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CHAPTER 1 : Introduction


This research explores the factor influence vendor at Baitulmal Building, Kuching using
focus group discussions conducted in Baitulmal itself which located in Kuching, Sarawak.
Then, we as researcher interview each of the vendor why they choose Baitulmal as their
choices. The themes identified were the retailers choose Baitulmal Building is the perception
about the management that fully provide, accommodation complete, buyers everyday came to
buy, competitive market and retail outlets that have a good and pleasant environment
shoppers. Despite the factor vendor growing every year in every place, not only in outside
Kuching still they choose Baitulmal Building as their first choice to rent a vendor for


Retail is the sale of goods to end users, not for resale, but for use and consumption by
the purchaser. Retail involves the sale of merchandise from a single point of purchase directly
to a customer who intends to use that product. The single point of purchase could be a brick-
and-mortar retail store, an Internet shopping website, a catalogue, or even a mobile phone.
The retail transaction is at the end of the. Manufacturers sell large quantities of products to
retailers, and retailers attempt to sell those same quantities of products to consumers. It is
known as retailing, retail sale, retail transaction, retail business, retail trade ,retail industry
and many more.

In this modern era, retailing are most important since they are final link in the supply
chain between manufacturers and consumers. Retailing is important because it allows
manufacturers to focus on producing goods without having to be distracted with the
enormous amount of effort that it takes to interact with the end-user customers who want to
purchase those goods. Retailers should make the purchase of goods easy for the consumer.
That's why retail stores have salespeople, why internet shopping websites have customer
service instant chat popups, and why catalogues have descriptions, photos and toll-free phone
numbers. Retailing is about displaying products, describing the features and benefits of
products, stocking products, processing payments and doing whatever it takes to get the right
products at the right price to the right customers at the right time. Some retailers offer
additional services to the retail transaction like personal shopping consultations, and gift


wrapping to add something extra to the retail customer experience and exceed the retail
customer experience.

Besides, retail is common word for global which means ‘retail is everywhere’. The
number of retailers keeps on growing and diversifying, for example the growth in retailers
who are trending online. Next, the factor of retailing is job benefits. Retail offers benefits job,
providing an interesting lifestyle and an exciting and varied carrier path. This is the reason
people can choose to work in sector of retail that suits to each of everyone personality,
hobbies and potential receive staff discounts on products we like. Most importantly many of
the skills acquired from working in retail will be beneficial to future employment and many
aspects in personal life.


especially those with family commitments. They drive in . park. There are several factor that affect the Baitulmal building which is the ‘variety’. opportunity business and multitude of opportunities will provide when retailers start to doing business. The amount of parking space is directly related to the retail area. Talk about variety meaning to say occupations. the retailers service also helps to enhance a product’s image. retailers perform marketing functions that makes it possible for customers to have access to a broad variety of products and services. walk to their destination in relative safety and speed. time and possession utilities. Its site is deliberately selected by the developer for easy access to pull customers from a trade area. career streams. Retailing also helps to create place. retailing in a way is the final stage in marketing channels for consumer products since ‘retail is everywhere’ also the will give impact on factor of retailing. the building has great potential for customer attraction. This means retailers can be employed and earning an income whilst also being able to attend to other commitments that might have. the retail factor is an ideal environment in which to work because of the flexibility of the hours and shift patterns. 3 . Last. By doing this. It is downtown and local business strips. Customers like the shopping center's convenience. retailers participate in the sorting process by collecting an assortment of goods and service from a wide variety of suppliers and offering them for sale.Background of the study Baitulmal are distinctly different from the other two major locations. Besides. For many people. Since have great potential. the another factor is flexibility. Some shopping centers also provide weather protection and most provide an atmosphere created for shopping comfort. For the customer . there are not many industry that can offer the retailers same degree of flexibility as retail. This building is pre planned as a merchandising unit for interplay among tenants. It has on site parking as a common feature of the layout. Lastly. this will benefit customers from retailing is that.

Based on the above mentioned low per-capita consumption of retail brand products and the market challenges that still exist in Malaysia for retail brand products purchases. during the course of starting and managing their enterprise. the retailer has to face a stiff competition in the retail business. In spite of the significant growth happened in grocery market and over retail brand. packaging perception.Problem statement For retailer. this study is trying to identify that intention to purchase retail brand products are expected to be influenced by attitude and subjective norm of customers. In order to keep possessions of their sales volume. little studies have been done on customers’ perceptual factors. self-concept congruity have been chosen because the customers’ perceptual characteristics are mostly connected to retail brand purchase behavior. Majority of the owners themselves performed a limit less of resource. So. 4 . the researcher made sincere attempt to analyse the prospects faced by retailers in the study. The relationship of retail brand attitude and subjective norm with purchase intention of retail brand would be tested in two different retail brand products. it is very difficult to retain the potential buyer because the buyers are scattered according to their convenience of purchasing. perceived quality variation. This study also identify whether perceptual factors influence on attitude toward retail brand products. In this research customers’ perceptual factors like price consciousness.

or the size of the office you need?  Is there any relationship as in know what you want to sell and what you want for your business to be known for?  Is there any relationship that can relate as customers and delivery trucks can easily get in and out of the parking lot?  Is there any relationship for the location how much additional marketing will take for customers to find you?  Is there any adequate parking that Baitulmal will provide? Research Significance 5 . Research Questions  Is there any relationship how much retail space.  To identify the characteristics of retailing among the employees. storage area.Research Objective The main objective of this study are to examine retailers choosing Baitulmal as their retailing place. The aim of this study is to determine :  To identify the perception towards choosing the retailing as a career as their choice.  How satisfied retailer with the business in Baitulmal either their business is strong hold within a year.  How does internal and external environment of Baitulmal impact on consumer choice of shopping centers.

is only used for lawful purpose and is only kept for as long as it necessary. the research is able to get an experience. Some of the respondents may not give accurate information. It must be made clear as data being collected and the consent of the participants must be obtained. For instance. 6 . The value of any research findings depend critically on the accuracy of the data collected. The use of the findings of this research can give better understanding about the problem matter and assist in developing a new model that is more reliable for future action. III. There may be some positive and negative biases of the respondents. researchers must ensure that the data they obtain is kept source. Efforts to ensure that data is accurate is samples are representative and interviewers are objective will all add to the costs of the research but such cost are necessary. I. II. as they may not like to reveal their actual sales and etc. Research limitation This research is restricted to the retailers of the Baitulmal areas only. increase more knowledge and skill. it can answer the question and give inner satisfaction as researcher. Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak  This research can be used as a future reference by the students as well as the lectures. On the other hand. The researcher  From this research. Consumers would like to portray themselves as trendy and elite and may not give their actual preferences to anyone. The retailers  It provides marketers and business owners with a metric that they can use to manage and improve business. by conducting this research.

Anderson and Sullivan.g. or its sevices (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals. whose reported experience with a firm. complete customer satisfaction is the key to securing customer loyalty and generating superior long-terms financial performance. First. Definition of Terms The definition of terms is an idea or theory containing various conceptual elements. It is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet a surpass customer expectation. a presentation of the customer purchasing process will be given in order to provide a background how to achieve customer satisfaction.Chapter 2 : Literature Review Introduction This section reviews the customer satisfaction theories and models. or percentage of total customers. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction (often abbreviated as CSAT.1992). and analyses the reasons behind the customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction concerning the mobile telephony service. 7 . Customer satisfaction is important because it provides marketers and business owners with a metric that they can use to manage and improve their business. Customer satisfaction is typically viewed as a predictor for such behavioural variables as loyalty and purchase intentions (Jones and Sasser. typically one considered to be subjective and not based on empirical evidence. According to Jones and Sasser (1995). 1993). 1994). It is also widely noticed that high customer satisfaction leads to relationship strength and a deep state of collaboration has been found profitable (e. Customer satisfaction is a marketing term that measures how products or services supplied by a company meet or surpass a customer’s expectation. 1995. Storbacka et al. Customer satisfaction also appears to have a stronger and more consistent affect on purchase intention that does service quality (Cronin and Taylor. more correctly CSAT) is a term frequently used in marketing. its products. Customer satisfaction is defined as “the number of the customers.

For measuring the customer satisfation in regard to the quality of service. albeit indirectly.” According to Xia et al. In a separate study on factors affecting customer satisfaction. through the perception of price fairrness. (2004).” This is backed up by another study from Herrmann et al.Service Quality Service quality means an assessment of how well a delivered service conforms to the clients expectation. Price Perceptions According to Herrmann et al. we need to be pricing our products high enough to give the resources to offer amazing customer experiences. To improve overall customer satisfaction. They view a provider’s service quality by comparing their perceptions of service experiences with their expectations of what the service performance should be. The price fairness itself and the way it is fixd and offered have a great impact on satisfaction. Consumers of product or service will make the judgement about the quality of the product or service relative to what they want. which concluded that customer satisfaction is directly influenced by price perceptions. acceptable or justifiable. (1992). price fairness refers to consumers’ assessment of whether a seller’s price is reasonable. price perceptions directly influence satisfaction judgements: “The research demonstrated the influence of perceived price fairness on satisfaction judgements empirically. the authors found that “charging a fair price helps to develop customer satisfaction and loyalty. 8 . It usually refers to the customer perceived quality as it is basically defined from a customer’s point of view and not from the producer’s point of view. (2007).

The theoretical and conceptual framework is based on the findings presented in the literature reviewed earlier. Each of the steps are described below.1 9 . which will be employed by this study.Theoretical Framework And Study Based on the insights provided by the literature review and group. Sa sfati S cti C ch u ro P n ou stm eig an d ers rc ro u P ai sn cesh g Servic Q a lity u e asu M e rin M C gsto m u ern g Serv iceQ u ali ty Sa ti sfacSC u tin o e o sfactm r n P erciP v ved V V e alu Figure 1. and analyses the reasons behind the customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction concerning the mobile telephony service. First.The purpose of this chapter is to present a theoretical and conceptual framework and a preliminary model of post choice satisfaction. we propose a framework for developing context-specific definition of consumer satisfaction. a presentation of the customer purchasing process will be given in order to provide a background for how to achieve customer satisfaction. This section reviews the customer satisfaction theories and models. Then. the measurement of customer satisfaction will be presented. Thereafter. the concept of a perceived value and service quality will be examined.

perceptions. and getting continues valuable feedback from the customers. (2007) developed a model for service consumption which consists of three stages. Feclikova (2004) idenified some problem at different levels in measuring the customer satisfaction using these techniques. and alternative service products. and Lovelock et al. The process of the customer satisfaction is a projective way to get into the mind of the customers. (2006). search for information. management style and also the level in which the process is conducted. formal procedures and systems. 10 . First. 1988). evaluation of the set of available alternatives. It enables a business organization to evaluate its ability to meet to the customer’s expectation. The customer satisfaction measurement is a useful means to meet the objectives of the business organizations and to analyse the performance of an offering to customers to identify the areas of improvements as well as customers’ priorities. Third type of problem arise from. 2006). the perception of need and the search for information that accordingly clarifies that need. It is a predictive tool. However. and customer judgement of the fulfilled state. Measurement of the customer satisfaction involves market techniques such as survey methods. study of a focus group. and purchasing and post purchase evaluation... Lovelock et al. The pre-purchase stage which is a constituent of three components. obligation and outcome behaviour resulting from people involved in the process. 1994). first. exploring the solution. standardize packages for monitoring customer satisfaction. desires and needs effectively (Parasuraman et al. Satisfaction is the customer’s reaction to the assessment of the perceived difference between prior expectations that can be seen as predictions about what will possibly occur in the future (Parasuraman et al. and different computer software. flow of information. problem can be encountered in analytical such as techniques. Furthermore. motivation. 1988). type f problem encountered are behavioural such as attitudes. beliefs. the suppliers. This process is considered as the key element in total quality management (Zairi. Oliver (1997) defined the customer satisfaction as the customer reaction to the state of fulfilment. (2007). customers are passing through five steps of a decision making process when they make a purchase: need recognition and problem awareness. which can serve as a base for customer segmentation (Kotler et al. Second. According to Kotler et al. organizational issues such as organizational structure. second.

2006). For measuring the customer satisfaction in regard to the quality of services delivered to the customer. Price is the amount paid in order to access the service and use the network. Many scholars agreed upon the four features that are the main grivers of the customer value on mobile telephony services. customer sevice. maintenance service. It usually refers to the customer perceived quality as it is basically defined from a customer’s point of view and not from the producer’s point of view. voice clarity. Zeitthaml (1996) and Holbrook (2006) defined the perceived value as “the results or benefits customers receivein relation to the total cost (which include the price paid plus other costs associated with the purchase). etc. 11 . Network quality includes network coverage (indoor and outdoor). billing. and Booz et al. Customer service includes the quality of the service delivered to the customer such as customer care. these features are network quality price. Turrel et al. it is necessary to review the concept of quality of service. Bolton.and connection quality. and personal value and benefit (Danaber et al 1996. Holbrook referred to this evaluation as the comparison of a product or service’s “get” and “give” mechanism. (2006) argued that the level of the perceived value as a key factor which affects customer satisfaction. Finally. or the customers’ overall assessment of what is received relative to what is given”. Moreover. personel value and benefits are the level of perception of benefits from using the mobile service by individual customers. Holbook proposed that the perceived value can be regarded as a consumer’soverall evaluation of the quality of a service or product based on the perceptions of what is received and what is given. in the study mobile telephony services in Canada. 1998. 1995 in Eniola.

12 . Research design used to accomplish this research is questionnaire. The respondents were allowed to express freely their own thought without any input or help from the researcher to avoid any kinds of bias. One of the strengths of interviews was their personal nature. Having met. the actual interviewss were carried out from the beggining of November 2016 till the end of March 2017. 2007) and were a useful method of obtaining information and opinions from experts during the early stages of your research project (Walliman. they were more likely to be willing to share personal opinion (Wolfer. The researcher conducted structured interviews by visiting stalls at Baitulmal. The questionnaire is being distributed to the respondents and the analysis will be obtained from the feedback of the questionnaire. 2007). 2006) and Glesne (2006) suggested that we might also interview in search of opinions. perceptions and attitudes towards some topic. Qualitative research methods provide flexibility and questions could be adopted as they went along (Johns. observation and interview is required to get a complete and proper information and data to get a real picture or directly to the matters under review. The interviews were structured and guided in order to get the best possible answers in tandem with the research objectives.More over the interview was an alternative method of collecting data survey (Babbie. Qualitative Data : Interviews Since this research would be adopting both quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques.Chapter 3 : Research Methodology Research Design The main purpose of preparing the research design is to create relationships between objectives and question regarding this research topic. yields data n quantity quickly (Marshall and Rossman. and had become increasingly important modes of inquiry for te social sciences and applied fields such as education and social works. talked and discussed with as few entrepreneur as possible at every opportunity in the earlt stage of the research. 2006). Kuching Sarawak. qualitative data would be obtained through structured interviews. 1998). The total of 7 interviews done was intended to investigate and identify the scenarion that entrepreneur were going through towrds choosing Baitulmal as their retailing place. If respondents related to the iterviewers. Other than that.

Questionnaire were often used in sociological. clothes. An advantage of using self completion questionnaire was that they were an entirely standardized measuring instrument because the questions were always phrased exactly in the same way for all respondents (Sapsford. The respondents were made to realize that some of their verbatim statements would be documented and used in the thesis as and when it would be necessary. Quantitative Method Subsequently for the quantitative method. confidentiality of information shared. Opinion. There are 10 retails there but only 7 retails are operating.2007). no harm done to the interviewees and reciprocity were observed. They were also given the highest assurance that te information collected would be treated with strictest confidentiality. the self completion questionnaire was used as the instruments for the survey. Ethical procedures such as informed and voluntary consent. Sarawak. From our place which is polytechnic to Baitulmal area took about 30 minutes if drive. The questionaire are distribute among the retailers who we interview before we distribute it. herbs. Retailers are doing business on the premises by selling variety item. and many more. psychological and in marketing research (Richardson. Kuching. The selection of respondents based on their willingness to take the time to answer the questionnaire. 13 .2005) Research sample This study sample consisted of retailers who do business under the premises Baitulmal. The data were collected as an open ended question in order to make the respondents answer from their own experiences at Baitulmal area.

disagree. namely primary and secondary data.Research Instruments Instrument is a questionnaire thtat has been used by other researchers before. The objective is :  To identify the perception towards choosing the retailing as a career  How satisfied retailer with the business in Baitulmal. it is the background of the respondents. According to Mohd Majid (2000).  How does internal and external environment of Baitulmal impact on consumer choice of shopping centres. theses and journal related to the topic. group discussions and interviews. Primary data is data obtained from questionnaire and secondary data is obtained from the books. in his article said thta the questionnaire is the best way to colect information. Questionnaire that been used contains of four section. Data are usually collected through qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative approaches on the other hand address the ‘what’ used in certain situation. Question posed in the questionnaire was based on the findings of previous studies that analyzed a paragraph that allows the respondents to answer the questions. They use a systematic standardized approach and employ methods such as surveys and ask questions. Primary data 14 . neutral. Qualitative questions are open-ended such as ‘why do you go to Baitulmal as your business retailing?’ and ‘How much you rate the satisfaction level of product and services at Baitulmal? Qualitative methods include focus groups. Qualitative approaches aim to address the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of a program and tend to use unstructured methods of data collection to fully explore the topic. agree and strongly agree. For Section A. while for Section B. Items of the questionnaire is using the Likert Scale ranging from strongly disagree.  To identify the characteristics of retailing among the employees Data Collection Procedure The data obtained in this study is from two sources. Section C and Section D are the question related to the research objectives.

Data Analysis Analysis of data. Data analysis is a process for obtaining raw data and converting it into information useful for decision-making by users. transforming. and modelling data with the goal of discovering useful information.Questionnaires and interviews were conducted with respondents from Baitulmal itself which is from the retailers. journals and other scholarly materials. ISBN 0-15-516765-0). is a process of inspecting. Data is collected and analysed to answer questions. books. and find rationale behind the emergence of main findings. and supporting decision-making. Data Analysis. cleansing. focus group and experiments. Quantitative data analysis involved critical analysis and interpretation of figures and numbers. 15 . Qualitative data analysis involves method of interviews. newspaper articles. Data analysis consists of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Charles and. data analysis involved identifying common patterns within the responses and analysing them in order to achieve research aims and objectives. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. test hypotheses or disprove theories (Judd. magazines. For example. Secondary data Secondary data obtained from library and internet. suggesting conclusions. McCleland. also known as data analytics. Gary (1989).

analysis process to decide your best course of action Two types of content analysis are relational analysis and conceptual analysis. 16 . Relational analysis was used to develop relation between literature and findings from interview and questionnaire to produce analysis and conclusion for the research question. Set clear measurement Collect data priorities •Determines what •Decide what to measure information could be Define your question •Decide how to measure collected •Keep data collected organized Interpret Results compare Analyse Data the consideration and manipulating your data in a question to provide number such as plotting productive conclusion . Conceptual analysis used to analyses the literature and the interview done in the retailing sector.use and finding correlation by the results of your data creating a pivot in a table.

Research Planning Table (Gantt Chart ) Activities Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Discuss research title Research tittle approval by the supervisor and discuss about proposal Prepare questionaire Prepare research report Submit research report Presentation References 17 .

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