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Thunder From The

This conference New Perspectives on the
was made possible by the Mongol Empire
generous support of the

government of September 29, 2016

4:00 PM - 6:00 PM
Mongolia. September 30, 2016
9:00 AM - 6:30 PM

180 Doe Library

University of California, Berkeley

The UC Berkeley
Mongolia Initiative
Institute of East Asian Studies
Thunder From The Steppes
New Perspectives on the
Mongol Empire


Reuven Amitai, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Johan Elverskog, Southern Methodist University
Christopher Atwood, University of Pennsylvania Matthew Mosca, University of Washington
Brian Baumann, University of California, Berkeley Roxann Prazniak, University of Oregon
Dashdondog Bayarsaikhan, National University of Mongolia Morris Rossabi, Columbia University
Michal Biran, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Uranchimeg Tsultem, University of California, Berkeley
Bettine Birge, University of Southern California Leonard Van Der Kuijp, Harvard University
Nicola Di Cosmo, Institute for Advanced Study
Introductory Presentation:
Thunder From The Steppes
New Perspectives on the Finding Mongolia: Arts, Artifacts, and Early Historiography
Morris ROSSABI, Columbia University
Mongol Empire

Keynote Address
Environmental Perspectives on the
Mongol Empire:
Thursday, September 29:
What Climate Variability May Tell Us
4:00 PM Opening Session About the Mongol Expansion
Chair: Sanjyot MEHENDALE, Vice Chair, Center for
Buddhist Studies Nicola DI COSMO,
Institute for Advanced Study
Welcome Remarks:

Sanjyot MEHENDALE, Vice Chair, Center for Buddhist


Consul General Erdene SALDAN, Consulate General of

Mongolia in San Francisco

Uranchimeg TSULTEM, History of Art, UC Berkeley

Brian BAUMANN, East Asian Languages and Cultures, UC

Friday, September 30: A Secular Empire? Religions, Estates, and Tax Exemptions in
the Mongol Empire
9:00 AM Contacts, Conflicts, and Transformations Christopher ATWOOD, University of Pennsylvania
Chair: Brian BAUMANN, East Asian Languages and Cultures,
UC Berkeley Were the Mongols Atheists?
The Mongol Middle Kingdom: Religions and Cross-Cultural
Contacts in the Chaghadaid Ulus Tibetan Lamas at the Mongol Court
Michal BIRAN, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Leonard VAN DER KUIJP

The Birth of Mohammed from the Jami al-Tavarikh: A 3:30 PM Break

Lens on the Transformation of 13th/14th Century Eurasia
Roxann PRAZNIAK, University of Oregon 3:45 PM Exploring the Empire: Literature, Art, and
Documents in the Study of the Mongols
The Mongol-Isml Relationship Revisited Chair: Patricia BERGER, History of Art, UC Berkeley
Dashdondog BAYARSAIKHAN, National University of
Mongolia Fearful Symmetry: Heavenly Allegory and the Secret
History of the Mongols
Ilkhanid-Mamluk Relations: Further Thoughts Brian BAUMANN, UC Berkeley
Reuven AMITAI, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Marriage Law in the Age of Khubilai Khan: Challenges of a
Brief introduction to the project "Mobility, Empire and Cross- Multicultural Society
Cultural Contacts in Mongol Eurasia" Bettine BIRGE, University of Southern California
Michal BIRAN, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Portraits of Chinggis Khaan: Ancestral Connections Re-
12:00-1:30 PM Lunch Break Examined
Uranchimeg TSULTEM, UC Berkeley
1:30 PM The Role of Religion
Chair: Jacob DALTON, East Asian Languages and Cultures The Importance of Qing-era Historiography on the Mongol
and South and Southeast Asian Studies, UC Berkeley Empire: Two Perspectives
Matthew MOSCA, University of Washington
2. How and why was the Mamluk-Ilkhanid war resolved
Thunder From The Steppes around 1320?
New Perspectives on the 3. What was the effect of this peace on Ilkhanid politics?

Mongol Empire Discussing these matters might lead to a better understanding

of the Ilkhanate and its untimely demise.

Abstracts A Secular Empire? Religions, Estates, and Tax Exemptions

in the Mongol Empire
Christopher ATWOOD, University of Pennsylvania
Ilkhanid-Mamluk Relations: Further Thoughts
Reuven AMITAI, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Abstract: Since the days of Edward Gibbon, the empire of
Chinggis Khan has been famous for its religious tolerance. In
Abstract: The main foreign policy concern of the leadership contrast to other medieval empires, the Mongol empire treated
of the early Mamluk Sultanate was the Mongol Ilkhanate, clergies of various religions equally and publicly expressed a
which ruled in Iran and the neighboring countries from the late- standard that sounded much like separation of church (or
1250s to 1335. These Mongols, led by Hulegu and his mosque or sangha) and state. This seeming secularism of the
successors known as Ilkhans, were the primary existential Mongol empire seems like a fascinating precursor to the
threat to the new Mamluk state from its first decades until the European colonial empires of the modern era. Indeed as recent
end of hostilities in the early fourteenth century. I have spent research has shown, contemporary concepts of secularism and
much of the last thirty years studying the ongoing struggle for world religions were constructed in the scholarship of late 18th
regional supremacy between the Ilkhanate and the Sultanate. and 19th century European and American exploration and
Less than a year ago, I took the opportunity at a conference in imperialism. One might interpret the Mongol empire as a 13th-
Bonn to review and sum up my thoughts on some of these 14th century version of the same phenomenon, classifying both
matters, mainly looking at the Mamluk side of these relations. religions and their opposite, secularism. Yet it is strange that
In the present lecture, I will concentrate on three aspects that while the names of the different types of clergy are well
more directly concern the Mongols: attested in Mongol exemption decrees, for most of the actual
religions as abstract entities, no Middle Mongolian word has
1. Why were the Ilkhans ultimately unsuccessful in yet been discovered. Nor do we find any word for secularism
defeating the Mamluk Sultans? as a concept. This paper will explore to what degree the
concept of secularism and religion might be applied to the interpretation but also in comparing the texts literary quality
Mongol empire and how the Mongol version of religious with the literature of other world rulers who did the same.
policy may be compared with those found in modern Euro-
American imperial discourse.
The Mongol-Isml Relationship Revisited
Dashdondog BAYARSAIKHAN, National University of
Fearful Symmetry: Heavenly Allegory and the Secret Mongolia
History of the Mongols
Brian BAUMANN, UC Berkeley Abstract: The subject that I would like to discuss relates to the
Isml history of the period of Mongol incursions in 1256.
Abstract: The Secret History of the Mongols has been This article deals with three topics: the Mongols and their
described in its commentaries as a literary masterpiece. True invasions of Alamut; Mongol-Isml relationship before and
as this may be, the quality requisite to justify the claim has yet after invasion; and the issues of the death of Isml leader at
to be fully demonstrated. To date, study of the Secret Historys the hands of the Mongols.
literary aspect has lagged behind other, perhaps prerequisite,
pursuits linguistic, philological, and historical. Whether less The Mongol conquest of Nizr Ismls strongholds was
fundamental than these or not, study of the text as literature has described as the single-most disastrous event in their history,
been vitiated by a lack of hermeneutic method which, unless putting an end to the political aspiration and prominence of the
overcome, will inhibit progress interpreting the text Ismls in the region. This paper discusses the death of
indefinitely. My paper presents a hermeneutic method useful Isml Imam, arguing against the usual, common view of his
for interpreting not only the Secret History but literature in murder.
general and demonstrates its applicability with examples from
the text. The method I discuss derives from the science of
orientation fundamental to establishing order against the void The Mongol Middle Kingdom: Religions and Cross-Cultural
in nature. In this science the relationship between heaven and Contacts in the Chaghadaid Ulus
earth is one of symmetry expressed figuratively as allegory. Michal BIRAN, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This science of symmetry was known to the Mongols, who
took it as the foundation to their world order and the source of Abstract: The Chaghadaid ulus called itself as "Dumdadu
their legitimacy as sovereign lords. Recognition of the presence Monggol Ulus", the Middle Mongol Ulus (rendered in Latin as
of heavenly allegory in the text helps not only in its Medium Imperium and in Arabic as Wasitat al-`iqd, the middle
chain of a necklace), a designation that refers to its location
among the Mongol uluses and later polities. Yet despite this a laissez-faire approach and allowed couples to establish
central location, the Chaghadaids are often left out of the prenuptial contracts that might contradict aspects of traditional
discussions on cross cultural connections in Mongol Eurasia, Chinese marriage law. At other times they attempted to
being over-shadowed by their magnificent and much better- impose a unified set of ethical values on the populace through
documented neighbors, mainly the Yuan dynasty and the the adjudication of marriage law at the local level. Similarly,
Ilkhanate. during some periods, emperors allowed different laws to apply
to different ethnic or cultural groups, however unclearly
This paper, originating in my chapter on the Chaghadaids for defined. When this proved unworkable, they tried to unify
the forthcoming The Cambridge History of the Mongol Empire, marriage law for all peoples within Yuan territory, but this
and based on a large variety of multi-lingual literary sources as generated a flood of lawsuits by Chinese and other plaintiffs
well as on numismatic and archaeological studies, analyzes a who found laws derived from Mongol steppe customs to be
few aspects of the complex culture of Mongol Central Asia. It abhorrent. In their struggle to reconcile competing values and
highlights the relations between Tibetan Buddhism, Islam and different cultural and religious practices, the Mongol emperors
Christianity in the Chaghadaid realm; the mobile court as a of China faced challenges not unlike those faced by the courts
locus for cross-cultural contacts; and trade networks and their in legal conflicts over marriage law in the US today.
connections to the Central Asian diasporas all over Eurasia.

Environmental Perspectives on the Mongol Empire: What

Marriage Law in the Age of Khubilai Khan: Challenges of Climate Variability May Tell Us About the Mongol
Governing a Polyethnic Empire Expansion
Bettine BIRGE, University of Southern California Nicola DI COSMO, Institute for Advanced Study

Abstract: The Mongol conquest of China in the thirteenth Abstract: Theories of environmental change due to climate
century and Khubilai Khans founding of the Yuan dynasty have been put forward in the past to explain the Mongol
brought together under one government people of vastly conquest have generally been received with skepticism due to
different languages, religions, social customs, and legal the low quality of the data and to methodological
traditions. In their attempt to establish their rule over this shortcomings. Today high-definition climate data provides a
diverse and polyethnic world, Khubilai and the great khans key to more accurate interpretations of the relationship between
who succeeded him confronted fundamental questions, such as climate-induced environmental changes and historical events.
the role of government in regulating marriage and family life Therefore, historians may be able to gain a better appreciation
and what laws should apply to what people. At times they took
of the effects that climate may have had on the rise of Mongol knowledge, and other forms of information circulated and
power and on its imperial expansion. interacted to greatly expand historical knowledge of the
Mongol conquests. This paper considers this period from two
This talk will take into consideration scientific approaches to perspectives, the vantage of historians in the Qing, and in the
climate change in the early thirteenth century and discuss twentieth century. It examines differences in what historians in
ecological variability, especially in relation to the availability those two eras regarded as the most important historiographical
of resources and military operations of the Mongols. Special breakthroughs of the period between 1636 and 1912, and what
attention will be paid to questions of steppe ecology and to the these differences reveal about the development of
pros and cons of the use of scientific data as historical sources. historiography on the Mongol Empire.

Were the Mongols Atheists? The Birth of Mohammed from the Jami al-Tavarikh: A
Johan ELVERSKOG, Southern Methodist University Lens on the Transformation of 13th/14th Century Eurasia
Roxann PRAZNIAK, University of Oregon
Abstract: This paper aims to explore recent scholarship on the
religious policies and practices of the Mongols during the Abstract: A case for the centrality of the Mongol Empire in the
empire period in order to engage with broader scholarly 13th/14th century transformation of Eurasia can be seen through
debates about categories such as religion, secularism, and the illustrated world history of Rashid al-Dins Jami al-
atheism. Tavarikh, an innovative creation of the imperial workshops of
Tabriz, Ilkhanate capital of the Iranian portion of the Mongol
Empire. This paper takes as its focus the illustration of The
The Importance of Qing-era Historiography on the Mongol Birth of Mohammed to explore briefly the layers of cultural
Empire: Two Perspectives and political exchange that circulated among Eurasian societies
Matthew MOSCA, University of Washington during the Mongol era, resulting in the expansion of social and
intellectual conceptual boundaries that ultimately redefined
Abstract: The period of the Qing Empire (1636-1912) was civilizational agendas.
particularly formative for the historiography of the Mongol
Empire. This was due largely to unprecedented contact
between China and Inner Asia within the Qing Empire, and
between the Qing Empire and other parts of Eurasia. Under
these conditions, sources, translations, maps, linguistic
Finding Mongolia: Arts, Artifacts, and Early Historiography ranking Yuan-court government official and a senior member
Morris ROSSABI, Columbia University of Hanlin Academy () who was known for his
achievements during his service. Whereas Weidner was the
Abstract: This presentation starts with a brief consideration of first scholar to reveal the authorship of this portrait in her Ph.D.
the American pioneers of research on Mongolian history and dissertation at UC Berkeley in 1982, an Inner Mongolian
culture and their invaluable scholarly contributions, as well as historian Saysiyal (1987) specifically mentioned the existence
their efforts to promote Mongolian studies in the U.S. It of two portraits, identical in imagery, one in Taipei and the
describes the fields they focused on, which has led to the other one in Beijing. The scholars agree that Qorosun was a
present status of knowledge about the Mongols. The lecture Mongol, and the deviations of this portrait from Chinese
then offers a glimpse of the achievements of research on the imperial images before and after Yuan are explicit. How can
Mongols to the present. Illustrations will provide a partial we understand these deviations in relation to Mongol statues of
assessment of the value of the arts and material culture in stonemen from Yuan period which Isabelle Charleux (2010)
understanding Mongolian history and culture. sees as ongon? How were the Chinggis Khaan portraits
different from, and similar to ongon? Offering another reading
of these portraits, this paper will discuss how these images
Portraits of Chinggis Khaan: Ancestral Connections Re- were important to the establishment of portraiture as an
Examined ancestral connection for preservation of Mongol identity not
Uranchimeg TSULTEM, UC Berkeley only in modern days (Alicia Campi 2006) but also historically,
both within and outside of modern political borders of
Abstract: A well-known thirteenth-century portrait of Chinggis Mongolia.
Khaan (1162?-1227) is housed at the Taipei Palace Museum
and have been published in numerous occasions in mostly
historical books. The portrait is the major image of the Great Tibetan Lamas at the Mongol Court
Khaan made closer to his lifetime during the Yuan dynasty. Leonard VAN DER KUIJP, Harvard University
Lesser attention, however, was given to the painting from the
perspective of portraiture and art-historical analysis. Unavailable.

Several scholars, including Marsha Weidner, Saysiyal, Nyam-

Osoryn Tsultem, Shang Gang (), and Isabelle Charleux,
have agreed that the portrait of Chinggis Khaan is the work by
Ho li Huo Sun or Qorosun ( fl. 1268-1303), a high
Biographies Christopher Atwood is Professor of Mongolian and Late
Imperial/Early Modern Chinese History at the University of
Pennsylvania. Previously, Atwood taught for two decades at
Reuven Amitai is Eliyahu Elath Professor for Muslim History Indiana University, serving as department chair and
at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and studies the history interim director of the Center for Languages of the Central
of the pre-modern Islamic world and the adjacent areas. He is Asian Region. He received his by A.B. from Harvard
interested in the medieval history of the Turks and Mongols, University in 1986 and PhD from Indiana University-
especially the history of the Ilkhanate; the Mamluk Sultanate of Bloomington in 1994. He has been a visiting scholar at the
Egypt and Syria; the Crusades in the Levant and Muslim Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton), Peking
responses; the military history of the medieval Middle East University, Minpaku, Inner Mongolia University, and Inner
World; conversion to Islam; late medieval Arabic epigraphy; Mongolia Normal University, and served as academic
and, Palestine in the late medieval period. Until the end of consultant for the History Department of Mongolia National
September 2016 he is a senior fellow at the Annemarie University.
Schimmel Kolleg: History and Society during the Mamluk Era
(1250-1517). Atwoods research has centered on the relation of culture
(especially history writing and religion) and the formation
His publications include Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk- of political power in the Mongolia-Chinese border area. His
Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281 (Cambridge University Press, 1995); publications include the Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the
The Mongols in the Islamic Lands: Studies in the History of the Mongol Empire, Young Mongols and Vigilantes in Inner
Ilkhanate (Ashgate, 2007); and Holy War and Rapprochement: Mongolia Interregnum Decades, 1911-1931, and translations
Studies in the Relations between the Mamluk Sultanate and the of Chinese and Mongolian sources for class use. Major
Mongol Ilkhanate (1260-1335) (Brepols, 2013). He has co- current projects include: 1) the multi-ethnic and multi-
edited The Mongol Empire and its Legacy (with David lingual historiography of the Mongol Yuan dynasty; 2) the
Morgan, Brill, 1999); Mongols, Turks and Others: Eurasian
Mongol empire, its religious and personnel policy, and the
Nomads and Their Sedentary Neighbors (with Michal Biran,
early modern. He is also working on a Source of
Brill, 2005); Nomads as Agents of Cultural Change: The
Mongolian Tradition reader (with Johan Elverskog) and a
Mongols and Their Eurasian Predecessors (with Michal Biran,
new translation of the Secret History of the Mongols.
University of Hawaii Press, 2015). A forthcoming volume,
Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean,
11th to 15th Centuries, co-edited with Christoph Cluse, will be
published by Brepols.
Brian Baumann is the Mongolian language professor at UC Asian Studies and in the Department of Islamic and Middle
Berkeley's Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures. Eastern Studies. Currently she is the director of The Louis
He specializes in Mongolian Buddhist science (astrology, Frieberg Center for East Asian Studies at the Hebrew
astronomy, and mathematics), and is fluent in Mongolian as University of Jerusalem, where she also leads the ERC-funded
well as in reading Chinese (modern and classical), old Turkic, project Mobility, Empire and Cross-Cultural Contacts in
Manchu and Tibetan. He holds a Ph.D. in Mongolian Studies Mongol Eurasia. She has published extensively on Mongol
from Indiana University. His pursuit of Mongolian Studies and Pre-Mongol Central Asia; the Mongol Empire; nomadism;
stems from a two-year tenure in Mongolia with the Peace and cross-cultural contacts between China and the Islamic
Corps, from 1991 to 1993. His dissertation concerns a specific world. Her books include Qaidu and the Rise of the
text, a manual of Mongolian Buddhist astral science, which he Independent Mongol State in Central Asia (Curzon, 1997), The
transcribes, translates, and analyses in terms of the art and Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China
science to the making of an almanac and the function almanacs and the Islamic World (Cambridge University Press, 2005,
serve in Mongolian Buddhist tradition. Currently he is working 2008) and Chinggis Khan (Oxford: OneWorld Publications,
on a book project concerning a Mongolian verse treatise on 2007). She has co-edited (with Reuven Amitai) Mongols, Turks
salvation in Sa skya pa tradition. and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World
(Leiden: Brill, 2005) and Eurasian Nomads As Agents of
Cultural Change (Honolulu: Hawaii University Press, 2015).
Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog holds MSt in Armenian Studies Together with Hodong Kim she is now editing The Cambridge
(University of Oxford, UK) and DPhil in Oriental Studies History of the Mongol Empire (2 volumes) as well as working
(University of Oxford, UK). At present, she is a lecturer at the on a book on The Cultural History of Ilkhanid Baghdad.
National University of Mongolia, Department of History,
teaching a History of Mongol Empire and Central Asia. She is
a part of an international scholarly project of the Cambridge Bettine Birge is a professor in the department of East Asian
History of Mongol Empire (eds. Michal Biran and Kim Languages and Cultures with a joint appointment in History at
Hogong). the University of Southern California. She received her B.A.
from Princeton, an M.A. from Cambridge, where she studied as
a Marshall scholar, and her PhD from Columbia University.
Michal Biran is a historian of Inner Asia and a member of the Her research focuses on Chinese and Inner Asian social and
Israeli Academy of Science and Humanities. She is The Max cultural history, especially during the Mongol-Yuan dynasty
and Sophie Mydans Foundation Professor in the Humanities at (1260-1368). Her current interests include marriage law,
the Hebrew University, where she teaches in the Department of gender relations, and constructions of ethnic identity, with
particular focus on how these were influenced by Mongol rule University, and was a visiting professor at New York
in China. University-Shanghai in the Spring, 2015.

She is the author of Women, Property, and Confucian Reaction His research interests are in the history of Chinese and Inner
in Sung and Yan China (Cambridge University Press, 2002) Asian frontiers from the ancient to the modern periods, history
and Marriage and the Law in the Age of Khubilai Khan: Cases of nomadic peoples, and history of the Qin dynasty. His books
from the Yuan dianzhang (Harvard University Press, include Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic
forthcoming 2017) as well as numerous articles. She is also a Power in East Asian History (Cambridge), Manchu-Mongol
contributor to the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal Relations on the Eve of the Qing Conquest (Brill), The Diary of
History and the Cambridge History of the Mongol Empire. a Manchu Soldier in Seventeenth Century China (Routledge).
Currently, she is working on a book titled, Gender, Ethnicity, He has also edited the following books: Military Culture in
and Social Order in China under Mongol Rule. Her research Imperial China (Harvard), The Cambridge History of Inner
has been funded by the National Endowment for the Asia (Cambridge), Warfare in Inner Asian History (Brill), etc.
Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies, the His most recent research focuses on the use of palaeoscientific
Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation, the Andrew Mellon data as historical sources, with special reference to the history
Foundation, and the Fulbright program at the U.S. Department of China, Central Asia, and Mongolia. He has been working
of State. on several articles that integrate high-resolution palaeoclimatic
data with historical analysis.
Dr. Birge is the English-language editor of the trilingual
journal Studies in Chinese History (Chgoku shigaku,
Zhongguo shixue), published in Tokyo, and she serves on the Johan Elverskog is Altshuler University Distinguished
editorial board of the Journal of Song-Yuan Studies. Teaching Professor and Professor of Religious Studies at
Southern Methodist University. He is the author and editor of
Nicola di Cosmo is the Henry Luce Foundation Professor of eight books on the religious history of China and Inner Asia,
East Asian Studies at the Institute for Advanced Study, School which have won several awards and also been translated into
of Historical Studies (Princeton, USA). He holds a PhD from Chinese, Korean, and Russian. All of this work focuses on
Indiana University, and a BA from the University of Venice historical interactions across Asia.
(Italy). He is also Visiting Professor of East Asian Studies at
Princeton University. Professor Di Cosmo has previously
taught at Harvard University and at the University of Matthew W. Mosca is a historian of the Qing Empire,
Canterbury (New Zealand). He lectures at Princeton concentrating on its political and intellectual history. After
receiving his PhD (Harvard, 2008), he has held fellowships at Reconfiguring Visual Culture, for a conference on Mobility
the Center for Chinese Studies at UC Berkeley, the Hong Kong and Transformations: Economic and Cultural Exchange in
Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences at the Mongol Eurasia at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, June
University of Hong Kong, and the Institute for Advanced 29-July 5, 2014, and Maragha Observatory: A Star in the
Study. After teaching at the College of William & Mary, he is Constellation of Eurasian Scientific Translations, for Found in
currently assistant professor at the University of Washington, Translation: World History of Science Conference, University
with a joint appointment in the History Department and the of Pittsburgh, October 10-12, 2015. Her current book project
Jackson School for International Studies. In addition to his is Sudden Appearances: Visuality and Belief in Mongol
monograph, From Frontier Policy to Foreign Policy: The Eurasia.
Question of India and the Transformation of Geopolitics in
Qing China (Stanford, 2013), he has published on Qing
geographic worldviews and foreign relations. He is currently Morris Rossabi born in Alexandria, Egypt, received his Ph.D.
researching the historiography of the Mongol Empire in the at Columbia University and has taught Mongolian and Chinese
Qing period. history at Columbia and at the City University of New
York. Author of Khubilai Khan, Modern Mongolia, and
Voyager from Xanadu, and other scholarly books, he has also
Roxann Prazniak is an Associate Professor of History, Robert written such other works as The Mongols: A Very Short
D. Clark Honors College, University of Oregon. She is the Introduction and The Mongols and Global History to introduce
author of Dialogues Across Civilizations: Sketches in World Mongol history to a larger audience. He has written chapters
History from the Chinese and European Experiences (1996) on the Mongols and Inner Asia for three volumes of the
and Of Camel Kings and Other Things: Rural Rebels Against Cambridge History of China and two chapters for the
Modernity in Late Imperial China (1999). She has published forthcoming Cambridge History of the Mongol Empire. His
numerous articles including Siena on the Silk Roads: current research focuses on Mongolian posters, the Yuan
Ambrogio Lorenzetti and the Mongol Global Century [1250- maritime administration, and a book on global history, 1150-
1350], Journal of World History (2010), Ilkhanid Buddhism: 1400 for Oxford University Press. As a former Chair of the
Traces of a Passage in Eurasian History, Comparative Studies Committee on Arts and Culture for the Soros Foundation, he
in Society and History (2014), and Artistic Exchange and the received an honorary doctorate from the National University of
Mongol Empire for the forthcoming Cambridge History of the Mongolia.
Mongol Empire (2017). She recently presented papers on
Sengge Ragi (1283-1331) and the Mahaprajapati scroll by
Wang Zhenpeng (1275-1330): Eurasian Positionality in
Uranchimeg (Orna) Tsultem is a scholar of Mongolian art Leonard van der Kuijp is professor of Tibetan and
and culture. She received her Ph.D. in History of Art from UC Himalayan Studies and chairs the Committee on Inner Asian
Berkeley in December 2009. She served as an assistant and Altaic Studies at Harvard University. Best known for his
professor at the Mongolian University of Arts and Culture from studies of Buddhist epistemology, he is the author of numerous
1995 to 2002, associate professor at National University of works on Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism. Recent publications
Mongolia from 2012 to 2013, and as a James Gray Lecturer at include An Early Tibetan Survey of Buddhist Literature (Vol.
UC Berkeley from 2010 to 2014. She also taught at Yonsei 64, Harvard Oriental Series, 2008), coauthored with Kurtis R.
University in South Korea from 2015 to 2016. She has curated Schaeffer, and In Search of Dharma: Indian and Ceylonese
Mongolian art exhibitions internationally at Kasumi Center Travelers in Fifteenth Century Tibet (Wisdom, 2009). Van der
(Tsukuba, Japan, 1997); E & J Frankel Gallery (New York, Kuijps research focuses primarily on the Indo-Tibetan
NY, 2000); Frauen Museum (Bonn, Germany, 2001); HanArt Buddhist thought, Tibetan Buddhist intellectual history,
Gallery (Hong Kong, 2011); 9th Shanghai Biennale (2012), and Tibetan Buddhism, and premodern Sino-Tibetan and Tibeto-
56th Venice Biennale (2015). Mongol political and religious relations. Van der Kuijp
received his Master's degree at the University of Saskatchewan
Dr. Tsultems publications include four books in Mongolia, in Saskatoon, Canada, and his doctorate at the University of
exhibition catalog essays for two museums in Finland (2010- Hamburg in Germany. He joined the faculty at Harvard in
11); Fukuoka Asian Art Museum (1999, 2012); Ethnography 1995. He is the former chair of the Department of Sanskrit and
Museum in Warsaw, Poland (2011). Her academic articles Indian Studies (now the Department of South Asian Studies).
were published in Japanese in Arena (Kyoto University, 2012), In 1993 van der Kuijp received the MacArthur Fellowship for
Vesna Wallace ed., Buddhism in Mongolian History, Culture "pioneering contributions to the study of Tibetan epistemology,
and Society (Oxford University Press, 2015), Orientations biography and poetry." Van der Kuijp worked with the Nepal
(Hong Kong, 2016), Mongolian Studies (Bloomington: Research Center of the Humboldt University of Berlin and the
Mongolia Society, 2013) and forthcoming in Cross Currents in University of Washington in Seattle. In 1999, he founded the
Fall 2016. Dr. Tsultem was a Kluge Fellow at the Library of Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center (TBRC), together with E.
Congress in 2013, and received a Collaborative Research Gene Smith.
Award from the American Council of Learned Societies/Ho
Foundation during 2014 to 2015. She is currently working on
two book manuscripts on Mongolian Buddhist art.