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The National Center for Teacher Education

Multicultural Education Hub

Name: Jaiza R. Pacaldo BMSEE II-1

Foundations of Education

FLA 3: Different Educational Movement and Philosophies of Education and its

Implication in the Classroom

Educational movements Description Philosophy of education and its

Humanism A philosophical and ethical stanc Place of the child in teaching-learning.
e that emphasizes the value Place of the child in teaching-learning:
and agency of human beings, According to this approach
individually and collectively, and student plays a central role in
affirms their ability to improve whole teaching-learning process.
their lives through the use This approach believes in child-
of reason and ingenuity as centered-education. This
opposed to submitting blindly to approach, considers that we should
tradition and authority or sinking first understand the needs,
into cruelty and brutality. interests, abilities, age level,
attitudes, aptitude of students
then try to organize teaching
learning process according to
It emphasizes on reach, touch and
teaches the child according to his
nature, and interests. All teaching
material and its process must be
related to individual
characteristics of students.

Individual humanism It is the moral stance, political Teacher promotes the exercise of
philosophy, ideology, or social one's goals and desires and so
outlook that emphasizes the value independence and self-
moral worth of the individual reliance and advocate that
interests of the individual should
achieve precedence over
the state or a social group, while
opposing external interference
upon one's own interests
by society or institutions such as
the government.
Social humanism Social Humanism is both a moral Place and role of the teacher:
and a political philosophy. As a According to this approach
moral philosophy it is the student plays a central role in
required foundation for the full teaching learning process. Teacher
spectrum of human rights, acts as a guide, friend or helper of
including those that are now the students.
called entitlements Students should freedom to
develop and make progress
according to their own pace, needs
and interests. Teacher should be
considered as the milestone in the
journey of total development of
the child.
Teacher should not force his own
methods and views on students but
he should be only a guide in this
development process.

Educational realism Realism in the arts is the The educational implication of

attempt to represent subject realism is the need to establish
matter truthfully, without that objects exist in reality
artificiality and avoiding artistic without experiencing them directly
conventions, implausible, exotic all the time.
and supernatural elements
Literary verbal Literary realism is part of The approach inherently implies a
realism the realist art belief that
movement beginning with such reality is ontologically indepe
mid nineteenth-century French ndent of man's conceptual
literature (Stendhal), schemes, linguistic practices and
and Russian beliefs, and thus can be known (or
literature (Alexander Pushkin) knowable) to the artist, who can in
and extending to the late turn represent this 'reality'
nineteenth and early twentieth faithfully
Social realism A theory or practice (as in An international art movement
painting) of using appropriate that includes the work of painters,
representation and symbol to printmakers, photographers and
express a social or political filmmakers who draw attention to
attitude. the everyday conditions of the
working classes and the poor, and
who are critical of the social
structures that maintain these
Scientific realism Scientific realism is, at the most It is often framed as an answer to
general level, the view that the the question "how is the success
world described by science is of science to be explained?" the
the real world as it is, success of science in this context
independent of what it might be centers primarily on the status
taken to be. Within philosophy of of unobservable
science entities apparently talked about by
scientific theories
18th and 19th century educational movements
Formal discipline disciplinary training supposedly Formal discipline looks ate
imparted by the form of a study studying to exercise the mind."
(as mathematics) as How to Become an English as a
distinguished from its content Second Language Teacher
value; also : the study itself. Children's Cognitive Development

Rationalism A belief or theory that opinions Teachers are able to establish the
and actions should be based on religious truth
reason and knowledge rather A theory that reason is in itself a
than on religious belief or source of knowledge superior to
emotional response. and independent of sense
A view that reason and experience
rather than the non-rational are
the fundamental criteria in the
solution of problems

Naturalism The view of the world that A manner or technique for

takes account only of natural teachers of treating subject
elements and forces, excluding matter that presents, through
the supernatural or spiritual. volume of detail, a deterministic
view of human life and actions.
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a nation; Positive outcomespromotes a
especially : a sense of national sense of identity, unites people,
consciousness (see consciousness and promotes pride. negative
1c) exalting one nation above all outcomesleads to conflict with
others and placing primary others, infringes on rights of
emphasis on promotion of its others, creates xenophobiathe
culture and interests as opposed fear that someone will take them
to those of other nations or over
supranational groups
Philosophical foundations
I. Main branches of philosophy
Metaphysics the branch of philosophy that This has a close bearing upon the
deals with the first principles of aims and ideals of education the
things, including abstract metaphysical attitude provides the
concepts such as being, knowing, educationists the proper
substance, cause, identity, time, perspective for devising aims and
and space. ideals of education. The concept
of self is the basis of the
development of character, the
central aim of education.
Epistemology Epistemology is the branch of In education it is essentially an
philosophy that examines the exercise in making sure that
nature of knowledge, the students absorbed necessary
processes through which we informationspecific facts, data,
acquire knowledge, and the value theories, methods, formulaein
of knowledge. time for the examinations at the
end of each year. Some students
understood what they were
learning, but many did not (and
hence could not be said to have
actually learnt anything, even
though a good number of them
passed the examinations in the
Axiology Axiology is the branch of If morals are relative and ethics
philosophy that answers the are situational, then value is empty
question what is value? Value and life is meaningless. The
is understood to be worth and it Christian minister recognizes the
centers on both ethics and profound privilege of engaging
aesthetics. Gods beloved and joining the
redemptive work of Christ as His
II. Major western philosophies
Idealism Idealism is the group of Idealism has had great influence in
philosophies which assert that education. Study in the arts
reality, or reality as we can know reveals a bit of ultimate reality
it, is fundamentally mental, and promotes the quality of life as
mentally constructed, or no other area can. It draws
otherwise immaterial attention to truths that do not
change; through religious study,
idealism can bring a meaning to
existence on Earth that remains
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a nation; Positive outcomespromotes a
especially : a sense of national sense of identity, unites people,
consciousness (see consciousness and promotes pride. negative
1c) exalting one nation above all outcomesleads to conflict with
others others, infringes on rights of
others, creates xenophobiathe
fear that someone will take them
Realism Realism in the arts is the The educational implication of
attempt to represent subject realism is the need to establish
matter truthfully, without that objects exist in reality
artificiality and avoiding artistic without experiencing them directly
conventions, implausible, exotic all the time.
and supernatural elements
Pragmatism The belief that being practical In the present world pragmatism
and having moral principles are in has influenced education
opposition, and you must choose tremendously. It is a practical and
one or the other. This belief is a utilitarian philosophy. It makes
derivative of the Moral/Practical activity the basis of all teaching
dichotomy and learning. It is activity around
which an educational process
It makes learning purposeful and
infuses a sense of reality in
education. It makes schools into
workshops and laboratories. It
gives an experimental character to
education. Pragmatism makes man
optimistic, energetic and active. It
gives him self-confidence. The
child creates values through his
own activities.
Experimentalism Believes that things are As a result, schools exist to
constantly changing. It is based discover and expand the society
on the view that reality is what we live in. Students study social
works right now and that experiences and solve
goodness comes from group
Contemporary western philosophy
Perennialism Is a normative educational Since people are human, one should
philosophy. Perennialists believe teach first about humans, rather
that one should teach the things than machines or techniques and
that are of everlasting liberal rather than vocational
pertinence to all people topics. Although perennialism may
everywhere, and that the appear similar to essentialism,
emphasis should be on principles, perennialism focuses first on
not facts. personal development.
Essentialism A belief that things have a set Essentialism focuses first on
of characteristics that make essential skills. Essentialist
them what they are, and that curricula thus tend to be much
the task of science and more vocational and fact-based,
philosophy is their discovery and and far less liberal and principle-
expression; the doctrine that based.
essence is prior to existence.
Progressivism Is a philosophy based on the Philosophies are typically
Idea of Progress, which asserts considered to be teacher-
that advancements in science, centered, as opposed to student-
technology, economic centered philosophies of education
development, and social
organization are vital to the
improvement of the human
Existentialism A philosophical theory or The nature of reality for
approach that emphasizes the Existentialists is subjective, and
existence of the individual lies within the individual. The
person as a free and responsible physical world has no inherent
agent determining their own meaning outside of human
development through acts of the existence. Learners choice and
will. teacher standards rather than
external standards are central.
Existence comes before any
definition of what we are.
Social Adherence to the doctrines or Education should be reasonably
traditionalism practices of a tradition. authoritarian and hierarchical
The beliefs of those opposed to knowledge and accuracy are
modernism, liberalism, or essential
radicalism The product, or knowledge of
content, should be objectively
tested or measured
Choice between different
curricula and/or different types
of school is essential to maximize
individual strengths
Social Social reconstructionism is a Critically examine all cultural and
reconstructionism philosophy that emphasizes the educational institutions and
addressing of social questions recommended change and reform
and a quest to create a better as needed.
society and worldwide To teach students and the public
democracy. not to settle for "what is" but
rather to dream about what might
Prepare Students to become
agents for change
Scholasticism The system of theology and A method of learning, as it places
philosophy taught in medieval a strong emphasis on dialectical
European universities, based on reasoning to extend knowledge by
Aristotelian logic and the inference and to resolve
writings of the early Church contradictions. Scholastic thought
Fathers and having a strong is also known for rigorous
emphasis on tradition and dogma. conceptual analysis and the careful
Narrow-minded insistence on drawing of distinctions. In the
traditional doctrine. classroom and in writing, it often
takes the form of explicit
disputation; a topic drawn from
the tradition is broached in the
form of a question, opponents'
responses are given, a
counterproposal is argued and
opponents' arguments rebutted.
Because of its emphasis on
rigorous dialectical method,
scholasticism was eventually
applied to many other fields of
Constructivism A style or movement in which Teaching philosophy based on the
assorted mechanical objects are concept that learning (cognition) is
combined into abstract mobile the result of 'mental construction'
structural forms. - students construct their own
A view which admits as valid only understanding by reflecting on
constructive proofs and entities their personal experiences, and by
demonstrable by them, implying relating the new knowledge with
that the latter have no what they already know. Each
independent existence. student creates his or her own
'schemas' or mental-models to
make sense of the world, and
accommodates the new knowledge
(learns) by adjusting them. One of
its main principles is that learning
is search for meaning, therefore,
to be effective, a teacher must
help the student in discovering his
or her own meaning.
Postmodernism A late-20th-century style and Teachers hold the identities which
concept in the arts, constructed by students race or
architecture, and criticism that gender or class identitiesthat is
represents a departure from the collectivized part of it: You
modernism and has at its heart a exist only as part of a collective
general distrust of grand group
theories and ideologies as well as
a problematical relationship with
any notion of art.