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ISSN 1075-7007, Studies on Russian Economic Development, 2016, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 400–411. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.

Original Russian Text © V.N. Filina, 2016.

INDUSTRIES AND INTERINDUSTRY COMPLEXES

Development Vectors of Railway Transport
V. N. Filina
Institute for Economic Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences
e-mail: filina_valentina@mail.ru
Received September 15, 2015; in final form, April 11, 2016

Abstract—The article is devoted to analyzing the functioning of the sector under the conditions a decline in
economic activities, the possibilities of the formation of service products on the market of transport services,
problems of the cooperation of railways with seaports, and peculiarities of their operation in the range out-
bound directions of the network, as well as development prospects of the railway transport in the economic
and geopolitical processes in the country and world.

DOI: 10.1134/S1075700716040067

Results of sector activities under the conditions of cri- lower than the growth of prices in the industry and the
sis and development forecasting. Since 2014, the activi- inflation level.
ties of OAO RZhD have been carried out under the As a result of the decline in economic activities, on
conditions of growing crisis phenomena, when the the whole, the shipment of the freights in the railway
forecasts previously prepared by the Ministry of Eco- network decreased by 1%, though the multifaceted
nomic Trade and Development of the Russian Feder- processes in the domestic and foreign markets of
ation did not correspond to the real state of affairs in transportation services should be noted, i.e., a 3.6%
the economy, which led to tariffs being checked and decrease and 5% growth, respectively. The change in
profits being lost due to holdings in the amount more the structure of the freight and passenger carriers by
than 4 billion rubles. Against a background of frozen the type of transport is marked. The share of the rail-
tariffs, intensified tax burdens, and insufficient com- way transport in the total freight turnover increased by
pensation for the loss-making passenger carriers in 6% over 12 years and comprised more than 45% (Table 1)
2015, the situation worsened, and increases took place [1]. Growth in the freight turnover of the railway
in the of prices fuel (by 11%), as well as electric energy transport is connected to an increase in the distance of
and metal (by 5–6%), and the consequent reduction freight carriers. A significant decrease in the passenger
in profits came to about 32 billion rubles [1]. Over 12 turnover took place in the passenger carriers (by 7.4
years (since 2004) of the company’s operation, its and 6.6% for the last two years) primarily due to the
share in the country’s GDP decreased almost twice, reduction of the long distance index (by 9.6 and 7%),
i.e., from approximately 3 to 1.6%. which is mainly caused by the 85% decrease in the
passenger traffic to and from Ukraine.
The negative processes in the branch resulted in a In the system of corporate management of the
decrease in the company’s expenditure base; in 2013, holding a changeover to the principle of project man-
it decreased by 100 billion rubles; in 2014, it decreased agement and the process approach to preparing the
by 85; and, in 2015, it decreased by 28 billion rubles plans, strengthening the interactions of production
(according to the plan, by 55 billion rubles). However, verticals, and regional centers, as well as the client-ori-
in 2014, the expense items for the capital repairs were ented approach in freight and passenger carriers, can
reduced; then, the next year, the overall scopes of cap- be noted. The new management system enables one to
ital repairs increased with regard to the ground plan. respond promptly to external challenges, in particular
Furthermore, achievements in the resource-saving to a decrease in the economic activity. The company
sphere, including purchases of new equipment, has introduced the anti-crisis management plan under
allowed for a reduction in the specific consumption the conditions of the drop in the demand for carriers
rates of fuel and energy resources by 1.3% in 2015, a caused by stagnation in the industry and construction.
2% decrease in emissions of hazardous substances in The reduction of the scopes of carriers in the rail-
the environment (1600 t). On the whole, due to the way transport is specified not only by the macroeco-
adoption of anti-crisis measures, a breakeven financial nomic environment, but also by keeping the disparity
result was achieved. The cost value of the transporta- of interspecific competition conditions. Moreover, the
tion activities increased by 7.7%, which is significantly problem of the efficiency of the created model of the

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DEVELOPMENT VECTORS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT 401

Table 1. Macroeconomic indices of OAO RZhD activities
Index 2004 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
OAO RZhD’s contribution to the country GDP, % 3 2.1 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6
OAO’s share of investment in total investments 4.5 4.3 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.3 2.9 2.9
Taxes and insurance contributions to the govern- 141 178 188 245 249 256 236 253 281
mental and other funds, billion rubles
Freight turnover (without the mileage of empty 1802 2116 1865 2011 2138 2222 2196 2299 2300
cars), billion ton-km
Freight shipment, million tons 1221 1304 1108 1206 1242 1272 1237 1227 1214

Table 2. Ratio of shipments to empty cars
Index 1988 1998 2008 2013 2013/1988, times
Shipment, million tons/day 6 2.3 3.6 3.4 –1.8
Empty cars, million cars-km/day 24 36 67 71 2.9
Source: [2].

market of freight carriers that provides the total privat- the fleet of cars do not prevent some expert from pro-
ization of the fleet of cars remains open. A positive posing the privatization of the locomotive stock at the
result of separating the fleet of cars from carriers is that next stage of the reforms, then separating the railway
the conditions are renewed by an excess of demand infrastructure from the carriers, assuming that the for-
over supply; i.e., the conditions for competition have eign experience of the market reforms at the railway
been created. Furthermore, an excess fleet of cars led transport indicates not only their success in some
to a decrease in the profitability for operators, reduced countries, but also numerous economic and techno-
the efficiency of infrastructure operation and the logical risks of separating the infrastructure from the
safety of carriers, worsening the quality of services for carriers, especially under the conditions of high-
freight owners (Table 2), creating a larger number of intensity traffic. When searching for the optimal ratio
cars in delay or with long wait times for loading. of private and government approaches to arranging
According to the expert estimation of OAO RZhD freight carriers, the proposal of OAO RZhD specialists
specialists, the total number of excess cars is about to develop a pilot project in the specified test range
240000 pieces. Within separate months, more than where the limited number of private transportation
1400 km of station tracks turn out to be occupied by companies will be offered competitive operation con-
unclaimed cars. A significant part of these cars (more ditions appears to be more reasonable. In the opinion
than 30000 cars or more than 500 trains) permanently of the company’s heads [3], the locomotive stock can
run, thereby reducing the capacity of the tracks and only operate efficiently under the conditions of the
traction potential. The capacities of the railway trans- unified transportation company and information
port infrastructure are increasingly used not so much holder independently of the investor status of the roll-
for carrying the freights as to move empty private cars ing stock.
in favor of the commercial interests of the operators.
Despite the current slowdown in economic growth
However, the operators continued to supplement the
based on the macroforecasts of the socioeconomic
fleet of cars by 67000 pieces in 2014, 70% of which
development of the Ministry of Economic Trade and
increased the excess of the fleet.
Development, which provides stable growth of the
The situation is worsened by inconsistencies of economy in the long term, the prospective values of
some legal aspects, particularly regarding matters of the freight carriers by the railway transport up to 2020
the company’s responsibility for failures to provide are specified taking into account the macroindices
cars for loading in the case when they are absent in the across the country based on separate industrial and
transportation company. types of transport as part of the regional programs, as
According to the requirements developed by the well as applications of the consignors and consignees.
Federal Anti-Monopoly Service of the Russian Feder- At OAO RZhD, the Master Plan for developing the
ation the companies in the terms of total privatization railway network for the period up to 2020 and the vari-
of the fleet should lease the cars under the market con- ants of development (conservative and innovative)
ditions, and provide them for loading at the govern- demonstrated growth in values of the carrier volume
mental rates according to the industrial Price List indices for 2013–2020 by 24.5% and 34.6%, respec-
No. 10–01. However, problems with decentralizing tively [4]. Furthermore, overall, the volumes of the

STUDIES ON RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Vol. 27 No. 4 2016
402 FILINA

railway carriers transshipped at the seaports will grow Concurrently with reconstruction of the railway
two or more times faster than the carriers for this type infrastructure, it is planned to construct three railway
of transport across the country. dry ports, i.e., Baltic, Primor’e, and Taman, and more
In the Master Plan 2020, by analogy with the offers than 50 transport-logistic centers and lower-level han-
of the Ministry of Economic Trade and Development, dling centers. In the clusters established to service
a conservative variant is taken as the basis of the fore- freight traffics, the transport infrastructure is designed
casts. not only to service the sea freight district, but also to
optimize the transport system of the zone of influence
Quality assurance of the freight delivery in the trans- of this port.
port service market. In the Transport Strategy of the
Russian Federation through 2030, the main directions Thus, the Baltic dry port ( Shushary railway station, St. Peters-
of the industry development are specified, including burg) will enable the transport situation of the total Northwest
region to be improved; the construction of the Primor’e port in
the formation of the common economic space of the Ussuriisk, along with existing seaports and crossing points will
country upon the priority development of transport remove several problems in Primor’e transport center; and the cre-
infrastructure and integration into the world transport ation of dry port Tamanskii will contribute to an increase of the
space and the implementation of transit potential. carrying capacity of Azov and Black Sea transport center.

A comprehensive approach to the development of On the whole, the creation of railway Primor’e and
international and regional routes should provide a Baltic dry ports will complete the formation of a
solution to the set problems. The quality delivery of West–East global dry-cargo transport corridor
freights is possible upon orientation toward coopera- (Europe–Russia–Asia) with the branches to Kazakh-
tion between different types of transport using them in stan, China, Mongolia, and the Korean peninsula.
segments of the transport market that provide the The Baltic and Taman dry ports, the construction of
maximum effect. Furthermore, special attention is which will provide favorable conditions for transport-
paid to the interaction of the railways and seaports ing freights in the North–South Eurasian corridor
during the transportation of export–import freights, (from the Baltic Sea coast to the Persian Gulf) will
particularly in the part of development of the infra- play a similar role in the formation of the meridional
structure of the coherent components of the transpor- transport axis.
tation process, the development of the logistic routes, Twelve territories of priority development are being
and the establishment of legal and institutional envi- formed in Primorskii Krai, including transport-logis-
ronment. tic and industrial complexes, special economic areas,
While transporting the freights, some of Russia’s clusters, and other growth points.
largest companies (Evraz, Mechel, Sibirskii Delovoi
Soyuz, Sibirskii Antratsit, Sibuglemet, etc.) render The interaction of the railway transport and sea-
transient services, including transshipment and freight ports is carried out at the stage of synchronizing the
forwarding at the seaports, sea freight, transportation development plans of the railway and port infrastruc-
by the Russian and foreign railways. The railway-ferry ture. In addition to an increase in carrying capacities
service ports operate in the directions Vanino–Khol- of the ports of Far East, Azov; the Black Sea basin,
msk, Ust’-Luga–Baltiisk, and Ust’-Luga–Zasnits. Murmansk transport center, and access routes remote
Payment for freight delivery includes all kinds of ser- from them large-scale projects of the car and railway
vices and is carried out according to the one-contact transition across the Kerch Strait are prepared for
principle using an OAO RZhD client account. implementing and constructing the Northern Latitu-
dinal Railway with building of the bridge across Ob’,
The problem of the holding is, to some extent, a as well as constructing the Moscow–Nizhny
positive experience of some companies up to the max- Novgorod–Kazan high-speed network (according to
imum possible number of participants of the com- expert estimations, the synergetic effect of the network
modity distribution. It brings the quality of the ren- operation for 12 years will exceed 11 trillion rubles, and
dered services to the level of the world standards, the total revenues to the budget of the Russian Feder-
arranges the optimal logistics of carriers, and creates ation will equal 3.4 trillion rubles [1]). Recently, much
new service products in the transport service market attention has been paid to developing access routes in
according to the client’s requirements. southern part of the country, Moscow transport cen-
At present, about 60% of all freight carriers operate under ter, and infrastructure of the railway transport of the
long-term contracts, including both basic and additional services. Eastern range. Among significant investment projects,
The practice of forming logistic chains with a client while deliver-
ing the raw stock and finished products and controlling their it is necessary to mention the continuing moderniza-
movement in real-time mode is becoming popular. All of these tion of the railway infrastructure of the Baikal–Amur
measures enable one to minimize the transport costs of transpor- Mainline and Trans-Siberian Railway.
tation companies, consignors, and consignees. Thus, in 2013, the
indices of the logistics quality were improved with regard to the Taking into account the apparent trend of the
following parameters: the reliability index of the freight delivery freight railway carriers to the foreign economic activ-
increased by 5.5% and the service speed increased by 1.2%. Offer-
ing the most popular service, i.e., a scheduled freight carrier, ity, the railway infrastructure development in out-
added 700 million rubles to holding revenues. bound directions is reviewed in detail.

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DEVELOPMENT VECTORS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT 403

Table 3. Dynamics of volumes of freight carriers based on railway transport, million tons
Carrier volume 2007 2009 2010 2013 2013/2007, % 2020* 2020/2013, %*
In all types of traffic 1488.5 1232 1342 1392.6 94 1736.9 (1874.9) 124.5 (134.6)
Reshipped at the seaports 192.6 198.5 217.5 249.6 130 392.2 (415.5) 157.1 (180.8)
Percentage of the reshipped freights 12.9 16.1 16.2 17.9 22.6 (22.2) –
* In the brackets the innovation variant is given. Source: [4].

Table 4. Volumes of the freight carriers by railway transport through Russian ports, million tons
2020/
Region 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2020
2013, %
Northwest 86 (44.6) 83.6 (43.7) 82.5 (41.6) 85.3(39.2) 95.3 (41.4) 105.4 (41.8) 112.3 (45) 166.7 (42.5) 148.4
South 64.1 (33.3) 61.8 (32.3) 63.4 (31.9) 62.7(28.8) 60.2 (26.1) 64.9 (25.7) 63.7 (25.5) 108.4 (27.6) 170.2
Far East 42.5 (22.1) 46 (24) 52.6 (26.5) 69.5 (32) 74.7 (32.5) 81.9 (32.5) 73.6 (29.5) 117.1 (29.2) 159.1
Total 192.6 (100) 191.4 (100) 198.5 (100) 217.5 (100) 230.2 (100) 252.2 (100) 249.6 (100) 392.2 (100) 157.1
Source: [4].

Interactions between railways and seaports. The ori- way freight carriers towards the port (from 36.8 million
entation of the Russian economy towards the priority tons in 2013 to 72.5 million tons in 2020). The scales of
export of the raw materials led to creation of new port the prospective handling capacities of the port requires
capacities in almost all regions with access to the sea developing a single purpose and balanced approach to
within a short period of time, which contributed to the developing a total transport system of the Northwest
growth of volumes of freight carriers by the railway Federal District that enable one to reduce ecological,
transport in the directions to the ports. In 2013, this social, and other risks.
index was 249.6 million tons (18% of all freight carri- At Murmansk sea traffic center, the implementa-
ers). The growth trends continued in 2014; over 5 tion of large investment projects on commissioning
months, the volumes of freights delivered by the rail- and modernizing the necessary terminals is also pro-
way transport to the seaports increased by 10% com- vided.
pared to the same period in 2013. In 2007–2013, the The development of St. Petersburg port attracts
volume of freight carriers by railway transport in all attention where modernization works are aimed at
types of traffics decreased by 6%, while at seaports, the reorienting the terminals for handling environmentally
volume of shipments with the participation of this type unfavorable freights to handling the most economi-
of transport increased by 30% (Table 3). cally and ecologically favorable freights, i.e., contain-
Ports in the northwest region process the largest vol- ers, refrigerators, etc.
ume of the foreign trade freights; in 2013, their value in In parallel with the development of the ports, rail-
the mixed railway-sea traffic was 112.3 million tons way access tracks to the ports are reconstructed and
(45% of all volumes of freight carriers of the Russian strengthened. Thus, besides the construction of the
railway network) (Table 4). More than half of all con- second tracks, stations, district parks for handling the
tainer freights pass through the ports of the Northwest freight terminal of the port of Ust’-Luga to develop the
Federal District; furthermore, the share of the railway future freight turnover construction of the modern
transport makes up one-third in the total container control system of the freight and documents turnover
turnover of the ports of the region. More than 60% of is provided. The total capital intensity of the project
the total volume of containers delivered to the ports of exceeded 150 billion rubles, and its implementation
St. Petersburg and Ust’-Luga are processed in the dis- enabled 48 million tons of freights to be handled in
triports of Moscow and Moscow oblast. 2014 and about 70 million tons are expected in 2016 [5].
The largest load of freight handling in the region On the whole, for the forecasted period of 2013–
falls on the multifunctional deep-water port of Ust’- 2020, it is possible to increase the volume of freight
Luga. The terminals for processing coal, commercial carriers by railway transport in traffic with seaports of
sulfur, oil products, the universal reshipment center, the Northwest region by almost 50% (from 112.3 to
car-railway complex, container terminals, etc. oper- 166.7 million tons); however, in the structure of the
ated there. The construction of complexes for reship- freight reshipment volumes, in the ports of Russia with
ping metal, grain, general and bulk freights, and stor- participation of the railway transport, the share of the
age logistic infrastructure is provided. In prospect, a region will reduce slightly from 45 to 42.5% (Table 4).
twofold increase is planned if the volumes of the rail- This is connected with reorientation in specialization

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404 FILINA

of the sea terminals, i.e., a sharp reduction of the share basic year of 2013 (Table 4) is connected with the
of the coal carriers upon the growth of the share of oil- changeover of the crude-oil supplies from the railway
loading and others freights based on container carriers transport to the Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil
is expected. pipeline. The future growth of the carriers to the ports
The development of the forecasted freight turnover of the region is specified by the accelerated socioeco-
to the region’s ports will require an increase of the nomic development of Siberia and Far East, particu-
capacity of railway infrastructure due to the recon- larly the development of new mineral deposits, the
struction of some parts of the system and access roads demand for which is considerable in countries of the
to the ports on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland, Asia and Pacific regions.
as well as the arrangement of high-speed passenger The constraining factor of handling the freight traf-
traffic in the St. Petersburg–Buslovskaya section. The fic to the Far East ports is represented by the insuffi-
total volume of investments will reach 274 billion cient development of port infrastructure. As a result,
rubles in the forecasted prices. in the Far East railway system, about 140 trains stand
Further development of railway carriers in traffic idle. The handling capacities of the ports cannot man-
with the Northwest ports (if the external factors condi- age the declared shipment volumes. The situation is
tioned by the geopolitical aspects are not taken into worsened by the absence of unfreezing units, the
account) is connected with the development of the untimely pickup of freights from the docks due to the
infrastructure of the port complexes on the Baltic, erratic arrival of vessels, etc. The volume losses of the
Barents, and White Seas. transporting operations in 2013 alone led to a decrease
Ports of the Southern basin. At the seaports of the in the company’s profits by 10.5 billion rubles.
Southern basin in 2013, about 26% of the railway
An increase in the capacities for handing the sup-
freights were processed. The weightiest contribution to
plied commodities is forecasted for all ports of the
handling of the foreign trade freights comes from the
region. At Vostochnyi port the main efforts on a pro-
ports of Novorossiysk (32.9 million tons), Tuapse
spective increase of handling of the container freights
(12.4 million tons), and Taman (7.1 million tons). The
will be directed to development of the railway lines of
prospective growth of the freight base will be mainly
the container terminal and use of the railway infra-
covered due to the development of the deep-water sea-
structure of Gruzovaya station where the crude oil
port of Taman, the establishment of the dry-cargo dis-
carriers will decrease due to construction of the oil
trict for bulk, grain, container freights, etc. In the ports
pipeline. There are plans to construct bulk freight ter-
of Tuapse, Novorossiysk, and Olya, works are also
minals at the Vanino–Sovetskaya Gavan’ transport
being carried out on the development of the capacities.
center and coal terminals at the ports of Vostochnyi
In the Southern basin, the maximum growth of the vol-
and Posiet; at the port of Vladivostok, the additional
ume of the railway carriers compared to the ports of the
reconstruction of existing port capacities and the cre-
northwest and Far Eastern directions is forecasted; by
ation of a new container terminal are also expected. In
2020, this growth is expected to reach 70% (Table 4).
the future, in the railway transport turnover, the
The structure of the railway carriers in traffic with decreasing trend of oil freights in the overall share will
the ports will change. Upon the expected increase in continue due to the growth of the coal and “other”
the carrier volumes of oil freights and ferrous metals, categories of freight carriers.
their share in the total carrier volumes will decrease.
The expansion of capacities in the port of Taman will In infrastructure development projects for
permit one to increase both the absolute and relative approaches to seaports, in addition to port railways,
terms, the volumes of handling of coal, ore, fertilizers, other types of transport should be engaged, such as
and grain freights. In the “other” group, the growth roads and rivers.
will take place due to the container freights, which
Assumptions and restraints in the development of car-
main traffics will be handled in the port of Novorossi-
riers and railway infrastructure of the eastern range.
ysk. In the new port of Taman, not only will complexes
Recently an increase has been observed in the growth
for reshipping commercial oil freights and bulk carrier
of the volume of freight carriers in the Eastern range of
(coal, ore) be established, but the container terminal
the railway. In 2013, the shipments to Far East ports
will also be constructed.
reached 186 000 t/day, having increased the pre-crisis
The development of the forecast traffics upon level of 2007 1.8 times, as well as the maximum values
approaching the ports of the Southern region will of the carrier volumes in 1988. The amounts of traffic
require reconstructing some parts of the railway infra- within a six-year period by the Trans-Siberian Railway
structure with a total volume of investments of about and Baikal-Amur Mainline increased by more than
190 billion rubles in the forecast prices by 2020. 20 trains per day. If, as a whole, the freight turnover by
Ports of the Far East region. The dynamics of the the railway system decreased by 17.6%, in the Eastern
carrier volumes of foreign trade freights through ports range, even not taking into account the traffic of the
of the Far East region has a complex character. Their empty cars, it increased by 14%, including by 1.5 times
10% reduction (from 81.9 to 73.6 million tons) over the on the Far East Railroad.

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DEVELOPMENT VECTORS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT 405

Development of a freight base in the Far Eastern 158.5 million tons) and by 2.3 times in dollars (from
range is first of all connected with the prospective 32.3 to 75.9 billion USD).
development of the large investment projects in the Despite some decrease in the rates of the economic
mining industry of the region, as a result of the imple- growth in China (up to 7% in 2015), the expert forecast
mentation of which the volume of freight carriers maintained a stable trend of growth in the supplies of
towards the Vanino–Sovetskaya Gavan’ transport energy-source commodities from Russia in this and
center is expected to reach the level of 54.2 million other countries of Southeast Asia. The formation of
tons by 2020. The maximum growth in the volume of the freight base in the western districts of China will
freight carriers this mentioned year will be achieved lead to an increase of the volumes of carriers together
due to the pickup of coal and ores from existing and with the railways of Kazakhstan thorough the border
future mineral deposits on the level of 113.2 million terminals of Dostyk and Kartaly-1. Moreover, an
tons upon the application of the companies, particu- increase in the international transit volumes, as well as
larly developers of deposits in the amount of strengthening of the transport-economic relation of
163.7 million tons [6]. the European part of Russia with the eastern neigh-
Among the largest coal deposits that affect the load bors will contribute to significant growth in the density
of the railway system of the Eastern range, it is neces- of freight traffic at all parts of the Eastern range net-
sary to specify the Elginskoe deposit in the Republic of work. That is why including the development of the
Sakha (Yakutia) to which the Ulak–Elga railway line Eastern Range railway transport, particularly the
is constructed, as well as the Elegestskoe deposit in the Trans-Siberian Railway and Baikal-Amur Mainline,
Republic of Tyva–Kuragino, for the development of in the priority direction of OAO RZhD activities,
which the construction of the Kyzyl–Kuragino line is which affects the total economy of the country, is
planned. The most significant for the railway trans- important.
port load will be the Kimkano-Sutarskoe in the Jewish At present, the carrying capacity of the railways of Siberia and
Autonomous Region and Taezhnoe in the Republic of Far East is almost exhausted, which is specified by weak develop-
Sakha (Yakutia) iron ore deposits and polymetal ment and high degree of depreciation of railway infrastructure
facilities; there are traction limits. The system of railroads in the
deposits in Zabaikalye Krai. Eastern Range incurs a deficit of the carrying capacity; at present,
The increase in the freight base of the Far Eastern it reaches 3200 km, which is 30% of the length of the considered
network and, under the conditions of developing future freight
range is also conditioned by the development of the traffic, it will increase to 8100 km, which comprises about 75% of
Kuzbass coal deposit. Thus, in 2012–2013, carriers this network. In some direction, the use factor of the carrying
from the Kuzbass to the Far East increased by 18% capacity achieved the critical level, i.e., 70–100%.
and, as in 2007, grew by 2.5 times. In the Kuzbass– Modern infrastructure is capable of providing no more than
Northwest range the shipment within the similar peri- one-fourth of the present freight traffic. The main limiting direc-
tion in the range of the Far Eastern railroad along the Northern
ods increased by 5 and 27%. Latitudinal Railway is the Komsomolsk-on-Amur–Sovetskaya
Growth in volumes of coal carriers by 2020 com- Gavan’ line, which provides traffic with the transport center of
Sovetskaya Gavan’ and commercial seaport of Vanino.
pared to 2012 is estimated to the sum of 51 million
Among the barrier points that slow down the traffic process in
tons, including eastward in the amount of 39.3 million the Eastern range, there is an absence of bypasses of the railway
tons, which requires the additional strengthening of centers, the insufficient length of the station tracks and limited
some parts of the Baikal-Amur Mainline. To imple- capabilities of their specialization, and a low capacity of the trac-
ment the plans of the second development phase of the tion power supply. In the 1990s, during the significant decrease in
the carrier amounts a considerable part of the network sections,
railway infrastructure of the Eastern range that take and engineering facilities were dismantled. In addition, at the Bai-
into account the development of the prospective coal kal-Amur Mainline, there are still nonelectrified parts, and a great
carriers from Kuzbass, 640 billion rubles are required, number of single-track running lines are more than 30 km long.
as well as 197 billion rubles in order to reconstruct the On the whole, until recently, no works on major repairs of the
tracks, artificial structures, or other engineering devices have been
artificial structures. carried out in the necessary scope.
The eastern part of the country is a contact area, The parts with the barrier points make up almost the total rail-
through which the interstate cooperation is conducted way infrastructure of the Baikal-Amur Mainline (about 4350 km),
as well as about 3700 km of the Trans-Siberian Railway. For this
with a rapidly developing world center in Southeast mainline, the most problematic is the direction to the commercial
Asia. For countries of the Asia-Pacific region, with seaports of Nakhodka transport center, where commissioning the
outrunning economic growth rates and, therefore, sig- third phase of the coal terminal at the port of Vostochnyi is
nificant requirements for raw materials and energy planned (the coal carriers will increase up to 29 million tons), a
new coal terminal is constructed at the Petrovskii cape with the
carriers, the resource base of the eastern part of Russia capacity up to 20 million tons, a complex for processing the hydro-
can become the largest source of import commodity carbon materials of Vostochnaya Neftechemicheskaya Company,
supplies as opposed to supplies from other countries etc. This direction is defining in development of Primor’e-1 and
under the conditions of the relevant development of Primor’e-2 International Transportation Corridors.
the transport infrastructure. Over only 6 years, i.e., The heavy load of the Trans-Siberian Railway
2007–2012, the volume of the products exported from (more than 75%) makes it difficult to increase the
Russia to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region freight traffics, including the transit containers. In
increased in weight by 1.5 times (from 103.8 to 2003–2013, excluding 2008 and 2013, the annual

STUDIES ON RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Vol. 27 No. 4 2016
406 FILINA

Table 5. Volume of freight carriers by Trans-Siberian Railway

Index 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Volume, million tons 60.3 72.1 74.5 76.1 80.1 79.4 83.7 101.8 102.5 111.2 104.6

Growth rates, % – 119.6 103.3 102.1 105.3 99.1 105.4 121.6 100.7 108.5 94.1

Source: [7].

growth of the freight carriers by the Trans-Siberian On the whole, the main direction of activities along
Railway is marked (Table 5). the Trans-Siberian Railway, besides the moderniza-
The total volume of the container carriers by the tion of the infrastructure include cooperation with the
Trans-Siberian Railway in 2013 was 1712900 TEU foreign railways and companies, the development of
with 4% growth per annum, including more than the intermodal carriers and logistical industry, and the
700000 containers (41%) in international traffic. implementation of the modern information technolo-
According to the results of six months of 2014, the sta- gies in order to achieve the announced transport prod-
tistical data indicates the acceleration of container car- ucts “Transsib within Seven Days.”
riers in this type of traffic; upon an increase of their In the freight traffic structure of the Eastern range,
total volume, within the first half of 2014, an 8% low-profit carriers prevail. In order to attract high-
increase (more than 860000 TEU) in their growth in profit freights, it is proposed to modernize the Trans-
the international traffic reached 22% [7]. Siberian Railway for high motion speeds for passing
passenger and high-speed container trains, as well as
The limitation of the carrying capacity of the to develop the Baikal-Amur Mainline to carry bulk
Trans-Siberian Railway as of almost total network of freights with lower motion speeds.
the railways of the country is mainly defined by the
mass occupancy of the tracks with the cars not belong- The increased intensity of the freight traffics and
ing to the transport company. Some experts suggest growth of the carrier distance, the planned future
introducing into the industrial regulatory documents increase in the volumes and quality of the transporta-
the principal of payment for occupation of the public tion process in the railway network of the Eastern
tracks with the cars above the standard time and for range require not only the improvement of the railway
the untimely clearing of tracks after unloading of the transport infrastructure and existing technical equip-
cars [8]. ment, but also carrier technology. In the sphere of
technological solutions the implementation of the range
To develop the public infrastructure, the regulatory principles of control of the traction rolling stock should
control provides attraction of the funds of private be specified. The control centers of the traction
investors and the removal of limits on the turnover of resources created to solve this problem provide the
the part of OAO RZhD property, as well as the adop- coordination and on-line dispatching control of the
tion of long-term agreements between the owner of the operation and repair of the rolling stock.
railway transport infrastructure and consumers of its
services. An efficient measure for increasing the carrying
capacity of the main directions is also to arrange the
Among measures on accelerating carriers, there is handling of trains with increased weight and length.
also the improvement of the arrangement of the com- Heavy-weight traffic is considered to be one an instru-
bined carriers, which is especially important in regions ment for increasing the carrying capacities of the parts
of Siberia and the Far East upon the interaction of of the railway network and reducing the consumed
operators of the sea terminals with railway operators. energy resources for the train traction. In 2013, on
At present, this interaction is complicated by the vari- three eastern railways (East Siberian, Baikal, Far East-
ety of types of contracts that, in many cases, contradict ern), the indices of the average train weight increased
each other. significantly, i.e., by 64, 134, 75 t, respectively, to the
The changes in the tariff policy that provide a single level of 2007. In 2003–2013, the number of the heavy-
order in tariff formation while carrying transit freights weight trains shipped with masses of more than 6000 t
for all consumers of railway transport services, includ- increased by 50%, while those with more than 8000 t
ing for countries included in the common economic increased by more than 11 times.
space, also contribute to the growth of competitiveness The motion of articulated heavy-weight trains
of Russian railways, including the Trans-Siberian gained momentum in the range technologies; in 2013,
Railway. The formation of a through tariff rate will about 7000 articulated trains were shipped, which
require coordinating the actions of all participants in exceeded the level of the previous year by 80%. The
the transport market. requirement to arrange the motion of these trains out-

STUDIES ON RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Vol. 27 No. 4 2016
DEVELOPMENT VECTORS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT 407

runs the infrastructure development, which is why, It is reasonable to conclude the contracts between
due to the unavailability of the track to high loads, spe- OAO RZhD, coal, and mining companies with finan-
cial conditions of train handling are introduced by cial responsibility for liabilities undertaken for the
analogy with container trains. A more complex secured provision of the freight base.
arrangement of the motion takes place eastward; fur- On the whole, the development of the Eastern
thermore, in parts of the Eastern range of the railway range as a foothold for Russia’s successful cooperation
network, the volume of freight carriers grows most with countries in the Asia-Pacific region should not be
dynamically. limited to increasing the technical and process infra-
As a result of the arrangement of the motion of structure and innovation potential. The development
heavy-weight trains in the Eastern range of the railway of the territory is primarily based on solving demo-
network, the ability to develop additional freight traf- graphic problems that worsened in the total post-
fic will appear, particularly up to 11.5 million tons of Soviet period, which led to an almost a twofold
freights through 2020 via the Baikal-Amur Mainline decrease in the size of the population, especially in the
and Trans-Siberian Railway. Due to the formed northern districts of Khabarovsk Krai, Amur oblast,
reserve of the carrying capacity, it will become possi- and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In a complex
ble to form additional income from the company upon program for attracting population implemented in the
rendering the services of the infrastructure and trac- Far East, OAO RZhD carried out a human resources
tion to the operators of the freight cars, and send addi- policy aimed at consolidating personnel in situ and
tional investments to the development of relevant engaging workers from other regions in the country.
facilities. To achieve prospective volumes of carriers via the Bai-
However, according to the preliminary estimates of kal-Amur Railway by 2020, only about 3500 people
some experts, it may appear that the additional will be required.
charges of OAO RZhD for arranging heavy-weight Container and piggyback carriers. At present, the
traffic, the maintenance of the infrastructure may level of containerization in Russia (specific index
exceed the total value of the expected economic effect. TEU per 1000 people of the country per annum) is
That is why it is necessary to consider the matter of 4.5 times lower than in the United States and 5.8 times
increasing the weight standards taking into account lower than in EU countries (Table 6). The total volume
the results of studying the infrastructure, testing the of freight carriers by railway transport makes up about
rolling stock, and taking experimental rides based on 2%, while the similar world index has continued to
the results of defining the commercial efficiency of the grow especially intensively over the last 30 years and is
project.
estimated at 10–60% according to the different
Despite the measures taken, the reserves of sources.
increasing the efficiency of the carriers due to the
technological instruments in the Eastern range are The currently observed reduction in growth rates of
actually exhausted. container turnover worldwide is related to the decrease
The complex natural and climate conditions, the in commercial activity due to the retardation of growth
significant share of the freight traffics of the first tariff rates in the world economy, as well as with the satura-
class (low-profit bulk freights) make implementing the tion of the containerization market in the developed
project on modernizing the railway-transport infra- countries, particularly in Europe and the United
structure of the Eastern range for the holding com- States, where this index approached 100%. In the
mercially inefficient. opinion of the experts, future growth of the container
To develop additional freight traffic in the amount market will be observed in India, Asia, Latin America,
of 55 million tons, the company could appropriate and Russia.
about 54% of the total volume of necessary invest- Despite the rapid development of the market for
ments from its own assets, which for 2013–2017, will container carriers in Russia, it does not provide a sig-
exceed 560 billion rubles. The government support is nificant effect in the country’s economy or even the
required to implement the total modernization pro- transport industry due to the absence of a common
gram. It is planned to assign more than half of assets as vector of its formation in different types of transport.
agreed with the Ministry of Finance from the National Thus, in 2010–2015, the growth of the total volume of
Wealth Fund through redemption of OAO RZhD
shares, the rest of the funds will be obtained in the freight carriers by the railway network was about 16%
form of direct contributions to the authorized capital. and the delivery of the freights in containers increased
by 74%, but the specific weight of the container carri-
Based on the analysis of the sensitivity of the effi- ers only comprised 2.8% of the total volume (Table 7).
ciency of some parameters to the change in the level of
investment expenditures held by the company, the In the structure of the container freight carriers,
possibility of the return of 88% of government assets the main share, 17.9 million tons (58%) falls on inter-
within the life cycle of the project equal to 30 years is national carriers (10.1 million tons of export freights,
defined [6]. 5.9 tons of imports, and 1.9 million tons of transit).

STUDIES ON RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Vol. 27 No. 4 2016
408 FILINA

Table 6. Level of containerization of railway carriers by machine-building industries, construction freights,
region of the world, TEU/thousand people and consumer goods are transported.
Region 2000 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 A significant part of container traffic (more than
30%) consists of empty containers that move in oppo-
site directions. According to the fast schedule, 38% of
United States 99 143 143 135 117 132
freights in the total volume of container freight carriers
are transported.
Europe 105 162 180 180 153 168
One of the main tasks of strategic development of
Russia 5 21 28 33 21 29 railway transport in the foreseeable future through
2020 is the growth of the share of container carriers in
Source: [9]. the total volume of freight carriers and their integra-
tion into the complex transport-logistic service sector.
The main flow of container freights in international In the General layout of the development of the
traffic (more than 70% or 12.7 million tons) is carried railway network through 2020, the prospective vol-
out through the container terminal of Russian sea- umes of container freight carriers are defined on the
ports, 9% are handled through the ports of the Baltic level of 57.2 million tons, which is 31.5% more than
countries and Ukraine, and the rest is handled via the index of 2015 (Table 7). Through 2030, the share of
direct railway traffic. More than one-third of the total the freight traffic of containers in the total structure of
volume of all container freights is transported by high- the freight turnover will double. In turn, the highest
speed container trains according to the tough schedule growth rates are expected in international container
specified in the timetable. traffic; carriers of import freight will also double [10].
High rates of carriers of transit container freights will be pro-
As for domestic and export–import freight-con- vided due the implementation of the transport product “Transsib
tainer carriers, their share in the transit high-profit within Seven Days” (thus, in this project, the number of container
carriers is comparatively small, assuming that, due to trains moving at speeds higher than 1050 km/day have increased),
the favorable geographic location of Russia, the most the establishment of terminal-logistic complexes in the railway
important international transportation corridors that network and transnational logistic operators within the Common
cover the entire Eurasian continent in different direc- Economic Space (CES EurAsEC), and the construction and
tions pass through its territory (Table 8). development of the existing container terminal at the Russian
ports, as well as the implementation of large international projects,
Stable specialization is formed in the commodity including the reconstruction of the Ulan-Bator railway in Mongo-
structure of freights transported in containers; in lia and part of the railway network in the Democratic People’s
exports, products of cellulose and paper, the chemical Republic of Korea to the port of Rajin with the establishment of
industries, and the nonferrous metal industry (mainly port complexes, the entry of the railway to Iran in the district of the
aluminum ingots) prevail. In turn, imports consist of Astara station, and the construction of the broad-gauge entry to
automobiles and their components; chemical freights; Central Europe (Kosice–Bratislava–Vienna). Special container
and a large group of consumer goods, including elec- terminals are established at the largest seaport of the Northwest
tronics and household appliances. In domestic traffic, Ust’-Luga modernized at the seaports of Far East designed at a
products of mainly petrochemical, machine-tool and new port of Taman in Krasnodar Krai. The main directions of the

Table 7. Prospective volumes of the freight carriers by the railway network

Average annual growth
Index 2010 2011 2012 2013 2015 2020
rates 2020/2015, %

Total volume of carriers 1342 1392.3 1436.8 1392.6 1553.3 1736.9 102.3

including in containers, million tons 25 26.6 30.5 30.9 43.5 57.2 105.6

Share of freight carriers in containers, % 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.8 3.3

Source: [10].

STUDIES ON RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Vol. 27 No. 4 2016
DEVELOPMENT VECTORS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT 409

transit freight carriers–International Transportation Corridors Table 8. Structure of the freight traffic by the railway net-
West–East and North–South; furthermore, the accelerated work, %*
growth of transit is expected through some central CIS countries
(Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) while creating the technological, regu- Index 2013 2020
latory, tariff conditions.
With the creation of a combined container-piggyback plat- Domestic carriers 60 (1.5) 61 (1.5)
form, the foundation for spreading piggyback carriers has been
laid, the potential of which will grow in domestic and international Export 29 (2.5) 29 (3.6)
traffics. Work on the use of some types of transport to fulfill one
freight carrier is being carried out at OAO RZhD.
Import 8 (5.1) 7 (9.2)

The implementation of new conditions of carriers Transit 3 (5.8) 3 (7.5)
in Russia requires establishing and arranging the infra-
structure on the container routes, correcting the regu- Total 100 (2.2) 100 (3.3)
latory base and tariff conditions, defining the freight
base potential, and a of the simplified customs clear- * The figures in brackets indicate the share of container carriers.
Source: [10].
ance of the piggyback trains.
Terminals have been constructed to maintain piggyback
routes, e.g., Belyi Rast and Kaliningrad, and offers to form a pig- from different owners. At present, about 60% of all
gyback terminal at Khabarovsk-2 station are being studied. In railway carriers is carried out under long-term con-
2011, along with Finnish railways, a piggyback train was dispatched tracts. The most profitable service, which covers about
on the Helsinki–S. Petersburg–Moscow route. one-third of freight carriers in 79 directions, is sched-
Thus, the development of container-piggyback uled freight carriers.
carriers is a prospective and profitable segment of the If achieving the effect of infrastructure develop-
transport service market. The implementation of these ment takes a significant length of time, providing the
projects will enable OAO RZhD to occupy a key posi- necessary level of transport services is a strategic
tion in rendering transport-logistic services. mechanism of competitiveness of railway transport.
Logistic services. The development of transport- Container services enables one to form logistic chains
logistic services, storage and terminal infrastructure, that meet the requirements of commodity producers,
production clusters, and terminal-logistic centers that transportation companies, operators, and other par-
allow one to arrange the control of supplies, forward ticipants in the commodity distribution.
freights, select the optimal route and storage condi- The TLC system is primarily created in places
tions, and enable the complex of the related service to where freight flows concentrate and at junctions of
play a significant role in increasing the traffic of con- several types of transport under the transit traffic as
tainer carriers between Europe and Asia. part of the development of intermodal carriers by
The development of a logistics business in OAO international transportation corridors, as well as where
RZhD activities means the formation of a system of regional containers and piggyback trains run. At pres-
the transport-logistic centers (TLCs) across the total ent, the low level of the TLC development is explained
railway network, the development of business in the by a weak degree of containerization, which forecasted
sphere of terminal operation, and the establishment of growth, imposes the need for them to spread.
a special logistic company that provides the coopera- The examples for the successful creation of container services
tion of different services in the structural subdivisions are the Chengdu (China)–Lodz (Poland) route, the Baltika Tran-
and subsidiary companies of the holding and foreign sit container train in Baltic countries–Central Asia traffic, as well
participants in the transport market, including other as Eurasia-1 and Eurasia-2 container trains. The project of the
types of transport and common control of the total Lithuanian railways that provide supplying freights in transit
logistic chain while supplying the freight. through Lithuania from Chongqing (China) to Antwerp (Bel-
The transport-logistic business enables long-term gium). Efficient logistic solutions also include supplying contain-
relationships to be established with key clients. A ers by creating interterminal railway services with base terminals
transport-forwarding service is established based on a and a regular schedule of high-speed trains.
long-term contract that creates “carrier plus rolling At present, more than ten Russian companies and
stock” complex service, including railway-ferry traf- joint enterprises that specialize in some certain types
fic. In addition to freight supplies, it includes the sell- of activities participate in international European and
ing and rendering of additional services, such as a Eurasian container carriers. Thus, OAO RZhD Logis-
scheduled carrier, shipments at seaports, forwarding tics renders transport-logistic services and OAO
by foreign railways, and the provision of rolling stock Transcontainer, the operator company; there are also

STUDIES ON RUSSIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Vol. 27 No. 4 2016
410 FILINA

Table 9. Structure of the United Transport and Logistic greater opportunity for railway transport to orient
Company by traffic directions, % profitable carriers of valuable and high-tech freights
Traffics 2011 2015 2020 and increase the competitiveness of the industry. The
development of the international intermodal business
Export 28 24 19 in the East–West direction will follow the way to
Import 21 24 24 improve the through service and provision of the opti-
Transit: mal route taking into account the economic interest
China–European Union 1 9 25 for all participants in the transportation and logistic
China–Central Asia 10 8 6 business.
Domestic market 40 35 26 The constraining factor of the spread of high logis-
tic technologies is a traditional approach to defining
Source: [9].
economic efficiency, which, as a rule, is applied to
analyzing the cost structure of some products and ser-
terminals and container equipment under its supervi- vices. At present, the analysis of the efficiency of logis-
sion. Some international projects, especially in the tics systems is based on the need for references of the
Europe–China direction, is established with the joint data on costs (profits) to the links that form them.
participation of OAO RZhD and foreign partners, In the method of analyzing the efficiency of freight
e.g., supplying the components of the motor cars to supplies using logistic chains, a similar approach is
the assembly plants in China. inappropriate, since the logistics system consists of
United Transport and Logistic Company (UTLC) some separate elements, the financial components of
was established in the CES EurAsEC by OAO RZhD which are difficult to define due to the crossflow of the
together with Kazakhstan and Belarus, the objective of costs from one link to another and commercial costs
which includes rendering a set of transport and logistic associated with the complex of charges within the total
services in the sphere of the railway and intermodal logistic chain. For an adequate analysis of the effi-
carriers, which will permit one to increase the capacity ciency of logistics systems, some authors [11] propose
of the transit containers up to 1 million TEU by 2020. comparing the results of the system’s operation while
The control of the rolling stock in the total network performing and not performing a given operation, and
scale of CES EurAsEC will help to solve the problem the obtained difference in the costs (profits) will show
of optimizing empty mileage in the railway network their limit values.
and the optimal use of transport infrastructure by Thus, the development of the logistics business,
changing over part of freights from the motor trans- container and piggyback carriers and integration into
port. The UTLC activity will positively affect the the Eurasian infrastructure of the railways means
development of economies of the aforementioned transforming OAO RZhD into an international trans-
countries and enable one to compete on equal footing port-logistics holding. The company’s business model
with the EU countries and China for the control of the is formed based on directions that enable one to
global transportation corridors, replicating the high achieve efficiency and competitiveness. It is assumed
logistic technologies attracting the client base to the that the growth of freight carriers and the company’s
railway system of the Common economic space for the profitability will be achieved due to rendering the full
transit traffic of the freights in Asia–Europe direction package of services; a contract for integrated logistics,
(Table 9). transit potential, and export-import traffics will be
As was mentioned above, the development of dry developed; and a multimodal transport-logistic com-
ports plays an important role in the creation of termi- pany will be formed.
nal-storage infrastructure, which operates according
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