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NUCLEIC ACIDS

BIO20-Introduction
to Biomimetics Prof. Ureah Thea A. Sevilla

Nucleic Acids

Some nucleotides are subunits of nucleic acids such


as DNA and RNA

Some nucleotides have roles in metabolism

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Nucleotides
Nucleotide
A small organic molecule consisting of a sugar with a
five-carbon ring, a nitrogen-containing base, and one
or more phosphate groups

ATP
A nucleotide with three phosphate groups
Important in phosphate-group (energy) transfer

Component structures of nucleotide:

Pyrimidine and purine bases

Sugar

Phosphate

* When molecule consists of base and sugar only, it is


called a NUCLEOSIDE.

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Nitrogen-containing base of Nucleotides

Nucleoside = Base + Sugar

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Nucleotide = Nucleoside + phosphate

Name = nucleoside + mono-/di-/tri- phosphate

Adenosine triphosphate, ATP

ATP

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Polynucleotides

PHOSPHODIESTER
BOND

5 3 Polynucleotide Chain

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Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids
Polymers of nucleotides in which the sugar of one
nucleotide is attached to the phosphate group of the
next
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids

RNA
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
RNAs are single-stranded polynucleotides that are used
to express genetic information.
Important in protein synthesis

Three types of RNAs:


rRNA ribosomal RNA
mRNA messenger RNA
tRNA transfer RNA

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DNA

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)


Two chains of nucleotides twisted together into a
double helix and held by hydrogen bonds
Contains all inherited information necessary to build an
organism, coded in the order of nucleotide bases -
carries the genetic information.

Differences between RNA and DNA

RNA DNA
A, G, C, U type of bases A G, C, T
used
ribose sugar used Deoxyribose
single polynucleotide double
strand

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Four Nucleotides of DNA


adenine (A) thymine (T)
base with a base with a
3 phosphate double ring single ring
groups structure structure

sugar guanine (G) cytosine (C)


(deoxyribose) base with a base with a
double ring single ring
structure structure

Fig. 3-21, p. 48

The DNA
Molecule
Double-stranded
polynucleotide
covalent
bonding in
sugar
phosphate
backbone

hydrogen bonding
between bases
Fig. 3-22, p. 49

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James Watson and Francis Cricks model


of the DNA
The DNA molecule consists of 2 strands
of polynucleotide held together through
hydrogen bonding interaction of the
bases contained in the 2 strands. This
pairing of bases is called complimentary
base pairs: A=T and CG

BASE-PAIRS OF DNA
CYTOSINE GUANINE
base pair
H
N CH
N H O
C
CH C N
C
N H N
N
R THYMINE ADENINE
N C base pair
O H
H N
H3C
R O H N N
H CH
C
3 hydrogen bonds formed N H N NH
C
N C
CH N
O

2 hydrogen bonds formed

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The DNA Molecule


The two strands are in anti-
parallel direction to each
other

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides have major metabolic roles and are


building blocks of nucleic acids

Two kinds of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, interact as


the cells system of storing, retrieving, and translating
information about building proteins

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DNA-inspired: World's first curved


double helix bridge at Marina Bay

Bridge measures 280 meters long made of a special stainless steel.


If all the steel tubes forming the major and minor helix are laid end to
end, it will measure 2,250 meters long, and the entire structure weighs
about 1,700 tons, which is equivalent to about 1,130 saloon cars.

DNA-inspired: DNA-Shaped Agora


Garden Building (Taiwan)

The design creates more surface area, and enables


suspended open-air gardens to hang from one level to the
next, unobtrusively.

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Summary of Biomolecules

Summary of Biomolecules

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References:
Yosef Bar Cohen, Biomimetics Biologically
Inspired Technologies, CRC press, 2006.
Voet, Voet and Pratt. Principles of Biochemistry,

3rd edition, 2008, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Garret, R. and Grisham, C., Biochemistry 4th
edition, 2010, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

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