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# thermodynamics

the branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other
forms of energy (such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy), and, by
extension, of the relationships between all forms of energy.

classical thermodynamics
Classical thermodynamics is the description of the states of thermodynamic systems
at near-equilibrium, that uses macroscopic, measurable properties. It is used to
model exchanges of energy, work and heat based on the laws of thermodynamics.

statistical thermodynamics
the science that deals with average properties of the molecules, atoms, or
elementary particles in random motion in a system of many such particles and
relates these properties to the thermodynamic and other macroscopic properties of
the system

mechanical thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics
The first law of thermodynamics is an expression of the principle of conservation
of energy. It states that energy can be transformed (changed from one form to
another), but cannot be created or destroyed.

Second law of thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal principle of
decay observable in nature. The second law is an observation of the fact that over
time, differences in temperature, pressure, and chemical potential tend to even out
in a physical system that is isolated from the outside world

Third law of thermodynamics
the third law of thermodynamics is a statistical law of nature regarding entropy
and the impossibility of reaching absolute zero of temperature. This law provides
an absolute reference point for the determination of entropy. The entropy
determined relative to this point is the absolute entropy.

Zeroth law of thermodynamics
If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in
thermal equilibrium with each other.

changes of state

Equation of state
an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which
describes the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions.

working substance
A working fluid is a pressurized gas or liquid that actuates a machine.

fluid
a substance that has no fixed shape and yields easily to external pressure; a gas
or (especially) a liquid.

substance
the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists and which has a
tangible, solid presence

pure substance
are made of only one type of atom or only one type of molecule (a group of atoms
bonded together). The measure of whether a substance is pure is known as purity
phase
a distinct period or stage in a process of change or forming part of something's
development.

equilibrium
state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced.

system
a quantity of matter that we want to study

sorroundings
everything else except the system which we are interested in

boundary
the deviding surface line separating the system from sorrounding

closed system
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers
(such as transfer of mass) in or out of the system.

open system
a material system in which mass or energy can be lost to or gained from the
environment.

property

state

process