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Solutions for convergence problems.

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We have intentionally included more material than can be covered in most Student Study Sessions to

account for groups that are able to answer the questions at a faster rate. Use your own judgment, based

on the group of students, to determine the order and selection of questions to work in the session. Be sure

to include a variety of types of questions (multiple choice, free response, calculator, and non-calculator)

in the time allotted.

Multiple Choice

1. D (1973 BC19)

I is a convergent p series, p 2 1

II is the Harmonic series and is known to be divergent

III is convergent by the Alternating Series Test

2. C (1985 BC14)

I is a convergent p series with p 2 1

II is the Harmonic series which is divergent

1

III is convergent by the Geometric Series Test with r 1

3

3. D (1985 BC31)

The center is x 1, so only C,D, or E are possible. Check the endpoints:

(1) n

At x 0 : converges by the Alternating Series Test.

n 1 n

1

At x 2 : which is the harmonic series and known to diverge.

n 1 n

4. A (1993 BC16)

I compare with p series, p 2 1so converges

6

II converges by the Geometric Series Test with r

7

III converges since it represents the alternating harmonic series

5. C (1993 BC27)

x 1

This is a geometric series with r .

3

x 1

Convergence for 1

3

x 1 3

Convergent for 2 x 4.

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Series

Student Study Session

6. C (1997 BC14)

3

Convergent by the Geometric Series Test since r 1

8

3

3

a1 so the sum will be S 2 2.4

2 3

1

8

7. E (1997 BC20)

( x 2) n

n 1 n 3n

. The endpoints of the interval of convergence are when ( x 2) 3; x 1, 5 .

Check endpoints: x 1 gives the alternating harmonic series which converges and x 5 gives the

Harmonic series which diverges. Therefore the interval is 1 x 5

8. B (1998 BC18)

I is divergent since the limit of the n th term is not zero.

II is convergent since it represents the alternating harmonic series.

III is divergent since it represents the harmonic series.

9. A (1998 BC22)

This is the integral test applied to the series in (A). Thus the series in (A) converges. None of the

others must be true.

4

4 2

This is a Geometric Series in which a1 and r so S 3 4

3 3 2

1

3

1

Simplify the terms with powers of n to compare to n

n 1

p 1

therefore p 2.

I converges by the Geometric Series Test

II diverges by the p series test since p 1

en

III diverges by the n th term test since lim n 1 0

x e 1

en1 n ! en e n ! e

By the Ratio Test, lim lim lim 0 1

n ( n 1)! e

n (n 1)n ! e n n 1

n n

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Series

Student Study Session

14. D (2008 BC12)

en 1 x n 1 n ! en e x n x n ! e

By the Ratio Test, lim n n

lim n n

lim x 0 1

n

(n 1)! e x n

(n 1)n! e x n

n 1

2

By the Geometric Series Test, the series converges when 1.

x 1

2

x2 1

This implies 1

2

Therefore x2 1 2 x2 1 0

( x 1)( x 1) 0 for x 1 and x 1 only.

k must be odd in order for the first series to converge by the Alternating Series Test, and k must be

less than 4 in order for the second series to converge by the Geometric Series Test, therefore 3 is the

correct solution.

Omit answers D and E since they are centered at x 0 and the solution should be centered at x 2.

Check endpoints: x 3 converges by the Alternating Series Test and x 1 diverges by the

p series test therefore answer B is correct.

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Series

Student Study Session

n 2 x n1

(a) 3n2 lim

n 2 x x 1 1: sets up ratio test

lim

n n 1 x n n n 1 3

1 computes limit

3

n1

4 1: conclusion of ratio

3 test

n n 1

1: endpoint conclusion

At x 3 , the series is 1 , which diverges.

n 0 3

n 1

At x 3 , the series is , which diverges.

n 0 3

Therefore, the interval of convergence is 3 x 3 .

1

f x 1: answer

(b) lim 3 lim 2 3 x 4 x 2 ... 2

x0 x

x0 32 33 34 9

1 1 2 n 1

(c) f x dx 2 x 3 x 2 ... n1 x n ... dx

1

1: antidifferentiation

0

0 3 3 3 3

of series

x 1 1: first three terms for

1 1 1 1 3

x 2 x 2 3 x3 ... n1 x n1 ... definite integral

3 3 3 3 x 0 series

1 1 1 1 1: general term

2 3 ... n1 ...

3 3 3 3

1

(d)

0 1: answer

series.

1

1

f x dx 3 .

1

Therefore, 0 1 2

1

3

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Series

Student Study Session

19. 2002 BC6

2x

n2

n 1 2 x 2 x 1: sets up ratio

1 computes limit of ratio

n n 2

n

2x 1: identifies interior of

n 1 interval of convergence

1 1 2: analysis/conclusion at

2 x 1 for x endpoints

2 2 5

1: right endpoint

1 1

At x , the series is which diverges since 1: left endpoint

2 n 0 n 1 1 if endpoints not

this is the harmonic series. 1

1

n1 1

x

At x , the series is 1 which 2

2 n 0 n 1 1 if multiple intervals

converges by the Alternating Series Test.

1 1

Hence, the interval of convergence is x .

2 2

f x 2 4 x 8x 16 x ... 2 2 x ...

2 3 n

(b)

1: first 4 terms

2 1: general term

1

1 1 1

2

1

n

1: substitutes x into

f 2 4 8 ... 2 2 ... 3

3 3 3 3 infinite series from b or

n

4 8 16 2 2 express series from b

2 ... 2 ...

3 9 27 3 in closed form

2 6 1: answer for students

2 5 series

1

3

OR

2 1 1

f x for x . Therefore,

1 2x 2 2

1 2 6

f

3 1 2 5

3

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Series

Student Study Session

20. 2006 BC6

1 n 1 x n1 n 1 x

n1 2

n 1

(a) 1: sets up ratio

n2 1

n

nx n n 2 n 1: computes limit ration

n 1 x

2 1: identifies radius of

lim x 5 convergence

n n 2 n

1: considers both endpoints

The series converges when 1 x 1 . 1: analysis/conclusion for both

1 2 3 endpoints

When x 1, the series is ...

2 3 4

This series does not converge, because the limit

of the individual terms is not zero.

1 2 3

When x 1, the series is ...

2 3 4

This series does not converge, because the limit

of the individual terms is not zero.

Thus the interval of convergence is 1 x 1 .

1 4 9 1

(b) f x x x 2 ... and f 0 .

2 3 4 2 1: y 0

1 2 3 1

g x x x 2 ... and g 0 . 4 1: y " 0

2! 4! 6! 2 1: conclusion

y 0 f 0 g 0 0

1: reasoning

4 2 1

f 0 and g 0 .

3 4! 12

4 1

Thus, y 0 0 .

3 12

Since y 0 0 and y 0 0 , y has a relative

minimum at x 0 .

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Series

Student Study Session

21. 2008B BC6

1

(a) 1 u u 2 ... u n ...

1 u 1: two of the first four terms

3 1: remaining terms

1 x 2 x 4 x 6 ... x 2 ...

1 n

1: general term

1 x 2

2x

2 x 2 x3 2 x5 2 x 7 ... 1 2 x 2 n1 ...

n

1 x 2

(b) No, the series does not converge when x 1 because when 1: answer with reason

x 1, the terms of the series do not converge to 0.

(c) ln 1 x 2

x 2t 1: two of the first four terms

dt 2

0 1 t2 1: remaining terms

2t 2t 3 2t 5 2t 7 ... dt

x

0

1 1 1

x 2 x 4 x 6 x8 ...

2 3 4

2 4 6 8

5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1: uses x

(d) ln ln 1 ... 2

4 4 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 3 1: value of A

2 4

1 1 1 7

Let A . 1: justification

2 2 2 32

Since the series is a converging alternating series and the

absolute values of the individual terms decrease to 0,

6

5 1 1 1 1 1

A ln .

4 3 2 3 64 100

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Series

Student Study Session

22. 2002B BC6

1: series

(a) 2 1: interval of convergence

convergence is

(b) 1: answer

1: correct p

(d) Some p such that because the

3 1: reason why diverges

p-series diverges for and the

1: reason why converges

p-series converges for

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Series

Student Study Session

23. 2010 Form B BC6

1: sets up ratio

1: limit evaluation

(a) 5 1: radius of convergence

1: considers both endpoints

1: analysis and interval of

convergence

for

1

Therefore the radius of convergence is .

2

When the series is

The interval of convergence for the Maclaurin series of f is

1: series for

(b) 1: series for

4

1: series for

1: analysis with geometric series

Therefore for

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

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