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Resistance training is known as weight or strength training.

It increases our muscle strength, endurance and power.

Muscle strength is increased by putting muscles against our weight, such as dumbbell, barbell.

Programs for physical activity needs aerobic exercise.

Aerobic exercise improves our heart and lung fitness and strength training.

Doing 2 days a week is recommended to strengthen our muscles.

Major muscle groups of our body include: legs, hips, back, chest, abdomen, shoulders and arms.

The benefits of resistance training include:

- Creating strong bones: reduce risk of osteoporosis

- Controlling weight: burn kilojoules
- Building muscle which protects joints from injury: maintain flexibility and balance.
- Boosting stamina: wont fatigue easily
- Improve sense of well-being: improve body image and reduce risk of depression
- Better nights sleep: less insomnia
- Managing chronic conditions: reduce sign of arthritis, back pain, diabetes and obesity.

Power: how quickly force generated in muscles then applied. Main emphasis is speed of contraction.

- Aim to finish exercise fast but utilise correct technique

- 60-80% Weight Resistance (WR)
- 2-10 rep
- 3-6 sets
- Fast
- 3-5min

Strength: ability of muscle to exert force. Speed is not important, comfortable rate with correct

- 80-100% WR
- 2-6 rep
- 3 or 6 sets
- Slow
- 3-5min

Muscular endurance: ability of muscles to resist fatigue. Speed not important, comfortable rate with
correct technique.

- 40-60% WR
- 15-30 rep
- 3-6 sets
- Medium
- 1-2min
Hypertrophy: growth and increase of size of muscle cells. Commonly occurs through physical exercise.

- Vital to eat right combination of calories to encourage muscle gain.

- 70-90% WR
- 6-8 rep
- 3-6 sets
- Slow
- 1-2 min

Greatest improvements occur to individuals who have not weight trained and who have programs
training large muscle groups, using heavier loads, performing multiple sets and participate in training

Well-developed muscles and low body fat are good for fitness, health, self-esteem and personal image.

Women meaning flat stomach and good look arms and shoulders.

Basic principles of muscle building

1. Balanced nutrition program: support low body fat and sufficient protein to build muscle.
2. Exercise activity: complements nutrition program.
3. Muscle building program: targets muscle size and definition for all body parts.

Weight lifting involves application of various types of equipment to improve targeted muscle groups.

Weight liftings is a sport to test strength, power and resistance of our body.

Competitive power lifting consists three lifts back squat, bench press and deadlift

Competitors have 3 attempts to life greatest weight possible in each 3 lifts.

Olympic weightlifting consist 2 competitive lifts, the snatch and the clean and jerk.

Given 3 attempts to lift heaviest weight possible in each lift

Competitor highest total in 2 lifts wins.

Strongman has no standard format

Events include Atlas stones and farmers walk

The competitions incorporate a dead lift and overhead press variation.

Bodybuilding is to display muscles for judging by panel.

Body muscles must not only be large but proportional and unobstructed by body fat.

Muscular system: network of tissues that controls movement both body and within it.

Walking, running, jumping all actions propelling body through space and possible only because of
contraction and relaxation of muscles.

Skeletal muscles produce more subtle movements result in various facial expressions, eye movements
and respiration.
Muscle allow blood to rush through blood vessels, air to fill lungs and assist with moving food through
digestive system.

Contraction: process of shortening muscles.

Skeletal muscle

- 450 skeletal muscles in human body

- Attached to Skelton
- Voluntary muscles

Cardiac Muscle

- In the heart
- Involuntary muscle
- Twitch muscle

Smooth muscle

- Internal organs, blood vessels and bladder

- Involuntary muscles

Back exercises: wide grip pull downs to the front

Muscles targeted: latissimus dorsi and back

Chest exercise: flat barbell bench press

Muscle targeted: Pectorals and chest region

Bicep exercise: standing barbell curl

Muscle targeted: biceps

Triceps exercise: Triceps pulldown

Muscles targeted: Triceps

Shoulder exercises: Seated dumbbell shoulder press

Muscle targeted: Anterior deltoids.

Forms of training:
Isometric training
Isotonic training
Isokinetic training
Isometric training
Joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction
Body building
Few injury, cheap
Decreases coordination, time consuming
Isotonic training
Muscular contractions occur without movement of the involved parts of the body
Pushup, squats
Easier to perform
Safety, need a spotter
Isokinetic training
Used by commercial machines, allowing to set level of machines
Safety mechanism
Storage issue

Resistance actives
Calisthenics: generic activities: start jumps, sit-ups

Free weights: raised and lowered by hand and arms in weightlifting. Dumbbells, barbell

Machine systems: use gravity for resistance and combination of simple machines. Pulley, lever

Aquatic activities: Water exercises with no weight bearing. Aqua walking, swimming

Plyometric: Muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, to increase power. Jump rope,