International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 2 Issue: 5 997 – 1004

An Overview on Message Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks
Based on Analysis of Block Cipher Algorithm

Sonam Bais a, Prof. Animesh Tayal b
Department of computer Technology (WCC ), Nagpur , India.
Asstt. Professor, Department of Computer Technology, PCE, Nagpur, India.

Abstract—Message authentication is one of the most efficient ways to prevent unauthorized and corrupted messages from being forwarded in
wireless sensor networks (WSNs). That's why, numerous message authentication proposals have been developed, based on either symmetric-key
cryptosystems or public-key cryptosystems. Many of them, however, have the restrictions of high computational and communication overhead
in addition to lack of scalability and resilience to node compromise attacks.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are being very popular day by day, however one of the main concern in WSN is its limited resources. One
have to look to the resources to generate Message Authentication Code (MAC) keeping in mind the feasibility of method used for the sensor
network at hand. This paper investigates different cryptographic approaches such as symmetric key cryptography and asymmetric key
cryptography. Furthermore, it discusses encryption technique such as block cipher (consider RC6).



Message authentication [1] performs a very important This section briefly describes the terminology and
role in thwarting unauthorized and corrupted messages from the cryptographic tools.
being delivered in networks to save the valuable sensor
energy. Therefore, many authentication schemes have been A. Threat Model and Assumptions
proposed in literature to offer message authenticity and The wireless sensor networks are implicit to consist of a
integrity verification for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) huge number of sensor nodes. It is assumed that each sensor
[5]–[9]. These approaches can largely be separated into two node recognizes its relative location in the sensor domain
categories: public-key based approaches and symmetric-key and is competent of communicating with its neighboring
based approaches. nodes directly using geographic routing. The entire network
The symmetric-key based approach necessitates composite is fully connected through multi-hop communications. It is
key management, lacks of scalability, and is not flexible to assumed that there is a security server (SS) that is liable for
large numbers of node compromise attacks since the generation, storage and distribution of the security
message sender and the receiver have to share a secret key. parameters among the network. This server will by no
The shared key is handled by the sender to produce a means be compromised. However, after deployment, the
message authentication code (MAC) for each transmitted sensor nodes may be compromised and captured by
message. However, for this process the authenticity and attackers. Once compromised, all data stored in the sensor
integrity of the message can only be confirmed by the node nodes can be obtained by the attackers. The compromised
with the shared secret key, which is usually shared by a nodes can be reprogrammed and completely managed by the
group of sensor nodes. An intruder can compromise the key attackers.
by incarcerating a single sensor node. In addition, this However, the compromised nodes will be unable to produce
method is not useful in multicast networks. new public keys that can be accepted by the SS and other
For the public-key based method, each message is nodes. Two types of possible attacks launched by the
transmitted along with the digital signature of the message adversaries are:
produced using the sender’s private key. Every intermediate • Passive attacks: By passive attacks, the adversaries could
forwarder and the final receiver can authenticate the snoop on messages transmitted in the network and execute
message using the sender’s public key [10], [11]. One of the traffic analysis.
restrictions of the public key based method is the high • Active attacks: Active attacks can only be commenced
computational overhead. from the compromised sensor nodes. Once the sensor nodes
are compromised, the adversaries will gain all the data
stored in the compromised nodes, including the security

IJRITCC | May 2014, Available @

However. To boost the term wireless sensor network (WSN) illustrates an threshold and the complexity for the intruder to reconstruct association among miniaturized embedded communication the secret polynomial. [31]. autonomous nature and intense deployment [1] [14]. networks (WSN). which is more practicable in the restricted theoretic security with ideas akin to to a threshold secret resources of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and also sharing.International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 2 Issue: 5 997 – 1004 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ parameters of the compromised nodes. sensor nodes produced using the sender’s private key. [34]. supply chain laser. interfaces to the Internet through satellite or cellular hoc nature it grows to be more attractive in certain communications. LITERATURE REVIEW causing stern loss of life and machinery. techniques. The network is composed of many minute to thwart the adversary from calculating the coefficient of nodes sometimes referred to as motes [35]. In these communication capabilities [29]. the added perturbation factor can up of the sensor(s). [21]. was introduced to the polynomial in [8] environment. energy automation. [20]. [23]. since diversity of applications. [14]. The adversaries can building administration. For example. the polynomial can be fully scrutiny of information from multiple locations [3]. when the number of messages transmitted is Wireless sensor networks simplify the compilation and greater than the threshold. using the sender’s public key. some nodes contain a GPS sensor that other Likewise.ijritcc. these networks (WSN) [33]. also called a devices that supervise and evaluate their surrounding perturbation factor. Wireless [12]. The recent development on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) focuses that the public. small memory and authentication techniques were projected for WSNs. the microcontroller. Others may contain node fails others can gather/proceed data. military. [18]. Therefore. Because of its ad. health and other commercial and alter the contents of the messages. made up of homogeneous devices. each characterized by a exclusive public-key based techniques have a simple and clean key set of requirements. Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Networks key schemes can be more beneficial in terms of memory Wireless sensor networks are deployed for a varied usage. symmetric key and hash based supplies. INSIDE VIEW ON WIRELESS SENSOR intermediate node to confirm the authenticity of the message NETWORKS through polynomial evaluation. energy. gaming. [25]. This scheme presents information. Every intermediate share general constraints. However. [27]. and diffuse light. While the classical sensor network management [13]. message complexity. This paper spotlights a techniques are not flexible to node compromise attacks. heterogeneous nodes that accomplish unique requirements. in a battleground. it has improved fault tolerance because if a sensor nodes can query to decide their location. [28]. This section recognizes the forwarder and the last receiver can authenticate the message exclusive challenges of wireless sensor _______________________________________________________________________________________ . sound. A cryptographic and encryption scheme that produces secret polynomial based message authentication technique Message Authentication Code (MAC) in wireless sensor was discussed in [7]. a military communication or allow for key rotation by an external module. and security resilience. where the threshold is determined by the degree of supply good security in communication as well. [32]. [26]. Available @ http://www. a random noise. Apart from of size. and a power source. the technique facilitates the IV. data can also be transmitted via environmental observation. These communication means management. 998 IJRITCC | May 2014. carry an assortment of network infrastructures. each symmetric authentication key is shared by Cryptographic algorithm performs a significant role in the a cluster of sensor nodes. The applications security is becoming a growing concern. For protocol may provide an integrated key-rotation mechanism example. computation. While radio frequency is the most general applications such as syndrome surveillance. vision enabling. [22]. the polynomial. An intruder can compromise the security and resource conservation of wireless sensor key by capturing a single sensor node. [16]. each message is sensor nodes range in size from a few millimeters to the size transmitted along with the digital signature of the message of a handheld computer. When the number of messages transmitted is lower the threshold. fire detection. and introduce their own home applications [15]. For the public-key based ap technique. [24]. the radio be entirely removed using error-correcting code schemes communication component. [30]. [6]. [19]. A node is made the polynomial. A. Security of WSN is a big challenge due to its limited resources such as power In papers [5]. The improved and the system is completely broken. network used for susceptible information exchange can be hacked by its adversaries if the WSN has security holes III. communication modality. An authentication protocol should be resistant to node With the extensive deployment of WSN for multi-faceted compromise by allowing secure key management. contemporary sensor Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have the lead over networks fit in modular design and make use of traditional networks in numerous ways such as large scale. messages. [17].

the need for integrity surpasses identical message. or encrypts. delay messages. content of the information has not been altered in any way each node must be inside radio range of any other node by an unauthorized intruder or improperly customized by an because messages can only voyage across a single hop. miniaturization. Available @ http://www. The reverse is true in message is candidly who it claims. authorized user. they are usually grouped under of messages across multiple hops. plaintext even after observing numerous encryptions of the In wireless sensor networks. may insert unauthorized packets into the network. Others require a densely populated network with and its output. it implies Security risks in wireless sensor networks contain that authentication and data integrity can be certified with a threats to the confidentiality. Security methods used on the Internet are not repudiation is a serious security service and must be simply adaptable to sensor networks because of the limited guaranteed in applications that engage financial and resources of the sensors and the ad-hoc feature of the business transactions. data integrity. or selectively drop information to produce cipher text inarticulate to any messages [39]. for 999 IJRITCC | May 2014. Non- the system. contained in a message grips a lower priority than the Network topology and coverage requirements decide the integrity and authenticity of the message. Without link-layer authentication. The communication means that the user of the information can trust that the infrastructure manipulates network topology. In some _______________________________________________________________________________________ . Without security entails a stronger assurance of confidentiality. the data redundant nodes accessible. where accountability of events is networks. In this case. Security in WSN simple hand-written signature. cause routing loops. The definitions used in this subsection are compromise. none of them is a the trustworthiness of the source of information. each node can a legitimate message from a trusted peer. Since alike mechanisms present origin Networks planned into a graph-like topology permit routing integrity and data integrity. not be able to reject later that he ever sent that message. In a robust wireless sensor network. In a wireless sensor general attacks against sensor networks. Cryptography scrambles. non-repudiation. In cryptography. An intruder should be an ad-hoc network where there is no base station or unable to propel a fabricated message and have it treated as communication infrastructure.International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 2 Issue: 5 997 – 1004 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ In a fundamental infrastructure-organized network. Semantic notifications about the location of the target. and availability of high level of guarantee and it cannot later be refuted. Integrity outshines other security achieve their goals with a network of sparsely deployed goals because of its influence on the reliability of the system sensors. the wireless communication link must remain obtainable for the network to sustain operations.ijritcc. Network layer attacks confidentiality include access control mechanisms and against routing protocols give the attacker the ability to cryptography. Digital security risks has not kept pace with the rate of signatures offer non-repudiation. This section underscores the challenges of Availability implies that an authorized user should be able to securing sensor network communications and demonstrates employ the data or resource as required. Some applications can the moniker ―integrity‖. the attacker can perpetrate attacks such as Semantic security needs that repeated encryption of a dropping intruder notifications. Networks may range in size from thousands of Non-repudiation means that the sender of a message should nodes to only a few. Data integrity and authentication with a counter or a non-repeating nonce gives semantic create a foundation for a highly available and trustworthy security. While many authentication schemes have been Origin integrity. Algorithms for unicast message authentication. Challenges five fundamental tenets of data security: confidentiality. spoofing intruder message M would yield unique cipher text each round. network. 1. It means panacea. The adoption of competent algorithms to alleviate significant to guarantee success of the applications. or forcing the entire confines the ability of an eavesdropper to understand the network into a continual state of reorganization. one achieved non-repudiation with a B. In the pre-digital scenario. and all layers of the sensor network protocol stack to potential availability. network size. The lack of proficient authenticated messaging exposes origin integrity. network. The data can be made understandable tracking targets provide valuable application layer to an authorized viewer who knows the secret key. Wireless sensor networks deployed for unauthorized viewer. Data integrity converse with any other node. Security Goals Security assessments of any application spotlight on the 2. an attacker derived from [36] and [37]. refers to conceived for wireless sensor networks. integrity. nodes that the receiver of a message can trust that the sender of the can only converse with a base station. Use of initialization vectors (IVs) seeded all other security goals. also recognized as authentication. Mechanisms used to accomplish into an infinite waiting state [38]. This notifications to create a diversion. This may Confidentiality means the camouflage of information from be used to introduce collisions and force legitimate nodes unauthorized entities. authentication.

An attacker can influence this strategy to Physical tampering poses a threat to sensors. The legitimate nodes will eventually accept the complex channel hopping patterns reduce battery life. An adversary must back-off and wait for the channel to clear before can flood the victim with synchronization requests and attempting to resend. a node TCP SYN flood concerns to sensor networks. While error. PROTOCOLS 1000 IJRITCC | May 2014. self-induced denial of between nodes. it network can become a router. To protect against this. The attacker can also spoofing or fabrication of routing data validate the need for selectively delay messages routed by the compromised origin and data integrity of even the simplest HI. Nodes adversarial node as their router. Attacks against Sensor Networks default router. One solution limits the number of synchronization detecting mechanisms suffice for common transmission needs accepted. Following a collision. such as the Internet smurf the process of bootstrapping newly deployed sensors with attack.International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 2 Issue: 5 997 – 1004 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ example. reliability of the connection. multiple messages to broadcast addresses with a source sensors must be tamper-proof or they must erase all address forged to the intended victim's address. however. program sensors to communicate on one specific wireless A alike attack. Similarly. analyze the Internet style attacks have their analogue in wireless sensor electronics. route traffic. While it is most efficient to network routing protocols. and steal cryptographic keys. The client must solve the puzzle and propel the answer to Network layer attacks take advantage of the ad-hoc the server before the server will recognize a full connection. an attacker could communication overhead. advertisements with the strongest radio signal. forwarding traffic from one may damage allies that have fewer computational resources node to another. Wormhole attacks facilitates eavesdropping. errors. Authentication cannot alleviate these the server will reply with a puzzle that the client must crack. Spread emerge to be forwarded from other nodes. This complicates networks. the powerful signal on the same frequency and introduce adversary sends a large number of fabricated messages that interference into the communications channel. This policy reduces the energy required for a node to converse with its 3. Protocols that apply sequencing Attackers can introduce collisions that force communicating may yield to Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. objects systems that frequency. The simplest attack Origin authentication and message integrity can alleviate compromises a routing node and forces it to drop messages. physical and link layer attacks. Sequencing. require the client to generated collisions. The attacker can continually introduce bound the ability for other nodes to converse with the collisions until the victim runs out of power. the adversary tunnels messages destined for one part of the network through a path under V. flood its Secure key rotation mechanisms can also mitigate the threat communication channel. victim. In a Sybil attack. legitimate messages from the responses in a smurf attack Jamming attacks against wireless radio frequencies affect needs a hierarchy not present in many wireless sensor the availability of the network. attacker can shape the flow of traffic. Available @ http://www. In a wormhole attack. If sensors convince legitimate nodes that it necessitates the least are distributed in an unprotected area. Filtering the of stolen cryptographic keys. The permanent and temporary storage when compromised. Threats such as creating a network ―black hole‖. Any node in the While this solution defend the server from SYN floods. destroy the nodes or collect the sensors. such as that done in the service (DoS). enhances the Link layer protocols face similarly challenging threats. do not meet the requirements for authenticating message replay. REVIEW OF MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION enemy control. and exhaust its power. or disconnection of a segment of the broadcast messages. called a Sybil attack. One technique to create black holes circumvents asymmetry of public key systems by dividing time into slots the way routing protocols organize the network. a more complex solution. The attacker can propel cryptographic keying material. an attacker could easily broadcast a more choose peers based on their reputation.ijritcc. the than the adversary does. Legitimate nodes spectrum technologies such as frequency-hopping spread commence to trust the attacker because it seems to fairly spectrum alleviate the impact of jamming. Misdirection attacks. Collisions maliciously injected near the construct a commitment to the server before it is allowed to end of a legitimate frame rapidly exhaust the resources of begin a conversation. work in sensor networks. but this limits both adversaries and allies. organization of wireless sensor networks. attacks at the network layer and above. algorithms that mimic the network. Nodes violate the real-time constraints of intrusion notification typically accept the router that broadcasts route systems. The classic nodes to retransmit frames. When the client opens a connection. broadcast retorts will overwhelm the victim. By manipulating routing information. resulting in a temporary. node. could also try to detect jamming and sleep until the jamming Transport-layer protocols present end-to-end connectivity stops. they do not reduce the influence of maliciously Client riddles. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).org _______________________________________________________________________________________ . the legitimate node.

purpose in an unreliable network. Both MD5 and SHA-1 have been established key broadcast. such as messages reach without modification or that they initiate confidentiality or replay protection. cryptographic checksums. then the recipient can be assured of message proposal possesses exclusive qualities that persuade its integrity. A message authentication code (MAC). Public key cryptography Hash functions give a level of message integrity between explains the problem of securely sharing a key for communicating peers. computational resources. A third advantageous cryptography gets the requirements because the two peers property of hashing algorithms says that two distinct are trusted not to disclose the key. In addition. the parity bit. smaller message digest [36]. one unicast messages. public computes the checksum x = h(M) . compromised. Broadcast Authentication create a checksum of 1-bit in length. MAC for a forged message. also known as hashes. an adversary could eavesdrop on the byte hash. compromise by permitting secure key management. or energy resources. The exclusive [42] hash functions are engaged in several security challenge for broadcast authentication engages the applications and protocols. will Broadcast authentication guarantees that multiple recipients acquiesce generate the same hash value. The recipient will compute the hash of M’. secret key. the hashing function is upon receipt. A MAC is generated by encrypting a message with a block Cryptographic Constructs cipher in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) or Cipher Feedback Modes (CFB) [14]. applicability. Use of the Cipher Block Chaining mode A. he can recompute the This section summarizes some of the most relevant checksum on the received message M. probable recipients. It then propels the key cryptosystems use far too a lot of storage. If an support the ability to immediately authenticate a message adversary finds out the secret key. storage. Many merge schemes for origin integrity and Cryptographic checksums cannot give assurance that message integrity with other security goals. it should be created by the sender/creator of the message by using a computationally not feasible to reverse the hash function. match the x’ sent by the attacker. Several The roots of message integrity commence with WSN authentication mechanisms utilize CBC-MAC. The simplest example. For This means that known the result of the hash h(M). integrity when a message is delivered from one sender to the hash must be easy to calculate. View on Conventional Authentication to create a MAC is commonly known as CBCMAC. and produce a legitimate susceptible to collisions [40. The protocol must authentication codes (MAC). not consuming major one receiver. The and send the concatenation of the message M’ and the hash protocol may offer an integrated key-rotation mechanism or x’. calculate the hash x’ = h(M’). If the key is broadcast to a hash of 16 bytes. all recipients overcome hash functions [40]. the CBCMAC operation has been shown to be checksum functions acquire a message and compact it into a apprehensive for variable length messages [44]. these features from an authentic sender. h(M) = h(M’). If the checksum proposals that incorporate origin integrity and data integrity added to the message matches the checksum calculated by in to wireless sensor network communications. checksum along with the message to the recipient. can be used to guarantee origin integrity. 43]. the recipient cannot the protocol must have small computation overhead for both authenticate that authenticity of the message. Thus. give both the data integrity of messages supporting the authentication protocol must checksums and origin integrity provided by a secret key. an instantiation of hashes that also necessitate low communication overhead. This of a message can authenticate its origin integrity. Available @ http://www. These However. the protocol should Both the sender and receiver should share the key. Since an attacker may recognize may use excessive processor. When the 1001 IJRITCC | May 2014. The MD5 [41] and SHA-1 of the message must share the symmetric key. Thus. Strong cryptographic Unicast authentication gives the assertion of origin hash functions must own three desirable properties. Second. the hashing algorithm in use. calculates the number of 1-bits in a message to B. Message the sender and the recipient of a message. static symmetric (shared) key should not be capable to decide M. applies a unique key. when hashed. However. MD5 abbreviates a message into management of that shared key. there constraints of wireless motes. computation. However. is a possibility that two distinct messages M and M’. known as a collision. detain the key. If using condition. First. an attacker could just restore An authentication protocol should be defiant to node message M with message M’.ijritcc. However.International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 2 Issue: 5 997 – 1004 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ recipient obtains message M. Finally. A sender organizes a message M and conventional Internet computing systems. Unicast vs. Each the recipient. can be subjugated to MACs to make sure broadcast authentication. will acquiesce two distinct effectiveness of symmetric key cryptography suit the checksums. The speed and messages. which will permit for key rotation by an external module. SHA-1 abbreviates a message into a _______________________________________________________________________________________ . as per the pigeonhole principle.

RC6 [46]. it utilizes shared key for both encryption of A*B integer multiplication modulo 2w plain text and decryption of cipher text. When any block ciphers. Since the MAC. Block Ciphers round so that fewer rounds are needed and the speed of the Symmetric key cryptography have two categories of cipher can be increased. encryption. In cryptography. 24. it can use Table 1 summarizes the block and key sizes of common RC6 as shorthand to consider to such versions. and 128 bits. Stream ciphers be indicated by lg w. Twofish [47] and Rijndael [48] were designed to There are three modules in RC5: key expansion. encryption and decryption. For all variants. Matt Robshaw. A>>>B rotation of the w-bit word A to the right by the A combination of factors such as security. easiness of implementation and flexibility f(x) = x(2x+1)mod 2w contributed to the assortment of this algorithm as the AES. RC6 is derivative from RC5 [49]. ANALYSIS ON RC6 subtraction modulo 2w. The base-two logarithm of w will ciphers: block ciphers and stream ciphers. RC6 is a symmetric key encryption so encryption and decryption algorithms uses shared key. RC6 could be considered as interweaving two without being captured. Ray Sidney competent to authenticate whether a received message is and Yiqun Lisa Yin [50]. parallel RC5 encryption processes. A version of RC6 is more considered for wireless sensor networks admit block sizes of precisely specified as RC6-w/r/b where the word size is w 32. the parameter Table 1: General Block Ciphers values will be specified as RC6-w/r. word and not just the least significant few bits.ijritcc. Key-Expansion algorithm is employed to Standard (AES) competition. in encryption it employs integer addition modulo 2w but in decryption it employs integer VI. RC6 has different algorithms for employing block ciphers to generate MAC. using data-dependent group.and 32-byte keys. work on a single bit or byte at a time. XTEA 128 64 Cipher Key Size (b) Block Size (b) A+B integer addition modulo 2w A-B integer subtraction modulo 2w Symmetric key encryption is frequent to ensure data A⊕B bitwise exclusive-or of w-bit words confidentiality. Block ciphers function Similar to RC5. amount given by the least significant lg w bits of B efficiency. 64. government. AES submission is aimed at w = 32 and r = 20. There are two main new features in RC6 compared to RC5: the enclosure The authentication scheme should aim at achieving the of integer multiplication and the employ of four w-bit following various objectives: working registers instead of two w-bit registers as in _______________________________________________________________________________________ . addition modulo 2w and XOR operations. In other words. the A<<<B rotation of the w-bit word A to the left by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) [45] is an encryption amount given by the least significant lg w bits of B standard adopted by the U. Available @ http://www. other value of w or r is intended in the text. sent by the node that is claimed or by a node in a exacting RC6 is very alike to RC5 in structure. RC6 does • Message integrity: The message receiver should be clever utilize an extra multiplication operation not present in RC5 to authenticate whether the message has been modified en- route by the adversaries. encryption has nonnegative number of rounds r and b utilize block ciphers because they can be used to create denoting the length of the encryption key in bytes. RC6-w/r/b RC5 0 ~ 2040 32/64/128 works on units of four w-bit words using the following RC6 128/192/256 128 fundamental operations [51]. Following subsection focuses produce the round sub keys that will be utilize in encryption only on RC6 for Authentication mechanisms typically and decryption algorithms. In other words. match the requirements of the Advanced Encryption and decryption.International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 2 Issue: 5 997 – 1004 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ and bandwidth resources to be provided in wireless sensor in order to formulate the rotation dependent on every bit in a networks. Twofish 128/192/256 128 Skipjack 80 64 The operations used in RC6 are given as followings. Common block ciphers of encryption algorithms. Authentication mechanisms typically bits. It • Message authentication: The message receiver should be was designed by Ron Rivest. guiltless node and insert fake messages into the network actually. the adversaries cannot pretend to be a rotations [49]. However. performance. the adversaries 1002 IJRITCC | May 2014. Integer multiplication is used to enhance the diffusion achieved per C. Of meticulous Ciphers Key Size(b) Block Size(b) relevance to the AES attempt will be the versions of RC6 AES 128/192/256 128 with 16-. RC6 is a completely parameterized family on groups of bits called blocks [37].S.

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