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VIBRATION SIGNALS FOR FAULT DETECTION

W. J. W

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, De Montfort University,

Leicester, England

P. D. MF

Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ, England

The wavelet transform is used to represent all possible types of transients in vibration

signals generated by faults in a gearbox. It is shown that the transform provides a powerful

tool for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. The vibration signal from a helicopter

gearbox is used to demonstrate the application of the suggested wavelet by a simple

computer algorithm. The major advantage of the wavelet transform for analyzing the signal

is that it possesses multi-resolutions for localizing short-time components so that all

possible types of gear faults can be displayed by a single timescale distribution resulting

from the transform.

7 1996 Academic Press Limited

1. INTRODUCTION

signal of the machine can be measured at some convenient location on the casing, together

with a signal which is synchronous with the rotation of a shaft or gear in the machine.

The time domain average of the vibration of an individual gear can then be extracted from

the original vibration signal, representing in the time domain the vibration of that

gear alone over one revolution [1, 2]. Although the time domain average of the vibration

of a gear contains all the information describing the gear condition, clear symptoms of

any damage may not be directly visible in the time domain average, particularly in the

early stages. Further processing of the time domain average may be necessary to detect

and diagnose the first signs of gear damage, and a wide variety of different techniques

have been explored over the years. Most techniques have sought to represent the gear

vibration signal in either the time domain or the frequency domain, with each approach

having its advantages and disadvantages. However, a more recent trend has been toward

representation in the timefrequency or timescale domain, seeking to combine the

advantages of both approaches.

A timefrequency distribution describes simultaneously when a signal component occurs

and how its frequency spectrum develops with time [35]. One important timefrequency

representation, the windowed Fourier transform, gives a constant resolution in the time

and frequency domains because the window width in the time domain is fixed. Reducing

927

0022460X/96/200927 + 13 $18.00/0 7 1996 Academic Press Limited

928 . . . .

the window width will increase the time resolution, but will reduce the frequency

resolution, because under the uncertainty principle, a higher time and frequency resolution

cannot be achieved simultaneously [5]. This may not be a problem when only one

resolution is required to display the components of interest. However, if resolutions are

required to be different to suit a variety of signal components of different duration, for

example in fault diagnosis where suitable resolutions may be not known in advance, this

fixed-window timefrequency distribution does not meet the requirement of displaying all

possible sizes of components.

Thus the windowed Fourier transform is really only suited to the analysis of signals

where all of the patterns appear at approximately the same size [6]. In the timefrequency

representation, the fixed resolution represents only one of all the possible sizes. The

features of other sizes in the signal cannot be expressed with reasonably high resolutions.

For example, in the existing timefrequency representation known as the Gabor

spectrogram [5, 7], the recommended width of the window for the detection of gear tooth

damage is related to the meshing period of one tooth. This fixed width may enable

representation of certain sizes of local damage on a tooth, but may not be suitable for other

faults, such as the long duration of distributed faults, or the very short duration of early

cracks.

The recently developed wavelet transform uses a changing width function so that not

one but a series of resolutions can be achieved in a single timescale display. Unlike

the Fourier transform, in which a signal is decomposed on to a sinusoid function basis,

the wavelet transform uses a more general function as the basis. This produces, on the

one hand, more comprehensive transform results but, on the other hand, a variety of

possible explanations. The selection of a wavelet basis thus becomes a major issue in

the application of the wavelet transform. With the rapid theoretical progress being

made in the wavelet transform over the past ten years, its applications have rapidly

penetrated areas of one-dimensional and two-dimensional signal analysis in many fields

of science and engineering. It is suggested here that if the property of the timescale

localization of the wavelet transform is applied to the analysis of local phenomena

in vibration signals, such as the short-time variations caused by faults, it may be

possible to give time and scale information for all of the possible sizes of features so

as to find the faults and assess their nature from a single three-dimensional

representation [8, 9].

The vibration signal picked up from an operating machine has long been used to

diagnose the condition of an inaccessible moving component inside the machine. Of

course, this vibration is assumed to be associated with the component, and normally

the component is one of the vibration generators. Therefore, any damage, such as a

fatigue crack, will cause a relatively short-time transient in the vibration. In the early

stages, this change is small, so that a high detection sensitivity is required. In gear fault

diagnosis, although the information about the gear condition can be conveyed by the

vibration signal transmitted through the gearbox casing, and the time domain average

[1, 2] produces a high signal-to-noise ratio for the gear in question, clear symptoms may

not be directly observed from the average and more information about its nature is

very hard to determine directly from the averaged time history. Timefrequency

distributions have already been applied to detect faults, and have been proved very

useful [5]. However, in more general cases, many faults with different durations are

possible in a mechanical component. Faults in a gear, such as wear and spalling, may

occur with many different sizes. Since the wavelet transform [6] uses a series of sizes

of windows to compare with all sections of the signal, it is therefore possible to display

them all simultaneously.

929

2. WAVELET TRANSFORM

To overcome the limitation of the fixed resolution of the windowed Fourier transform

in the time and frequency domains, Grossmann and Morlet [10] decomposed the signal

x(t) into a family of functions which are the translation and dilation of a unique-valued

function c(t), to give the wavelet transform which is defined by

g

a

a

where s is a scaling factor which produces dilation, t is the time or some other

spatial co-ordinate, and c(t) is called a wavelet. The corresponding wavelet family is

generated by translation of the wavelet in the time domain and dilation in the scale domain,

given by

where R denotes the set of real numbers. Any function in L2(R), the vector space of

measurable square integrable one-dimensional functions x(t), can be characterized by its

decomposition of the wavelet family of equation (2). A wavelet transform can be

interpreted as a decomposition of a signal into a set of frequency channels.

A process of dilation in a wavelet family is illustrated in Figure 1. As the scaling factor

increases, from bottom to top, the width of the wavelet envelope decreases. In Figure 2

are shown, from left to right, the corresponding Fourier spectra for the wavelet family.

As the scaling factor increases, both the centre frequency and the width of the frequency

band increase. By using all of the scales, the full frequency range can be covered, from

a low frequency to the required cut-off frequency.

Figure 1. Wavelets in the time domain. (a) Real part; (b) imaginary part.

930 . . . .

g g

a a

1

x(t) = WTx (t, s)zsc(s(t t)) ds dt, (3)

Cc a 0

where

g

a

=C( f )=2

Cc = df (4)

0

f

and C( f ) is the Fourier transform of c(t). In order to reconstruct x(t), Cc must satisfy

Cc Q +a. (5)

An important particular case of the discrete wavelet transform is that some wavelets c(t)

exist such that the family

z2 jc(2 j(t 2jn))( j,n) $ Z2 , (6)

2

where Z denotes the set of integers, is an orthonormal basis of L (R) [8, 11, 12]. The

orthonormal wavelet transform is defined as

g

a

a

j$Z n$Z

Orthogonal wavelets, such as the well-known Daubechies wavelet series, offer faster

algorithms and no redundancy in the decomposition [8, 12]. The original signal can be

reconstructed by a minimum number of wavelet terms. That is, the original signal is

decomposed into a compact wavelet series, which is advantageous in signal reconstruction.

However, due to its special shape and limited number of scales, a single wavelet amplitude

931

map has not enough scales to describe all the details, both large and small, of the

signal. Since N = 2M samples normally provide M + 1 different widths of wavelets, all

scales of transients in the analyzed signal will be scaled only into the nearest size of wavelet.

In gear damage detection, a small change in the vibration signal may miss the chance

of matching the wavelet of the same size during the translation and dilation, as the

locations of the orthogonal wavelets are limited, and there is no intermediate scale and

location provided, so that no wavelet matches well the features of the signal. Another

problem of using the orthogonal wavelets is the time translation variant. That is, the

same transients at different time may be shown as different patterns. Therefore, using

the non-orthogonal wavelet transform is preferred for the timescale representation of

short-time features, avoiding the mentioned problems.

The wavelet transform means that the function x(t) is characterized by its decomposition

of a wavelet family with a series of different frequency bandwidths. This can be

explained by working out the bandwidth of the wavelet family. The Fourier transform

of the wavelet family zsc(st) is

g

a

( f f0 )=C( f )=2 df = 0,

0

so that

g >g

a a

0 0

For the wavelet family, one finds, by substituting equation (9) into (10), that the centre

frequency of the passband is

g >g

a a

0 0

The root mean square bandwidth of the wavelet around f0 is given by sf , where

g

a

0

With C( f ) replaced by Cs ( f ) and f0 by sf0 in the above equation, the root mean square

bandwidth is seen to be ssf . That is, the bandwidth of the wavelet is proportional to the

scaling factor s. Thus the wavelet transform produces a series of frequency channels with

increasing bandwidth as the scale s changes.

3. DAMAGE DETECTION

Early damage to a gear tooth usually causes a variation in the associated vibration signal

over a short time, initially less than one tooth meshing period, taking the form of

modulated or unmodulated oscillation. In later stages, the duration of the abnormal

variation becomes longer, lasting more than one tooth meshing period. Other distributed

faults, such as eccentricity and wear, may cover the most part of the whole revolution of

the gear.

932 . . . .

To suit these features, the wavelet c(t) can be chosen to be a Gaussian-enveloped

oscillation, given by

c(t) = c exp(s 2t 2 i2pf0 t), (13)

where c, s and f0 are positive parameters, s determines the width of the wavelet and

hence the width of the frequency band, and f0 is the frequency of oscillation which is the

centre frequency of the band. The parameter c can usually be unity. It is to be expected that

by changing the scaling factor in its corresponding wavelet family, this function will be

suitable for the modelling of all sizes of oscillating transients in a gear vibration signal.

The Fourier transform of c(t) is given by

C( f ) = (czp/s) exp((p/s)2( f + f0 )2 ). (14)

It can be seen that the frequency of oscillation f0 appears at the centre of the frequency

band of the wavelet. From the definition of equation (1), the wavelet transform is

g

a

WTx (t, s) = x(t)czs exp(s 2s 2(t t)2 i2pf0 s(t t)) dt. (15)

a

For transients, the wavelet c(t) can also be chosen from other functions, such as a

symmetrical Gaussian-enveloped oscillating function, given by

c(t) = c exp(s 2t 2 ) cos (2pf0 t) (16)

with a Fourier transform of

The wavelet family czs exp(s 2s 2(t t)2 i2pf0 s(t t)) is illustrated in Figure 1,

which models the oscillating transients with all oscillating frequencies as the scale changes.

At the same time, the width of the wavelet is reduced as the scale becomes larger.

The Fourier spectra for all scales of wavelets are shown in Figure 2.

When a signal is decomposed on to one of these wavelet bases, large values will be

obtained if there is a transient with the same shape as the wavelet. The wavelet family of

equation (13) is well suited to the detection of the transients in the signal, such as the

transients caused in a vibration signal by a cracked gear tooth.

4. COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION

For gear damage diagnosis, the function x(t) can be either the time domain average of

the vibration of a gear or the corresponding analytic function, both of which are periodic

with the gear rotation. The selected wavelet of equation (16) satisfies c(t) = c

(t), so that,

by using the convolution theorem, equation (15) can be written as

WTx (t, s) = (1/zs)F1 (X( f ) C

( f/s)), (18)

where F represents the Fourier transform, and C

( f ) represents F(c

(t)). For the Gaussian

enveloped oscillating wavelet in equation (13), the wavelet transform can be written as

WTx (t, s) = (c/zss)F1 (X( f ) exp((p/s)2(( f/s) f0 )2 )). (19)

Thus the calculation of the wavelet transform can be implemented by an inverse Fourier

transform, taking advantage of the efficient fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm.

933

The Fourier transform of the wavelet family can be written as

(c/zss) exp((p/ss)2( f sf0 )2 ), (20)

which implies that the centre frequency of the wavelet is sf0 , proportional to s. Since the

half-power bandwidths in the time and frequency domains are tB = 118/s and fB = 0375s

respectively, then at scaling factor s, they are therefore 118/ss and 0375ss respectively.

The narrower the wavelet is in the time domain, the wider it is in the frequency domain.

This increases the frequency overlap between the wavelets of adjacent high scales, which

brings about redundancy.

Consider a new discrete scaling factor

s = 2kl, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M 1, (21)

M

where M is an integer. For N samples of signal, M can be defined by 2 = N. The centre

frequency and half-power bandwidth of the kth wavelet become

f0 (k) = 2klf0 , fB (k) = 0375 2kls. (22, 23)

If the cut-off frequency is fC , the analysis frequency range then will be [( f0 0187s), fC ].

At the scaling factor k = M 1, the cut-off frequency is

fC = 2(M 1)lf0 + 0187 2(M 1)ls. (24)

Let adjacent frequency bands overlap at half-power points, so that

2klf0 + 0187 2kls = 2(k + 1)lf0 0187 2(k + 1)ls, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M 1,

which can be simplified to

f0 + 0187s = 2lf0 0187 2ls. (25)

In Figure 3, the top and bottom curves show upper and lower frequencies, and the middle

curve is the centre frequency.

From equation (25)

f0 = 0187{(2l + 1)/(2l 1)}s. (26)

934 . . . .

From equations (22), (23) and (26), the lower and upper frequencies of each band or

channel are, respectively,

2kl 2(k + 1)l

fL (k) = f0 (k) 12 fB (k) = 0375 l s, fU (k) = f0 (k) + 12 fB (k) = 0375 s.

2 1 2l 1

Therefore the scaling factor s = 2kl brings about l (for example 12 or 13 ) octave frequency

bands, so that

fU (k) = 2lfL (k). (27)

For a given cut-off frequency, there are four parameters, f0 , s, l and M, to be adjusted.

Two independent equations, (24) and (25), can be used to determine two parameters

given the values of the others. In total, there are 4 3/(2 1) = 6 combinations of

situation, but probably only two of these are likely. Firstly, M and l can be set to find

f0 and s. By considering equations (24) and (26), f0 and s can be found as

f0 = {(2l + 1)/2Ml + 1}fC , s = 535{(2l 1)/2Ml + 1}fc . (28, 29)

Secondly, l and f0 can be set to find s and M. Parameters f0 and s can be found as

0 1

(2l 1) 144 f 2l + 1

s = 535 f, M= ln C l + 1 + 1. (30, 31)

(2l + 1) 0 l f0 2

Upon assuming that N samples exactly cover one period of the signal, the corresponding

discrete form of equation (18) is given by the circular convolution

N1

1

WTx (n, k) = (2klr) exp(2pirn/N),

s X(r)C

z2 kl

r=0

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N 1; k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M 1, (32)

where X(r) and C (2klr) take the discrete values of the Fourier transforms of x(t) and

c(t) respectively. A typical timescale distribution of the wavelet transform will require

M FFTs of N samples. Usually, M is small, and therefore a complete map of the wavelet

transform can be completed quickly. For the calculation of the discrete form of the FFT,

aliasing-free conditions must be satisfied for a given cut-off frequency.

Equation (32) can be implemented easily on a personal computer by a short program,

in which a standard FFT algorithm can be called. The resulting distribution can be

displayed in contour form as a two-dimensional chart with a typical size of 1024 10

pixels, representing the rotation angle of the gear and wavelet transforms with different

scaling factors s.

5. EXAMPLES

The time domain averages described in this section were obtained from a helicopter main

rotor gearbox undergoing a fatigue test in a full-scale back-to-back gearbox test facility

[13]. During sustained testing at very high load, a fatigue crack began at the root of one

tooth in the input spiral bevel pinion and subsequently propagated along the length of

the tooth.

In Figure 4, the top left curve shows the time domain average of the vibration of the

gear obtained before the fatigue crack began to propagate. The gear has 22 teeth, but in

the time domain average the fourth harmonic at 88 orders is dominant, either due to a

935

high frequency response in the vibration propagation path, or else the particular gear tooth

geometry. By removing the fundamental and harmonics of the tooth meshing frequency,

the residual signal shown in the bottom left of Figure 4 is obtained, representing the

difference between the actual vibration signal and that caused by a hypothetical average

tooth [14]. At this stage, there is no indication of tooth damage.

Figure 5 is the timescale distribution of the wavelet transform for the residual signal,

based upon the Gaussian-enveloped oscillation wavelet family. Absolute values of the

Figure 5. Timescale distribution of residual for undamaged gear (1/2 octave passband).

936 . . . . c

Figure 6. Timescale distribution of residual for damaged gear (1/2 octave passband).

wavelet transform are presented. Due to the variations between the teeth caused by normal

manufacturing errors, extensive patterns appear at all scales. All sizes of variation in the

signal are fully displayed. There is no dominant peak in the distribution, showing that there

is no damage. At the low scale of 2, three large hills spaced at intervals of one third

of a revolution are apparent. The cause of these peaks is not certain, but they

could originate from a coupling external to the gearbox. Small sizes of variation can be

found in the higher scale area. However, the pattern is relatively uniform and at a low

level, confirming that the gear is in good condition. At low values of s, at which large sizes

of variations in the signal should be apparent, the distribution is also relatively uniform

through the whole rotation of the gear.

The top right curve of Figure 4 shows the time domain average for the vibration of the

same gear obtained shortly after the fatigue crack had started to propagate. Note that there

is still no indication of damage which can be observed as the time domain average is

dominated by the strong vibration at the harmonics of the tooth meshing frequency. After

removal of the fundamental and harmonics, the residual signal of the bottom right of

Figure 4 shows a large burst of vibration around sample 750, near 270 degrees of rotation,

caused by the fatigue crack, followed by a smaller burst slightly later at sample 950, about

345 degrees.

Figure 6 represents the timescale distributions of the residual signal obtained for

the wavelet transform. In the distribution, when using absolute values, clear peaks near

sample 750 show details of the components. At low scales, no significant changes appear.

In Figure 7 is shown the distribution when using 20 scales, which gives finer details along

the scale co-ordinate, which may sometimes be necessary but at the cost of increased

computing time.

937

Figure 7. Timescale distribution of residual for damaged gear (1/8 octave passband).

6. DISCUSSION

There are strong similarities between the timescale distributions shown in Figures 57

and the timefrequency distribution of the Gabor spectrogram [5, 7], but for the important

difference that in the wavelet transform the resolution becomes higher as the scale s

becomes larger. Low resolution is used at low scales to show large sizes of faults and high

resolution is used at high scales to display small sizes of faults. The examples given

demonstrate that the timescale distribution of the wavelet transform can successfully

represent, in a single display, both small and large sizes of variations in the vibration of

a gear, such as the small variation from one tooth to the next due to normal manufacturing

errors, or the large scale changes due to tooth damage, eccentricity or other faults. This

may be contrasted with the timefrequency distribution, in which the width of the window

remains constant across the distribution, so that a selected width may only be suitable for

one particular type of fault under study.

Some progress has already been made toward automated interpretation of

timefrequency distributions [15]. The timescale distribution may need to be inspected

and interpreted by a sophisticated system since, firstly, each scale value corresponds to a

bandpass filter with pre-defined boundaries and a centre frequency and, secondly, a

different wavelet family gives a completely different distribution in the timescale domain.

The choice of types can be varied, depending on the objective of the signal processing.

The features to be identified in the timescale distribution are different from those in the

timefrequency distribution, and new rules to suit a particular timescale distribution need

to be worked out for automatic interpretation.

The basis of selecting the wavelet family to perform the transform is to find a

function to compare the local components of interest. Therefore, the transform gives a

high level if at a certain scale and time there is a similarity between the wavelet and the

analyzed signal, otherwise it gives a low level. The change of scale can be linear or octave,

938 . . . .

and the number of scales can also be chosen according to the requirement of frequency

resolution.

7. CONCLUSIONS

This paper has outlined the definition of the wavelet transform and then demonstrated

how it can be applied to the analysis of the vibration signals produced by a gear in

a helicopter gearbox in order to represent gear condition and detect faults. It has

been shown that the timescale distribution of the wavelet transform can be employed to

analyze the local features of vibration signals. Unlike the timefrequency distribution,

which incorporates a constant time and frequency resolution, the wavelet transform can

display simultaneously both the large and small sizes in a signal, enabling the detection

of both distributed and local faults. From the possible choices of wavelets, it is suggested

that the Gaussian-enveloped oscillating wavelet is well-suited to detecting various sizes

of gear faults. By adopting a series of different scales and shifting along the time axis

via all locations, the wavelet can be arranged to compare all sections of the analyzed

signal so that all faults, large size and small size, can be represented in a single display.

In the implementation, effective wavelet bandwidths and speed of dilation have been

recommended, to ensure that the number of scales just covers the frequency band of

interest and that redundancy of computation is minimized.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to thank the Mechanical Research Division of Westland Helicopters

Limited for supplying the Wessex gearbox data.

REFERENCES

1. S. G. B 1986 Mechanical Signature Analysis. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press. See pp.

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372389. The Wigner distributiona tool for timefrequency signal analysis, part 3: relations

with other timefrequency signal transformations.

4. L. C 1989 Proceedings of the IEEE 77(7), 941981. Timefrequency distributiona review.

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Early detection of gear failure by vibration analysis, I: calculation of the timefrequency

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20912110. Multifrequency channel decompositions of images and wavelet models.

7. D. G 1946 Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 93, 429457. Theory

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Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 31 January3 February, PD-Vol. 52, 1520. Application of

the wavelet transform to gearbox vibration analysis.

10. G. G and G. M 1984 SIAM Journal of Mathematics 15, 723736. Decomposition

of Hardy functions into square integrable wavelets of constant shape.

11. C. K. C 1992 An Introduction to Wavelets, Volume 1. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press.

12. I. D 1992 Ten Lectures on Wavelets. Pennsylvania: SIAM.

939

13. M. J. S 1981 Westland Helicopters Ltd, Mechanical Research Report MRR-20019.

Wessex main rotor gearbox (MOD 1762) fatigue testvibration monitoringtrial no. 3 (final).

14. P. D. MF 1987 Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 1(2), 173183. Examination

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timefrequency distribution using image processing techniques.

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