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# MS221/Specimen

and Solutions

Course Examination

Exploring Mathematics

Time allowed: 3 hours

There are TWO parts to this paper.

In Part 1, you should attempt as many questions as you can.

In Part 2, credit will be given for answers to no more than TWO

questions. If you submit attempts to more than two questions in

Part 2, your best two scores will count towards your result.

Your answers to each part should be written in the answer books

provided. You should start your answer to each question on a new

page. You are advised not to cross through any work until you have

replaced it with another solution to the same question.

Part 1 of the examination carries 72% of the available marks, and

Part 2 carries 28%. In the examiners’ opinion, most candidates would

make best use of their time by ﬁnishing as much as they can of Part 1

before starting Part 2.

In most questions, some marks will be awarded for

intermediate steps in the working. A correct answer not

supported by working – for example, one taken from a

calculator program – may not receive full credit.

At the end of the examination

Check that you have written your personal identiﬁer and examination

number on each answer book used. Failure to do so will mean

that your work cannot be identiﬁed.

Put all your used answer books and your question paper together,

with your signed desk record on top. Fix them all together with the

fastener provided.

c Copyright � 2008 The Open University SUP 98689 6

7.1

PART 1

Instructions

(i) You should attempt as many questions as you can in this part of

the examination.

(ii) Part 1 carries 72% of the available examination marks (6% of the

marks to each question). The allocation of marks to parts of

questions is shown on the right.

(iii) You should record your answers to each question in the answer

book(s) provided, beginning each question on a new page. You are

strongly advised to show all your working, including any rough

working.

Question 1

Find a closed form for the sequence given by the following recurrence

system:

u

0

= 3, u

1

= −2, u

n+2

= 3u

n+1

+ 4u

n

(n = 0, 1, 2, . . .). [6]

Question 2

This question concerns the curve with equation

3x

2

+ 4y

2

= 24.

(a) Show that the curve is a conic in standard position. [2]

(b) Find the foci, directrices and eccentricity of this conic. [2]

(c) Sketch the conic, showing the foci and directrices, and giving the

coordinates of the points at which it meets the axes. [2]

Question 3

(a) (i) Write down the rules for the isometries t

3,−2

and q

π/4

. [1]

(ii) Determine the rule for the composite isometry

f = q

π/4

◦ t

3,−2

. [2]

1

(b) Let θ be the angle in the interval

2

π, π for which sin θ =

1

.

5

Determine the exact value of sin(2θ). [3]

MS221/Sp ecimen 2

Question 4

(a) Sketch, on the same axes, the graphs of y = x and y = f(x),

where

f(x) = x

2

− x − 3.

The scale on each axis should run from −5 to 10. [2]

(b) Determine algebraically the ﬁxed points of f. [2]

(c) Use graphical iteration to determine the long-term behaviour of

the iteration sequence given by

2

x

n+1

= x − x

n

− 3 (n = 0, 1, 2, . . .)

n

when x

0

= 1. This may be done on the graph drawn for part (a). [2]

Question 5

(a) Find the matrices Q

π/3

and R

π/4

that represent the linear

transformations q

π/3

and r

π/4

, respectively, leaving your answers

in surd form. [2]

r

(b) Find the matrices of the linear transformations q

π/3

◦ r

π/4

and

π/4

◦ q

π/3

, being careful to identify which is which in your answer. [4]

Question 6

Let f be the linear transformation that maps (1, 0) to (1, 3) and (0, 1)

to (−1, 2). Also, let g be the linear transformation that maps (1, 0) to

(−2, 1) and (0, 1) to (1, 2).

(a) Write down the matrices A and B that represent f and g,

respectively. [2]

(b) Find the matrix of the linear transformation that maps (1, 3) to

(−2, 1) and (−1, 2) to (1, 2). [4]

Question 7

Diﬀerentiate each of the following functions. (There is no need to

simplify your answers.)

ln(x − 1)

1

(a) f(x) = (x ∈ (1,

2

π)) [3]

cos x

3

x 2

(b) g(x) = − (x ∈ R, x > 2) [3]

2 x

3

MS221/Specimen TURN OVER 3

Question 8

(a) Find the indeﬁnite integral

2

sec (4x) dx. [3]

(b) Find the indeﬁnite integral

sin x

dx,

2 + cos x

using the substitution u = 2 + cos x. [3]

Question 9

Using standard Taylor series given in the Handbook, ﬁnd the Taylor

series about 0 for each of the following functions, as far as the fourth

non-zero term.

1

(a) f (x) = [3]

1 + x

3

(b) g(x) = xe

−3x

[3]

Question 10

(a) Express the complex number below in the exponential form re

iθ

,

where θ is the principal value of the argument:

√ √

2 2 − 2 2 i. [3]

(b) Hence ﬁnd two complex numbers z that satisfy the equation

√ √

z

2

= 2 2 − 2 2 i,

giving your answers in the form re

iθ

. [3]

Question 11

(a) Use Euclid’s Algorithm to ﬁnd the multiplicative inverse of 22

in Z

57

. [5]

(b) Give an example of an integer in Z

57

, other than 0, which has no

multiplicative inverse in Z

57

. [1]

MS221/Sp ecimen 4

Question 12

Consider the group (G, ∗) whose incomplete Cayley table is given

below.

∗

p

q

r

s

t

u

p q r s t u

q s t p u r

s p u q r t

u t s r q p

p q r s t u

r u t s q

t r q u p s

(a) Which group element is equal to t ∗ r? [1]

(b) What is the identity element of G? Give a brief reason for your

answer. [3]

(c) All groups of order 6 are isomorphic to either (Z

6

, +

6

) or

(S(), ◦). To which of these is (G, ∗) isomorphic? Give a brief

reason for your answer. [2]

MS221/Specimen TURN OVER 5

PART 2

Instructions

(i) Credit will be given for answers to no more than TWO questions

from this part of the examination.

(ii) Each question in this part carries 14% of the total marks for the

examination.

(iii) You may answer the questions in any order. Write your answers

in the answer book(s) provided, beginning each question on a new

page.

(iv) Show all your working.

Question 13

In this question, L is the quadratic curve with equation

34x

2

− 24xy + 41y

2

= 50.

(a) Show that L is r

θ

(K), where K is the ellipse

1

x

2

+ y

2

= 1 and

2

θ 37

◦

. [10]

(b) Draw a sketch of the curve L, and indicate the equations of the

lines that are its axes of symmetry. [4]

Question 14

3 1

(a) Find the eigenvalues and eigenlines of the matrix A = .

6 4

Write down one eigenvector for each eigenline. [4]

(b) Write down a matrix P and a diagonal matrix D such that

A = PDP

−1

. [2]

(c) Use your answer to part (b) to ﬁnd the matrix A

4

. [5]

(d) Describe in words the long-term behaviour of the iteration

sequence generated by A with initial point

(i) (1, −2); (ii) (1, 1). [3]

MS221/Sp ecimen 6

Question 15

(a) (i) By considering ln x as the product (ln x) ×1, and using

integration by parts, show that

ln xdx = x(ln x −1) + c,

where c is an arbitrary constant. [4]

(ii) Hence ﬁnd the area under the graph of the function

f (x) = ln x from x = 1 to x = 3, giving your answer to

3 decimal places. [3]

(b) (i) Using the result of part (a)(i), ﬁnd the indeﬁnite integral

(ln x)

2

dx. [4]

(ii) Hence ﬁnd the volume of revolution obtained when the region

under the graph of the function f (x) = ln x, from x = 1 to

x = 3, is rotated about the x-axis. Give your answer to

3 decimal places. [3]

Question 16

(a) In this part of the question, m and n are integers.

Proposition (A) is as follows:

If 2m

2

+ n

2

is divisible by 9, then m and n are both

divisible by 3. (A)

Proposition (B) is the converse of proposition (A).

One of propositions (A) and (B) is true, and the other is false.

(i) Write down a statement of proposition (B). [1]

(ii) State which of propositions (A) and (B) is false, and give a

counter-example to demonstrate this. [3]

(iii) Give a proof that the remaining proposition is true. [4]

(b) Prove, using mathematical induction, that

1 1 1 1 n

+ + + · · · + =

1 ×2 2 ×3 3 ×4 n(n + 1) n + 1

for all positive integers n. [6]

[END OF QUESTION PAPER]

MS221/Sp ecimen 7

MS221/Sp ecimen 8

Solutions

PART 1

Comment You should attempt all questions in this part.

Question 1

We solve the auxiliary equation

r

2

− 3r − 4 = 0 [1 for equation]

or (r − 4)(r + 1) = 0,

so r = 4 or r = −1. [1 for roots]

The general solution is

u

n

= A4

n

+ B(−1)

n

, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . . [1 for method]

To ﬁnd A and B we use the ﬁrst two terms:

u

0

= 3 = A + B,

u

1

= −2 = 4A− B.

1 14

So 5A = 1, hence A =

5

, and B = . [2 for constants]

5

The required closed form is

1

4

n

+

14

u

n

=

5 5

(−1)

n

, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . . [1 for closed form]

Comment See Handbook page 45

In the auxiliary equation, p = 3 and q = 4 (see Handbook). In the last line of the

solution, notice the need to contain −1 in brackets, to avoid any confusion when

powers of it are taken. (Odd powers will give −1, even powers will give +1.)

Question 2

(a) Dividing throughout by 24 gives

2 2

x

+

y

= 1. [1 for method]

8 6

√ √

This is the equation of an ellipse in standard position with a = 8 = 2 2

√

and b = 6. [1 for constants]

(b) The eccentricity is e = 1 − b

2

/a

2

= 1 − 6/8 =

1

. [1 for eccentricity]

2

√

So the foci are at (±ae, 0) = (± 2, 0),

1

for foci] [

2

and the directrices are x = ±a/e, that is, x = ±4 2.

1

for directrices]

√

[

2

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 9

√ √ √

(c) Since, to three signiﬁcant ﬁgures, 2 = 1.41, 2 2 = 2.83, 4 2 = 5.66 and

√

6 = 2.45, the diagram is as follows. [2 for sketch]

x = -4

(- (

x = 4

(2 (-2

2

,0) 2

,0) 2 ,0) 2

,0) 2

2

y

x

(0,- 6

)

(0, 6

)

Comment See Handbook page 46

Always divide through by a number that will give the value 1 on the right-hand

side. Compare the result with the table of standard conics in the Handbook, which

also gives the coordinates of the foci and the equations of the directrices for conics

in standard position.

Question 3

1

2

1

2

]

]

(a) (i) t

3,−2

: (x, y) −→(x + 3, y − 2), [

q

π/4

: (x, y) −→(y, x). [

(ii) From part (i), q

π/4

◦ t

3,−2

: (x, y) −→(y − 2, x + 3). [2]

(b) Using cos

2

θ + sin

2

θ = 1 from the Handbook,

2

2

θ = 1 −

1

=

24

[

25

1

2

] cos

5

so

√

24 2 1

2

6. [ ] cos θ = ± = ±

25 5

1

2

π, π , cos θ is negative, so Since θ is in the interval

√

cos θ = −

Then

2

5

1

6. [ ]

]

2

1

2

sin(2θ) = 2 sin θ cos θ (from the Handbook) [

√

1 2

= 2 × 6 × −

5 5

√

= −

4

25

6. [1]

Comment See Handbook page 48

(a) (i) See the Handbook for general rules. Do not forget to substitute

numerical values for the trigonometric ratios in the rule for q

θ

.

(ii) Remember that with a composite isometry, it is the isometry on the right

that is carried out ﬁrst, not that on the left.

(b) Always check which quadrant contains the angle. This will aﬀect the signs of

the trigonometric ratios.

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 10

Question 4

(a) First we write f (x) in completed-square form:

f (x) = x

2

− x − 3

2

−

13

=

x −

1

2

−

1

− 3 = x −

1

2 4

. [1 for completed-square form]

2 4

y

0

10

y = f(x)

y = x

5

1

[

2

for shape of parabola]

1

[

2

for position]

5 5 10

x

(0, 3)

1 13

(

,

4

)

2

5

(b) The ﬁxed point equation is

x

2

− x − 3 = x,

that is,

x

2

− 2x − 3 = 0 [1 for equation]

or (x − 3)(x + 1) = 0.

So the ﬁxed points are 3 and −1. [1 for roots]

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 11

(c)

y

x

1

5

-5

-5

0

5

10

[1 ]

10

for trace

So, in the long term, the sequence tends to inﬁnity. [1 for result]

Comment See Handbook pages 41, 56, 37

(a) It is worth completing the square to ﬁnd the vertex of the parabola before

trying to sketch it. The examiners are looking for a sketch (NOT plotting) of

a parabola, with a correctly positioned axis of symmetry and with its vertex at

the correct point.

(b) If you cannot see the factors of the ﬁxed point equation immediately, it is

acceptable to use the formula for solving a quadratic equation.

(c) Remember that you do NOT need to re-draw the sketch.

Question 5

3

√

2π

3

sin

2π

3

1

2

− cos

2

(a) [1] Q

π/3

= = √ ,

2π

3

− cos

2π

3

sin

1

2

3

2

1

√

−

1

√ π

cos(

4

π

sin( −

4

) )

2 2

[1] R

π/4

= = .

π

sin(

4

π

cos(

4

2

1

√

2

1

√

) )

(b) q

π/3

◦ r

π/4

has matrix

√

⎛

1

√

−

1

√ 3 1

−

2 2 2 2

Q

π/3

R

π/4

= √

2

1

√

2

1

√ 1

2

3

2

√ √ ⎞

⎠

2

√

√

2 2

√

√

2

3−1 1+ 3

[2] = .

⎝

2

− 1+ 1

√

2 2

√

2

3 3

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 12

r

π/4

◦ q

π/3

has matrix

√

1

√

−

√

1

−

1 3

2 2 2

√ R

π/4

Q

π/3

=

√

2

1

√

1

3 1

2 2 2 2

⎛ √ √ ⎞

−1− 3 3−1

√ √

2 2 2 2

⎝

√ = √

⎠

. [2]

3−1 3+1

√ √

2 2 2 2

Comment See Handbook pages 59, 60

(a) Remember that surd form means leaving square root signs in the answers; do

not convert to decimals.

(b) It is important to remember to write the matrices down in the order in which

the linear transformations are written. In general, matrix multiplication is

not commutative (i.e. the result can be diﬀerent if the matrices are written

down in reverse order).

Question 6

1 −1

(a) A =

2

, [1]

3

−2 1

B =

1 2

. [1]

(b) The required linear transformation is g ◦ f

−1

, which has

matrix BA

−1

. [1 for method]

A

−1

=

1

5

2 1

−3 1

, [2 for inverse matrix]

so

BA

−1

=

1

5

−2 1

1 2

2 1

−3 1

=

1

5

−7

−4

−1

3

. [1 for product]

Comment

See Handbook page 60

(a) Since the images of the unit vectors

1

0

and

0

1

are known, the matrices

can be written down directly.

(b) Notice that the coordinates given are the images under the linear

transformations f and g in part (a). It is ﬁrst necessary to apply f

−1

to

transform (1, 3) and (−1, 2) back to (1, 0) and (0, 1), respectively, so that g

can be applied. Be sure to divide by the determinant of the matrix A when

ﬁnding A

−1

.

Question 7

(a) f (x) =

ln(x − 1)

gives [1 for method]

cos x

f

(x) =

(x − 1)

−1

cos x + ln(x − 1) sin x

cos

2

x

, [2 for diﬀerentiations]

using the Quotient Rule and the Composite Rule (for ln(x − 1)).

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 13

3

x 2

1/2

(b) g(x) = −

x

3

gives [1 for method]

2

2

−1/2

6

3

3x

2

1

x

g

(x) =

2 2

−

x

3

2

+

x

4

, [1 for

1

2

( )

−1/2

]

using the Composite Rule. [1 for derivative of bracket]

Comment See Handbook page 65

In terms of Leibniz notation:

(a) apply the Quotient Rule with v = cos x and u = ln(x −1);

1/2

(b) apply the Composite Rule, with u = x

3

/2 −2/x

3

and y = u .

Question 8

(a) The integral is [1 for method]

1

sec

2

(4x) dx =

4

tan(4x) + c, [2 for integral]

using either inspection (from the table of integrals in the Handbook) or

integration by substitution (with u = 4x).

(b) Taking u = 2 + cos x, we have du/dx = −sin x, and so

sin x 1

dx = − du [1 for substitution]

2 + cos x u

= −ln u + c [1 for integration]

= c −ln(2 + cos x). [1 for back-substitution]

Comment See Handbook pages 68, 70

(a) Use the table of indeﬁnite integrals. Remember to add an arbitrary constant.

du

(b) Do not forget to ‘substitute du for dx’, express the ﬁnal answer in terms

dx

of x, and include a constant c.

Question 9

(a) From the Handbook,

1

= 1 + x + x

2

+ x

3

+ · · · .

1 −x

Replacing x by −x

3

gives [1 for method]

1

= 1 −x

3

+ (−x

3

)

2

+ (−x

3

)

3

+ · · · [1 for correct handling of −ve signs]

1 + x

3

= 1 −x

3

+ x

6

−x

9

+ · · · . [1 for answer]

(b) Using the series for e

x

from the Handbook, and putting −3x

in place of x, gives [1 for method]

−3x

2

(−3x)

2

+

1

xe = x 1 −3x +

1

6

(−3x)

3

+ · · ·

2

+

9

= x −3x

2

x

3

−

9

x

4

+ · · · . [2 for algebra]

2

Comment See Handbook page 74

1

(a) This is obtained from the Taylor series expansion of . Replace x

1 −x

by −x

3

, which should be enclosed in brackets to avoid errors in sign.

(b) First write down the Taylor series expansion for e

x

. Then substitute −3x, in

brackets, for x. Notice that the powers apply to both the −3 and x, so that

the terms will alternate in sign. Finally, multiply each term by x.

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 14

Question 10

√ √

(a) The modulus is given by r

2

= (2 2)

2

+ (−2 2)

2

= 16, so r = 4. [1 for modulus]

The principal value of the argument is the solution of the equations

√ √

2 2 1 2 2 1

cos θ = = √ , sin θ = − = −√ , [1 for cos θ, sin θ]

4

2

4

2

in the interval (−π, π]. Hence θ = −π/4, and the exponential form of

√ √

−iπ/4

2 2 − 2 2 i is 4e . [1 for answer]

√

(b) Since z

2

= 4e

−iπ/4

, the modulus of z is 4 = 2. [1 for modulus]

For the argument θ of z, we have 2θ = −π/4 + 2mπ, where m = 0, 1;

that is, θ = −π/8 or θ = 7π/8. [1 for values of θ]

So the two solutions for z are

7iπ/8

z = 2e

−iπ/8

and z = 2e . [1 for answers]

Comment See Handbook pages 79, 80

√ √

(a) re

iθ

= r cos θ + ir sin θ, so r cos θ = 2 2 and r sin θ = −2 2. Therefore r

2

is

the sum of the squares of these two terms (since cos

2

β + sin

2

β = 1). This

gives r

2

= 8 + 8 = 16, and so r = 4.

q

2i

2 2 4

2i

4

2

Ö

2 2

Ö

2i

4i

√ √

1

√

cos θ =

2 2

=

√

, sin θ = −

2

4

2

= −

1

, so θ = −

π

.

4

2 2

4

(b) See the Handbook: Finding roots.

Question 11

(a) 57 = 2 × 22 + 13

22 = 1 × 13 + 9

13 = 1 × 9 + 4

9 = 2 × 4 + 1 [2]

Working backwards,

1 = 9 − 2 × 4

= 9 − 2 × (13 − 9)

= −2 × 13 + 3 × 9

= −2 × 13 + 3 × (22 − 13)

= 3 × 22 − 5 × 13

= 3 × 22 − 5 × (57 − 2 × 22)

= 13 × 22 − 5 × 57. [2]

So 13 × 22 = 5 × 57 + 1, and 13 is the required inverse. [1 for answer]

(b) 3 or 19 (or a multiple of 3 or 19 less than 57). [1]

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 15

Comment See Handbook pages 83, 82

(a) See the Handbook for Euclid’s Algorithm. Remember that when working

backwards, each expression on the RHS should equal 1. It is worth checking

occasionally.

(b) Notice that 57 = 3 × 19. No number in Z

57

which is a multiple of 3 or 19 has

a multiplicative inverse in Z

57

.

Question 12

(a) t ∗ r = p [1]

(b) The identity element is s (its row and column repeat the [1 for s]

order of the table borders). [2 for row and column]

(c) (G, ∗) is isomorphic to (S(∆), ◦) since both have four self-inverse [1 for group]

elements, whereas Z

6

has only two self-inverse elements. [1 for reason]

Comment See Handbook pages 85, 86

(a) Remember that each row and each column of a group table should contain

each element of the group exactly once. In the row labelled t, the element p is

missing, which is also true for the column headed r. So t ∗ r = p.

(b) Each element is unchanged when it is combined with the identity element.

(c) See the Cayley tables in the Handbook. Compare the orders of the groups

(numbers of elements). Where these are the same, compare the numbers of

self-inverse elements.

PART 2

Comment Attempt 2 out of the 4 questions in this part.

Question 13

(a) For this quadratic curve, A = 34, B = −24 and C = 41. [1 for method]

A suitable rotation r

θ

is obtained from

tan(2θ) =

B

A − C

=

−24

34 − 41

=

24

7

. [1 for tan(2θ)]

Thus θ =

1

2

arctan(24/7), which is approximately 37

◦

. Then [1 for θ]

cos(2θ) =

1

1 + tan

2

(2θ)

=

1

1 + (24/7)

2

=

7

25

[1]

and

sin(2θ) =

tan(2θ)

1 + tan

2

(2θ)

=

24/7

1 + (24/7)

2

=

24

25

. [1]

So

cos

2

θ =

1 + cos(2θ)

2

=

16

25

, sin

2

θ =

1 − cos(2θ)

2

=

9

25

[1]

and

sin θ cos θ =

1

2

sin(2θ) =

12

25

.

Hence

A

= A cos

2

θ + B sin θ cos θ + C sin

2

θ

9

− 24 ×

12

= 34 ×

16

+ 41 ×

25 25 25

=

625

25

= 25 [1]

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 16

and

C

= A sin

2

θ − B sin θ cos θ + C cos

2

θ

= 34 ×

9

+ 24 ×

12

+ 41 ×

16

25 25 25

=

1250

25

= 50. [1]

Thus the equation of K is

25x

2

+ 50y

2

= 50, [1 for substitution]

that is,

1

x

2

+ y

2

= 1, [1 for standard form]

2

as required.

√

(b) For the ellipse K, we have a = 2 and b = 1. The axes of symmetry

1

3

of L are y = (tan θ)x and y = − x, i.e. y =

4

x and y = −

4

x. [1 for new axes]

tan θ

3

[1 for tan θ]

y

x

y = -

4

3

x

2

y =

3

4

x

2

L

[2 for sketch and labelling features]

Comment See Handbook page 49

(a) When ﬁnding θ remember to have your calculator in degree mode. The

method for ﬁnding the coeﬃcients is given in the Handbook. These should be

found by using trigonometric formulas, as in the solution, and not by

calculating the trigonometric ratios directly from the angle 37

◦

. This would

give only approximate values, because 37

◦

is only an approximation to θ.

(b) The line through the origin making an angle θ with the positive direction of

the x-axis has gradient tan θ, and so has equation y = (tan θ)x.

y

tan q =

y

q

x

x

The axes of symmetry are obtained by rotating the x-axis and y-axis (the

axes of symmetry of the ellipse in standard position) through the angle

9 3

2

θ 37

◦

. Since cos

2

θ =

16

=

4

2

, sin

2

θ =

25

= and θ lies in the ﬁrst

25 5 5

3

quadrant, we have tan θ =

4

.

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 17

Question 14

(a) The matrix A has characteristic equation

k

2

−7k + 6 = 0. [1 for equation]

This factorises as (k −6)(k −1) = 0, so the eigenvalues of the

matrix are 6 and 1. [1 for values]

For k = 6, the eigenvector equations are

−3x + y = 0,

6x −2y = 0.

That is, the eigenline is y = 3x and one eigenvector is

1

3

. [1]

For k = 1, the eigenvector equations are

2x + y = 0,

6x + 3y = 0.

That is, the eigenline is y = −2x and one eigenvector is

1

−2

.

[1]

(b) P =

1

3

1

−2

with D =

6 0

0 1

. [2]

(c) A = PDP

−1

, so A

4

= (PDP

−1

)

4

= PD

4

P

−1

: [1 for method]

P

−1

= −

1

5

−2

−3

−1

1

=

1

5

2

3

1

−1

, [1 for inverse matrix]

D

4

=

6

4

0

0

1

4

=

1296

0

0

1

, [1]

so

A

4

=

1

3

1

−2

1296

0

0

1

1

5

2

3

1

−1

1

1 1

2592 1296

[1 for ﬁrst product] =

5 3 −2 3 −1

1

2595 1295

=

5 7770 3890

519 259

= [1 for answer]

1554 778

(d) (i) The point (1, −2) lies on the eigenline with eigenvalue 1, so it remains

ﬁxed under the iterative process, and the sequence is constant. [1]

(ii) The point (1, 1) does not lie on either eigenline. Since both eigenvalues

are greater than zero, all points of the sequence lie on the same side of

each eigenline as (1, 1) does. Since max{1, 6} = 6 > 1, the sequence

moves away from the origin. Since 6 > 1, the sequence (x

n

, y

n

) moves so

that y

n

/x

n

→3 (the gradient of the eigenline for eigenvalue 6) as

n →∞. [2]

Comment See Handbook pages 62, 63

(a) The characteristic equation is given in the Handbook. Remember that for

each eigenvalue there is no unique eigenvector, but the arithmetic is usually

easier if one of the components is taken as 1. It is also sometimes helpful to

avoid fractions.

(b) Remember that the order of the columns in P must match the order of the

eigenvalues in D.

(c) Notice the ﬁrst line of the solution – this is important. The question

speciﬁcally says Use your answer to part (b), so you will receive few, if any,

marks if you multiply four copies of A together.

(d) If the initial point lies on an eigenline, then the points in the iteration

sequence will remain on that eigenline, but with the distance from the origin

multiplied by the magnitude of the eigenvalue for each iteration. See the

Handbook.

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 18

Question 15

(a) (i) Let f (x) = ln x and g

(x) = 1,

so f

**(x) = 1/x and g(x) = x. [2 for four components]
**

Then, using the formula fg

= fg − f

g, we have

1

ln xdx = (ln x)x − xdx

x

= x ln x − 1 dx

= x ln x − x + c [2 for integration]

= x(ln x − 1) + c.

(ii) Since f (x) ≥ 0 for all x ∈ [1, 3], the area is

3

ln xdx = x(ln x − 1)

3

[1 for method]

1

1

= 3(ln 3 − 1) − 1(0 − 1)

= 3 ln 3 − 2

= 1.296 (to 3 d.p.). [2 for calculation]

(b) (i) Use integration by parts once more. [1 for method]

Let f (x) = (ln x)

2

and g

(x) = 1,

so f

**(x) = 2(ln x)(1/x) and g(x) = x. [1 for four components]
**

Then we have

1

(ln x)

2

dx = (ln x)

2

x − 2 ln x xdx

x

= x(ln x)

2

− 2 ln xdx [1 for this expression]

= x(ln x)

2

− 2x(ln x − 1) + c (from part (a)(i))

= x (ln x)

2

− 2 ln x + 2

+ c. [1 for integration]

(ii) The required volume is

3

π (ln x)

2

dx = π

x

(ln x)

2

− 2 ln x + 2

3

[1 for method]

1

1

= π 3 (ln 3)

2

− 2 ln 3 + 2

− 2

= 3.233 (to 3 d.p.). [2 for calculations]

Comment See Handbook page 70

(a) Remember that if you have trouble obtaining a given answer, it does not stop

you from using the result given elsewhere in the question.

(b) (i) An alternative approach would be to set u = ln x and dv/dx = ln x.

(ii) Do not forget the π!

Question 16

(a) (i) The converse of proposition (A) is:

If m and n are both divisible by 3, then 2m

2

+ n

2

is divisible

by 9. (B) [1]

(ii) Proposition (A) is false. [1]

Counter-example: If m = 2 and n = 1, then neither m nor n is divisible

by 3, but 2m

2

+ n

2

= 9 is divisible by 9. [2]

MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 19

(iii) Proof that proposition (B) is true:

If m and n are both divisible by 3, then m = 3k and n = 3l,

for some integers k and l. [1 for assumption]

Then we have

2m

2

+ n

2

= 18k

2

+ 9l

2

= 9(2k

2

+ l

2

), [2 for algebra]

which is divisible by 9 since 2k

2

+ l

2

is an integer. [1 for conclusion]

(b) Let p(n) be the variable proposition

1 1 1 n

+ + · · · + =

1 ×2 2 ×3 n(n + 1) n + 1

.

1

1

When n = 1, the left-hand side is =

2

and the right-hand side

1(1 + 1)

1

is =

1

. Since these are equal, p(1) is true. [1 for case n = 1]

2

1 + 1

Assume that p(k) is true, that is,

1

1 ×2

+

1

2 ×3

+

1

3 ×4

+ · · · +

1

k(k + 1)

=

k

k + 1

. [1 for assumption]

Then we have

1 1 1 1 1

1 ×2

+

2 ×3

+

3 ×4

+ · · · +

k(k + 1)

+

(k + 1)(k + 2)

=

k

k + 1

+

1

(k + 1)(k + 2)

[1 for method]

=

k(k + 2) + 1

(k + 1)(k + 2)

=

(k + 1)

2

(k + 1)(k + 2)

k + 1

=

k + 2

=

k + 1

(k + 1) + 1

. [2 for algebra]

Hence the implication p(k) ⇒ p(k + 1) is true for all k in N.

We can then deduce, by mathematical induction, that p(n) is true

for all n in N. Hence the result holds for all positive integers n. [1 for conclusion]

Comment See Handbook page 88

(a) (i) To ﬁnd the converse, mentally interchange if and then in the statement.

(iii) Note that a number is divisible by 9, say, if and only if it can be written

as 9k where k is an integer.

(b) After you have written down the assumption p(k), it is worth writing down

p(k + 1), the statement that you have to prove. You get this by replacing k

with (k + 1) in p(k). Here, it is

1 1 1 k + 1 k + 1

+ + · · · + = = .

1 ×2 2 ×3 (k + 1)(k + 2) (k + 1) + 1 k + 2

k 1

Here, to simplify the algebra in an expression like + , do

k + 1 (k + 1)(k + 2)

not be tempted to multiply out all the brackets. Always look for common

factors. In this case, the denominator of each term contains k + 1 so, when

the terms are combined, one term in the denominator will need to be k + 1.

See the Handbook for a model answer.

Printed in the United Kingdom.

PART 1

Instructions (i) You should attempt as many questions as you can in this part of the examination. (ii) Part 1 carries 72% of the available examination marks (6% of the marks to each question). The allocation of marks to parts of questions is shown on the right. (iii) You should record your answers to each question in the answer book(s) provided, beginning each question on a new page. You are strongly advised to show all your working, including any rough working. Question 1 Find a closed form for the sequence given by the following recurrence system: u0 = 3, Question 2 This question concerns the curve with equation 3x2 + 4y 2 = 24. (a) Show that the curve is a conic in standard position. (b) Find the foci, directrices and eccentricity of this conic. (c) Sketch the conic, showing the foci and directrices, and giving the coordinates of the points at which it meets the axes. Question 3 (a) (i) Write down the rules for the isometries t3,−2 and qπ/4 . (ii) Determine the rule for the composite isometry f = qπ/4 ◦ t3,−2 . (b) Let θ be the angle in the interval 1 π, π for which sin θ = 1 . 2 5 Determine the exact value of sin(2θ). [2] [3] [1] [2] [2] [2] u1 = −2, un+2 = 3un+1 + 4un (n = 0, 1, 2, . . .). [6]

MS221/Sp ecimen

2

2) to (1.) (a) f (x) = (b) g(x) = ln(x − 1) cos x 2 x3 − 3 2 x (x ∈ (1. 2). on the same axes. Also. . 1) and (0. 1. (b) Find the matrices of the linear transformations qπ/3 ◦ rπ/4 and rπ/4 ◦ qπ/3 . (c) Use graphical iteration to determine the long-term behaviour of the iteration sequence given by xn+1 = x2 − xn − 3 (n = 0. 3) and (0. 1 π)) 2 (x ∈ R. The scale on each axis should run from −5 to 10. (a) Write down the matrices A and B that represent f and g. 1) to (−1. .) n when x0 = 1. (There is no need to simplify your answers. 0) to (−2. 2). 1) and (−1. Question 5 (a) Find the matrices Qπ/3 and Rπ/4 that represent the linear transformations qπ/3 and rπ/4 . let g be the linear transformation that maps (1. Question 7 Diﬀerentiate each of the following functions. respectively. This may be done on the graph drawn for part (a). (b) Find the matrix of the linear transformation that maps (1. (b) Determine algebraically the ﬁxed points of f .Question 4 (a) Sketch. the graphs of y = x and y = f (x). respectively. being careful to identify which is which in your answer. where f (x) = x2 − x − 3. Question 6 Let f be the linear transformation that maps (1. . 1) to (1. 2). x > 2) [3] [3] [2] [4] [2] [2] [2] [2] [4] MS221/Specimen TURN OVER 3 . 3) to (−2. 0) to (1. 2. leaving your answers in surd form.

Question 9 Using standard Taylor series given in the Handbook. (b) Hence ﬁnd two complex numbers z that satisfy the equation √ √ z 2 = 2 2 − 2 2 i. 1 (a) f (x) = 1 + x3 (b) g(x) = xe−3x Question 10 (a) Express the complex number below in the exponential form reiθ . as far as the fourth non-zero term. [5] [1] [3] [3] [3] [3] [3] [3] MS221/Sp ecimen 4 . (b) Give an example of an integer in Z57 . which has no multiplicative inverse in Z57 . ﬁnd the Taylor series about 0 for each of the following functions. giving your answers in the form reiθ . 2 + cos x using the substitution u = 2 + cos x. other than 0. where θ is the principal value of the argument: √ √ 2 2 − 2 2 i. (b) Find the indeﬁnite integral sin x dx.Question 8 (a) Find the indeﬁnite integral sec2 (4x) dx. Question 11 (a) Use Euclid’s Algorithm to ﬁnd the multiplicative inverse of 22 in Z57 .

[2] MS221/Specimen TURN OVER 5 . ∗) isomorphic? Give a brief reason for your answer. ∗ p q r s t u p q r s t u q s u p r t s t p p u q t s r q r s t u r q u u r q t s p r t p u q s [1] [3] (a) Which group element is equal to t ∗ r? (b) What is the identity element of G? Give a brief reason for your answer. ∗) whose incomplete Cayley table is given below. ◦). (c) All groups of order 6 are isomorphic to either (Z6 . To which of these is (G. +6 ) or (S( ).Question 12 Consider the group (G.

(b) Draw a sketch of the curve L. where K is the ellipse 1 x2 + y 2 = 1 and 2 θ 37◦ . L is the quadratic curve with equation 34x2 − 24xy + 41y 2 = 50. [3] [2] [5] 3 1 . and indicate the equations of the lines that are its axes of symmetry. (iv) Show all your working. (d) Describe in words the long-term behaviour of the iteration sequence generated by A with initial point (i) (1. beginning each question on a new page. (iii) You may answer the questions in any order. Write your answers in the answer book(s) provided. (ii) Each question in this part carries 14% of the total marks for the examination. (ii) (1. (b) Write down a matrix P and a diagonal matrix D such that A = PDP−1 . (c) Use your answer to part (b) to ﬁnd the matrix A4 . Question 14 (a) Find the eigenvalues and eigenlines of the matrix A = Write down one eigenvector for each eigenline. −2). (a) Show that L is rθ (K).PART 2 Instructions (i) Credit will be given for answers to no more than TWO questions from this part of the examination. Question 13 In this question. 1). 6 4 [4] [10] [4] MS221/Sp ecimen 6 .

(ii) Hence ﬁnd the area under the graph of the function f (x) = ln x from x = 1 to x = 3.Question 15 (a) (i) By considering ln x as the product (ln x) × 1. and give a counter-example to demonstrate this. ﬁnd the indeﬁnite integral (ln x)2 dx. Question 16 (a) In this part of the question. (iii) Give a proof that the remaining proposition is true. that 1 1 1 n 1 + + + ··· + = 1×2 2×3 3×4 n(n + 1) n+1 for all positive integers n. (b) Prove. (ii) Hence ﬁnd the volume of revolution obtained when the region under the graph of the function f (x) = ln x. using mathematical induction. Give your answer to 3 decimal places. (i) Write down a statement of proposition (B). from x = 1 to x = 3. and the other is false. then m and n are both divisible by 3. is rotated about the x-axis. Proposition (A) is as follows: If 2m2 + n2 is divisible by 9. One of propositions (A) and (B) is true. (b) (i) Using the result of part (a)(i). where c is an arbitrary constant. show that ln x dx = x(ln x − 1) + c. [END OF QUESTION PAPER] [6] [1] [3] [4] [4] [4] [3] [3] MS221/Sp ecimen 7 . and using integration by parts. m and n are integers. giving your answer to 3 decimal places. (A) Proposition (B) is the converse of proposition (A). (ii) State which of propositions (A) and (B) is false.

MS221/Sp ecimen 8 .

x = ±4 2. n = 0. [1 for method] To ﬁnd A and B we use the ﬁrst two terms: [2 for constants] n = 0. . even powers will give +1. So 5A = 1. 1. 0) = (± 2. . . that is. [1 for equation] [1 for roots] You should attempt all questions in this part. 0). [1 for constants] (b) The eccentricity is e = 1 − b2 /a2 = 1 − 6/8 = 1 . 14 5 . . (Odd powers will give −1. In the last line of the solution. u0 = 3 = A + B. 2. 2 √ So the foci are at (±ae. so r = 4 or r = −1. [1 for closed form] See Handbook page 45 In the auxiliary equation. [1 for eccentricity] [ 1 for foci] 2 [ 1 for directrices] 2 x2 y2 + = 1. hence A = 1 . . 1. The general solution is un = A4n + B(−1)n .Solutions PART 1 Comment Question 1 We solve the auxiliary equation or r2 − 3r − 4 = 0 (r − 4)(r + 1) = 0. 2. p = 3 and q = 4 (see Handbook). 8 6 MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 9 . . √ and the directrices are x = ±a/e.) Question 2 (a) Dividing throughout by 24 gives [1 for method] √ √ This is the equation of an ellipse in standard position with a = 8 = 2 2 √ and b = 6. u1 = −2 = 4A − B. and B = 5 The required closed form is u n = 1 4n + 5 Comment n 14 5 (−1) . notice the need to contain −1 in brackets. . . to avoid any confusion when powers of it are taken.

1 2 π. so sin(2θ) = 2 sin θ cos θ =2× 1 5 √ × −2 6 5 √ 4 = − 25 6. which also gives the coordinates of the foci and the equations of the directrices for conics in standard position.0) (0. x + 3). (b) Always check which quadrant contains the angle. π Since θ is in the interval √ 2 cos θ = − 5 6. Compare the result with the table of standard conics in the Handbook. This will aﬀect the signs of the trigonometric ratios.0) (0. Do not forget to substitute numerical values for the trigonometric ratios in the rule for qθ . 2 [1] 2 [1] 2 [2] (ii) From part (i).√ √ √ (c) √ Since.66 and 6 = 2. cos θ is negative. x).41. Then .83. y) −→ (y − 2.6 ) (2 2 . MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 10 .45.2 . not that on the left.0) (. 4 2 = 5. Question 3 (a) (i) t3.−2 : (x. [1] Comment See Handbook page 48 (a) (i) See the Handbook for general rules. y) −→ (x + 3. cos2 θ = 1 − so cos θ = ± 24 25 1 2 5 24 25 = [1] 2 [1] 2 [1] 2 (from the Handbook) [1] 2 √ 2 = ± 5 6. it is the isometry on the right that is carried out ﬁrst. (b) Using cos2 θ + sin θ = 1 from the Handbook. to three signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 2 2 = 2. the diagram is as follows.. qπ/4 : (x.0) ( 2 . y) −→ (y. y − 2). qπ/4 ◦ t3. 2 = 1.−2 : (x. 6 ) x=4 2 x Comment See Handbook page 46 Always divide through by a number that will give the value 1 on the right-hand side. (ii) Remember that with a composite isometry. [2 for sketch] y x = -4 2 (-2 2 .

or x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 (x − 3)(x + 1) = 0. 2 13 4 ) (b) The ﬁxed point equation is x2 − x − 3 = x. [1 for completed-square form] y 10 y = f(x) y=x 5 [ 1 for shape of parabola] 2 [ 1 for position] 2 5 0 5 10 x (0. MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 11 . [1 for equation] [1 for roots] So the ﬁxed points are 3 and −1. 3) 5 (1. that is.Question 4 (a) First we write f (x) in completed-square form: f (x) = x2 − x − 3 = x− 1 2 2 − 1 4 −3= x− 1 2 2 − 13 4 .

37 (a) It is worth completing the square to ﬁnd the vertex of the parabola before trying to sketch it. (b) If you cannot see the factors of the ﬁxed point equation immediately. Question 5 (a) Qπ/3 = Rπ/4 = cos sin 2π 3 2π 3 sin − cos 2π 3 2π 3 = 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 −1 2 √ 3 2 √ 3 2 1 2 . [1] cos( π ) − sin( π ) 4 4 sin( π ) cos( π ) 4 4 1 −2 = 1 − √2 1 √ 2 . in the long term. with a correctly positioned axis of symmetry and with its vertex at the correct point.(c) y 10 5 [1 for trace ] 0 -5 1 5 10 x -5 So. Comment [1 for result] See Handbook pages 41. the sequence tends to inﬁnity. [1] (b) qπ/3 ◦ rπ/4 has matrix √ Qπ/3 Rπ/4 = ⎛ =⎝ √ 3 2 √ 3−1 √ 2 2 √ 1+ 3 √ 2 2 3 2 1 2 √ 1+ 3 √ 2 2 √ 1− 3 √ 2 2 ⎞ 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 1 − √2 1 √ 2 ⎠. (c) Remember that you do NOT need to re-draw the sketch. The examiners are looking for a sketch (NOT plotting) of a parabola. it is acceptable to use the formula for solving a quadratic equation. 56. [2] MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 12 .

which has matrix BA−1 . In general. (b) Notice that the coordinates given are the images under the linear transformations f and g in part (a). MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 13 . A−1 = so BA−1 = = Comment 1 0 0 1 1 5 1 5 −2 1 1 2 −7 −4 −1 3 2 −3 . 60 [2] (a) Remember that surd form means leaving square root signs in the answers. It is ﬁrst necessary to apply f −1 to transform (1. respectively. 3) and (−1. the result can be diﬀerent if the matrices are written down in reverse order). matrix multiplication is not commutative (i. 2 [1] [1] (b) The required linear transformation is g ◦ f −1 . do not convert to decimals. 0) and (0. 1 1 1 5 2 1 −3 1 . Question 7 (a) f (x) = ln(x − 1) gives cos x f (x) = [1 for method] (x − 1)−1 cos x + ln(x − 1) sin x . See Handbook pages 59.rπ/4 ◦ qπ/3 has matrix Rπ/4 Qπ/3 = ⎛ =⎝ Comment 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 √ √ −1− 3 3−1 √ √ 2 2 2 2 √ √ 3+1 3−1 √ √ 2 2 2 2 1 − √2 1 −2 √ √ 3 2 3 2 1 2 ⎞ ⎠ . 2) back to (1. (b) It is important to remember to write the matrices down in the order in which the linear transformations are written. 2 1 .e. [2 for diﬀerentiations] cos2 x using the Quotient Rule and the Composite Rule (for ln(x − 1)). Be sure to divide by the determinant of the matrix A when ﬁnding A−1 . so that g can be applied. [1 for method] [2 for inverse matrix] [1 for product] See Handbook page 60 (a) Since the images of the unit vectors and are known. the matrices can be written down directly. Question 6 (a) A = B= 1 3 −2 1 −1 . 1).

in brackets. 1 = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · . multiply each term by x. [1 for 1 ( )−1/2 ] 2 [1 for derivative of bracket] using the Composite Rule. 70 (a) Use the table of indeﬁnite integrals. (b) apply the Composite Rule. and include a constant c. Comment See Handbook page 65 In terms of Leibniz notation: (a) apply the Quotient Rule with v = cos x and u = ln(x − 1). (b) First write down the Taylor series expansion for ex . which should be enclosed in brackets to avoid errors in sign. gives xe−3x = x 1 − 3x + 1 (−3x)2 + 1 (−3x)3 + · · · 2 6 = x − 3x2 + 9 x3 − 9 x4 + · · · . (b) Taking u = 2 + cos x. 1−x Replacing x by −x3 gives [1 for method] 1 = 1 − x3 + (−x3 )2 + (−x3 )3 + · · · [1 for correct handling of −ve signs] 1 + x3 = 1 − x3 + x6 − x9 + · · · . we have du/dx = − sin x. and putting −3x in place of x. for x. Comment [1 for substitution] [1 for integration] [1 for back-substitution] See Handbook pages 68. so that the terms will alternate in sign.(b) g(x) = x3 2 − 2 x3 1 g (x) = 2 1/2 gives 2 x3 − 3 2 x −1/2 [1 for method] 6 3x2 + 4 2 x . with u = x3 /2 − 2/x3 and y = u1/2 . Notice that the powers apply to both the −3 and x. Question 9 (a) From the Handbook. Finally. 2 2 Comment [1 for method] [2 for algebra] See Handbook page 74 1 (a) This is obtained from the Taylor series expansion of . Remember to add an arbitrary constant. [1 for answer] (b) Using the series for ex from the Handbook. MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 14 . Replace x 1 − x 3 by −x . [2 for integral] using either inspection (from the table of integrals in the Handbook) or integration by substitution (with u = 4x). and so sin x 1 dx = − du 2 + cos x u = − ln u + c = c − ln(2 + cos x). du (b) Do not forget to ‘substitute du for dx’. Then substitute −3x. Question 8 (a) The integral is sec2 (4x) dx = 1 4 [1 for method] tan(4x) + c. express the ﬁnal answer in terms dx of x.

π]. and the exponential form of √ √ 2 2 − 2 2 i is 4e−iπ/4 . 2i 2 2i q 4 2 4 2Ö 2 2Ö 2i 4i cos θ = √ 2 2 4 = 1 √ . 1. 4 √ (b) See the Handbook: Finding roots. where m = 0. sin θ = − 4 4 2 2 in the interval (−π. so r = 4. [1 for values of θ] So the two solutions for z are z = 2e−iπ/8 Comment and z = 2e7iπ/8 . and so r = 4. [1 for modulus] [1 for cos θ. so θ = − π . 1=9−2×4 = 9 − 2 × (13 − 9) = −2 × 13 + 3 × 9 = −2 × 13 + 3 × (22 − 13) = 3 × 22 − 5 × 13 = 3 × 22 − 5 × (57 − 2 × 22) = 13 × 22 − 5 × 57. cos θ = = √ . sin θ] [1 for answer] [1 for modulus] For the argument θ of z. we have 2θ = −π/4 + 2mπ. √ (b) Since z 2 = 4e−iπ/4 . [2] [1 for answer] [1] [2] MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 15 .Question 10 √ √ (a) The modulus is given by r2 = (2 2)2 + (−2 2)2 = 16. 2 1 sin θ = − 2 4 2 = − √2 . (b) 3 or 19 (or a multiple of 3 or 19 less than 57). Therefore r2 is the sum of the squares of these two terms (since cos2 β + sin2 β = 1). the modulus of z is 4 = 2. that is. So 13 × 22 = 5 × 57 + 1. [1 for answers] See Handbook pages 79. This gives r2 = 8 + 8 = 16. Question 11 (a) 57 = 2 × 22 + 13 22 = 1 × 13 + 9 13 = 1 × 9 + 4 9=2×4+1 Working backwards. so r cos θ = 2 2 and r sin θ = −2 2. The principal value of the argument is the solution of the equations √ √ 1 1 2 2 2 2 = − √ . θ = −π/8 or θ = 7π/8. and 13 is the required inverse. Hence θ = −π/4. 80 √ √ (a) reiθ = r cos θ + ir sin θ.

86 (a) Remember that each row and each column of a group table should contain each element of the group exactly once. = = A−C 34 − 41 7 1 1 + tan (2θ) tan(2θ) 1 + tan (2θ) 2 2 [1 for tan(2θ)] [1 for θ] [1] arctan(24/7). the element p is missing. Comment See Handbook pages 85. Question 13 (a) For this quadratic curve. Remember that when working backwards. It is worth checking occasionally. (b) Notice that 57 = 3 × 19. [1] 1 + cos(2θ) = 2 1 2 16 25 . 82 (a) See the Handbook for Euclid’s Algorithm. each expression on the RHS should equal 1. whereas Z6 has only two self-inverse elements. PART 2 Comment Attempt 2 out of the 4 questions in this part. which is approximately 37 ◦. Question 12 (a) t ∗ r = p (b) The identity element is s (its row and column repeat the order of the table borders). B = −24 and C = 41. Compare the orders of the groups (numbers of elements). In the row labelled t. which is also true for the column headed r. So t ∗ r = p. ∗) is isomorphic to (S(∆). [1] [1 for s] [2 for row and column] [1 for group] [1 for reason] (c) (G. sin2 θ = 1 − cos(2θ) = 2 9 25 [1] sin(2θ) = 12 25 . No number in Z57 which is a multiple of 3 or 19 has a multiplicative inverse in Z57 .Comment See Handbook pages 83. Where these are the same. A suitable rotation rθ is obtained from tan(2θ) = Thus θ = 1 2 [1 for method] B −24 24 . (b) Each element is unchanged when it is combined with the identity element. A = 34. ◦) since both have four self-inverse elements. compare the numbers of self-inverse elements. (c) See the Cayley tables in the Handbook. Then = 1 1 + (24/7)2 24/7 1 + (24/7)2 = 7 25 cos(2θ) = and sin(2θ) = So cos2 θ = and sin θ cos θ = Hence = = 24 25 . A = A cos2 θ + B sin θ cos θ + C sin2 θ 9 = 34 × 16 − 24 × 12 + 41 × 25 25 25 = 625 25 = 25 [1] MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 16 .

Since cos2 θ = 16 = 5 . of L are y = (tan θ)x and y = − 4 tan θ y [1 for new axes] [1 for tan θ] 3 y=4x 2 L 2 x y=-4x 3 [2 for sketch and labelling features] Comment See Handbook page 49 (a) When ﬁnding θ remember to have your calculator in degree mode. This would give only approximate values. because 37 ◦ is only an approximation to θ. [1 for standard form] as required. y q tan q = y x x The axes of symmetry are obtained by rotating the x-axis and y-axis (the axes of symmetry of the ellipse in standard position) through the angle 4 2 9 3 2 θ 37 ◦. The method for ﬁnding the coeﬃcients is given in the Handbook. as in the solution. 1 2 2x [1] [1 for substitution] + y 2 = 1. and so has equation y = (tan θ)x. that is. The axes of symmetry 1 4 x.e. These should be found by using trigonometric formulas. y = 3 x and y = − 3 x. and not by calculating the trigonometric ratios directly from the angle 37 ◦. we have tan θ = 3 . (b) For the ellipse K. (b) The line through the origin making an angle θ with the positive direction of the x-axis has gradient tan θ. Thus the equation of K is 25x2 + 50y 2 = 50. we have a = √ 2 and b = 1. sin2 θ = 25 = 5 and θ lies in the ﬁrst 25 quadrant.and C = A sin2 θ − B sin θ cos θ + C cos2 θ = 34 × = 1250 25 9 25 + 24 × 12 25 + 41 × 16 25 = 50. 4 MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 17 . i.

and the sequence is constant. so you will receive few. [1] (ii) The point (1. (b) Remember that the order of the columns in P must match the order of the eigenvalues in D. That is. [1 for inverse matrix] [1] 2 3 1 −1 [1 for ﬁrst product] 1 . so A4 = (PDP−1 )4 = PD4 P−1 : P−1 = − D4 = so A4 = = 1 5 1 = 5 = (d) (i) 1 1 3 −2 1 1 3 −2 1296 0 0 1 1 5 1 5 −2 −1 −3 1 0 14 = = 1 5 2 1 3 −1 . It is also sometimes helpful to avoid fractions. the eigenvector equations are 2x + y = 0. (c) Notice the ﬁrst line of the solution – this is important. 1) does. yn ) moves so that yn /xn → 3 (the gradient of the eigenline for eigenvalue 6) as n → ∞. so it remains ﬁxed under the iterative process. but with the distance from the origin multiplied by the magnitude of the eigenvalue for each iteration. −2 [1] [2] [1 for method] . 64 0 1296 0 1 0 2592 1296 3 −1 2595 1295 7770 3890 519 259 1554 778 [1 for answer] The point (1. See the Handbook. −2) lies on the eigenline with eigenvalue 1. 1) does not lie on either eigenline. Since 6 > 1. For k = 6. the eigenvector equations are −3x + y = 0. 3 [1] [1 for equation] [1 for values] (c) A = PDP−1 . That is. if any. Comment See Handbook pages 62. 6x − 2y = 0. the eigenline is y = 3x and one eigenvector is For k = 1. the eigenline is y = −2x and one eigenvector is (b) P = 1 1 3 −2 with D = 6 0 0 . 6x + 3y = 0. then the points in the iteration sequence will remain on that eigenline. so the eigenvalues of the matrix are 6 and 1. Since max{1. but the arithmetic is usually easier if one of the components is taken as 1. marks if you multiply four copies of A together. (d) If the initial point lies on an eigenline. the sequence moves away from the origin. 1 1 . all points of the sequence lie on the same side of each eigenline as (1. 6} = 6 > 1. the sequence (xn . Since both eigenvalues are greater than zero. [2] MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 18 . 63 (a) The characteristic equation is given in the Handbook. This factorises as (k − 6)(k − 1) = 0. The question speciﬁcally says Use your answer to part (b). Remember that for each eigenvalue there is no unique eigenvector.Question 14 (a) The matrix A has characteristic equation k 2 − 7k + 6 = 0.

we have 1 ln x dx = (ln x)x − x dx x = x ln x − 1 dx [2 for integration] [2 for four components] = x ln x − x + c = x(ln x − 1) + c. [1] [1] [2] MS221/Sp ecimen Solutions 19 . so f (x) = 1/x and g(x) = x. so f (x) = 2(ln x)(1/x) and g(x) = x.p. it does not stop you from using the result given elsewhere in the question.). (ii) Do not forget the π! Question 16 (a) (i) The converse of proposition (A) is: If m and n are both divisible by 3. [2 for calculation] [1 for method] [1 for four components] 1 x (b) (i) Use integration by parts once more.Question 15 (a) (i) Let f (x) = ln x and g (x) = 1. (B) (ii) Proposition (A) is false.p. then 2m2 + n2 is divisible by 9. 3]. the area is 3 1 ln x dx = x(ln x − 1) 3 1 [1 for method] = 3(ln 3 − 1) − 1(0 − 1) = 3 ln 3 − 2 = 1. Let f (x) = (ln x) and g (x) = 1.). Counter-example: If m = 2 and n = 1. Then we have (ln x)2 dx = (ln x)2 x − = x(ln x)2 − 2 2 2 ln x x dx [1 for this expression] ln x dx = x(ln x)2 − 2x(ln x − 1) + c (from part (a)(i)) = x (ln x)2 − 2 ln x + 2 + c. 3 [1 for method] [2 for calculations] See Handbook page 70 Comment (a) Remember that if you have trouble obtaining a given answer. using the formula f g = f g − f g. (b) (i) An alternative approach would be to set u = ln x and dv/dx = ln x. Then. (ii) The required volume is 3 [1 for integration] π 1 (ln x)2 dx = π x (ln x)2 − 2 ln x + 2 1 = π 3 (ln 3)2 − 2 ln 3 + 2 − 2 = 3. (ii) Since f (x) ≥ 0 for all x ∈ [1. but 2m2 + n2 = 9 is divisible by 9.296 (to 3 d.233 (to 3 d. then neither m nor n is divisible by 3.

the denominator of each term contains k + 1 so. when the terms are combined. for some integers k and l. 1×2 2×3 3×4 k(k + 1) k+1 Assume that p(k) is true. by mathematical induction. Since these are equal. We can then deduce. Then we have 2m2 + n2 = 18k 2 + 9l2 = 9(2k 2 + l2 ). 1×2 2×3 n(n + 1) n+1 When n = 1. You get this by replacing k with (k + 1) in p(k). Here. then m = 3k and n = 3l. [1 for assumption] Then we have 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ··· + + 1×2 2×3 3×4 k(k + 1) (k + 1)(k + 2) 1 k + = k + 1 (k + 1)(k + 2) k(k + 2) + 1 = (k + 1)(k + 2) (k + 1)2 = (k + 1)(k + 2) k+1 = k+2 k+1 . Hence the result holds for all positive integers n. that p(n) is true for all n in N. to simplify the algebra in an expression like Printed in the United Kingdom. (iii) Note that a number is divisible by 9. 1×2 2×3 (k + 1)(k + 2) (k + 1) + 1 k+2 k 1 + . it is 1 1 1 k+1 k+1 + + ··· + = = . Here. which is divisible by 9 since 2k + l is an integer. p(1) is true. do k + 1 (k + 1)(k + 2) not be tempted to multiply out all the brackets. (b) Let p(n) be the variable proposition 1 1 n 1 + + ··· + = .(iii) Proof that proposition (B) is true: If m and n are both divisible by 3. one term in the denominator will need to be k + 1. Comment [1 for method] [2 for algebra] [1 for conclusion] See Handbook page 88 (a) (i) To ﬁnd the converse. the left-hand side is is 1 = 1(1 + 1) 1 2 2 2 [1 for assumption] [2 for algebra] [1 for conclusion] and the right-hand side [1 for case n = 1] 1 = 1 . (b) After you have written down the assumption p(k). Always look for common factors. mentally interchange if and then in the statement. See the Handbook for a model answer. 1+1 2 1 1 1 k 1 + + + ··· + = . . that is. In this case. it is worth writing down p(k + 1). say. the statement that you have to prove. = (k + 1) + 1 Hence the implication p(k) ⇒ p(k + 1) is true for all k in N. if and only if it can be written as 9k where k is an integer.