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Student Study Session

Series Solutions (BC only)


We have intentionally included more material than can be covered in most Student Study Sessions to
account for groups that are able to answer the questions at a faster rate. Use your own judgment, based
on the group of students, to determine the order and selection of questions to work in the session. Be sure
to include a variety of types of questions (multiple choice, free response, calculator, and non-calculator)
in the time allotted.

Multiple Choice

1. D (1973 BC19)
I is a convergent p series, p 2 1
II is the Harmonic series and is known to be divergent
III is convergent by the Alternating Series Test

2. C (1985 BC14)
I is a convergent p series with p 2 1
II is the Harmonic series which is divergent
1
III is convergent by the Geometric Series Test with r 1
3

3. D (1985 BC31)
The center is x 1, so only C,D, or E are possible. Check the endpoints:

(1) n
At x 0 : converges by the Alternating Series Test.
n 1 n

1
At x 2 : which is the harmonic series and known to diverge.
n 1 n

4. A (1993 BC16)
I compare with p series, p 2 1so converges
6
II converges by the Geometric Series Test with r
7
III converges since it represents the alternating harmonic series

5. C (1993 BC27)
x 1
This is a geometric series with r .
3
x 1
Convergence for 1
3
x 1 3
Convergent for 2 x 4.

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Series
Student Study Session
6. C (1997 BC14)
3
Convergent by the Geometric Series Test since r 1
8
3
3
a1 so the sum will be S 2 2.4
2 3
1
8

7. E (1997 BC20)

( x 2) n

n 1 n 3n
. The endpoints of the interval of convergence are when ( x 2) 3; x 1, 5 .

Check endpoints: x 1 gives the alternating harmonic series which converges and x 5 gives the
Harmonic series which diverges. Therefore the interval is 1 x 5

8. B (1998 BC18)
I is divergent since the limit of the n th term is not zero.
II is convergent since it represents the alternating harmonic series.
III is divergent since it represents the harmonic series.

9. A (1998 BC22)
This is the integral test applied to the series in (A). Thus the series in (A) converges. None of the
others must be true.

10. C (2003 BC10)


4
4 2
This is a Geometric Series in which a1 and r so S 3 4
3 3 2
1
3

11. E (2003 BC22)



1
Simplify the terms with powers of n to compare to n
n 1
p 1

p 1 1 for the comparison series to converge by the p series test


therefore p 2.

12. D (2003 BC24)


I converges by the Geometric Series Test
II diverges by the p series test since p 1
en
III diverges by the n th term test since lim n 1 0
x e 1

13. D (2008 BC4)


en1 n ! en e n ! e
By the Ratio Test, lim lim lim 0 1
n ( n 1)! e
n (n 1)n ! e n n 1
n n

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Series
Student Study Session
14. D (2008 BC12)

en 1 x n 1 n ! en e x n x n ! e
By the Ratio Test, lim n n
lim n n
lim x 0 1
n
(n 1)! e x n
(n 1)n! e x n
n 1

15. D (2008 BC16)


2
By the Geometric Series Test, the series converges when 1.
x 1
2

x2 1
This implies 1
2
Therefore x2 1 2 x2 1 0
( x 1)( x 1) 0 for x 1 and x 1 only.

16. D (1998 BC76)


k must be odd in order for the first series to converge by the Alternating Series Test, and k must be
less than 4 in order for the second series to converge by the Geometric Series Test, therefore 3 is the
correct solution.

17. B (1998 BC84)


Omit answers D and E since they are centered at x 0 and the solution should be centered at x 2.
Check endpoints: x 3 converges by the Alternating Series Test and x 1 diverges by the
p series test therefore answer B is correct.

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Student Study Session

Free Response Solutions

18. 2001 BC6


n 2 x n1
(a) 3n2 lim
n 2 x x 1 1: sets up ratio test
lim
n n 1 x n n n 1 3
1 computes limit
3
n1
4 1: conclusion of ratio
3 test
n n 1

1: endpoint conclusion
At x 3 , the series is 1 , which diverges.
n 0 3

n 1
At x 3 , the series is , which diverges.
n 0 3
Therefore, the interval of convergence is 3 x 3 .
1
f x 1: answer
(b) lim 3 lim 2 3 x 4 x 2 ... 2

x0 x
x0 32 33 34 9
1 1 2 n 1
(c) f x dx 2 x 3 x 2 ... n1 x n ... dx
1
1: antidifferentiation
0

0 3 3 3 3
of series
x 1 1: first three terms for
1 1 1 1 3
x 2 x 2 3 x3 ... n1 x n1 ... definite integral
3 3 3 3 x 0 series
1 1 1 1 1: general term
2 3 ... n1 ...
3 3 3 3

The series representing f x dx is a geometric


1
(d)
0 1: answer
series.
1
1
f x dx 3 .
1
Therefore, 0 1 2
1
3

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Series
Student Study Session
19. 2002 BC6
2x
n2

(a) lim n n21 lim


n 1 2 x 2 x 1: sets up ratio
1 computes limit of ratio
n n 2
n
2x 1: identifies interior of
n 1 interval of convergence
1 1 2: analysis/conclusion at
2 x 1 for x endpoints
2 2 5
1: right endpoint
1 1
At x , the series is which diverges since 1: left endpoint
2 n 0 n 1 1 if endpoints not
this is the harmonic series. 1
1
n1 1
x
At x , the series is 1 which 2
2 n 0 n 1 1 if multiple intervals
converges by the Alternating Series Test.
1 1
Hence, the interval of convergence is x .
2 2
f x 2 4 x 8x 16 x ... 2 2 x ...
2 3 n
(b)
1: first 4 terms
2 1: general term

(c) The series in b is a geometric series.


1
1 1 1
2
1
n
1: substitutes x into
f 2 4 8 ... 2 2 ... 3
3 3 3 3 infinite series from b or
n
4 8 16 2 2 express series from b
2 ... 2 ...
3 9 27 3 in closed form
2 6 1: answer for students

2 5 series
1
3

OR
2 1 1
f x for x . Therefore,
1 2x 2 2
1 2 6
f
3 1 2 5
3

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Series
Student Study Session
20. 2006 BC6
1 n 1 x n1 n 1 x
n1 2
n 1
(a) 1: sets up ratio
n2 1
n
nx n n 2 n 1: computes limit ration
n 1 x
2 1: identifies radius of
lim x 5 convergence
n n 2 n
1: considers both endpoints
The series converges when 1 x 1 . 1: analysis/conclusion for both
1 2 3 endpoints
When x 1, the series is ...
2 3 4
This series does not converge, because the limit
of the individual terms is not zero.
1 2 3
When x 1, the series is ...
2 3 4
This series does not converge, because the limit
of the individual terms is not zero.
Thus the interval of convergence is 1 x 1 .

1 4 9 1
(b) f x x x 2 ... and f 0 .
2 3 4 2 1: y 0
1 2 3 1
g x x x 2 ... and g 0 . 4 1: y " 0
2! 4! 6! 2 1: conclusion
y 0 f 0 g 0 0
1: reasoning
4 2 1
f 0 and g 0 .
3 4! 12
4 1
Thus, y 0 0 .
3 12
Since y 0 0 and y 0 0 , y has a relative
minimum at x 0 .

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Series
Student Study Session
21. 2008B BC6
1
(a) 1 u u 2 ... u n ...
1 u 1: two of the first four terms
3 1: remaining terms
1 x 2 x 4 x 6 ... x 2 ...
1 n
1: general term
1 x 2

2x
2 x 2 x3 2 x5 2 x 7 ... 1 2 x 2 n1 ...
n

1 x 2

(b) No, the series does not converge when x 1 because when 1: answer with reason
x 1, the terms of the series do not converge to 0.

(c) ln 1 x 2
x 2t 1: two of the first four terms
dt 2
0 1 t2 1: remaining terms
2t 2t 3 2t 5 2t 7 ... dt
x

0
1 1 1
x 2 x 4 x 6 x8 ...
2 3 4
2 4 6 8
5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1: uses x
(d) ln ln 1 ... 2
4 4 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 3 1: value of A
2 4
1 1 1 7
Let A . 1: justification
2 2 2 32
Since the series is a converging alternating series and the
absolute values of the individual terms decrease to 0,
6
5 1 1 1 1 1
A ln .
4 3 2 3 64 100

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Series
Student Study Session
22. 2002B BC6
1: series
(a) 2 1: interval of convergence

We must have so interval of

convergence is

(b) 1: answer

(c) Some p such that because 1: correct p

converges by AST, but the 3 1: reason why converges

p-series diverges for 1: reason why diverges

1: correct p
(d) Some p such that because the
3 1: reason why diverges
p-series diverges for and the
1: reason why converges
p-series converges for

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Series
Student Study Session
23. 2010 Form B BC6

1: sets up ratio
1: limit evaluation
(a) 5 1: radius of convergence
1: considers both endpoints
1: analysis and interval of
convergence
for

1
Therefore the radius of convergence is .
2
When the series is

This is the harmonic series, which diverges.

When the series is

This is the alternating harmonic series, which converges.


The interval of convergence for the Maclaurin series of f is

1: series for
(b) 1: series for
4
1: series for
1: analysis with geometric series

is a geometric series that converges to for

Therefore for

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org