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CoordinationandSubordination:AvoidingRunOns,CommaSplices,AndFusedSentences.

UseCOORDINATIONtoshowthattwoormoreelementsinasentenceareequallyimportantinmeaning.

Option1: Independent1clause ,coordinatingconjunction independentclause.


,for
,and
,nor
,but
,or
,yet
,so

Option2:Independentclause;independentclause.

Option3: Independentclause ;commonconjunctiveadverb, independentclause.


;consequently,
;furthermore,
;however,
;indeed,
;infact,
;moreover,
;nevertheless,
;then,
;therefore,

UseSUBORDINATIONtoindicatethatsomeelementsinasentencearelessimportantthanothersforyour
meaning.

Option1:Dependent2clause,independentclause.
Inthissituation,asentencebeginswithoneofthefollowingwords,soacommamustcomeafterthedependent
clause:

After If Until
Although Inorderthat When
As/Asif Ratherthan Whenever
Because Since Where/Whereas
During Though Whether
Even/Eventhough Unless While

Option2:Independentclausedependentclause.

Inthissituation,thesubordinatingconjunctionfallsinthemiddleofthesentence(justbeforethedependent
clause).Inthiscase,youdonotaddacomma.


1
Anindependentclausemakesacompletestatementandcanstandaloneasasentence.
Iwenttothegrocerystore.

2
Adependentclauseisjustlikeanindependentclauseexceptthatitbeginswithasubordinatingword,whichturnsthe
independentclauseintoanincompletestatementthatcannotstandaloneasasentence.
WhenIwenttothegrocerystore,Iboughtsomemilk.