer, I remain convinced that co-operates with the timbers natural are required: two flat on the bench beneath
a slicing blade is preferable to a rotating process of breathing. Timber exchanges the panel and one to go across the top
cutterblock when two mating surfaces are moisture with the air more through the afterwards in between them to discourage
required. When I first learnt to do woodwork ends than anywhere else think of the the joint from lifting (photo 15).
I would try to plane each edge separately grain fibres as tubes holding water. This In most cases, theres no need for
until each was perfectly flat in both means that any shrinkage taking place any mechanical reinforcement of the
directions and perfectly square to the face in a centrally heated room will be more joint. Biscuits can be helpful in getting the
side. There are times when that needs to at the ends than the middle and that joint well aligned, but modern adhesives
be the method such as when jointing will tend to pull the boards more tightly will hold tenaciously without any help. I
very thick boards but for most purposes together. Had we left the boards slightly generally use Titebond 3, which is excellent
it makes unnecessarily heavy weather convex, the cramps might still have pulled for my purposes, but there are a variety
of it. It means a lot of trial and error work, the joint together at the ends, but as the of suitable adhesives out there. I think its
frequently removing the timber from the boards shrunk further in a centrally heated quite important to brush a thin film onto
vice and replacing it to adjust. It doesnt environment the crack would have opened each edge, rather than just squeeze a bead
need to be such a fiddle. up or more probably, given the quality of and rely on the cramp pressure to spread it
My approach now is to start by placing modern glues, the timber would have split. evenly. I then rub the edges together from
both boards in the vice, face sides together end to end to squeeze out the excess
and mating edges uppermost. This means Gluing up before placing the boards in the cramps
I dont have to worry about squareness For very wide panels this might be done in and tightening up, checking for flatness.
of the edge the angles will be stages. I never glue more than three boards After a quick clean with a damp cloth
complementary when the boards in one operation preferably only two as or kitchen paper the panel can be left for
are glued up (photos 11 & 12). I do, its just asking for alignment issues. So four the glue to go off, and then it will probably
however, need the edges to be flat and boards, for example, would be glued as two need a little tweaking for flatness using a
straight (the reason for the quotation pairs and then brought together. sharp plane. Et voil! One wide panel that
marks will become clear in a moment). Once again, the word is preparation but should stay about as close to perfectly
I now plane both edges together (photo in this case its about assembling the kit in flat as is realistic with natural timber.
13), and keep planing until Im removing
continuous, full-width, full-length shavings.
In theory the two edges are both flat,
but in reality the likelihood is that theyre
convex longitudinally and in that case
when I bring the edges together therell be
gaps at the ends. Its important to resist the
temptation to release the vice and try just
on the off-chance that its right, because
if it isnt which is almost inevitable the
chances of getting those boards back in
the vice perfectly aligned is probably less
than minimal, which will mean virtually
starting over again. Instead I mark the ends
of the boards (photo 14) and take stopped
shavings with a finely-set plane between
the marks, continuing planing until the tool
stops cutting. I now know that the boards
are microscopically hollow lengthwise, at
which point I take one or two (no more)
pairs of full-length, full-width shavings,
removing the pencil marks and the tiny
bumps that will have been left. I now have
two boards that for this purpose (most
purposes, in fact) I should call flat.
Why is minutely concave better than
convex? Three reasons at least. Firstly,
this concavity is controlled we know
it cant be too much because the plane 15
wont cut a deep hollow, whereas the The glue-up note the cramp across the top to discourage any lifting of the joint.
boards might have had almost any amount I didnt bother to pad the cramps in this instance because the edges were to be
of convexity, which would have made the concealed within a groove The Woodworker Autumn 2016 29
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WOODWORK Owen Jones in profile
Photographs by Paul Felix

32 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

to power 1
Owen Jones is single-handedly keeping the
A swill begins with Owen dressing a taw with a
South Cumbrian tradition of swill making alive hand knife

espite our economy no longer hobby. As for Owen, he had reached
being based on manufacturing something of a crossroads in his life.
as it once was, many places around Feeling that it was the right thing to do,
Britain are still inextricably linked to their he decided to learn the trade from Barker.
mighty past. We still link Sheffield with In many ways it worked quite well, Owen
steel, Stoke-on-Trent with pottery, and High reflects. He was getting old, and was
Wycombe with furniture, even if the trade starting to find the physical aspects difficult.
is now a mere fraction of what it used to Quite simply, Owen would provide the brawn
be. To this list we should add the southern to complement Johns brains. John Barker
part of the Lake District and oak swills. has since passed on, thus leaving Owen
During the industrial era, the Furness as the last of his kind. When I first started,
Peninsula (Cumbria, as of 1974, and
formerly Lancashire) was the home of a
he recalls, I came across quite a few other
swill makers at craft shows, but theres no 2
flourishing trade in this woven basket, an one left of that generation now. A spelk is dressed with a drawknife on Owens
offshoot of the coppice wood industry. Oak As a result of learning his trade at the feet swillers mare
swills would generally be used in agriculture, of an ex-professional maker who had served
for sowing seeds or gathering potatoes. a five-year apprenticeship, the methods load of peeled oak, which would normally
Of course, the Northwest was a hotbed of Owen uses are the same as would have last until around Christmas, after which
industry, and it would not be uncommon been used many generations ago; the term they would get hold of what they could
to find them being used for industrial swill itself is derived from the Norse spelk, until April came around again. Of course,
purposes, often in coal mining. The trade so were talking about techniques that are Owen is working alone, so he doesnt have
was big enough to exclusively occupy quite likely to be over 1,000 years old. to adhere to the classic coppicing timetable,
whole workshops of makers, but was The process, unsurprisingly, begins in so he prefers to use the wood green, before
strictly a regional thing, exclusive to a the woods the Furness Fells are rich in it dries out. In his role as coppice merchant,
circular area no bigger than 15 miles. woodland. Owen explains that they remain however, he does still supply a tannery in
Inevitably, the making of oak swills this way today probably as a result of the South Devon with bark. Incidentally this
went the same way as so many of our rocky terrain making the area unsuitable tannery has something in common with
crafts and trades gradually dying away, for agriculture. In the past, swillers would Owen, being the last oak bark tannery in
just another victim of post-war technological have sourced their timber from a coppice the country.
advances and shifting economical priorities. merchant. Indeed, when Owen started out
Nevertheless, there is one man yet keeping he did buy his from such a merchant, but Making a swill
the tradition alive. From his workshop near today there is no reliable and consistent With the timber sourced, the next step is to
Coniston Water, Owen Jones continues to source, so Owen fells his own timber, saw the trunk into various lengths, ranging
make these oak and hazel baskets by hand. coppicing nearby woodland at Force Forge, from 2 to 5 feet long. The longer lengths are
So how did Owen defy the sweeping hand owned by the National Park Authority. used for the weaves of the basket. Generally
of fate to become the last oak swill maker I use a variety of different qualities, Owen will reserve the best quality timber from
of the area, and most likely the country? he states. Ideally Id want a tree with a 6 or the butt end for these, using the first 6 feet,
7 inch diameter, straight and without knots, the wood he uses is all from the first 12 feet
Changing times still growing with vigour. Owen fells trees all of the felled timber. These weaves are known
The story began in the late 80s. Through year round, tending to use the wood within a as the taws. The ribs, made from wood from
his father-in-law, Owen had met a man few weeks. Traditionally, the coppice higher up the tree,
named John Barker. John had been a swill merchant would have cut down oak trees are known as spelks, either derived from
maker for over 50 years, having served his in April, when the sap was up, peeling the the Norse word, or perhaps indicating that
apprenticeship in the 1930s. Retired by that trunks to supply the tanning industry with ribs were the essential part that gave their
point, he continued to make oak swills for a bark. The swillers would then receive a bulk name to the whole. The Woodworker Autumn 2016 33

WOODWORK Owen Jones in profile

After the parts are sawn to length, they are to make them good to go again.
cleaved lengthways into billets using a froe; The next stage is the dressing of the
a 6 inch tree would yield around six billets. taws and spelks, probably the hardest
These billets are then placed into a large iron part of the process, according to Owen.
boiler, and boiled for several hours. While this The former are dressed over the knee
is happening, Owen cuts the hazel rods for with a hand knife, the latter on a mare
the rims of the baskets, usually to about 1 (a type of shaving horse) with a drawknife.
inch diameter. They are then dressed This is where the quality of the material
and steamed for 20 minutes, before being makes a huge difference, Owen explains.
bent into an oval shape. The rim of the If you have really nice material then the
basket is known as the bool. dressing doesnt take that long, but with
To get up to this point usually takes a day. bad material it can be a bit of a challenge.

3 The next morning, the billets are brought

back to the boil, and left to simmer as they
Once dressed the spelks can be bent into
shape, and put in place, and the taws
Using a drawknife to shave off any sharp edges are taken out one by one and riven down woven in. And there you have it: a strong,
of the hazel bool the bottom of the basket into thin strips. versatile and aesthetically charming
The spelks will be around 3mm, and 1 or traditional basket.
2 in width, and the taws will be 1.6mm, and The process is mostly done by feel,
very flexible, to the extent that you can wrap but the design of the basket is firmly
them around your finger. The process is very established, to the extent where each spelk
physical, with knees being used like a (there are 15 of these) and taw has its own
cleaving break. The knife used has more of specific name! A dozen or so baskets is
a splitting edge than a cutting edge, and the all it takes for the process to become
billets are often torn to size, albeit in a familiar Owen reckons, but concedes youd
controlled fashion. If they prove too tough have to make hundreds before it was easy.
to pull apart this way, they can simply be Back in the days of apprenticeships, itd be
held underfoot and ripped that way. Usually three years before theyd even let you touch
Owen rives the back way (tangentially), a basket (so said the late John Barker).
but sometimes radially. Thered be plenty to enjoy, though; the boiling

4 Once the bool, taws and spelks are all

cut to size they can be stored for months,
oak makes a wonderful fruity smell, and
the oak tannins reaction to boiling results
Owens boiled oak is riven by hand only requiring an overnight soak in the in a spectrum of colours being revealed
stream at the bottom of Owens garden when the strips are riven.

Owen slips on the second working-up taw

5 7
The flexibility of the spelk must be tested after dressing which, it should be noted, takes some He weaves round the bool with the narrow
strain on the wrists bottom taw...
34 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
... and then weaves the broad bottom taw

Hearts of oak the woodland even out again. It has been coppice group, and can be found making
So is it only oak that can be used for a swill? a tough winter, he tells us. The oaks been charcoal, hurdles and besom brooms
I have made a basket out of lime, says pretty ropey. Inconsistency, he surmises, when not occupied with swill making.
Owen, and it has been known to have is a key aspect of the trade. Even a tree So, a busy schedule all in all, but we must
been used in the past. Lime is extremely that you think looks perfect can be harsh ask the inevitable question: is this the end
easy to cut to size, he tells us, but the and full of knots, whereas a bent and twisted of the line for swill making, or is there a
obvious corollary of this is that the basket tree can be silky smooth. Its very difficult new generation of swillers being trained up?
lacks strength, which is no good if its to to predict. Swill making is not for those Owen doesnt have a traditional apprentice,
be loaded with potatoes! Conversely, you who are fastidious about their materials, and is adamant that he has no desire for
can jump up and down on an oak basket he concludes: A lot of the time youre his business to grow (which taking on
without adverse effects, so it seems more battling against it, he points out. an apprentice would inevitably result in).
fit for purpose. Of course, another reason However, he is keen that the skills live on,
oak has always been used is due to the Where theres a swill... and is happy to train up willing students on
regional character of the swill. In southern Owen has started selling his baskets on his an informal basis. Sadly, one young man he
Cumbria, oak is plentiful, so its no surprise own website, but the majority of the selling trained up in this fashion had to give it up
that oak is the timber of choice. Owen adds is usually done at trade and craft shows. as it didnt play well with his wrists, but he
that he gets a great satisfaction from using This means the whole process is done by is currently working with a young lady, so
local material. him and him alone, from living oak to selling the signs are good: You dont need inherited
Sadly, now that coppicing has died down the finished product to the consumer, which skills, he asserts. Perhaps it suits certain
in the area, the woods are uneven, and much in itself gives Owen great pleasure. He body types, but the most important thing is
of the oak is over-stood. Some of it is 60 admits that the process is a little insular, but the right temperament, as it can be repetitive
years old, considerably older than the 20 he is by no means reclusive. Hes involved and you have to accept that sometimes
to 25 years that Owen tells us is ideal for with the Heritage Crafts Association, and youll have to work with rubbish materials.
coppiced oak, so he is working with bigger has become a Yeoman of the Worshipful Desire, he posits, is the key ingredient to
material than wouldve been used in the Company of Basketmakers, although he success. He currently teaches about six
past. He is working conscientiously, though, stands alone in the latter, as most British or seven three-day courses a year, which
trying to cut down a section at a time, rather basketmakers work with willow. As a are well attended and he enjoys running.
than cherry picking the best timber, to help woodsman, hes also involved with the local Despite this he has no intention of
expanding this side of his business. You
sense, talking to Owen, that he is satisfied
with the hand he has been dealt that he
has truly found his calling. He is a craftsman
first and foremost, and he clearly plans
to keep it that way. There is definitely
something admirable about that.

To find out more about Owen and his work,
see details below:
Tel: 01229 885 664
9 10 Web:

The finisher is pared prior to the completion With the basket more or less finished, any
of the swill protruding spelks need to be carefully trimmed The Woodworker Autumn 2016 35
ARCHIVE On the shelf


If any readers have memories and photos of
things they or their forebears made from The

Woodworker, please get in touch as wed love
to see them. Just email me on the usual address: and well get
them in the mag

When it comes to simple and achievable

projects, there are many variations on
the useful shelf and this one, from The
Woodworker of January 1947, would have
definitely been worth attempting. With
resources of all kinds at a premium after
the war, furniture and fittings were generally
designed with the smaller dwelling in mind.
Most pieces would include extra features
and anything that had a dual purpose was
certain to be popular. The useful shelf here
is made doubly so by the inclusion of a
small mirror at one end and a shallow
cupboard at the other.

Utility furniture
The suggested timber is oak with a
veneered walnut cross-band on the door.
This is a classic combination to be sure,
and one which would have entirely suited
the then current trends for interior
decoration. When it came to looks and
aesthetics, design hadnt moved on much
from the 30s; the 1940s were all about
Utility furniture and just keeping things
going with the limited resources available.
Despite continuing shortages in many
raw materials, it wasnt really until the
early 1950s that a new look began to
appear, heralded by the 1951 Festival of
Britain, which aimed to give a boost to the
nations morale and encourage renewal,
manufacturing and consumer spending.

Valid plans
The plans shown here are still very valid,
and I would be very pleased to learn of
anyone giving the job a go; at the very least
it may well inspire a few readers to adapt
it for their own requirements or to make an
equivalent for the present day. Let me know
how you get on at the usual email address:
This wall bookshelf from The Woodworker of
January 1947 would certainly have proven an
attractive and useful addition to any room
made doubly so by the inclusion of a small mirror
at one end and a shallow cupboard at the other

36 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

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NEWS The latest from the world of woodwork

In brief...
Commercial & Leisure 1. Doors for 55 St. James Street
1. Alconbury Weald Club by Sarah Kay
2. Gloucester Services 2. Hollow designed by Zeller & Moye
3. Sky Health & Fitness Centre 3. Kingston Ancient Market Place & stalls
4. Stihl Treetop Walkway designed by Tonkin Liu
THE WOOD AWARDS: 5. Welcome Centre 4. The Twist designed by
2016 SHORTLIST ANNOUNCED Architectural Association
A shortlist of 12 projects has been selected Education & Public Sector
from a record number of 182 British furniture 1. Conservation & repair of FURNITURE & PRODUCT COMPETITION
and product entries in this years Wood Harmondsworth Barn Bespoke
Awards. Two bespoke designs, six 2. Maggies at the Robert Parfett Building 1. Log Stack Cabinet by Byron & Gmez
production and four student designs, 3. Mellor Primary School 2. Pantori by Steph Leake an intern at
have been selected by the judges led 4. St. Clares, Oxford Jack Badger Ltd.
by Max Fraser, design curator and author. 5. Stanbrook Abbey
20 outstanding buildings have also been Production Made
selected for the Wood Awards 2016 shortlist, Interiors 1. Dyehouse Fall Bench designed
featuring some of Britains best architectural 1. Christ Church Crypt Spitalfields by Dyehouse
designs in wood. Led by architect Michael 2. The Portledge Rear Staircase 2. Ercol Flow Chair by T.n.a Design
Morrison of Purcell, the judges reviewed 3. Tufnell Park Road 3. Planks Collection by Max Lamb
applications in a variety of categories, 4. Sebastian Cox kitchen by deVOL
including: Commercial & Leisure, Education Private 5. Stretch extending dining table by
& Public Sector, Interiors, Private, and Small 1. Ansty Plum designed Pengelly Design Ltd.
Projects. The winners of both competitions by Coppin Dockray 6. Well Proven Stool by van Aubel & Shaw
will be revealed at the 45th annual Wood 2. Contour House designed
Awards ceremony, which will be held by Sanei Hopkins Architects Student Designer
at Carpenters Hall on 22 November. 3. Woodpeckers designed by 1. Geometry by Michael Stevenson
Established in 1971, the Wood Awards is Strom Architects 2. Milena by Juan Junca
the UKs premier competition for excellence 3. One-sheet dining chair by Terry Davies
in architecture and product design in the 4. Velo Chair by Jan Waterston
worlds only naturally sustainable material.
The Awards aim to recognise, encourage
and promote outstanding design, Shortlisted
craftsmanship and installation using within the
wood. For more information on these Furniture
unique awards, see the website: and Product Competitions
Look out for Good Woodworking issue Bespoke category, Log Stack Cabinet,
314 (January), which will feature a special designed by Byron & Gmez, began with a
article showcasing all the deserving winners. desire to highlight the beauty of end-grain
Also shortlisted within the Furniture and
Product Competitions Production Made
category, Van Aubel & Shaws Well Proven
Stool uses a composite of sawdust and
soya-based resin. The waste created from
the hardwood legs goes into producing the
foamed wood seat while the colour of the
sawdust used dictates the colour of the seat

Shortlisted within the Buildings Competitions

Small Projects category, the Twist, made using
birch ply, features CNC-milled ribs and wings

Shortlisted within
the Furniture and
Product Competitions
Shortlisted within the Furniture and Product Production Made Shortlisted within the Buildings Competitions
Competitions Student Designer category, category, Ercols Flow Education & Public Sector category,
Jan Waterstons Velo Chair, made in ash Chair features refined Harmondsworth Barn is regarded as an
and inspired by the bicycle, connects body sweeping lines, a tapered outstanding example of medieval carpentry,
and object by seamlessly wrapping itself seat and was made using and one of the largest surviving medieval
around the user European beech barns in England
38 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
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TURNING Workshop setup

If youre thinking about setting up your own woodturning
workshop, then this indispensable guide from Bob Chapman
will provide you with a wealth of sound advice, hints and tips

1 2
My workshop features a well insulated pitched My lathe is positioned against the wall to
roof with panels, which emit natural light maximise the central space in the workshop

orkshops vary in size from Where should everything go?
a corner of the garage with Having a larger space means greater
a bench narrow enough to flexibility and more alternatives for
get the car in beside it, to spacious how you might set it out. When the
buildings bigger than some bungalows. workshop was built I already had most
My own workshop (see main photo) of the equipment which would go in it, but
began life as a double length garage with I spent some time deciding where things
a flat sloping roof. It was dark and dingy would go. I think one of the most crucial
with a low ceiling and no natural light. It was decisions was building shelving out at My decision was to put it against a wall
not a very pleasant workspace and, as my right angles to one wall, just opposite the (photo 2). This maximised the central
business grew, I decided to replace it. I had side door. This effectively partitioned the space in the workshop and the lathes
the whole thing pulled down and replaced garage and helped to define my workshop swivel head would solve most access
with a slightly bigger building still with a area. It also helped to hide my tools problems likely to arise. Similarly, the
garage door, and still technically a garage. and machinery from public view when bandsaw was positioned such that long
In fact the large up-and-over garage door is the main garage door is open. The security pieces of wood could be passed through
very useful when I have to load the car with aspect of this is not to be taken lightly. it without hitting obstructions. A reasonably
lathe and tools for a demonstration, or bring In these days of Google Street View, many large island workbench on lockable wheels
in a load of timber from the local sawmill. garages with open doors, contents on is a very useful addition (photo 3).
Now it has a higher, well insulated display and street address given, are I had electrical sockets installed at regular
pitched roof with panels, which emit natural shown online for anyone to look at. intervals on a dedicated 30 amp ring main
light (photo 1). A 3 3m section of it I try to open the main door as little as around the workshop. My intention was that
remains traditional garage after all, possible and close it again immediately. I should never be in the position of not being
the lawnmower and the bikes have to Cupboards and shelving went naturally able to easily reach a socket with whatever
live somewhere, but its never had a car to the walls, but a decision was required power tool I might be using at the time.
in it. The rest of the space constitutes about the lathe. Should it go along a wall, Having plenty of sockets has proved useful
my workshop and measures 6.7 3.6m. which would hinder access from the other although, of course, they are never all in use
I consider myself very lucky to have this side, or should it be placed centrally, at the same time, and I suspect several of
much room dedicated to my woodturning. allowing access from all around it? them may never be used.

40 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

Bobs workshop

Lighting Workshop heating

Lighting is mostly fluorescent with a Workshop heating is a perennial problem.
couple of incandescent bulbs in the garage In my previous workshop Id used a bottled
area. Ive read of possible problems of a gas heater, but this was expensive to
stroboscopic coincidence between the run, the gas always ran out at the most
speed of the lathe and the frequency of inconvenient time and, worst of all, the
fluorescent lighting, which can make the combustion of the gas produced large
lathe appear stationary even though it is amounts of water vapour, which then
rotating. Its a possibility I suppose, but it condensed on my tools and machinery.
has never happened to me and despite I briefly considered a woodburning stove
trying, Ive never been able to deliberately but these are expensive to install and there
produce the effect. In any case, by far is the ever-present risk of fire to consider.
the most important light sources are I eventually decided in favour of a small
the transparent roof panels, which emit electric convection heater, but in winter
plenty of natural light even on winter days. the workshop never reached a satisfactory
To maximise reflected light, I decided temperature. Eventually I reconsidered
to paint the walls of the workshop white
before fitting it out, and this has worked
my views on a woodburning stove. It didnt
escape my attention that I was regularly 3
so well that I find I rarely need to turn the throwing out timber waste, which would A reasonably large island workbench on
electric lights on. have been free fuel. After weighing up all lockable wheels is a very useful addition The Woodworker Autumn 2016 41
TURNING Workshop setup

the pros and cons, I finally installed a can be wrong with them. Always look pieces always present a problem and
small woodburning stove mounted on at whats available second-hand. Id making them almost always involves a
a stone slab and with a double layer of never buy a lathe without looking on joint somewhere along the length, although
fireproof board behind it and to the sides eBay first, for example. Woodturning some specialist workshops may have very,
(photo 4). A senior fireman who came for and woodworking magazines often very long bed lathes. Some lathes will
a lesson one day gave it a quick once over carry adverts for second-hand machinery accept bed extensions, and may be worth
and pronounced it safe, but warned me not (see our marketplace on page 89). looking at if this sort of work is what you
to let the pile of firewood get too close to it. Woodturning clubs sometimes have have in mind.
I am amazed at how efficient it is. Even in members upgrading to a better lathe who
the depths of winter the workshop is now would like to sell their current machine. How powerful is the lathe motor?
as warm as the proverbial toast and the Generally, the more powerful the better,
harmful water vapour goes up the chimney. Whats the biggest diameter but remember that you will pay for it so be
piece the lathe can take? sure you need it. If the maximum diameter
Lathes Obviously bigger is generally better, you can turn is 250mm, its unlikely you
Irrespective of lathe manufacturer, there but bear in mind that very large pieces will need more than, say, a half horsepower
are certain features to look for. Choosing of wood are actually not all that commonly motor although many new lathes this size
a lathe is never easy, as it will invariably available. I really cant remember when now come with as much as 34HP motors.
involve playing one desirable feature off I last used a piece in excess of about
against another, with perhaps the most 500mm diameter. A swivelling headstock How heavy is the lathe?
important aspect being the price. In my might be a better idea for those occasional Vibration is the enemy of turning and the
opinion, the things to consider when bigger pieces. Some lathes will allow larger heavier the lathe, the better in terms of
buying a lathe are: pieces to be turned on the outboard side damping any vibrations. Bolting your lathe
of the headstock, but this might require to a heavy bench will also help and many
How much can you afford? faceplates and chucks with a left-hand also bolt the bench to the floor. Some
We all have budget constraints and we thread to prevent them unscrewing and this then add bags of sand, concrete blocks,
all, at times, overstep them, but there will increase the cost of these accessories. bricks, etc. to increase the weight. These
are limits and its wise to know what precautions might be necessary if youre
they are before you start looking. Dont Whats the longest piece working with large unbalanced pieces or
automatically assume you must have the lathe will take? doing offcentre work, but with small pieces,
a brand-new lathe. They are very simple Many long-bed lathes will accept lengths you probably wont need to go to these
machines and, provided they start when up to about 1m and this is fine for things lengths. Just make sure the lathe is firmly
you switch them on, there is not a lot that like staircase spindles and so on. Longer secured to whatever it is mounted on.

Indexing is a handy feature, although most lathes dont have it

Having a hole all

the way through the
headstock spindle
is useful for removing
centres and such from
the spindles internal
taper, and also makes
the building of a
vacuum system much
easier when you decide

4 you want one

My woodburning stove is mounted on a stone slab with a double layer of

fireproof board behind it 6
42 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
What else might you want? Bobs lathes not the lathe. The best lathe in the world
There are a number of desirable, very So, after writing all this, what lathe do wont make you a better turner, and a cheap
useful but not quite essential features I have myself? I have two: a Vicmarc lathe wont prevent you from becoming one.
that you might come across. VL175SH (photo 2), which fulfils my
Electronic variable-speed is becoming
increasingly common on new lathes and
needs on most of the criteria stated and
has served me well although it originally
When I first began turning as a young man
can be added, at a price, to older lathes. came with a 1HP motor and was definitely more than 30 years ago, I soon discovered
There is no doubt it is a very useful underpowered. I believe that Vicmarc now that buying ready-prepared bowl blanks is
feature and Id put it top of the wish list. supply it with a 1.5HP motor as standard a very expensive way of acquiring timber.
Indexing, i.e. being able to lock the lathe
spindle in a number of fixed positions,
but I upgraded mine myself with a 2HP
motor and electronic variable-speed unit
Instead I would pay a visit to my local
sawmill (photo 9) where I could buy entire
is a handy feature, although many lathes from an independent supplier. sawn boards for the price of a single
dont have it. With a little ingenuity its Until recently, my second lathe was ready-prepared bowl blank. The proprietor
usually possible to add it, for very little also a Vicmarc, the much smaller VL100 gradually got to know me and, provided the
cost, to a lathe that doesnt (photo 5). (photo 7), which I used almost exclusively saw is not actually running at the time, will
Having a hole all the way through the
headstock spindle is useful for removing
for demonstrations. I purchased it without
a motor and then fitted the 1HP motor and
now let me wander about looking through
the various stacks for the pieces I want.
centres and such from the spindles variable-speed taken off the VL175. Both In those early days Id draw a circle
internal taper, and also makes the lathes have the same spindle thread, which near the end, avoiding any cracks, and
building of a vacuum system much means that all my chucks and other bits use a hand saw to cut across the board.
easier when you decide you want one and pieces fit them both, therefore reducing Then Id cut off the corners with straight
(photo 6). Most Record Power lathes the need for duplication. cuts, then cut off the smaller corners,
are notable in not having this facility, When I stopped demonstrating I sold before mounting the piece on the lathe
although the very latest ones have. the VL100, but soon found I missed the to turn to round. It was hard work, all
Alternatively, you can buy a ready-made convenience of a second lathe. After a few that sawing, but it helped keep me fit.
vacuum system, but it will set you back months of waiting and watching, I bought As soon as I could afford one I bought
an extra 500-,1000. a replacement on eBay for 85. It needed a bandsaw. What a luxury it was, to watch
Being able to remove the tailstock
by sliding it off the end of the bed is
a little work to add indexing, variable-speed
and a vacuum system, but it now performs
that blade slice through the boards like
a knife through butter. Pretty soon I was
surprisingly useful and can be a source more than adequately (photo 8). It is, of cutting thicker and thicker boards to give
of irritation if your lathe wont allow it, course, always worth remembering that the me deeper blanks for bowls and hollow
so possibly worth considering. quality of the work depends on the turner, forms until, inevitably, I reached the limit

The Vicmarc VL100 lathe

8 9
My 85 unbranded eBay lathe now features
indexing, variable-speed and a vacuum system
Visiting a local sawmill is a great way to buy
entire sawn boards, which can then be made 10
into bowl blanks My Record BS500 bandsaw The Woodworker Autumn 2016 43
TURNING Workshop setup

the well-known quality manufacturers

will serve you well.
Its also perhaps worth mentioning here
that brand-new tools are not sharp. You
must sharpen them before use. Ive met
several beginners who blame themselves
for poor results when in fact they have
been using brand-new, but blunt, tools.

A hand plane, used to plane a piece
of wood for 15 minutes, will cut through
something like quarter of a mile of wood.
Its no surprise, then, that it might require
re-sharpening at this stage.
However, a spindle roughing gouge, used
for 15 minutes on a 150mm workpiece
rotating at 1,000rpm, will cut through
almost four and a half miles of wood.
The message is clear: your turning tools

11 work very hard and frequent sharpening

is required to keep them in good condition.
My tools are kept in racks on the wall behind the lathe

of the bandsaw. There is an unbreakable a few home-made deep hollowing tools. PLANE BLADE
natural law about bandsaws: no matter These comprise my entire kit of turning Suppose a stroke length of about
how big your bandsaw, the day will come tools and I only have as many as this 450mm at a rate of one stroke per
when it is too small. My advice is to buy the because there is a great deal of duplication. second, kept up for 15 minutes without
biggest you can afford, also taking quality For example, I have four almost identical pause. Unlikely, perhaps, but it gives us
and power into account and, the moment 13mm bowl gouges. When I did a basis for calculation.
it is delivered, start saving for a bigger one. demonstrations, it was much quicker to put
My current bandsaw, a Record BS500, down a blunt gouge and pick up a sharper Distance cut = 450mm 60 15
will cut through timber 280mm-thick and, one than to stop and sharpen the first one. = 405 000mm
finally, I can go no bigger. It is taller than The tools I use most are a 32mm spindle = 405 metres (= 0.405 km)
I am and only just fits in the space available roughing gouge, 13mm bowl gouges, = 450 yards
in my workshop (photo 10). Strangely, 38mm round-nosed scraper, 6mm scraper, = 0.26 miles
when cutting out bowl blanks I still often 3mm parting tool and a 25mm skew chisel.
do it by using the bandsaw to cut off These six tools probably account for about SPINDLE ROUGHING GOUGE
corners with straight cuts, just as I did 80% of the turning I do. Less frequently, Suppose a workpiece diameter of
in my hand sawing days. Alas, it doesnt a smaller bowl gouge, say 10mm or 6mm 150mm at 1,000rpm for 15 minutes.
keep me fit anymore. is useful, as is a 25mm round-nosed Of course, the diameter wouldnt remain
If you prefer to cut circular blanks, then scraper. I use a 10mm spindle gouge the same throughout but, again, it gives
remember that narrower blades will cut for hollowing boxes. us a basis for calculation.
tighter circles. I find that a 10mm blade I also have a very useful narrow parting
is a good all-round size. tool, homemade from an old machine Distance cut = 150mm 1,000 15
hacksaw blade, but please dont take this = 150mm 3.14 1,000 15
A basic toolkit as an indication that I approve of using = 7068584mm
Many woodturners are tool collectors things like old files or Land-Rover springs = 7068.58 metre (= 7.069km)
and would probably admit to having more to make scrapers I dont and regard = 7854 yards
tools than they actually use at least on the practice as very dubious and potentially = 4.46 miles
a regular basis. highly dangerous. Manufacturing your
My tools are kept in racks on the wall own tools from proper tool steel is another
behind the lathe (photo 11). The left-hand matter, however. Grinders
rack of eight tools contains mostly bowl If you are new to turning, consider buying The two most favoured methods of
gouges and one spindle roughing gouge. tools in the most used list first, and adding sharpening turning tools are dry grinding
The next rack of 10 holds scrapers and to it as you need to. Remember that with on a high-speed bench grinder or slow
special tools, such as bead-forming tools tools, as with much else, you get what you grinding on a low speed water-lubricated
and a captive ring tool. To the right of these pay for. Dont expect cheap tools to perform and water-cooled grindstone.
is a group of parting tools, skew chisels well. I like Ashley Iles and Hamlet tools best Dry grinders usually come with two
and spindle gouges, followed by a pair of (an unbiased testimonial, because I get wheels: one coarse and one fine grit (photo
thread chasers and some hollowing tools. nothing from them for saying so), but this 12). The coarser pink wheel on my grinder
I also have a Rolly Munro mini hollower and is a personal choice and tools from any of is used for reshaping tools, where it might
44 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
be necessary to remove relatively large
amounts of metal. The finer grit cubic
boron nitride wheel is used to retouch
the edge of the tool with minimal metal
removal, and gets more use than the
coarse wheel. The CBN wheel gives a
very sharp edge, but these wheels are very
expensive and a fine grit white wheel may
be better value at about a fifth of the price.
Ive removed the guards that came on
my grinder so that I can see the cutting
edge more clearly but, lest you think me
careless of safety, please note that I always
wear safety glass in the workshop, no
matter what Im doing and that obviously
includes sharpening. 12
For many years the water-cooled Dry grinders usually come with two wheels: one coarse and one fine grit
sharpening system was the Tormek
(photo 13) and it is still probably the one several different types are available for useful for cutting dowels with perfectly
that people think of first although cheaper both types of grinder. Many professional parallel sides. With a small scraper
versions are now available from other turners, myself included, also use these mounted in its toolpost, the carriage can
manufacturers. The Tormek system gives jigs, not necessarily because they cant be wound along the bed with the cutting
a wonderfully sharp edge and there is no sharpen freehand but because the jig edge moving in a highly accurate straight
danger of overheating the tool, but this guarantees consistency in the shape line. The diameter can be adjusted by
assurance comes at a price the smallest of the cutting edge and hence the way the thousandth of an inch (theres nothing
and cheapest of the Tormek grinders will it will behave in use. metric about this machine) until it is spot
set you back about four or five times the on the required size.
price of a reasonable quality dry grinder, and Metalworking lathe Metalworking lathes traditionally use a
you have to consider whether the difference Some years ago I bought a Myford ML7 three-jaw chuck, which wont hold a square
is worth it. In my experience, seeking advice metalworking lathe on eBay (photo 14). workpiece. When I needed to, I overcame
on this is fruitless for every turner who From its serial number I know it is a year the problem by buying a Myford ML8 insert
favours a dry grinder there is another or two older than I am, although it looks for one of my woodturning chucks. For
who prefers a water-cooled system. younger. I bought it for a specific job at the those who dont know, the spindle thread
On either system the sharpening of time, with the idea of selling it again straight on the ML7 (metal lathe) is the same as
straight edge tools is relatively easy and afterwards, but decided to keep it as it that on the ML8 (woodturning lathe). Thus
satisfactory results can be achieved with would, no doubt, come in handy sometime. I can now use my four-jaw woodturning
only a little practice. Sharpening gouges, Well, it has several times in fact. chucks on the metalworking lathe. I certainly
however, is another matter altogether Of course there is no reason why a wouldnt advocate buying a metalworking
and some quite experienced turners find metalworking lathe cant also be used to lathe just to cut dowels but, even so, I dont
it difficult. The answer is to use a jig, and turn wood and I have found it particularly think Ill part with it just yet.

13 14
Tormeks water-cooled sharpening system The Myford ML7 metalworking lathe The Woodworker Autumn 2016 45
WOODWORK Mail-box extra

Williams woodwork
Heres an interesting letter the following year. To make them think modern technology to make up for their
more about the benefits of further study, shortfall of trade knowledge and skills by
from William Pearson, a I give them all the following document: the use of power tools, jigs and gadgets,
college lecturer in carpentry woodwork as it was, as it is, as it should be glues and silicones, etc. Many are
and joinery. Having been incapable of producing any quality work
New modern woodworkers at all so much so that peoples attitude
recently employed in a similar I first became interested in joinery at towards woodworking has changed to
role at the Editors own local secondary school, and after four years the point where they tend to ignore the
of study I managed to win the school prize value and capability of the human hand.
technical college, we entirely for woodwork. I became an indentured I strongly feel that these new modern
sympathise with his opinions apprentice for five years with a small woodworkers are too dependent on
company specialising in cabinet work and machinery and gadgets that are fast

s a college lecturer I have a lot general joinery. The work was very hard and and easy to use. This modern trend has
of trouble encouraging students varied, often starting at 7am and continuing led to attitudes that disassociate the end
to return for the second and third until 8.30pm. We often worked outdoors result of the work from the human touch.
year. The NVQ apprentices attend one and in all weathers, and everyone worked Traditional hand-built joinery and furniture
day each week, they are sponsored by hard to complete the projects on time. would exude quality and a feeling of warmth
their employers andreceive a weekly The main concern was to work neatly and individuality as well as craftsmanship.
wage to support them throughout their and produce a finish worthy of praise, Mass-produced woodwork using modern
course. As part of their studies they remove all waste and clean up before technology and machinery has lost much
have to develop a portfolio of work-based leaving. A main priority was the quality of its individuality and the feel of quality
evidencethat is verified by a work-based of the joinery, and professionalism towards found in joinery made in previous times.
recorder and checked by myself on the customer and the completed work. Machines and power tools can only
regular site visits where I observe To this end we apprentices had to carry out a practical procedure and
students at work on the job and talk complete many long and strenuous years therefore you cannot feel the human touch
with the employer. of training; even after becoming a mature anywhere in their products. When you begin
As well as NVQ apprentices, at our craftsman you had to put a serious effort to realise this then you can understand why
college we provide courses for the into executing the joinery correctly or woodworking is not a matter of working
unemployed or those not in the trade. another company would quickly benefit down to a price and rushing about to get
These students study the Diploma Portfolio from your experiences. the job done, but a way of working to
levels 1, 2 and 3, and when they become The modern trend to reduce the amount a high standard by adding quality and
employed they can develop their NVQs of time taken to train a person suggests richness into your work that will be
by on-site studies and attending college a trainee can be out of his time in two admired for generations to come.
to complete set tests. years or less allowing him to practise
It is this group that require the most in the trade and call himself a joiner. W Pearson
support and encouragement to return for These novices rely almost totally on

46 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

Established in 1978, Neville M. Oldham Woodworking Machinery has
a well respected reputation for supplying new, used and reconditioned woodworking
machinery. Neville previously worked in sales in the north of England for Multico.
Why buy used woodworking machinery? Gareth Tomlinson joined the company in 1985
after marrying Nevilles oldest daughter, Judith.
Gareth believes there are three reasons: As a small, family-run business, Gareths role
1. The used equipment we sell, manufactured in the company was both in sales and purchasing
by Wadkin, Sedgwick and many others, built and, when necessary, to help the engineers in
in the UK, were built to last by the best servicing and re-building machinery.
engineers, using the best materials, and NMO has always had a strong customer
building the highest standards. service policy and we have felt that this has been
2. Due to the build quality of this used enhanced by our desire, whenever possible,
machinery and the ne adjustments that can to deliver the machinery purchased directly to
be made over the years, these machines the customer. This enables us to ensure that
continue to be extremely accurate, easy to the customer is completely satised with the
work with and, on most occasions, will give a machinery delivered and also that the customer
far more professional nish. understands the workings of the machines.
3. Used woodworking machinery built in For ve years in the late 1990s Gareth worked
England can be as expensive as new for one of the largest woodworking machinery
machines manufactured overseas but will suppliers in the UK as Sales Manager, and later
still have a value when you come to sell, as Export Sales Manager.
making them excellent value in the long-term. During this time Gareth gained a comprehensive
Remember - NMO advice is FREE! knowledge of all types of woodworking machinery.
NMO has supported the Northern He travelled the world selling single machines
Woodworking Show since the early 1990s As in the past, NMO will continue to
through to full turnkey projects.
and we look forward to meeting you all on stock a comprehensive range of used and
Stand No.54, where we will be exhibiting a reconditioned woodworking machinery. Gareth returned to take over NMO in 2003,
range of quality used machines. bringing with him a wealth of experience.

For further information on any machines, please telephone us on: 07709 131249 or email us at:

CK H 18 November 2016 10am - 5pm
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NO 20 November 2016 10am - 4pm

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WOODWORK Wainscoting

The art of
Mark Griffiths offers advice on how to go about panelling a room

ome years ago I found myself in explain that I had no idea how to panel Starting with a job like this, its a good
a clients ugly, box-like dining room a room and he was best off calling in a idea to make up to scale a section of the
extension, which had been built in joinery company. After a few hours poring panelling for the room in question. Not only
the 1920s onto his beautiful 17th-century over these dusty tomes, and plenty more does this give you a chance to check that
country house. We were discussing ways tea, my confidence was returning. As far as you have all the right tooling for the job
of making this room connect with the I could see, room panelling basically used and to see how best to joint it, but it will
rest of the heavily timbered house; I was the same techniques as frame and panel also enable the client to see the effect
extolling the benefits of bookcases and door making, which I was very familiar with. created and how the colour and finish
radiator covers, when the client said: I spent quite some time studying the will look things that a drawing can
Why dont we cover the walls with oak origins of panelling (see a brief history never convey. Its also handy to have
panelling? As has happened many times of wainscoting ), and was impressed a sample or two (photo 2) to show other
in my working life, I heard myself saying: by how, if done right, it can give a room prospective customers in the future.
What a great idea I would be happy an authentically traditional, luxurious
to take that on. I left the meeting with look. When faced with a challenging or Measuring & drawing
the clients enthusiasm for the project intimidating project, I find that time spent So with slightly more confidence than
matched only by my feeling of being researching similar work not only helps before, I set about the first and most
way out of my depth. with the understanding of how to go important part of the job, which was to
When safely back in the workshop with about designing and constructing the accurately measure up the room to be
a cup of tea in hand, I decided that I would project, but also fires up my creative panelled. With any job, but especially one
do a bit of research using some of the old interest in the process ahead; it is this on this scale, I will start by taking a lot of
woodworking books I have collected over interest that enables me to overcome accurate and clearly set-out measurements
the years before calling the client to any challenges that will inevitably arise. in my sketchbook, then go away to make

48 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

my drawings, after which Ill return to waste ratio; as the room would require
take a second measure with a copy of 15sq.m of timber I would be ordering
the plans, referencing each measurement a lot of lumber. It is essential to visit
against what has been drawn up. There the timber yard and discuss the
are two great aids for this process. job with the yard manager, as
An accurate measuring device or two with their skill and knowledge
is essential. I used a telescopic measure they will hopefully direct you to
the BMI IdeeFIX (photo 3) which will planks that have a uniform colour
extend from 500mm up to 2,300mm. Its and character, something of the
also very useful to have another person utmost importance when covering
on hand to help. Not only are they able to such a large surface area. Any strong
hold the end of the tape, but another pair of
eyes to point out potential issues such as
colour variation will give an unpleasant
contrast to the rest of the work. They will 3
electrical plugs and plumbing is very handy. also advise you on the timbers stability if The BMI IdeeFIX is a useful measuring tool
As well as a 1:10 scale drawing of each your design requires large panels.
wall section to be covered, I would highly
recommend making a full-scale rod Machining the panels A BRIEF HISTORY
drawing of any corner sections or areas With the design completed and approved,
that may require complex joining, like the it was time to begin machining. I started
meeting point with a door frame, radiator by rough-cutting each component oversize, In my research I discovered that
cover or step-out in the wall. The benefit individually marking them to correspond wainscoting the proper name for
of this is that potential problems can be to the cutting list. Ensuring each piece of wooden wall panelling has been
worked out in pencil first, ensuring that timber always has a clear identification around from before the 14th century,
the panel work will visually run correctly mark not only avoids confusion when where it was made up of hand-wrought
around the room and look as though it dealing with multiple components, but vertical planks that were fixed to a
has always been there. will also make it easy for any other person frame with nails or slotted into a
who may be assisting in the workshop to grooved stud or muntin. By the end
Materials for the job understand what goes where. of the 15th century, joinery skills had
With all drawings made and double- To avoid a sense of being overwhelmed progressed and we start to see what
checked, it was time to source the timber. by the scale of the conversion, I split the we think of as classic wood panelling,
On this job a locally sourced English oak operation into different stages. Firstly the comprising a top and bottom rail with
had been specified to match two original panels were machined up, then the frames, an intermediate one depending on
ledge and brace doors, which were a and finally the mouldings were spindle-cut. the room height. These would be peg
feature of the room. When using waney- I machined up the oak for the panels to tenoned into vertical styles. Muntins
edged native oak I will allow for a 30% 20mm-thick with both edges planed square. were jointed into the rails at equal
intervals to fit the panel size. All of
these members would be grooved to
take a panel. A scratchstock was used
to produce a moulded detail around the
internal frame edge, typically ending
in a hand-carved masons mitre at
the join of the muntin to a rail. Other
stonemason details would be found
in the design, such as linenfold carved
panels. By the late 17th century, the
style and woodworking techniques
had changed to reflect the taste for
the classical Renaissance architecture
of the time. Oak was still in use as a
timber, but the vogue was for a wider
panel, which would be made up in
pine and painted in one of the periods
fashionable colours. Other details were
lifted from the interest in classical styles
such as heavy cornices, pilasters and
architraves, all of which were cleverly
employed to hide any construction
details. Another new technique was

1 2 to fit the panel in a rebated frame

and then apply a planted or bolection
It might seem oppressive to some, but wall Customers always like to see a sample or two moulding around the inside edge
panelling can actually seem to open up a room The Woodworker Autumn 2016 49
WOODWORK Wainscoting

Each panel would be made up of four planks, to improve stability. After each panel
which when joined together would have was dry it was rough-sanded with a
an extra 10mm on each edge to allow for 120 grit belt sander and stacked in
Rail trimming in. A 30 10mm rebate would stick somewhere flat and dry (photo 4).
be run around the back edges, making On the subject of gluing up, for this type
the panel sit below the face of the frame. of application I am a big fan of the Titebond
After spending three whole days slaving range of glues they even do a fluorescent
over a hot planer, it was a relief to break one that reveals any un-sanded residue left
for two days to joint and glue the panels after sanding using an ultraviolet light. This
up. Joining the sections for the panels can avoid major problems on a job like this
Stile was carried out using the biscuit jointer one, where the finish is going to be applied
with the cutter set for No.10 biscuits. after installation, and the last thing you
Extra planks were machined up in order need is a visible glue mark.
that there would be plenty of choice when
sorting the four lengths for each panel; this Making the frames
would help ensure that every panel would It was then back to the planer for the next
be made up to display a nice selection few days, as I produced the frame sections
of both matching and contrasting boards. (photo 5). When faced with long stints on
When in the process of choosing the a noisy machine, I am very grateful for my
sections of timber for your panel, one thing FM radio ear defenders what can be a
Moulding that must not be forgotten is to make sure mind-numbingly boring, repetitive task
that each plank is laid with its growth rings becomes far easier to bear with The
Fig.1 Details of frame and panel construction in an opposing direction from its neighbour Archers for company.
When thicknessing timber I always
mark the upturned face coming out of the
machine with an arrow showing the grain
direction so that the next time the piece is
picked up its obvious which way it has to
End-grain layout for panels be fed in to avoid tear-out. Also, stacking
the piece face up as it leaves the planer
will ensure that you turn it over on the next
pass, planing the opposite face, and in doing
so, ensure that the component will have
an even amount of timber removed from
each surface to help prevent movement.
With all of the framework components
machined to size and thicknessed down
to 25mm, I could set the spindle moulder
to cut a 15mm deep, 8mm wide groove
on each edge with one of the shoulders
reduced by 10mm for fitting the panel;
Masons mitre you could do this just as easily using a
router table. Having double-checked my
Fig.2 Recommended grain configuration for panels. Detail of masons mitre measurements, I then cut to length all of

4 5
The boards for the panels were machined first then left stacked prior Some of the frame components cut to length
to jointing
50 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
6 7
I used the spindle moulder with a dado cutter fitted to form the joints The frames were glued and jointed together, before the framework was
built up

the rails, muntins and stiles, and fitted

a dado cutter to machine all of the tenons
(photo 6). The last sections to be machined
were the plinths, panel mouldings and
cornice, all of which were produced on the
spindle moulder. Due to the long lengths
required for the plinths and cornice, I had
help running them over the cutter. Even
with a long table and outfeed rollers set
up, its hard to get a totally smooth cut
with no judder marks, but having a friend
on hand who understands how to keep
an even pressure and feed speed will beat
even a powered roller feed, and save the
time spent later laboriously sanding out
machine marks. 8
On site the frames were fitted into place before slotting in the panels and fitting the mouldings
Linenfold section
One of the more enjoyable machine shop project is all-important. Firstly, a painter care not to get glue on the panels (which
tasks was making up the linenfold sections and decorator had applied a damp proofing need room to move over time). The end
using a router cutter set. While leafing paint to all the walls, onto which I fixed 25 cabinets and radiator covers were fitted,
through a cutter catalogue from the 50mm softwood battens set in line to a and all additional mouldings, such as the
Wealden Tool Company, I found a two point on the rails that would have a dowel ones on the dado and around the original
cutter set for 66.73 and could not wait to detail I could fix through. Time spent with a door frames that helped blend them into
have an opportunity to try it out. Following long level checking, and if need be packing the frame rails. The final items to fix into
the supplied instructions you cut your out the battens so that they sat flush with place were the plinth, which again was
timber to a specific width and thickness, each other, ensured that when the frames secured using glue and some well-placed
the length and quantity determined by your met in the room corners an even joint pins fired through part of its moulded detail,
panel size. would be created. Manageable sections which when filled with a bit of hard wax
The pieces are first moulded on the face of the frame had been glued and cramped would be virtually undetectable. Time
edge with one of the cutters and then placed together in the workshop; when fitted to and again I find taking an air-driven pin/
in a simple jig (instructions for making this the battens these sections formed the main nail gun running off a small compressor
are provided), and the second cutter runs reference point to the smaller sections that an invaluable tool for fixing mouldings
a shaped rebate on each end. I think the would be fitted around them. All of the on site, holding joints together while glue
results are incredibly impressive when frame and panelling had been given a dries and doing countless other tasks.
you think of the time this operation would coat of exterior varnish on the back to After the mitres for the cornice had been
take by hand, and you can always take a seal it before wall fixing. cut using a snip saw they were fitted into
carving chisel and dress them up a bit to With the entire framework fixed into place 20mm below the ceiling. Along with
give some evidence of a craftsman at work. place the panels could now be located in a chamfer, which ran along the back of the
their positions (photo 8). The mouldings cornice, this 20mm gap would allow the
On-site fitting could also be mitred and glued and pinned wall behind to breathe by creating airflow.
Preparing the groundwork on this type of with an air nailer into the framework, taking On the uninsulated exterior walls typical of The Woodworker Autumn 2016 51

WOODWORK Wainscoting

older properties it may also be necessary exactly the same colour again. Three actually has had the opposite effect, making
to either cut slots or fix ventilation grills coats of a quality finishing oil were applied, it seem considerably larger. The real benefit
in the plinth to aid the airflow further, thus with at least 10 hours allowed between for the client, of course, is that they will
avoiding any future issues with damp. applications, each time cutting back with never have to buy wallpaper again...
a woven abrasive finishing pad; dont use
Final touches steel wool as it will react with the oak. SUPPLIERS
Before applying the finish, all of the pin With the knowledge and confidence that Axminster Tools & Machinery
holes were filled with a hard wax; hand- I gained from completing this project, Ive Tel: 0800 371 822
rounded oak dowels were lightly glued gone on to do several more panelled rooms, Web:
and tapped into the batten fixing holes and some at 34-height and another one at just
in the adjoining holes that would give the dado height. They have all been equally Wealden Tool Company
frame a pegged tenon detail. The dowels challenging and rewarding to make. In every Tel: 01580 890 500
were saw cut a few millimetres proud and case, much to the clients surprise, instead Web:
then not trimmed flush but blunted over of the finished room feeling smaller it
with a chisel and abrasive paper (photo 9).
This is an old trick I learnt back in the days
when I used to reproduce antiques. If you
look at original pegged joints, over time the
end-grain dowel will protrude slightly and as
it is rubbed and worn it takes on a domed
quality. This will also add a bit of texture
detail when being viewed from the side.
Finally, the panelling was stained with
a mild oak stain that I had made up to
match the two existing oak doors in the
room, making sure that I had mixed plenty 9
for the job in hand you dont want to run The dowels used for filling the fixing holes were left slightly proud and rounded over to give an
out before the end and have to try to remix authentic look to the job

An overall harmony of tone with a few contrasts is what youre looking for
52 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
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NEWS The latest from the world of woodwork

In brief...
The tool is made of investment-cast
steel with a stainless steel camber
screw. Currently priced at 26.96,
it comes supplied in a French-fitted
embossed leatherette box.

Variable Angle Fence for rebate planes

NEW OFFERINGS FROM VERITAS This product mounts onto the fence rods
Mini Cabinet Scraper of the Veritas skew rebate or jack rebate
This one-third scale cabinet scraper is a planes and locks firmly in position with
fully functional miniature tool. It operates brass collets. It will allow you to plane
in the same way as the full-size original accurate and consistent angles anywhere VIC TESOLIN TO DEMO
and is surprisingly effective. between 45 and 135. You can set the IN CARDIFF & HARROGATE
The tool measures 97mm wide overall fence using a square, a bevel, an angle Vic Tesolin of Veritas will be demonstrating
and weighs about 46g. Its small size allows gauge or directly on an angle you wish at Axminsters Cardiff store and the North
fine control when smoothing surfaces. to match. The spring-loaded locking lever of England Woodworking & Power
The 24mm-wide blade, made of spring can be rotated out of the way if necessary. Tool Show at Harrogate this November.
steel and ground at a 45 angle, is held at a Through-holes in the fence allow you Before entering the world of
consistent depth and angle. A thumbscrew to attach a wooden sub-fence or tapered woodworking, Vic served for 14 years in the
lets you camber the blade to control the spacer for planing angles less than 45. Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. After
amount of bite and prevents the blade The fence is 275mm long and made leaving the RCHA, he studied furniture
corners from leaving ridges. The handle from aluminium and brass. Currently design and making at Rosewood Studio
position lets you apply force directly in priced at 46.96, see and learned from some of the best in the
line with the cutting edge. for more information. business, including Garrett Hack, Adrian
Ferrazzutti and Michael Fortune. After
TREND + CENTROTEC bits to be used with graduating, he ran his own studio furniture
Trends new range of Festool the drill. The chuck has business while working at Rosewood as a
Centrotec compatible shank a spring-loaded outer part-time instructor and craftsman in
fitting accessories includes sleeve to make it easier residence before becoming editor of
the following: to remove attachments. Canadian Woodworking magazine.
Vic now has what might be seen as one
Centrotec compatible Centrotec compatible steel of the best jobs in woodworking and it is a
drill bit guides countersinks with HSS drill role which allows his charismatic
A self-centring drill for the This is a heat-treated tool steel personality to shine through. By day, Vic is
accurate drilling of pilot holes for countersink with a High Speed Steel the woodworking technical advisor at Lee
fittings such as hinges to ensure exact (HSS) drill, which can be adjusted to suit Valley & Veritas Tools and by night
alignment. Supplied with a High Speed Steel different length screws. The countersink he teaches privately and for Lee Valleys
(HSS) drill bit. Drill bit diameter of 2.75mm can produce a counterbored hole for wood seminar programme. Vic is the author of
and 3.5mm to suit No.8 (4.0mm) and No.10 plugs of diameters 9.5mm or 12.7mm, The Minimalist Woodworker a book which
(5.0mm) screws. The tool can also be easily depending on tool size. Four sizes of deals specifically with the needs of
dismantled for cleaning. drill countersink are offered with drill woodworkers who only have
bit diameters of 2.38mm to 3.5mm a small space at their disposal. Vic says:
Centrotec compatible for No.6 (3.5mm) to No.12 (5.5mm) You dont need to have all the tools,
shank quick chuck screws. The drill bit produces pilot hundreds of square feet of space or
This product allows Trend Snappy holes only. Prices start from 17.94; see thousands of dollars worth of gear. What
attachments or any direct drive 14in hex for more information. you do need is the desire to make
something with your own hands.
THE HARROGATE SHOW IS BACK If you would like to catch one
The North of England Woodworking & Power Tool Show, or the of Vics demonstrations or have your copy
Harrogate show as it is affectionately known, will take place this of The Minimalist Woodworker signed by
year from 1820 November in the newly refurbished Hall 1 at the the author himself, he will be at the
Yorkshire Showground. following venues on the following dates:
The new hall was officially opened in July and will be great for the Saturday 12 & Sunday 13 November
show, with easier access, more catering areas and almost 20% extra Axminster Cardiff store, Valegate Retail Park,
exhibition and demonstrator stands. Cardiff CF5 6EH
With 40 demonstrators and almost 100 exhibitors on show, this years Friday 18Sunday 20 November North of
event will certainly be something special make sure you put the date England Woodworking & Power Tool Show,
in your diary. For more information, see Harrogate HG2 8QZ.

56 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

TURNING Textured & airbrushed bowl

An exercise in
adding texture
Colin Simpson experiments with texture
paste and airbrushing to create a piece
that looks as if it is emerging from a shell

his article has some similarity to showing my stance. Notice I am standing
last months in as much as I am upright with my spine straight. This is
trying to combine turned wood far more comfortable that crouching or
with other media. Last month I used stooping. The handle of the tool is tucked
copper metal reactive paints and this into my right side and is held lower that the
month I am using a medium called texture cutting edge. The fingers of my left hand
paste. This is an acrylic medium that artists are wrapped around the shaft and the heel
use to add texture to their canvas prior to of my hand is resting on the toolrest. With
painting. I wanted to create a piece that the flute pointing into the wood, the bottom
looked like a bowl was emerging from a
shell, not dissimilar to a smooth chestnut
coming out of its spiky pod.
The actual turning is straightforward.
I used a piece of lightly spalted sycamore,
but any wood could be used. I think well
polished oak with its medullary rays would
look good.

Pull cut
1 Start by mounting the blank on the lathe
and use a pull cut to flatten the bottom.
Try to avoid stooping at the lathe it is less I have shown this cut many times before,
stressful on the spine so this time I took a wider shot (photo 1), Roll the tool up for a bevel supported pull cut
58 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
wing of the tool does the cutting. Start Shaping the outside
in the centre of the blank and pull the Next, start to shape the outside of the bowl
tool towards you the pull cut. As I have with either pull or push cuts or a combination
described it, this cut is really a scrape as of both (photo 4). Cut the chucking spigot
only the cutting edge of the tool is touching using the tip of the bowl gouge (photo 5)
the wood, but if you roll the tool up then the and then remove the waste wood with a
bevel will start to rub the wood (photo 2), pull cut. Cut the dovetail on the spigot with
resulting in a better surface finish. Continue a skew chisel on its side (photo 6) and make
to use the pull cut to flatten the bottom a pop mark in the very centre of the spigot
of the blank, then true up the side using a with the long point of the skew (photo 7).
push cut (photo 3). Use the tip of the tool
with the flute about half open and keep
Finalise the outside shape of the bowl and
then make several finishing cuts with the 3
the handle lower than the cutting tip. bowl gouge to clean up the surface (photo 8). True up the edge of the blank with a push cut
Keep the pressure down on the The finishing cut is made by lowering the
toolrest but dont push the tool handle of the gouge and rolling the tool over
into the wood. Slowly slide the tool so that the cutting edge is about 45 to the
along the toolrest and just take surface of the wood. Take light, gentle cuts
off the high points on the edge and aim to achieve very fine spiral shavings
of the blank. Try not to alter the and remember to keep the handle low so
angle of the handle as you move the cutting edge stays at 45 to the wood.
the tool along the toolrest. If you
feel the tool banging on the high Truing up the top
points as the blank revolves, then Sand the outside of the bowl I used a
you are pushing too hard into the power sander (photo 9) and then apply
wood. Repeat this cut as many
times as necessary to bring the
a coat of sanding sealer. If you are going
to use the texture paste, then dont apply 4
blank into round. wax at this stage. and start cutting the outside curve

5 6 7
Cut the spigot using the tip of the bowl gouge and cut the dovetail with a skew Pop mark the centre to align the bowl when
reverse chucking it

8 9 10
Make light finishing cuts, keeping the cutting Sand down to 400 grit Start the hollowing process using the tip of
edge at about 45 the tool The Woodworker Autumn 2016 59
TURNING Textured & airbrushed bowl

12 13
Use a round-nosed scraper to undercut the rim Mark the areas that are going to be textured

11 centre (photo 10). Next, swing the handle last month, I used the natural spalt lines
Cut a little wider and deeper with each pass towards you at the same as pushing the to mark out the areas I intended to texture
cutting edge down the side wall and across (photo 13). The next process is done more
Remove the bowl from the lathe and mount the bottom of the bowl towards the centre. easily off the lathe and I placed the bowl on
it on the spigot in your chuck. True up the This action should be done at the same an old lazy Susan to give me easy access
top surface of the bowl, particularly the time as rotating the tool anti-clockwise all round. Photo 14 shows the texture paste
area near the edge that will become the until the flute is pointing to about half past I use and I painted it on to the rim quite
bowls rim and start to hollow it. Place one. Continue this cut, each time going a thickly using a cheap glue brush (photo
the gouge on the toolrest so the flute is little wider and a little deeper (photo 11). 15). I stippled it on to create a spiky
pointing to 3 oclock and the handle well I undercut the rim of the bowl slightly texture. For the larger areas underneath the
over the bed bars. Use the tip of the tool using a round-nosed scraper (photo 12), bowl I found it quicker and easier to use a
to create a groove about 4mm from the then sanded the inside and applied a coat palette knife to apply the texture (photo
of sanding sealer. 16). If you put the knife flat on the paste
and lift it off, it creates the spiky texture.
Creating texture When you are happy with the texturing,
In a similar way to marking out the vase leave the piece to dry. This can take some

14 15 16
This is the acrylic texture paste I use painted on carefully at the edges or trowelled on with a palette knife

17 18 19
Carefully apply the masking fluid to the wood Use acrylic airbrush paints to colour the bottom Lightly sand back the high points of the texture
and rim of the bowl
60 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
time, depending on how thick the texture is. on a flat scrap of wood to see the effects remove paint overspray. Having sealed
I left mine overnight. you can achieve before spoiling your it before with sanding sealer, any overspray
The next stage is to mask the bare wood. turned piece. I use Golden acrylic paints will be removed easily.
Masking tape can be used on the large in my airbrush. Finally, I gave the whole piece a couple
areas, but to mask right up to the texture Spray the paints on lightly, overlapping of coats of Chestnuts acrylic satin lacquer
I used a product called masking fluid each colour so you cant see where one (photo 21), before reverse chucking the bowl
(photo 17). This is a rubbery solution that coat starts and another finishes (photo 18). to remove the chucking spigot (photo 22).
is painted on and can be bought from artist I used red, purple and blue and sprayed
suppliers. It dries quite quickly and can be the bowl on the lathe with it running at Critique
rubbed off with your finger. Carefully paint about 50rpm. I am not sure that I have achieved what I
it on with an old brush and leave to dry. When the paint has dried, remove set out to do. I think the texture should not
the masking tape and fluid. I found the have come over the rim. It is a technique
Airbrushing fluid came off easily (photo 19), but any I plan to develop further. Photo 24 shows
I am going to airbrush acrylic paints stubborn areas can be removed by rubbing an elm bowl where the texture paste has
onto the textured areas, but I have also it with your finger. Next, lightly sand the been modelled with a pointed tool and
used the metal reactive paints and the textured area, taking off some of the high painted with iridescent paint. I think I
Jo Sonja iridescent paints over texture like spots to reveal the white texture paste prefer this one.
this, both with good effect. My advice is to (photo 20). If necessary (and it was
experiment, either on an old turned piece for me) re-sand the inside
that you are happy to practice on or simply of the bowl to

A gentle rub with a finger usually removes the
masking fluid

The completed bowl should look something like this

Finish the piece with a couple of coats of
acrylic satin lacquer

22 24
Reverse the bowl onto a wooden dolly to
remove the chucking spigot Another example of a bowl that has been given a similar treatment The Woodworker Autumn 2016 61

the thingamajig!
Mike Riley challenges himself A detour parts were destined to be legs for a
I had been seeking inspiration for a cabinet that was never made, and had
to try something different and quick project to keep me busy, preferably sat on the rack for a year or two waiting
ends up making a handy item something that could be made from scraps to be requisitioned for another project. As
knocking around the workshop that would cabinet legs, they had been planed straight

ecently, I have mostly been making allow me to try something new. I was and squared, and by gluing them together
a mess. Its gotten so bad that circling around objects with interesting into one blank, I had the basis for a carved
at one point I even resorted to form I wasnt overly concerned about trough that would serve as a long, narrow
sweeping up the workshop heavens, functionality. I wanted to avoid making a kind of container.
no! I can hear you cry though it wasnt piece that was too straight and square; the I marked out the tray profile roughly on
long before I was knee-deep in dust and goal was not to assiduously produce a set the ends of the blank and, starting at the
chippings again. of components and finally construct them, end furthest from me, began gouging out
but to work on something that gradually the centre. It didnt take long to reach the
came to life with each cut or chop. desired depth; I changed the gouges as I
The end result, which I have dubbed The approached final depth, moving from deeper
Thing, embodies pretty well what I was to flatter sweeps to make even finer cuts.
going for. In terms of its purpose in life, Once satisfied with the inside, I flipped
it can be used as a holding tray for keys, the blank over and started on the outside,
coins, jewellery and the like, but as Ive said, aiming to carve a shape that matched the
I was more interested in the form and finish inside. I tried various means of wasting
of the piece than what it could be used for. away the outside of the blank, calling upon

1 Inside and out

gouges, rasps and abrasive paper, before
finally settling on a drawknife for fast stock
Two square, planed pieces were glued together The Thing started out as a collection of removal, followed by a flat spokeshave to
to provide a blank for The Thing offcuts from another project. The main achieve a finished surface. Perhaps Im
using cheap abrasive paper, but I am yet
to get a better finish than one straight from
a sharp blade.
After several false starts, the drawknife
and spokeshave combined well and I
managed to achieve a smooth but textured
finish, if still displaying the marks of the
tools that formed it. Using the same tools,
I whittled down another small ash offcut

2 3 to form two feet for mounting the tray on.

Circular in profile, the feet were flattened
The inside of the trough was gouged out and With the inside complete, it was time to carve to give the top an effective mounting point
refined with various tools the outside and a stable bottom.

4 5 6
After trying several different tools, a drawknife ... after which a spokeshave yielded a smooth The outside edges of the trough were taped
was used to rough-shape the outside... but textured finish up before I began to apply the finish
62 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
Stain trouble fresh coat before the last was completely
Usually I finish my work with wax or a plain dry tended to have the effect of lifting the
oil Danish or linseed, depending on what previous one. Before setting off on this mess-making
Im doing but this time I thought Id try After a couple of hours the final coat was crusade, I had to finish off a carving
something different. I had ordered a tub dry to the touch. At this point it became knife. The whole thing took about eight
of graphite powder for another project apparent that I had created such a mess hours to complete with no machine
and thought that I would see what kind that the outside of the trough was black use other than the initial cutting of the
of effect it would produce on the ash. in parts as well. I considered colouring the handle blanks. The finished result was
Thinking that I might localise the outside and pretending that it had been quite good, though, and incrementally
application of the graphite powder, I taped my intention to do so all along, but decided better than the last one I made. The
up the outside edges of the trough, and that this wasnt really satisfactory. Without handle is figured alder, with several
then started to mix a couple of spoonfuls further delay, I had to clean the bench-top coats of raw linseed lending it
of the graphite powder with a clear shellac so as to avoid more unwanted staining; a reddish colour
in an old jar. Clumsy oaf that I am, I I ended up bringing forward my annual
managed to spill most of it across the bench flattening session and, by planing
bench-top. The bench now sported a large the top flat, removed the black patch.
black patch as did I. Inevitably, the black Once I had a clean bench to work on again I
contaminated anything that came into started shaving the outside of the trough
contact with the bench, so after I gave once more with the spokeshave.
the trough a quick coat of the mixture, Before too long I had managed
I stopped for the day to wait for the large to remove all of the graphite stain, together with thin sections of brass rod.
stain to dry. maintaining the smooth but textured feel. And behold, The Thing was complete.
Id wanted to achieve a stained rather A strange thing to be sure, but it was a
than painted appearance, so I mixed the Well-mounted worthwhile project, allowing me to get
shellac and powder to the consistency of All that was left for me to do was mount some practice with the spokeshave and
ink; the thin consistency meant that it took the feet. I measured their position and drawknife, and to experiment with the
four coats of the mixture to coat the entire then drilled small holes through from new finish. Its function is admittedly
surface of the trough. I waited for the stain the top of the trough all the way through ambiguous, but Im sure itll see some
to dry between applications, as applying a the ash piece, before pinning everything kind of use!

7 8
The thinness of the graphite and shellac ... the result being the more stained than
mixture meant that four coats were required... painted effect I was after

9 10 11
The finish to the workbench, however, was The feet were shaped up from ash offcuts using The trough was mounted to the feet, leaving a
rather less desirable the same drawknife/spokeshave combination piece full of form over function! The Woodworker Autumn 2016 63
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TURNING Assorted turning tools

Buying turning tools can be costly, so how about making
your own? Niall Yates takes you through the steps for
making a basic set, from sourcing the steel, tempering
and hardening it, to turning custom tool handles

s someone who has earned a living become painfully aware that both my
in the woodworking trade for the last skill level and my limited selection of
30 years, I have had many occasions tools is woefully inadequate.
when the work I was undertaking required
turned items. What to do
In the beginning I contracted out this With a view to plug the gaps in my selection
work, but after a few years, I acquired of turning tools, I looked online with a
a lathe and a few tools and started to shopping list in mind and almost abandoned
produce turned components in house. hope when the costs started to rise past the
I cannot claim any great skill or expertise mid-hundreds. It also made me appreciate than purchase them, I chose a selection of
in the field, but I have had to produce the tools I already had and be thankful that 10 to produce. I can only turn small bowls
a variety of items over the years. My I wasnt starting from scratch. Some of the over the bed of my lathe (a Union Jubilee)
approach to turning has always been to tools needed to fill those gaps included the and larger ones have to be turned on the
give the customer adequately made and large chatter-free scrapers, the French curve, outside. This means I have to have right-
workmanlike pieces. With this in mind, the square-sided cut skew and the 45 skew. and left-handed versions of any scrapers
I have often relied upon scrapers of various These dont require any forging, forming of that feature an asymmetric profile. The
kinds, including those specially ground curves or milling of channels and are easily three chatter-free tools I required immediately
to produce circular mouldings. Needless made by cutting and grinding. They then became six. I also needed two box scrapers:
to say, the tools I have collected, adapted need to be heat treated and have a turned a square and a curved, plus a dovetailed
or made are not necessarily those suited handle and ferrule added to be serviceable. scraper and a skew chisel.
to bowl turning or box making. In fact, I If you choose the correct tool steel, then
turned my first bowl only recently and have this is easily accomplished in a small home Materials required
workshop. The M2 type steel, popular for The steel I purchased was O1 tool steel:
turning tools, is best avoided as it requires 10mm-thick and 40mm wide for the hefty
specialised heat treating. The plain carbon scrapers; 6mm-thick and 20mm wide for
steel, though easily worked and capable of the smaller scrapers; and 6mm-thick and
taking a very sharp edge, is probably best 30mm wide for the skew chisel. This is
avoided also because of its loss of temper sold as ground flat stock or gauge plate
if overheated during grinding. and comes in 500mm and 1m lengths.
It is the steel equivalent of planed timber
The solution and requires very little further finishing.

1 Having decided that the solution to my

problem was to make the tools rather
The handles can be turned from virtually
any hardwood, but ash is a favourite of mine.
Tool blanks cut to length I had a rather blackened baulk of timber
languishing in the corner of my workshop,
which turned out to be mahogany. There
was also a piece of American black walnut,
which was adequate for the smaller handles.
I also required ferrules in two sizes: 32mm
and 20mm diameter. You can buy these
ready-made in brass, or you can cut your own
from pipe or tubing. I plumped for stainless

2 3 steel. Over the years, I have had brass

ferrules crack open on my chisels left in the
Coated with primer and ready for marking out The profiles of two small box scrapers workshop, especially during very cold winters.

66 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

4 5
The shoulders being drilled in the jig The sides of the tang being cut

6 7
Shoulders being ground on the dressed wheel Small scrapers and skew after hardening

Marking out & cutting the steel grinding and the subsequent air cooling that they do not dig into the toolrests when in
The steel I ordered online duly arrived and can make the steel hard and very difficult use. The tools are now given an overall clean
I set about cutting it to size, having worked to cut with a hack saw. with emery cloth and set aside (photo 7).
out the various profiles required, and having
made allowances for the tang. During the The six large scrapers The ferrules
initial sizing I left the paper covering on the With the smaller scrapers set aside, I then Regarding the ferrules, it is simply a matter
stock (photo 1). After unwrapping the steel, tackled the six large scrapers. The profiles of cutting the tube to length. If you have a
I cleaned the oil from the surface before were cut by hack saw and ground to a finish metalworking lathe, then you can part them
marking out. When marking out, the as before. The thicker sections take a lot off a section at a time. However, if like me
convention is to coat the steel with blue longer to work. I tried not to get the steel this is not an option, the ends of the tube
layout ink before scribing through to the too hot and since I was working on six can easily be squared on a disc sander.
bright surface underneath. I find it a lot tools, it was easy to set aside those that They can then be marked and cut slightly
easier to spray a pale grey car body primer were heating up and work on others. oversized in a vice with a hack saw.
on the surface. When dry, this can be drawn The tangs I tackled in a different way. To square the cut ends and bring them to
upon with a sharp pencil; this is a lot easier The shoulders of these are quite substantial, finished size, I made a holder using a section
to see in poor light conditions (photo 2). so I found it easier to place the tools in pairs of tube with a short tight fitting dowel on
in a wooden jig and use a 25mm TCT hole which to slide the ferrule. The ferrule can be
The small scrapers cutter to remove a circular plug (photo 4). held with a piece of masking tape to stop it
I tackled the small scrapers first. Large areas This left me with a semicircular bite out revolving while being sanded. Dont press too
that had to be removed were cut away with of the side of each tool. They were then hard as this generates lots of heat. Slowly but
a hack saw. I then ground the profiles and repositioned in the jig to remove another surely does it (photo 8).
tang on a 150mm bench grinder. This had plug, so forming the shoulders of one pair It pays to make a few extra at this stage, as
an additional flat bed that I could easily of tools. It is best to use a pillar drill and drill ferrules seem to have a habit of disappearing.
position. One of the wheels I had dressed a pilot hole first. Clamp the jig and the steel Any sharp arises can be removed with a file
to a semicircular profile, which helped me firmly down on the bed of the pillar drill and and the surface polished with emery.
obtain the curved profile at the top of the tang use plenty of cutting compound. Standard
(photo 3). The overall shaping was ground hole cutters are not up to the task and cause The handles
at 90; those that would be the cutting edges too much vibration. Select what size handles you require. In my
I ground to 60 although the final angle is up The tools now have to be held obliquely case, the large handles were 400mm overall
to personal preference. in a vice allowing for a vertical cut to be with a largest diameter of 40mm. The smaller
One thing I discovered that is worth made to the waste side of the lines marking handles were 300mm in length with a largest
bearing in mind is that all hack sawing and the tang (photo 5). The tangs can then diameter of 30mm. When cutting the blanks,
filing should be done before grinding. The be ground to their final shape (photo 6). I added a further 18mm to the length. I turned
steel, when it arrives, comes in an annealed The steel needs to be wiped clean and all to slightly oversized cylinders before
state and is at its softest; however, it is still the primer removed with a suitable solvent. embarking upon any marking or shaping
tougher than mild steel. The heat caused by All the sharp arises are taken off with a file so (photo 9). I turned the handles between The Woodworker Autumn 2016 67

TURNING Assorted turning tools

A ferrule being sanded square in the jig
centres with the spigot for the ferrule at the tail Various turning blanks and ferrules
end of the lathe. The salient points are marked
on the cylinders; I find yellow pencil stands out each but the final one. However, I could temperature. As an added refinement to my
clearer on darker woods (photo 10). quite as easily have applied an oil finish. forge, I placed a thick metal tube horizontally
Using a bedan, I turned down a spigot in the fire with fuel packed evenly around it.
for the ferrule a tad longer and fatter than Heat treatment Any metal I require to heat is placed in the
required. I also turned a spigot on the waste The first stage for heat treatment is to bring tube and left to reach temperature. This
section at the drive end and brought to size the business end of the steel slowly up to has the added advantage of allowing me
the narrow waist of the handle. 820C. At this stage, the steel will glow a to withdraw the metal to check its progress.
Most of the turning can be accomplished cherry red colour. The crystal structure of It also avoids excessive forge scale building
with the spindle gouge. For the curve at the steel changes at this temperature and up on the metal.
the butt of the handle you can use a skew to confirm this, the steel will no longer be Full information on the heat treatment
chisel, but do not remove the waste spigot magnetic. O1 tool steels have to be plunged of O1 tool steel can be obtained from your
at this point. into oil, rather than water, to quench them. supplier or downloaded online.
The handle can now be sanded to a finish. This quenching makes the steel very hard
I didnt get too hung up on going through lots and brittle prior to being tempered. The hardening
of different grits, but plumped for 80 and 120 Ideally for heating the metal, you would Once the tools have been heated slowly
grit; after all it is a tool handle. use a gas forge or an electric furnace with to temperature they are quickly withdrawn,
The ferrule can now be fitted. I aimed for temperature control. As I have access to checked with a magnet, any residual scale
a fairly tight fit. At this point, I reversed the neither of these, I used a small solid fuel brushed from them with a wire brush, and
work on the lathe and drilled the hole for the forge (photo 11). Over the years I have had to then plunged vertically into the quenching oil
tangs using a Jacobs chuck fitted at the drive improvise many ways of heating metal; from (photo 12). This operation I carry out outside
end. I find it beneficial to drill an initial hole a small depression dug in the ground, filled my workshop as the oil can burst into flame.
with a centre bit; this makes it easier to with coke and blown upon with the workshop Still very hot, these tools are then set aside
centralise the main drill bit. The waste vacuum cleaner, to a barbecue packed with to cool. A file can be used to check that the
spigot should now be cut from the end of charcoal, again using the vacuum set to blow. metal has indeed hardened. If it skates over
the handle and the end sanded. I decided for Excessive blowing on the coals can make the surface and doesnt bite as a file should,
convenience sake to finish the handles with the fire remarkably hot, which can cause then you have been successful. If not, then
a satin cellulose spray. After masking the the metal to melt. In my experience, I find it repeat the hardening process.
ferrules, I applied three coats, denibbing after best to heat a large amount of fuel slowly to For the quenching oil, I use five litres of

10 11
Yellow crayon shows up better on dark woods Improvised forge used to heat the tools
68 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
12 13
A large scraper being quenched Small scrapers cleaned before tempering

cooking oil in a metal container. Safety is then be knocked onto the blades.
an issue here as the oil does become very This relieving is necessary, especially
hot, so do take care, ensure you are wearing with the larger tangs, as they can split
the appropriate safety equipment and always the handles, even with the ferrules fitted.
have a fire extinguisher to hand in case of The profiles can finally be sharpened
an emergency. on the grinder, and the tools are then
ready for action (photo 15).
The tempering
Care should be taken with the metal at Update
this stage: it is very brittle and should not Having now turned my second bowl, I can
be dropped as it is in danger of cracking
or breaking.
confirm that I am happy with the way the
tools work and hold their edge. The trouble 14
For tempering, the metal has to be cleaned is, I now need somewhere to store them Large scrapers ready for tempering
with emery cloth (photo 13) of any black
scale to reveal the shiny surface that is hiding
beneath. I chose to leave black on the sides
and shoulders of the tangs. You can also
leave the cutting profiles black, as these will
be reground later.
The tempering process relieves the stress
in the metal and fixes the hardness at a
certain level. The hardness I chose was in
the region of 61 Rockwell. For this the metal
has to reach a temperature of 225C. This
is easily achieved in a domestic electric
fan oven. An added refinement is to use an
oven thermometer to check the temperature.
Once the tools have reached the correct
temperature, they are kept in the oven for
an additional period of time depending on
their thickness. The oven is then switched
off and allowed to cool.

The final stage

The tools that emerge from the oven have
a straw coloured oxide on their surface. This
is cleaned off with emery cloth and the tools
brought to a fine finish. Any small dinks on
the metal can now only be removed with a
diamond file or oil stone.
The finished handles are wrapped in
cloth to protect them and held vertically in
a wood vice. The hole profiles are relieved
with a small chisel of the appropriate size 15
until the tangs almost fit. The handles can The completed set of tools with their turned handles The Woodworker Autumn 2016 69
Come along to Brodies Timber on
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WOODWORK Hobbyist woodworking

The cover of Hobbies

Handbook showed
models of Big Ben and
the TSS Mauretania
(described in detail
within) plus father
and son woodworkers

72 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

Hobbyist woodworking WOODWORK

Looking back through archive copies of Hobbies Handbook, Francine Kirsch
shares some of the wonderful content with us and shows that despite the wartime
risk, people were still woodworking and avidly making a variety of projects

Colour photos of a 3ft-tall Buckingham Palace and electrically-driven Construction details for a medieval fort
HMS Hood were followed by five pages of directions for the palace,
and three for the ship

rowse throughthe 1940 edition cathedrals and countless fretwork brackets An even bigger reasonwas the popularity
of British woodworking magazines memorialising RMS Titanic just before the ofDIYin interwar Britain.Tremendous
Hobbies Handbook and you might Great War began. suburban growth hadoccurredbetween
beamazed that, a few months into World the wars: new 1920s and 1930s houses
War II, people werestill practising Father and son find Hobbies fun often had space fora workroom along
hobbyist woodworking. But escapism was only marginally behind with a need for(handmade) home
Of course the 1914 issues of an earlier the 1940 woodworking craze.After all, furnishings and accessories.Many of
British woodworking magazine, Handicrafts untilthe Blitz began in September, life these suburbanites were white collar
& Pastimes,reveal that the previous on the home front was so uneventful workers for them manual pursuits like
generation had produced matchstick that manywere calling it the phoney war. woodworkingwere a leisure timeactivity The Woodworker Autumn 2016 73

WOODWORK Hobbyist woodworking

For the Four patriotic

traditionalist, fretwork plaques,
models of a stage the most timely
coach and 1835 commemorating
locomotive could the recent Royal
be ordered tour of Canada

A nice selection of Due to the war,

carpentry kits these fretsaws
showed something and machines
for every pocket like them would
soon be

rather than an occupation. They were also Relaxing pastimes Another section told how the new
something that father and son could do Yeta closer investigation demonstrates liner Queen Elizabeth, due for her trials
together. Throughout the publications that the war phoney or not was already in February 1940,had beenreproduced
pages and on the cover men and boys havingan effect, no matter how subtly as a 30ft long modelfor the 1939 New
are shown jointly involved in woodworking. it was relayed: In these days of stress York Worlds Fair. Butwe now know that
A two-page spreadis, in fact,captioned and strain it is a more than usual the originalwould enter service as a troop
father and son find Hobbies fun.To meet pleasure to turn hands and mind to ship, not asluxury transport.
this need, the magazine carried beginner a restful, fascinating and peaceful
fretwork and carpentry sets (see photos pastime. Concealed within detailed Wartime risk
above). Nor wasthe devoted 1940s descriptions and diagrams for a 2ft Wartime risk was more forthrightly conceded
Dadever too busy with his own projects long, electrically-driven model of the in the Working Model A.A. Gun, on a wheeled
to construct wood puzzles, dolls houses HMS Hood is thisunderstatedassurance: chassis andwith a spring mechanism for
and dolls house furniture, model garages The (1920) ship is now, indeed, undergoing firing (replica wood) shells. In these days
and petrolpumps to give the kiddies a a large refit but the model makers who almost every one of us is interested in
treat and because youll get lots of fun complete our design will have a very the anti-aircraft defence of the country,
making it too! realistic replica of the great ship. read the copy. Those who have one in
74 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
Classic yachts, too
good to be called toys,
but rather working A whimsical
sailable models fretsaw project

Fretwork had long A selection of

been a staple of makeable
the hobbyist; today musical
were mostly using instruments,
a scrollsaw including the
unlikely one
string fiddle

their neighbourhood can easily see how Our King And Queen, came with linen MAIL ORDER PRODUCTS
faithfully we have followed the prototype. for backing it. The publisher of Hobbies Handbook and its
Acknowledgement of the war was Within a few months,hobbyist sister publication, Hobbies Weekly, soldtheir
alsoexpressedin patriotic projects. woodworking machines and tools would products both by mail order andin retail
Along with the covers 3ft high fretwork be swept awayby the war effort either shops throughout Britain, including three
Big Ben, Hobbies Handbook readers by individual donation or officially, by in London alone. Patterns were offered free
could find directions and design sheets the retooling of factories for aircraft within the magazines or by mail request,
(and order materials kits) for models of and weapons production. Even paper but the materials to actually make up
Buckingham Palace, St. Pauls Cathedral, for Hobbies Handbook would behard thepatterns had to be purchased from the
the Tower of London, and the HMS Nelson. to find when, by mid-war, even Britains firm, often in kit form. We are glad to say
One could also cut out a fretwork frame daily newspapers were down to four that Hobbies is still going strong and details
to read OUR ROYAL FAMILY (a photo of the pages anedition. for the company can be found below:
family came in the materials kit). Or make Alas, a fretworkplaque on page 264
a fretwork plaque commemorating the King would soonprove sadlywrong: TODAY Tel: 01508 549 330
and QueensCanadian tour. The kit for a IS THE TOMORROW WE WORRIED ABOUT Web:
second fretwork plaque, reading God Save YESTERDAY AND ALL IS WELL. The Woodworker Autumn 2016 75

01296 481220 |

DECKING-OIL: Highest quality colour and protection for wood

9 9 9 9 9
| | | |

2 016/17
course dates a
on our websitenow
Woodworking Courses in the beautiful Lake District
Woodwork Course 1 Woodwork Course 2 Woodwork Course 3
(Tools and Things) (Wood and Things) (Project Days)
A self-interest woodwork course This is a continuation of course 1 The advanced course is rather
where the aim is to give you the (tools and things) with the different from the previous two.
condence and the knowledge to emphases on timber, what are To come on this course you will need
use basic hand tools and some of acceptable defects in timber and to have done both the other courses
the more common power tools. what isnt, how do you write out a and have used your skill at home on
You will be able to pick from a list cutting list that means something your own projects and be ready to take
of projects before you arrive that I to your supplier, what to look on something more difcult.
believe you can complete in 5 days for when buying wood and what
or less so that you will go home with to avoid. WoodRat Courses
one of them and you can proudly say You will ideally have done course 1
This course will teach you all the
I made that. (tools and things) or have a good work- principles that you need to know!
I cover the teaching of how to ing knowledge of how to use hand tools
handle tools by getting you started and have used hand held power tools. Visit our website for more information &
on your project and, as you need The projects for you to pick from will updates on 2016/17 course information:
to use a new piece of equipment, I be more complicated and will involve
show you how. This means that the the use of the more sophisticated
instruction is fresh in your mind and hand tools and hand held power tools t: 01768 899895
you do the task there and then. and will include using some of the e:
On all courses there will only be static power tools in the workshop. We
will also be looking at buying timber,
The Wood Workshop
a maximum of 4 at a time, this will
making cutting lists and drawing plans. 7-8 Redhills Business Park, Penrith,
mean that I will be available when
Cumbria CA11 0DT
you need help and advice.
ON TEST Axminster radial drill press

This bench radial drill press from Axminster is a real contender and
an excellent manual to accompany it is certainly a welcome addition

Axminster AHRD16B
bench radial drill press
Drilling accurate holes can be quite a challenge. While a cordless
drill may be fine for simple jobs, when accuracy and repeatability
are important, a good pillar drill, or drill press, is definitely the way
to go. This model from Axminster features a particularly versatile
design, with the drilling head mounted on a radial arm, thus
allowing it to extend and rotate to drill at almost any angle.
Any serious workshop needs a good pillar drill; it is a vital tool
for boring accurate holes in almost any material, safely, accurately
and repeatedly. If you are using sawtooth or Forstner bits, a pillar
drill is an absolute necessity. Also, with the addition of a set of FROM
sanding drums, it can be used as an efficient bobbin sander for
smoothing and shaping. 264.53
A standard pillar drill has the drilling head mounted on a vertical
column with the worktable mounted directly below. The head may
be swivelled horizontally, but the throat depth remains the same. mechanism spindle. Depth is controlled with an adjustable locking
This Axminster pillar drill offers considerably more flexibility. ring on the spindle. This has a clearly marked scale, so you just
Its drilling head is mounted on a rail with a rack and pinion adjuster touch the drill bit on the workpiece and then turn the ring to
so that it can be extended away from the pillar to increase its indicate the desired depth, lock it in position and then proceed
throat depth. The head may also be tilted to 45 as the rail can to drill the hole.
be turned in its mounting. There is also a sprung pin, which locates
in a groove cut in the rail to make it easy to re-set the head to 90. Speed changing
Changing the speeds on some pillar drills can be a bit fiddly, but
Worktable it is important to use the correct speed. Remember large diameter
The worktable is cast-iron and mounts on an articulated arm bits need slower speeds than smaller bits. Also when drilling hard
so that it may extend away from the pillar. It can be moved to materials, such as metal, be careful not to overheat the bit by
one side of the column and will also tilt. It uses a rack and pinion running too fast and use some lubricant as necessary. This pillar
system to wind it up and down the main column and can be firmly drill has only one drive belt, so speed selection is quick and easy.
locked in position.
Chuck All workshop machines can be dangerous, so safety features
This model features a keyless chuck with a 16mm capacity, which are an important consideration. As already mentioned, a chuck
is easy to use and grips effectively. A Perspex chuck guard is fitted. guard is fitted to stop anything getting tangled in the spinning
mechanism. A shrouded NVR power switch is mounted on the
Plunging & depth setting front of the machine, and a safety micro-switch is fitted to the
The drill has three feed handles mounted on the plunging top cover so that the motor will not run if the cover is open.


or, connect it to the central hole drilled but is almost impossible to clamp
To help you make the most of your underneath the table to catch the dust. at the desired angle. The answer to this
pillar drill, here are some tips. To make To drill a set of identical components, is to take a short length of batten and
a sanding table, take a piece of MDF and make a simple MDF table with a solid drive a nail through it, close to one end.
bore a hole in it that is slightly larger than fence. Clamp, or screw, this onto the Clamp this to the table and align the
the diameter of your sanding drum. Fix worktable and use another clamp nail directly beneath the tip of the drill.
it to the worktable and plunge the drum to hold a stop-block in place to hold Now mark your workpiece on both sides
so that it enters the hole by about 1mm. the workpiece in the correct position. where you wish the drill to enter and
This ensures that when you sand an Finally, sometimes you have a where you wish it to exit. Place the exit
item you will not end up with a ridge situation, particularly when making mark on the tip of the nail, align the entry
on the bottom edge. Use a vacuum furniture, where you have an awkwardly- mark with the drill bit and bore the hole.
fixed to the table to catch the dust, shaped component, which needs to be Job done!

78 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

In use
This is certainly a good quality machine; it runs smoothly and SPECIFICATION
quietly without any noticeable vibration. The plunging mechanism POWER 375W
is well-balanced and entirely accurate. The adjustments are SPEED RANGE 500-2,450rpm (five speeds)
simple to make and reliable without any hint of slipping. CHUCK 16mm keyless
The chuck grips well and speed changing is straightforward. HEIGHT 790mm
The range of adjustments and the machines capabilities are MAX CHUCK TO BASE 375mm
only limited by your imagination. MAX CHUCK TO TABLE 220mm
THROAT 420mm
In summary TABLE SIZE 230 210mm
This is a great piece of kit, which would make a welcome addition
to any workshop. To make maximum use of its versatility, it should
be mounted on the corner of a bench so that it may swivel out VERDICT
over the workshop floor, enabling it to deal with large workpieces. A well-built and accurate machine. I found that it was very
Finally, the manual deserves a special mention. It is clearly written versatile in use as well as easy to set-up
in plain English with bright colour photos illustrating the various
points, and at the PROS Easy operation Good safety features
end there is also Efficient chuck Excellent manual
a handy full parts Simple speed changing
list. Axminster have
clearly taken great CONS Needs a fair amount of space around it
trouble to improve
the quality of their VALUE FOR MONEY
manuals, and I PERFORMANCE
have to say that
this is certainly FURTHER INFORMATION
one of the best Axminster Tools & Machinery
I have seen. AS
Plunge mechanism with depth setting ring

The keyless chuck Radial arm support bracket with rack and The articulated worktable
pinion and locking lever

The head tilted Simple speed adjustment The drill press in use The Woodworker Autumn 2016 79

ON TEST Blklder workwear

Good quality, functional workwear thats built to last is the staple of

many a tradesman and this range from Blklder certainly fits the bill

Blklder workwear range

Up until a few years ago, the average tradie could be identified been monitoring trends and developments as well as keeping
most easily by the amount of paint, dirt and plaster dust on his a discerning eye out for the top quality kit on show. There are
ragged clothes. With increased awareness of both health and safety a small number of really good brands on sale, and one of the
and customer impact, the construction industry has done much to best has to be Swedish specialists Blklder. Having been in
smarten up its image, and now the average working man and woman the workwear manufacturing business for over 50 years, they
are generally marked out by their multi-pocketed and coloured apparel. now have a large worldwide catalogue and make clothing for
This can only be a good thing, and if appearances have been improved, pretty much every industry.
so also have personal comfort and ease of working. Theres something about good tailoring that makes itself
known the moment you put a garment on; the feel and the fit
Workwear for every industry seem just right. This is how I found the Blklder kit: you really
With numerous brands out there and workwear (to give it its proper get the feeling that theyve made everything to the best quality
title) readily available at many trading estate and high street outlets, they can. Recently I requested a few woodworking-related items
its only right that we should take a look at a small selection. Ive from their catalogue, and heres what they sent us...

Carpenters trousers
A good pair of woodworking trousers must surely be top of the list when it comes to workwear, and even if youre just fixing up your own
home, theres no excuse for not looking after your appearance. But todays workwear, unlike high street fashion, is not just about looking
good, its also about comfort and ease of working. The trousers here are 100% cotton canvas and a heavy quality one too (270g/m),
so theres little chance of overheating and sweating up if your day becomes unexpectedly physical.
All the seams are triple stitched and, accidents apart, you get the feeling that this is a pair of
trousers that could probably last forever. The knees have an additional layer of CORDURA, an
extremely hard-wearing fabric, which forms a pocket into which can be fitted a replaceable kneepad.
These are supplied separately but are a standard size so any that you may have knocking around
should probably fit. Ive seen people use offcut squares of carpet before and lets face it, anything is
better than nothing when it comes to easing ones knees on a hard floor.
But its the pocket side of things
where proper workwear really
comes into its own. Unless youre
a big fan of the tool-belt, the
average pair of jeans or trousers
is no match for the dedicated work
trouser. This particular pair boasts
no less than 17 assorted pockets,

50.90 and two loops and a D ring for

good measure. Extra wide belt
loops will enable them to stay
up should they ever get fully
loaded, and this really would be
A good pair of trousers is like an a situation where belt and braces Fit a pair of pads and youre Just some of the many
extra piece of kit in your toolbox could be genuinely deployed. ready for that flooring job pockets fitted
80 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
Carpenters smock Jacket
This is a curious item; its sort of an overshirt and jacket combined. More than just a windcheater,
The Swedes have a fine tradition in smocks and are keen to lend this jacket is really well
an extra outer layer to any sort of outfit you might care to mention. constructed and features the
This one is in a navy blue and white twill, all cotton, and quite heavy same sort of triple stitching
for a shirt at 250g/m. Its a very soft and comfortable fabric, and and multiple pockets that
I found it worked best when it was worn over something else. are the distinctive features
Its got the sort of stand-up collar that used to be called of Blklder clothing. In a
collarless, and this isnt a bad thing when the chips are flying. hard-wearing mix of polyester
At first, I thought it might be aimed at the woodturner, what with it and cotton twill (300g/m),
having no side pockets and all, but theres a curious pair of strings the jacket has a single top
attached at the back which tie together in the front. It doesnt take quality YKK zip fastening
a genius to see that maybe this wouldnt be such a good thing to backed up by hook-and-loop
wear in the proximity of to keep it weatherproof and
spinning machinery, and hold things all together. Again,
it still has a small breast the quality of construction
pocket, which could easily fill is readily apparent, as is the The jacket is both functional
up with the aforementioned quality of the design, which and good-looking
chippings. The strings look provides the wearer with that oh
like theyre there to improve so useful inner pocket zipped of course!
the fit and to reduce With the sort of extreme weather that they must get in Sweden,
draughts up the back, and its no surprise to see these small touches, things that will make
it certainly felt snug to me a difference when the cold north wind is blowing; things like the
whenever I had them tied. stand-up collar which fits together with the aid of a hook-and-loop
Overall, I did enjoy wearing fastening that will hopefully keep the elements out.
it, and the absence of front Available in five different colours.
pockets actually makes
sense when youre wearing
an apron too (as would the
potentially hazardous back
ties). Its an interesting item,
and to me, something not
unlike an enigma.

I found the smock made a good outer

garment, and a very useful one in the
colder months
39.90 Fastening pockets are a real boon, especially this inside one

Polo shirt
Well this is an item that you
wouldnt think anyone
could get wrong, but
over the years Ive
encountered more
than a few which
fitted badly and
chafed and sweated
in all the wrong places.
This one from Blklder is
a pleasing break from whats
often the norm and feels good
the moment you get it over your
head. It makes you feel just that
little bit smarter than wearing a
T-shirt, and is available in seven
Detail of the back ties different colours. Black polo shirt, white kilt The Woodworker Autumn 2016 81
ON TEST Blklder workwear
Craftsman kilt 47.90 FABRIC 100% cotton, canvas, 270g/m
I think most of us in REINFORCEMENT CORDURA reinforced knees
the UK are sufficiently and back pockets
familiar with kilts to DETAILS Metal zipper fly; side hammer loop; loops, one with
accept them as normal D ring; metal buttons; inner leg seam with three-needle
outerwear, and there is that stitching; ID pocket
special ease of comfort that POCKETS Back pockets with bellow; leg pocket with bellow,
comes from wearing one. Its flap and pen pocket, extra pocket, telephone pocket and ID
not the most common form of pocket; knee protection pockets with two placement level
clothing on site, and it did raise options; nail pockets with chisel pockets and tool holders, can
an eyebrow or two when I wore be tucked in the front bellowed pockets
it out; there was some approval A plethora of pockets; note wide
expressed, though, which was belt loops 40411860 JACKET
a bit of a relief, I have to say. FABRIC 65% polyester, 35% cotton, twill, 300g/m
Its 100% cotton twill in a heavy 320g/m, which made me think DETAILS Metal buttons; inside of collar in contrasting colour;
it would be best for the cooler months. Again, equipped with a high collar; adjustable waistline
multitude of loops and pockets, the outer ones (suggested for POCKETS Chest pockets, one with flap and button closure and
nails and fixings) can tuck into the main ones behind for a more one with pen pocket; side pockets
streamlined appearance, and there are others for phone, ruler, pens FINISH Adjustable sleeve end with press studs
and knife. It has an adjustable waistline but I felt I needed a belt on
mine, and it took a bit of getting used to jumping in and out of the
van. Its also a bit tricky in the wind, and youd definitely have to be 32501125 CARPENTERS SMOCK
a bit careful if youre working up a ladder or on scaffolding. Very FABRIC 100% cotton, twill, 250g/m
comfy, though, and I can see why its an item of clothing that DETAILS Band collar
remains popular in Scotland and elsewhere. FRONT CLOSURE Wind flap with buttons
FINISH Wristlet at sleeve end
Safety shoe
A stout pair of protective boots or shoes is at the top of the list 33051035 POLO SHIRT
when it comes to working on site or in a college workshop, and FABRIC 100% cotton, pique knit, 220g/m
there are so many to choose from these days that youre sure to DETAILS Neck opening with buttons; rib-knitted collar;
find a pair you like. Quite apart from the H&S regs, it makes really reinforced shoulder seam; reinforced neck seam
good sense to take care of yourself and to keep your feet free from FINISH Rib-knit sleeve
the danger of falling tools or timber.
These ones have the look of a trainer about them and are fitted with 85661210 CRAFTSMAN KILT
aluminium toecaps and a synthetic sole guard to protect against nails FABRIC 100% cotton, twill, 320g/m
and similar puncture injury. Ive tried on quite a few safety boots and DETAILS Wide loops at back and sides; adjustable waistline
shoes in recent years, and I have to say that these are by far the most POCKETS Back pockets with bellow; leg pocket with flap;
comfortable. They are sufficiently flexible to enable normal walking bellowed front pockets; side pockets; nail pockets can be
and, unlike many, actually fit to size with no need for tucked in the front bellows pockets; telephone pocket; ruler
the felt inner sole I requested just in case. Theyre pocket with knife holder and pen pocket
soundly constructed from the most appropriate
materials, and should last a good long time 76.60 24303905 SAFETY SHOE
depending on what sort of work youre using
them for. 3.30 LINING
Upper in ventilating synthetic leather
(felt soles)
SAFETY Reinforced outer sole; penetration protection in textile
composite; toe cap in aluminium
SOLES Inner sole of PE and EVA;
intermediate sole in EVA; outer sole in nitrile rubber
FUNCTIONALITY Water and oil-repellent; antistatic

There proved to be no need for A pair of safe, stylish and very
these felt inner soles, but maybe comfortable shoes
once the temperature drops... FURTHER INFORMATION
Blklder Workwear
In summary 0800 028 8234
Top quality workwear from experts in the field. Not cheap,
but definitely worth the price. MC
82 The Woodworker Autumn 2016
Wolf combi drill & impact driver ON TEST

Despite being well engineered and sporting some great features, this
combi and impact driver set from Wolf is let down by the fact that both
tools have to share one battery, which unfortunately hinders performance

Wolf Professional 20V combi
drill & impact driver kit
Theres long been a tradition of in a zip-up hold-all, are both solidly
manufacturers to supply a pair of drill and constructed and I found them equally
driver as a set; this is pretty much the most effective in their work. The combi drill is
useful combination when it comes to of the conventional pattern, with the main
essential power tools, and the driver has controls where youd expect them and the
lately become the impact driver. The last torque rings pretty much as standard, as are
few years have seen the popularity of this the LED work lights below. I liked the steel
tool continue to grow, and even sceptics chuck; something to both inspire confidence The full kit, including instructions
like me who were slow to adjust at first and easier to grip than some plastic ones.
have finally come to realise its true worth. In summary
Impact driver Both drill and driver are good examples
Combi drill The impact driver could do no wrong in of their class, and will get the job done with
These two from Wolf, one of the oldest my eyes, powering in big screws all day ease, but I would rather have had two smaller
names in power tools, are good examples long as I progressed my workshop bench 1Ah batteries than a single 3Ah one. MC
of the type, and offer a good all-round building. Its got a nice bit of heft to it, partly
solution to anyone on a budget. They come due to its rugged construction and also
to the large 3Ah Lithium-ion battery. This
gives it a longer run time than most and COMBI DRILL
provides a solid base for standing the tool RATED VOLTAGE 20V
up between working. Its labelled as 20V, NO LOAD SPEED 0-350/0-1,250rpm
a marketing contrivance Im not really keen IMPACT RATE 0-5,250/0-18,750bpm
on, but however its named, it kept going for MAX TORQUE 35Nm
as long as I needed it to. The indicator light
is useful here, and will advise on when its SPECIFICATION
time to reach for the one-hour charger.
The conventional controls: note hammer, IMPACT DRIVER
drill and screw settings on torque ring, Battery issues RATED VOLTAGE 20V
also steel chuck When it comes to batteries, though, the big NO LOAD SPEED 0-2,200rpm
question here is why just one? Obviously IMPACT RATE 0-3,000bpm
the kit will be more expensive with two MAX TORQUE 150Nm
batteries included, but I dont think enough
thought was given to this decision. Sharing
batteries between power tools is pretty
much the norm these days, but a drill and Despite both combi drill and driver
driver are used so closely together that performing well and having some great
swapping batteries after every operation features, the issue with there being only
soon becomes a real chore. Its not that one battery did unfortunately let them down
much different from multiple bit changes PROS Solid construction comes
for every screw or fixing; the very reason we with basic drill and driver
all started using two drills in the first place. bit set

CONS The drills are fine but the

single battery is a pain



UK Home Shopping
The impact driver shares common body parts The single battery features an onboard
with the drill indicator light The Woodworker Autumn 2016 83
ON TEST Trend Trade Lock Jig

This handy jig is ideal for the majority of mortise

locks or latches, and invaluable as an aid for mortise
work in the construction of joinery or furniture

Trend Adjustable FROM

Trade Lock Jig
Ive looked at lock jigs in the past, and setting automatically accounts for the can also be used for the faceplate,
while they do speed up and give consistent offset.The width setting comes with a but if you only need the jig for faceplate
results each and every time, they all rely on couple of gauge blocks for setting either work, then a smaller router with a 12mm
interchangeable plates to restrict the router two standard lock case widths or two diameter/30mm guidebush will be easier.
to the correct parameters, and you need the common faceplate ones, but its very
correct plate to suit a specific lock or latch. easy to set to any width using the etched Jig workout
centreline as your mark. I gave the jig a workout fitting a standard
In use The lock or faceplate length is sashlock as well as a second deadlock,
This new offering from Trend is adjustable determined in equal fashion with white which meant resetting the jig for lock case
and setting up is a breeze both for the door laminate sliding plates, again working dimensions as well as faceplates. It really
thickness as well as the lock case and on a centreline. The etched scale is in is such a simple jig to set up, clamp to the
faceplate. Theres a large angle plate that 2.5mm increments on each side, which door and rout away.
adjusts to 35, 40, 44 and 54mm door equates to 5mm overall when using the Used in tandem with a hinge jig, this
thicknesses to automatically centralise jig centre as the start point and measuring particular jig will make door hanging,
the jig, with slots to allow movement if back each side to set the length. especially into new frames or linings, a far
you have a door that doesnt hit these. Once the jig is set, youre ready to go. The quicker job. You can clamp it to a ready
The upper section of the jig is phenolic jig clamps to the door using the aluminium hung door to rout the faceplates easily
resin with etchings for width and lengths angle and all you need is a 12mm diameter enough, but any lock case routing needs
on the main body or sliding plates, allowing straight bit and 30mm guidebush. to be done prior to hanging for safety
for the cutter to guidebush ratio so that the A router with a plunge of at least 70mm purposes.
is required for lock case mortising as well
as a longer cutter for the task. Be aware In summary
SPECIFICATION that if you fit locks deeper than 63mm, This cracker of a jig can be clamped to
MIN DOOR THICKNESS 30mm you will still need to drill the last part as components using either the same setup
MAX DOOR THICKNESS 80mm the cutter and maximum plunge wont for the locks for 12mm-wide mortises, or
MAX FACEPLATE LENGTH 250mm allow a deep enough cut. by experimenting with different cutter and
SET POINTS AT 16, 19, 22.5 & 25.4mm This same cutter and router combination bush ratios to gain any width required. AK
for standard lock cases and faceplates

This jig is a real hit with me and is ideal if
you regularly fit mortise locks or latches

PROS Adjusts to suit

Faceplate includes obscure
Fast to set up and use The underside of the jig is etched for common A pair of spacers is supplied to set the width
door widths to centralise it on the work for common lock case and faceplate widths
CONS No cutter or guidebush supplied
Deeper lock cases need
additional drilling out



Trend Routing Technology
01923 249 911 A heavy-duty router is needed to rout out the With the case routed and the jig still clamped,
lock case, or you can drill and chisel if needed the stops are then adjusted for the faceplate
84 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

AUTUMN 2016 The Woodworker Classified 85


Tables, chairs, stools, kitchens,
bedrooms, desks, bookcases,
sideboards, beds, benches, doors,
windows, steps, cabinets,
make them all and more with the
Dowelmax Doweling Jig
Dowelmax Doweling Jig -
No need for biscuit jointers, tenoners,
morticers, screws, loose tenons etc,
make joints faster, more
accurately and stronger with
The ultimate doweling jig for woodworkers!
See us on and visit:
for more info, video and ordering.

Tel: 01352 781168 or 07773 718758

86 The Woodworker Classified AUTUMN 2016


Quality English Sawn Timber:

Rough sawn or planed
Wide variety of species and thicknesses
Sustainably grown and kilned

Please get in touch or visit our website 0161 2313333

AUTUMN 2016 The Woodworker Classified 87


A n n u a l 2 0 1 7 N u m b e r 47
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Musical Instrument Makers & Repairers Supplies

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88 The Woodworker Classified AUTUMN 2016

or email

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your item
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Kity Bandsaw with 8in depth of extras. Call for more information 36 12in capacity, excellent condition; 375; 10in Shipmate
cut, in good condition with mitre and to make an offer ask for condition; 240 radial arm saw; 150
fence, custom mobile base and Ashley 01206 511 071 (Colchester) 01873 812 498 (Powys)
dust extraction port; 320 01792 426 822 (Swansea)
07971 283 188 (Exmouth) Roy mortiser with six Japanese Jig plus router for turning
Felder combination machine pattern bits; 400. MK1 Woodcut; (e.g. barley sugar twists).
Record 10in table saw with 1.3m sliding table spindle 180. Mateo 317 bandsaw and Proton DB250 lathe, fuse saw,
extension table and stand. moulder with router attachments; blades; 120. Many more tools MP300 moulder, Leigh dovetail
1,100W motor; 660 860mm F34 power feeder and AF12 dust available call for further details jig, 36in lathe and 9in angle
table; blade 58mm deep at 90. extractor; 1,500 01206 826 615 (Essex) grinder. Call to make offers
Buyer collects; call to make a 01435 872 222 (Heathfield) 01568 770 404 (Herts)
reasonable offer Coronet 3 lathe with wooden
01843 601 438 (Broadstairs) Record Power DX4000 high bench, collet chuck, Novatech Trend T20K biscuit jointer in
filtration dust extractor. In mint scroll chuck, 20 assorted very good condition; 65. Mortise
condition, complete with 100mm chisels (including nine Ashley & tenon jig, brand-new in box with
hose and instruction manual. Iles chisels), bench grinder new straight cutters; 150 ONO
Email picture available. A bargain with Robert Sorby grinding jig, 01273 611 839 (East Sussex)
at 175 woodturning books, blanks and
01202 698 725 (Bournemouth) finishes; 500 ONO

Vicmarc VL100 EVS electronic

02380 266 944 (Southampton)
variable-speed lathe. The Rolls- Shopsmith Mk5 lathe complete Woodworker magazines.
Royce of mini lathes. Complete with bandsaw, jointer, circular saw Pre-1951 plus 19841986.
with tools and user guide. Email with spare tipped blade, moulder, Grandfather collecting for
picture available. In excellent sanding disc, extended table, cabinetmaker grandson
Proxxon DH40 thicknesser condition and selling at a bargain plus many extras. Call to make 01493 368 180 (Norfolk)
bought as a present but not price of 895 an offer
used due to illness. Capacity: 01202 698 725 (Bournemouth) 01476 561 966 (Lincs) Spiers/Norris/Henley planes
40 80mm; 350 ONO wanted by private collector; any
01482 893 149 (East Yorkshire) Fein Dustex 25l, 240V wet & dry DeWalt DWS520 plunge saw quote beaten. Ring Ron Lowe on
dust extractor with tools. Latest plus tracks, clamps and T-square 01530 834 581 (Leics)
Professional woodwork and model, little used; 95 attachment, little used; 185
engineers vices 9in quick- 01322 526 897 (Kent) 01322 526 897 (Kent) Woodworking hand tools,
release jaws on woodwork especially old wood and metal
vices; 4in hardened steel jaws Martin Godfreys famous Charnwood chuck to fit Nova planes, wanted by collector.
on engineers vices. All in very WoodRat WR5 plus handbook thread; 50; numerous turning Write to Mr B Jackson, 10 Ayr
good condition; 40 each and DeWalt router DW625EK; tools; 190; 56lb 6in ceramic Close, Stamford PE9 2TS or call
07951 130 694 (North London) 500. Call for details tiles; 42; eight books; 5 each; 01780 751 768 (Lincs)
01242 222 482 (Cheltenham) eight acrylic pen holders; 28;
Hegner VB36 Master Bowl chainsaw bib and brace, plus Woodworking tools: planes by
Turner lathe with long tailstock, SIP-01938 woodturning lathe helmet; 65 buyer collects Norris, Spiers, Mathieson, Preston,
chucks and Robert Sorby tools, cast iron; 34hp motor; variable 01209 211 522 (Cornwall) Slater, etc. brass braces, interesting
gouges, chisels and chucks. No 10 speed easy change; digital rules and spirit levels; top prices
faults, immaculate condition read out; swivel headstock; steel Elektra Beckum/Metabo planer/ paid, auction prices beaten
collection only; ,4000 with all stand, and various other extras. thicknesser HC260, in mint 01647 432 841 (Devon)


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The Lebus Lorry Another side to Trades Unionism

delivering furniture An event occurred which had an immense
effect on my own career. I have just said
that the time allowed for assembling the
sunk-centre dressing table was 14.75
minutes. Three of us operated this particular
press and I had been timed originally,
achieving a time of 10 minutes. I was quite
happy with this because I could perform
in five minutes and earn 100% bonus. The
other two chaps could not, so the time had
to be put in dispute. This required a retime
which, by the rules established within the
company, had to have the shop steward in
attendance beside the work study engineer.
For some strange reason, I had been elected
shop steward when we first arrived and
now had to take up my responsibility.
Ron, the chap who was being retimed,
was embarrassed and flustered; it was a
hot day and he was breaking out in a sweat,
also making a ham fisted job of the whole
thing. I was more interested in what

The mysteries of HJ Shop

the work study engineer was doing and
concluded that I could do his job so, after
the study had ended, questioned him about
being of his profession. I then discovered
Now working as a skilled A good show that one had to be, at Lebus, 25 years of
cabinetmaker, Peter Baker The good show was that I could unload age and a tradesman to be allowed to train
the sunk-centre dressing table press of an as a work study engineer. I decided to wait.
tells us about putting on a assembled carcass and glue and assemble About this time I discovered another side to
good show, the concept the next whole carcass into the press within Trades Unionism of which I was previously
five minutes. With drawer making, there was unaware. As shop steward I was summoned
of potential productivity a standard time throughout the factory of to a meeting of stewards where the shop
and the unfortunate side four minutes per drawer. During the curing convener (chief steward and a full-time
of Trades Unionism time of 35 seconds, I would have the next employee, whose only job was to liaise
drawer glued and assembled ready to be between management and employees)
As HJ Shop was top secret, nobody was placed into the press and always knocked informed us that the company was suffering
allowed in without permission. However, the stop button with my knee (before the a downturn in orders and that we were
Sir Herman Lebus would invite certain curing cycle was finished) to unload and going to commence working a four-day
people, friends in the industry and often reload the press. This was always my pice week. As one could not claim benefits
competitors, of whom he would acquaint de rsistance and, I think, why Sir Herman for one day and to assist in covering the
us during the morning. He would suddenly would often stop and talk to me on the shop shortfall in income, we would have Friday
appear in the shop, walk around to each floor. The industry still does not use these and Monday off, alternate weeks, and in
of us and tell us who was coming that day. marvellous inventions, I am sad to say. that way we could claim for the Saturday
As mentioned last month, the productivity When I tell you that we six cabinetmakers and get three days benefit from the State,
potential of RF can best be illustrated by could produce 100 bedroom suites a week, even though we did not normally work on
a few examples that I experienced, as I consisting of a 4ft wardrobe, three-drawer Saturday! How kind, I thought. Unfortunately,
operated three different presses, which chest and a 4ft wide sunk-centre dressing the industry was beginning one of its
were: a) a press in which was formed an end table, and we were being paid a basic bonus downturns and the HJ project was shelved.
panel with round corners for the dressing of 25% (so not working at full capacity), The staff were disbursed and I was
tables and chests; b) a press in which the perhaps there is some concept of the relocated to No.22 Shop, the Makers
whole carcass of the sunk-centre dressing potential productivity in this innovative Shop, where I worked on the wardrobe
table was assembled; and c) a press in development. assembly line.
which I assembled the drawers. Sir Herman
always told me to, give them a good show.
The reason for give them a good show was
to do with the time factors involved. I cant GET IN TOUCH Peter Baker 2016
remember the time involved with the first If any other readers have a story to tell, wed be glad to listen.
press but the other two were b) 14.75 Just write to and well see how
minutes and c) 4 minutes. The curing times we get on
were b) 90 seconds and c) 35 seconds.

90 The Woodworker Autumn 2016

Introducing the New Range of
Woodturning Chucks and Jaws
We are extremely proud to introduce the new range of Record Power woodturning chucks and jaws.
This exclusive range has been developed using Record Powers extensive experience and knowledge of
woodturning in conjunction with a group of highly experienced professional and hobby woodturners to bring
you the ultimate in quality, versatility and value.

Precision Engineered Gears Jaw Fixing System Heavy Duty Jaw Slides Sealed Backing Plate with
Super Geared True-Lock technology The SC3 and SC4 feature a jaw The improved and enlarged jaw slides Full Indexing
ensures high levels of accuracy to fixing which will not only fit give unsurpassed holding power and The SC4 features a strong backing
provide smooth and solid operation. the Record Power series of Jaws but load bearing ability. They are made plate to protect the gear mechanism
is also fully compatible with Nova and from high tensile steel, reinforced with from dust and 72-point indexing
Robert Sorby brand jaws. nickel and copper and heat-treated to around the full circumference.
ensure superior strength.

SC3 Geared Scrolll SC4 Professional

Chuck Package Geared Scroll
Only Chuck Package
9 .99
es 99.9 Now
includess 129
2Faceplatete 2Faceplate
OsFwhFen 3+
All jaw
sets bought

Prices valid until 28.2.2017 See online for full details

Incorporating some of the most famous brands

in woodworking, Record Power have been
manufacturing ne tools & machinery for over
100 years. Built to last we provide support for
thousands of machines well over 50 years old,
which are still in daily use. Testimony to the Tel: 01246 571 020 sound engineering principles and service support
that comes with a Record Power product.