You are on page 1of 11


Aggarwal G, Dhawan S., 2009. Development, Fabrication and Evaluation of

Transdermal Drug Delivery System - A Review., Vol. 7(5).

Alderman MH, Cohen H, Madhavan S., 1998. Epidemiology of risk in hypertensives:

experience in treated patients. Am J Hypertens, Vol. 11:874.

Altemose GT, Wiener DH., 1998. Control of risk factors in peripheral vascular

disease. Surg Clin North Am, 78:369.

Anisree, G. S., Ramasamy C., Wesley I., John, and Koshy, Bincy Mary., 2012.

Formulation of Transdermal Drug Delivery System of Metoprolol Tartrate and

Its Evaluation. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Vol. 4(10):


Aqil M, Ali A, Sultana Y, Dubey K, Najmi AK, Pillai KK., 2006. In Vivo

Characterization of Monolithic Matrix Type Transdermal Drug Delivery

Systems of Pinacidil Monohydrate: A Technical Note. AAPS PharmSciTech,

Vol. 7(1): Article 6.

Armilawaty, Amalia, H., Amiruddin., 2007. Hipertensi Dan Faktor Resikonya Dalam

Kajian Epidemiologi. Makassar: Bagian FKM UNHAS.

Barry B., 2002. Transdermal Drug Delivery. In Ed: Aulton M E, Pharmaceutics: The

Science of Dosage Form Design, Churchill Livingston. pp :499-533.

Bathe R, Kapoor R., 2015. Transdermal drug delivery system: formulation,

development and evaluation-An overview. Int. J Biomedical and Advance

Res, Vol. 6(01):1-10
Beermann B, Groschinsky Grind M., 1977. Pharmacokinetics of Hydrochlorthiazide

in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, Vol. 12(4):297-303.

Brown MJ, Haydock S, 2000. Pathoaetiology, epidemiology and diagnosis of

hypertension. Drugs 59:1.

Brown MB, Traynor MJ, Martin GP, Akomeah FK., 2008. Drug Delivery Systems:

Skin Perturbation Devices. Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 437:119-139.

Carter BL., 1998 Highlights of the sixth report of the Joint National Committee on

Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

Am J Health Syst Pharm, Vol. 55:382.

Chein YW., 1992. Novel drug delivery systems.. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc,.

Vol.50. 301.

Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2006. Profil Kesehatan 2005. Jakarta.

Divya A, Rao MK, Gnanprakash K, Sowjanya A, Vidyasagar N, Gobinath M., 2012. A

review on current scenario of transdermal drug delivery system. Int. J Res.

Pharm Sci, Vol.3(4):494-502.

DrugBank. 2017. Hydroclorothiazide. Available at [diakses pada tanggal 27 Juni


Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJ, 2002. Selected major

risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet, Vol.

Field, M. J., B. A. Stanton, andG.H.Giebisch, 1984. “Differential acute effects of

aldosterone, dexamethasone, and hyperkalemia on distal tubular potassium

secretion in the rat kidney,”TheJournal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 74, no. 5,

pp. 1792–1802.

Field, A. 2009. Discovering Statistic Using SPSS (3rd ed). London: Sage Publication


Gaikwad AK. 2013. Transdermal drug delivery system: Formulation aspects and

evaluation. Comprehensive J Pharm Sci, Vol.1(1):1-10.

Garala KC, Shinde AJ, Shah PH., 2009. Formulation and in-vitro characterization of

monolithic matrix transdermal systems using HPMC/Eudragit S 100 polymer

blends. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol.


Gaur PK, Mishra S, Purohit S, Dave K., 2009. Transdermal drug delivery

system- A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research,

Vol. 2:14-20.

Gerstel MS, Place VA., 1976. Drug delivery device. U.S. Patent. Vol. 3: 964 482.

Godley P, Pham H, Rohack J, Woodward B, Yokoyama K, Maue SK., 2001.

Opportunities for Improving The Quality of Hypertension Care in A Managed

Care Setting. Am J Health Syst Pharm, Vol. 58: 1728-1733.

Gormer, Beth. 2017. Hypertension: Pharmacological Management. Hospital

Pharmacist. Vol. 14. P : 119-125.

Govil SK, Radnic EM, Sterner DG., 1993. U.S. Patent. Vol. 5: 262,165.
Govil SK., 1988. In: Drug Delivery Devices, P. Tyle (Ed.). Marcel Dekker: New

York. pp. 388

Gueyffier F, Boissel JP, Pocock S, et al., 1999. Identification of Risk Factors in

Hypertensive Patients. Circulation, 100:e88.

Gunawan., 2008. Farmakologi dan Terapi, Edisi 5, Departemen Farmakologi dan

Terapeutik Fakutas Kedokteran UI. Jakarta.

Gupta IK, Chokshi MM., 2011. Transdermal drug delivery system: an overview.

Asian J Pharm Sci. Clinical Res., Vol.1(1): 25-43.

Guy RH, KaliaYN, Delgado-Charro MB, Merino V, Lopez A, Marro D., 2000.

Iontophoresis: electro repulsion and electroosmosis. J control release, Vol.

64: 129-132.

Guyton, A.C., 2006. Fisiologi Manusia dan Mekanisme Penyakit (Edisi ketiga).

Jakarta: EGC.

Hock S Tan, and William R Pfister., 1999. Pressure-sensitive adhesives for

transdermal drug delivery systems. PSTT, Vol. 2: 60-69.

Holm et al., 2006. Hypertension During Outpatient Sedation and Local Anesthesia. J

Oral Maxillofac Surg.

Jain N.K., 1997. Controlled and Novel Drug Delivery, First Edition. CBS Publishers

and Distributors: New Delhi, 100-129.

Jamakandi, et al., 2009. Formulation, characterization, and evaluation of matrix-type

transdermal patches of a model antianginal drug, Asian J Pharmaceutics,Vol.

3(1), 59-65.
Jhawat, Vikaz Chander, Saini, Vipin, Kamboj, Sunil, and Maggon, Nancy., 2013.

Review Article : Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems: Approaches and

Advancements in Drug Absorption Throught Skin. Int. J. Pharm. Sci.Res.,

Vol.20 (1): 47-56.

JNC-7. 2003. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention,

Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. JAMA,


Kendavilli, sateesh, Nair, Vinod and Panchagnula, Ramesh. 2002. Polymers in

Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems : Pharmaceutical Technology. [offline]

Available at [diakses pada tanggal 6 Juni 2017].

Kornitzer M, Dramaix M, De Backer G., 1999. Epidemiology of risk factors for

hypertension: Implications for prevention and therapy. Drugs 57:695.

Lee WR, Shen SC, Lai HH, Hu CH, Fang JY., 2001. Transdermal drug delivery

enhanced and controlled by erbium:YAG laser. J controlled release, Vol.


Little JW., 2000. The impact on dentistry of recent advances in the management of

hypertension. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 90:591.

Margulis-Goshen K, Magdassi S., 2013. Nanotechnology: An Advanced Approach to

the Development of Potent Insecticides. In Advanced Technologies for

Managing Insect Pests. Dordrecht: Springer; 295–314.

McConnel KJ. Updates in Therapeutics® 2016: Pharmacotherapy Preparatory

Review and Recertification Course Cardiology II. ACCP.
Mitragotri S, Blankschtein D, Langer R., 1995. Ultrasound mediated transdermal

protein delivery. Science, Vol. 269:850-853.

Morow D.I.J., Carron P.A. Mc, Woolfson A.D., Donnelly R.F., 2007. Innovative

Strategies for Enhancing Topical and Transdermal Drug Delivery. The Open

Drug Delivery Journal, Vol.1: 36-59.

Mullins, L. J., M. A. Bailey, and J. J. Mullins, 2006. “Hypertension, kidney, and

transgenics: a fresh perspective”. Physiological Reviews, vol. 86, no. 2, pp.


Opie, L. H., and N.M. Kaplan, 1991. “Diuretics,” in Drugs for the Heart, L. H. Opie,

Ed., pp. 74–99,WBSaunders, Philadelphia, Pa,USA.

Parivesh, S., D. Sumeet, and D. Abhishek., 2010. Design, Evaluation, Parameters

and Marketed Products of Transdermal Patches. A Review, Res. J. Pharm.

Vol. 3, p. 235-240.

Patel D, Chaudhary A S, Parmar B. 2012. Transdermal drug delivery system: A

review. The Pharm Innovation. Vol.1(4):66-75.

Pokala, Mounika, et al., 2016. Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Patches

of Salbutamol. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical

Sciences, Vol. 5(6) : 1358-1373.

Plichta B. Stacey & Garzon S. Laurel. 2009. Statistics for nursing and allied health.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia.

PubChem. 2015. Hydrochlorotiazide. National Center for Biotechnology

Information. PubChem Compound Database. CID=3639, available at [diakses pada

tanggal 30 Juni 2017].

PubChem. 2015. Methanol. National Center for Biotechnology Information.

PubChem Compound Database. CID=887, available at [diakses pada

tanggal 30 Juni 2017].

Qvist MH, Hoeck U, Kreilgaard B, Madson F, Frokjaer S., 2002. Release of

Chemical Penetration Enhancers From Drug-In-Adhesive Transdermal

Patches. Int J Pharm, Vol. 231: 253–263.

Rowe, Raymond C; Paul J Sheskey; Marian E Quinn. 2009. Handbook of

Pharmaceutical Excipients Sixth Edition.Pharmaceutical Press. London.

Rugiyati, Rini, Iskandarsyah, Djajadisastra, J. 2015. Formulasi dan Uji Peetrasi In

Vitro Sediaan Gel Transferosom Mengandung Kofein Sebagai Antiselulit.

Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia, Hal. 131-136.

Sachan, Rica and Bajpai, Meenakshi., 2013. Transdermal Drug Delivery

System : A Review. International Journal of Research and Development in

Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Vol. 3(1): 748-765.

Sakalle P, Dwivedi S, Dwivedi A. 2010. Design, evaluation, parameters and

marketed products of transdermal patches: a review. J Pharm Res,


Schoen FJ., 2004. Blood vessels, in Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N (eds): Robbins

and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (ed 7). Philadelphia, PA, Saunders,

pp 511–529
Sharma RK, Keleb E, Mosa EB, Aljahwi AAZ., 2010. Transdermal drug delivery

system- design and evaluation. Int. J Advances Pharm Sci, Vol. 1: 201-211.

Sharma A, Saini S, Rana AC., 2013. Transdermal drug delivery system: A review.

Int. J Res Pharm Biomedical Sci, Vol. 4(1):(286-292).

Singh, Rimmi, Abhishek, C., Priya, K., Ankita, C. 2015. Nanoemulsion : An Effective

Theraphy for Transdermal Drug Delivery. Research and Reviews : Research

Journal of Biology, Vol. 3(1).

Siyad, A. R., 2011. Hypertension. Journal For Drugs and Medicines: Hygeia. J. D.

Med, Vol. 3 (1) : 1-16.

Sheth, Nirav S. and Mistry, Rajan B., 2011. Formulation and Evaluation of

Transdermal Patches and to Study Permeation Enhancement Effect of

Eugenol. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, Vol. 01(003) : 96-101.

Solans, C. and Sol_e, I. 2012. Nano-emulsions: formation by low-energy methods.

Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. Vol. 17: 246–254

Sugiyono. 2007. Statistika untuk Penelitian, CV. ALFABETA. Bandung

Thejaswi C, Rao KM, Gobinath M, Radharani J, Hemafaith V, Venugopalaiah P.

2011. A review on design and characterization of proniosomes as a drug

carrier. Int. J Advances Pharm Nanotechnology, Vol.1(1):16-19.

The United States Pharmacopeia., 2007. 30th edition, The National Formulary, 25th

edition, The Official Compendia of Standards; The United States

Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., Asian Edition: Washington, D.C. pp. 1375–

1376, 1613–1614, 2287–2288, 3062–3063, 3445–3448.
Touitou E, Junginger H, Weiner ND, Nagai T, Mezei M., 1994. Liposomes as carriers

for topical & transdermal delivery. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, Vol.


Treffel P, Panisset FF, Humbert P, Remoussenard O, Bechtel Y, Agache P., 1993.

Effect of Pressure on in Vitro Percutaneous Absorption of Caffeiene.

Acta.Derm.Venereo. Vol. 73:200-202.

Ubaidulla U, Reddy MVS, Ruckmani K, Ahmad FJ, and Khar RK. 2007 Transdermal

Therapeutic System of Carvedilol: Effect of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic

Matrix on In Vitro and In Vivo Characteristics. AAPS PharmSciTech, Vol. 8

(1): Article 2.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2000. Food and Drug

Administration. Guidance for Industry: Waiver of In Vivo Boavaialability and

Bioequivalence Studies for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dasage Forms

Based on a Biopharmaceutics Classification System, Center for Drug

Evaluation and Research (CDER).[online] available at [diakses pada tanggal 27 Juni


Vyas S.P., Khar R.K., 2002. Controlled Drug Delivery-Concepts and Advances, 1st

Edition, VallabhPrakashan, 411- 445.

Walters, K. A., dan Brain, K.R. 2009. Topical and Transdermal Delivery, in Gibson,

M., Pharmaceutical Preformulation and Formulation, Second Edition. Informa

Healthcare: New York, pp 475-516.
Wang L, Dong J, Chen J, Eastoe J, Li X, 2009. Design and optimization of a new

self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system. J Colloid Interface Sci, Vol.


Weber, M.A., Schiffrin, E.L., White, W.B., Mann, S., Lindholm, L.H., Kenerson, J.G.,

et al., 2014. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension

in the Community: A Statement by the American Society of Hypertension and

the International Society of Hypertension. Journal of Clinical Hypertension

(Greenwich, Conn.), 16: 14–26

Wolff HM., 2000. Optimal Process Design for the Manufacturing of Transdermal

Drug Delivery Systems, PSTT 3 (5), 173–181.

World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group.,

2003. World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of

Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens,

Vol. 21: 1983–1992.

WHO., 2011. The Prevalence of Hypertension. Geneva: WHO.

Wissing SA, Muller RH., 2003. The influence of solid lipid nanoparticles on skin

hydration & viscoelasticity-In vivo study. European Journal of Pharmaceutics

and Biopharmaceutics, Vol. 56: 67-72.

Yadav V., 2012. Transdermal drug delivery system: review. Int. J Pharm Sci. Res.,

Vol. 3(2):376-382.

Yogananda dan Rakesh dan Rakesh B. 2012. An Overview on Muchoadhesive

Buccal Patces. International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Life

Sciences, Vol. 2(2): 348-373.
Zhan X, Tang G, Chen S, Mao Z. 2006. A new copolymer membrane controlling

clonidine linear release in a transdermal drug delivery system. Int. J. Pharm,

Vol. 322: 1–5.