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1.Explain different types of terrain with neat sketch.


Terrain, or land relief, is the vertical and horizontal dimension of land surface.
When relief is described underwater, the term bathymetry is used.

Terrain is used as a general term in physical geography, referring to the lay of
the land.

This is usually expressed in terms of the elevation, slope, and orientation of
terrain features.

Terrain affects surface water flow and distribution. Over a large area, it can
affect weather and climate patterns.


The understanding of terrain is critical for many reasons:

The terrain of a region largely determines its suitability for human settlement:
flatter, rockier uplands.

Terrain is militarily critical because it determines the ability of armed forces to
take and hold areas, and move troops and material into and through areas. An
understanding of terrain is basic to both defensive and offensive strategy.

Terrain is important in determining weather patterns. Two areas geographically
close to each other may differ radically in precipitation levels or timing because
of elevation differences or a "rain shadow" effect.

Precise knowledge of terrain is vital in aviation, especially for low-flying routes
and maneuvers (see terrain collision avoidance) and airport altitudes.

Terrain will also affect range and performance of radars and terrestrial radio
navigation systems. Furthermore, a hilly or mountainous terrain can strongly

impact the implementation of a new aerodrome and the orientation of its

Change of terrain :

At a change of terrain roughness, adjustment takes place within an ‘inner
boundary layer

Within the inner boundary layer, the logarthmic law with the roughness length,
z02, applies, but the wind speeds must match at the edge of the inner boundary

Full adjustment of the magnitudes of the mean wind speeds does not occur until
the inner boundary layer fills the entire atmospheric boundary layer - this could
take as much as 50 km (30 miles) of the new terrain

For flow from smooth to rougher terrain (z02 > z01) :
 z 
xi ( z )  zo 2  
 0.36zo 2 
For flow from rough to smoother terrain (z02 < z01) :
1/ 2
z 
xi ( z )  14z o1 
 zo 2 
Turbulence and gust wind speeds adjust faster than mean speeds to a change of

For gust speed at 10 meters, an exponential adjustment can be assumed :

   x 
Uˆ 2, x  Uˆ 1  (Uˆ 2  Uˆ 1 ) 1  exp 
  2000 
where 𝑈 ̂1 and 𝑈 ̂2 are the asymptotic gust velocities over fully-developed
terrain of type 1 (upstream) and 2 (downstream).

Terrain Types

The following list includes the possible terrain types and their associated
attributes. Modifier is how the terrain affects travel. The MUD engine takes the
room size and multiplies it by the modifier to determine how much endurance is
lost in travel

Terrain Type Modifier

Forest 3

Jungle 4

SandDesert 2

RockDesert 1.5

Plains 1.5

Tundra 2

Icesheet 2

Hills 3

Mountains 5

HighMountains 6

Swamp 5

silos. valleys.3 The most basic classification of terrain divides it into flat and non-flat terrain.Bog 4 City 1. etc.5 PavedRoad 1 DirtRoad 1. Flat terrain is terrain with small irregularities such as forest. . Fig: schematic of a momentum wake. etc. Non-flat terrain has large-scale elevations or depressions such as hills. ridges.3 Ocean 2 Lake 1 River 1. and canyons. shelter belts. Many authors define non-flat terrain (this is defined as an area being considered). Man-made obstacles are defined as buildings. Flow over flat terrain with obstacles Flow over flat terrain with man-made and natural obstacles has been studied extensively.

Tunnels may pass through Mountain hexes. only fliers. 2. Local winds are small scale phenomena produced purely by local factors due to topographical peculiarities and local temperature differences. Local Winds The local winds are caused either by topographic effects or by variations in surface composition—land and water—in the immediate area. Fig: Effect of change in surface roughness from smooth to rough Mountains Mountains are a Terrain Type. even to fliers. These winds are put in the category of tertiary circulation(under primary circulation planetary wind comes i. . Westerlies and Easterlies and under secondary circulation tropical and extra-tropical cyclones come). trade winds. Mountain Units.Characteristics of Non-flat Terrain(small scale feature) Researcher have divided non-flat terrain into isolated and mountainous terrain.Write a short note on local winds & global winds.e. and Tunneling Units may pass through mountain hexes. Local winds blow over a much smaller area than global winds and have a much shorter time span. in which the first refers to terrain of small –scale features and the latter refers to large scale features. Typically. Some mountains are impassable.

its zone of influence is quite limited. the land surface is heated more intensely during the daylight hours than an adjacent body of water is heated. it is locally generated so.The causes of local winds are because of temperature and air pressure. The greater one of these are. (ii)Its vertical extent is limited to only a few thousand meters. these local wind systems have little climatological importance. (iii)These local winds have very individualistic characters. A local wind is a little zephyr that one can get occasionally. Characteristics: (i)since. A global wind would be the jet streams. hence they are given different names in different localities. . and rises. it play very significant role in the weather and climate of a particular locality. the stronger the winds are. nevertheless. At night the reverse takes place. As a result. creating an area of lower pressure. (iv)Though.  Land and Sea Breezes • In coastal areas during the warm summer months. expands. the air above the land surface heats.

it glides up along the slope and generates a valley breeze. the air along the slopes of the mountains is heated more intensely than the air at the same elevation over the valley floor.  Katabatic winds A wind that originates in cold upland areas and cascades toward lower elevations under the influence of gravity. and extremely dry prompting wildfires in California. Valley and Mountain Breezes • In mountainous regions during daylight hours. • Mistral – cold. After sunset the pattern may reverse. high temperature. Because this warmer air on the mountain slopes is less dense. • Santa Anas-high speed. . high-velocity wind that sometimes surges down the slopes of the Alps toward the Mediterranean • Chinook-localized downslope wind of relatively dry and warm air that moves down the leeward slope of the Rockies.

 Wind Speed An anemometer is an instrument that resembles a cup and is commonly used to measure wind speed. This system moves warm air toward high latitudes and cool air toward the equator. two large thermally produced cells would form. the two-cell convection system would break down into smaller cells.  Rotating Earth Model If the effect of rotation were added to the global circulation model. the westerlies consistently move weather from west to east across the continent. Global Winds The atmosphere balances these differences by acting as a giant heat-transfer system. In the United States. .How Wind Is Measured  Wind Direction The prevailing wind is the wind that blows more often from one direction than from any other.  Non-Rotating Earth Model On a hypothetical non-rotating planet with a smooth surface of either all land or all water.

Both approaches are subjected to uncertainty caused by the variable. It is based on a combination of theoretical and empirical research. The second approach. large seasonal temperature differences disrupt the pressure pattern. In the Northern Hemisphere. . These winds are not constant like the trade winds. used by many wind energy researchers. In summer. especially Asia. complex nature of turbulent flows. two mathematical models or ‘laws’ have generally been used to model the vertical profile of wind speed over regions of homogenous. flat terrain(e.. the wind blows from sea to land. The first approach. the log law has its origins in boundary layer flow in fluid mechanics and in atmospheric research.  Influence of Continents The only truly continuous pressure belt is the sub polar low in the Southern Hemisphere. deserts. the wind blows from land to sea.power law and logarithm law. 3. A polar front is a stormy frontal zone separating cold air masses of polar origin from warm air masses of tropical origin. In winter. is the power law.Trade winds are two belts of winds that blow almost constantly from easterly directions and are located on the north and south sides of the subtropical highs Westerlies are the dominant west-to-east motion of the atmosphere that characterizes the regions on the poleward side of the subtropical highs. Polar easterlies are winds that blow from the polar high toward the subpolar low. fields.g. where land masses break up the ocean surface. and prairies). Monsoons are the seasonal reversal of wind direction associated with large continents. In wind energy studies.

Near the surface of earth momentum equation reduces to ∂p ∂(τxz ) = ……………(1) ∂x ∂z Where. Fig: Experimental speed profile This figure clearly shows that the mean wind speed increases with height. shear stress may be expressed as . pressure gradient is small. Logarithmic profile(log law): According to mixing length theory logarithmic wind profile can be derived in the following way. By using prandtl’s mixing length theory. on integrating ∂p τxz = τ0 + z ………(2) ∂x Where τ0 is the surface value of the shear stress Near the surface. so the second term on the right hand side may be neglected. which defines the phenomenon called wind shear. x and z=horizontal and vertical coordinates P=pressure τxz =shear stress in the direction of x whose normal Coincide with z In this region consider the p is independent of z.

(7) 𝑍0 𝑍0 𝑍𝑟 = 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑧∗ 𝑍+𝑍0 U(z) = ln( ) ……………... ∂u τxz = ρl2 ( ) 2 …………………. Where 𝑍0 is the surface roughness length Equation can also be written as 𝑈∗ ln(𝑍) = 𝑈(𝑧) + ln(𝑍0 ) ………….(3) ∂z ρ = density of air u= horizontal component of velocity l= mixing length combining equation (2) & (3) we get ∂u 1 τ ∗ = √ 0⁄ρ = U ⁄l …………….(4) ∂z l Where τ U ∗ = √ 0⁄ρ = friction velocity Equation (4) can be integrated directly from Z0to Z 𝑈∗ 𝑍 𝑈(𝑧) = ln( ) ………………. Its basic form is U(z) ∝ ⁄U(z ) = (z⁄zr ) r .(6) 𝑘 𝑍 𝑍 𝑈(𝑧)/𝑈(𝑧𝑟 ) = ln( )/ln( 𝑟 ) ……………….(5) 𝑘 𝑍0 Equation (5) is known as logarithm wind profile.(8) 𝑘 𝑍0 power law profile: The power law represents a simple model for the vertical wind speed profile.

U(zr ) is the reference wind speed at height zr . or only intermittently turbulent. the free atmosphere density stratification. temperature. Above the PBL is the "free atmosphere" where the wind is approximately geostrophic (parallel to the isobars) while within the PBL the wind is affected by surface drag and turns across the isobars. 3. 2.. 4. is the lowest part of the atmosphere and its behaviour is directly influenced by its contact with a planetary surface. moisture. rising during the day and sinking at night). the free atmosphere wind speed. The free atmosphere is usually non turbulent. The CBL is typical in tropical and mid-latitudes during daytime. On Earth it usually responds to changes in surface forcing in an hour or less. also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The height of the PBL is largely driven by convection associated with the changing surface temperature of the Earth (for example. the surface heat (more exactly buoyancy) balance. In this layer physical quantities such as flow velocity. display rapid fluctuations (turbulence) and vertical mixing is strong. and ∝ is the power law exponent 4. Where U(z)is the wind speed at height z. the free atmosphere vertical wind shear or baroclinicity. Types Convective planetary boundary layer: Convective planetary boundary layer is the PBL where positive buoyancy flux at the surface creates a thermal instability and thus additional or even major turbulence. Four main external factors determine the PBL depth and its mean vertical structure: 1. etc. .Planetary boundary layer The planetary boundary layer (PBL).

In the Earth's atmosphere. See Reynolds number. which govern the planetary boundary layer dynamics and microphysics. where viscous forces distort the surrounding non-viscous flow. The SBL is solely driven by the wind shear turbulence and hence the SBL cannot exist without the free atmosphere wind. Physical laws and equations of motions. a boundary layer is the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. the hydrological cycle. On an aircraft wing the boundary layer is the part of the flow close to the wing. Boundary layer Boundary layer visualization. . showing transition from laminar to turbulent condition In physics and fluid mechanics. and energy exchange. are strongly non-linear and considerably influenced by properties of the Earth's surface and evolution of the processes in the free atmosphere.Stably stratified planetary boundary layer: (SBL) is the PBL where negative buoyancy flux at the surface damps the turbulence. moisture or momentum transfer to or from the surface. Clouds in the boundary layer influence trade winds. the planetary boundary layer is the air layer near the ground affected by diurnal heat.

high momentum convection. turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic and suspectedly stochastic property changes. Aerodynamics: Fig:Laminar boundary layer velocity profile The aerodynamic boundary layer was first defined by Ludwig Prandtl in a paper presented on August 12. While there is no theorem relating the non-dimensional Reynolds number (Re) to turbulence. where viscosity can be neglected without significant effects on the solution. dominated by viscosity and creating the majority of drag experienced by the boundary body. It simplifies the equations of fluid flow by dividing the flow field into two areas: one inside the boundary layer. and one outside the boundary layer. 5. the process known as boundary layer transition. Flow in which the kinetic energy dies out due to the action of fluid molecular viscosity is called laminar flow. while those at low Reynolds numbers usually remain laminar. This includes low momentum diffusion. and eventually becomes turbulent. . flows at Reynolds numbers larger than 5000 are typically (but not necessarily) turbulent. Germany. The boundary layer inevitably thickens and becomes less stable as the flow develops along the body. 1904 at the third International Congress of Mathematicians in Heidelberg. and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time.Turbulence In fluid dynamics.

momentum and energy transports in a flow is called "diffusivity". Examples of turbulence  Smoke rising from a cigarette is turbulent flow.Features Turbulence is highly characterized by the following features:  Irregularity: Turbulent flows are always highly irregular. This is why turbulence problems are always treated statistically rather than deterministically. Vertical wind shear tears up the "machinery" of the heat engine causing it to break down. Turbulent flow is always chaotic but not all chaotic flows are turbulent. Tropical cyclone development requires relatively low values of vertical wind shear so that their warm core can remain above their surface circulation center. For the first few centimeters. the flow is certainly laminar. thereby promoting strengthening.Effects on tropical cyclones Tropical cyclones are basically heat engines that are fueled by the temperature gradient between the warm tropical ocean surface and the colder upper atmosphere.  Dissipation: To sustain turbulent flow. The characteristic which is responsible for the enhanced mixing and increased rates of mass. as its velocity and characteristic length are both increasing. 6. .  Diffusivity: The readily available supply of energy in turbulent flows tends to accelerate the homogenization (mixing) of fluid mixtures.  Rotationality: Turbulent flows have non-zero vorticity and are characterized by a strong three-dimensional vortex generation mechanism known as vortex stretching. Then smoke becomes turbulent as its Reynolds number increases. a persistent source of energy supply is required because turbulence dissipates rapidly as the kinetic energy is converted into internal energy by viscous shear stress. Strongly sheared tropical cyclones weaken as the upper circulation is blown away from the low level center.

require wind shear to organize the storm in such a way as to maintain the thunderstorm for a longer period of time. As a rule. interglacials compared to glacial). which can spawn tornadoes and hailstorms. or overnight. An increasing nocturnal. but remain largely constant even due to continental drift. 7.g. .Atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air. but the basic climatological structure remains fairly constant. the "cells" of Earth's atmosphere shift pole wards in warmer climates (e. The large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year.Effects on thunderstorms and severe weather Severe thunderstorms. This occurs as the storm's inflow becomes separated from its rain-cooled outflow. and the means (together with the smaller ocean circulation) by which thermal energy is distributed on the surface of the Earth. low level jet can increase the severe weather potential by increasing the vertical wind shear through the troposphere.

Approximately parallels equator. Particularly prominent over oceans. Trade winds – winds covering most of the Earth between 25o N and 25o S latitude. Fig: Atmospheric circulation and wind patterns Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) – zone of convergence and weak horizontal air flow. Also known has doldrums because early sailing ships would often becalmed. . Dominate more of the globe than any other wind system.

Subtropical Highs – centered at about 30o latitude. Westerlies – winds flow basically from west to east around the world between 30o and 60o north and south latitudes. and calm. Subpolar Lows – zone of low pressure at about 50o – 60o latitude. Zone of conflict between cold polar easterlies and warm westerlies. divergent clockwise in Northern Hemisphere and counter clockwise in Southern Hemisphere. Cold. Anti-cyclonic. warm. Known as Horse Latitudes. Fig: Atmospheric circulation and wind patterns . Polar Easterlies – from polar highs to 60o north and south. Polar Highs – situated over both polar regions. Weather is nearly always clear. dry. and variable.

The area is also called the Intertropical Convergence Zone. . The hot air goes to both south and north and gets colder. The hot and usually moist air rises. Latitudinal circulation features: An idealised view of three large circulation cells: Hadley cell The earth and ocean are intensively radiated in the equatorial areas. It is called convection. The masses of air from the 30 degrees go back to the equator. As the air is cold enough. This creates deserts and semi-deserts. This process creates a low pressure area along the equator. it goes down to the surface again.

and falls down on the poles.Mixed layer The oceanic or limnological mixed layer is a layer in which active turbulence has homogenized some range of depths. Because the specific heat of ocean water is much larger than that of air. The air in this cell moves according to the differences between moving masses in Hadley and Polar cells. 8. On the other hand. Turbulence typically plays a role in the formation of fluid mixed layers. The character of processes is similar to the Hadley cell. The warmer air goes up. surface heat fluxes. Thus the heat required to change a mixed layer of 25 m by 1 °C would be sufficient to raise the temperature of the atmosphere by 10 °C. . The depth of the atmospheric mixed layer is known as the mixing height. The surface mixed layer is a layer where this turbulence is generated by winds. The atmospheric mixed layer is a zone having nearly constant potential temperature and specific humidity with height. This air comes back to the equator. The interchange of high and low areas is typical. Ferrell cell The movements between 30 and 60 degrees are more compounds. The depth of the mixed layer is thus very important for determining the temperature range in oceanic and coastal regions. The temperature is not the main reason of this circulation.Polar cell The air on 60 degrees of latitude is colder and drier than the air on the equator. or processes such as evaporation or sea ice formation which result in an increase in salinity. Ocean mixed layer Importance of the mixed layer The mixed layer plays an important role in the physical climate.5 m of the ocean holds as much heat as the entire atmosphere above it. the rising movements are still possible. the top 2.

they can eat into stratified fluid.01 and 0. if cooling. When these shears reach sufficient magnitude. The first is breaking of surface waves. addition of brine from freezing sea ice. The second is wind-driven currents. Finally. k =0.0144 (Garratt) . or evaporation at the surface causes the surface density to increase.02) substituting : 2     2 κ  a  kU10  k   10   zo      log  e    o   z g  loge 10/zo  Implicit relationship between zo and U10 Assume g = 9. This process is often described and modelled as an example of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. where most of it dissipates.81 m/s2 .Mean velocity profile • Mean wind speed profiles over the ocean: • Surface drag coefficient () and roughness length (zo) vary with mean wind speed 2 au 2* aκU10 zo   g g g .Oceanic mixed layer formation There are three primary sources of energy for driving turbulent mixing within the open-ocean mixed layer. a = 0. convection will occur. 9.41 . though other processes may play a role as well. which injects a great deal of energy into the upper few meters.gravitational constant a .empirical constant (a lies between 0. which create layers in which there are velocity shears.

17 30 3.51 Applicable to non-hurricane conditions • Mean wind profiles in hurricanes : Aircraft flights down to 200 metres Drop-sonde (probe dropped from aircraft .59 20 1.22 25 2.tracked by satellite) : recently started Sonic radar (SODAR) measurements in Okinawa • Tower measurements Not enough Usually in outer radius of hurricane and/or higher latitudes . U10 (m/s) Roughness Length (mm) 10 0.21 15 0.

3) for z < 100 m .Northern coastline of Western Australia Profiles from 390 m mast in late nineteen-seventies In region of maximum winds : steep logarithmic profile to 60-200 Nearly constant mean wind speed at greater heights loge ( z / 0.3) U z  U10 loge (10 / 0.

• Mean wind profiles in thunderstorms (downbursts) : • Doppler radar • Some tower measurements (not enough) • Horizontal wind profile shows peak at 50-100 m • Model of Oseguera and Bowles (stationary downburst):  λR 2  U     1  e  r/R 2   e  z/z  e z/ε   2r  r . Solar radiation is the ultimate energy source for most wind. and friction. the Coriolis effect.characteristic radius z* .radial coordinate R . The unequal heating of Earth’s surface generates pressure differences.characteristic height out of the boundary layer  . .Factors Affecting Wind Wind is the result of horizontal differences in air pressure.scaling factor 10. Air flows from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.  Pressure Differences • A pressure gradient is the amount of pressure change occurring over a given distance. Three factors combine to control wind: pressure differences.characteristic height in the boundary layer  .

.  Friction • Friction acts to slow air movement. • Jet streams are fast-moving rivers of air that travel between 120 and 240 kilometers per hour in a west-to-east direction. In anticyclones.  Anticyclones are centers of high pressure.• Closely spaced isobars—lines on a map that connect places of equal air pressure—indicate a steep pressure gradient and high winds. just the opposite is the case—the values of the isobars increase from the outside toward the center. all free-moving objects or fluids. Highs and Lows  Cyclones are centers of low pressure. In the Northern Hemisphere.  In cyclones.  Coriolis Effect • The Coriolis effect describes how Earth’s rotation affects moving objects. Widely spaced isobars indicate a weak pressure gradient and light winds. the pressure decreases from the outer isobars toward the center. including the wind. which changes wind direction. In the Southern Hemisphere. are deflected to the right of their path of motion. they are deflected to the left.

Also known as Arithmetic Average (AA). Center Line Average (CLA). but in general the wind speed increases logarithmically with height due to friction with the earth's surface. Shear between layers with different wind speeds in the atmosphere causes turbulence 12.WIND SPEEDS-TURBULENCE Atmospheric turbulence causes vertical mixing of the atmosphere. the temperature will be more or less constant with height (or at least closer to constant than it would be without turbulence).11.not sure what to tell you for wind speed. it can be caused by convection (heating at the surface causing warm air parcels to lift) or by friction with objects on the earth's surface and shear stress between layers of the atmosphere moving at different wind speeds. Since the atmosphere is mixing. .ROUGHNESS PARAMETERS Ra: Ra is the arithmetic average of the absolute values of the roughness profile ordinates.

Earth’s atmosphere is made up of 5 different layer . Its length is equal to the cutoff wavelength. Pre-Travel: the first part of the traversing length. 13.The average roughness is the area between the roughness profile and its mean line. Z is the sum of the height of the highest peaks and the lowest valley depth within a sampling length. evaluation length and post travel. Traversing Length: is the overall length traveled by the stylus when acquiring the traced profile. Sampling Length: is the reference for roughness evaluation. Post-Travel: The last part of the traversing length. It is the total of Pre-travel. Cutoff λc: of a profile filter determines which wavelengths belong to roughness and which ones to waviness. or the integral of the absolute value of the roughness profile height over the evaluation length Rz: Rz is the arithmetic mean value of the single roughness depths of consecutive sampling lengths. Evaluation Length: is the part of the traversing length from where the values of the surface parameters are determined.

and occasionally hazardous to health. The temperature drops as the altitude increases. TROPOSPHERE 1. Harmful ozone is found here…IT CREATES SMOG! What is OZONE?  A gaseous layer in the upper atmosphere that protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Two properties change with altitude. the AIR PRESSURE and the AIR TEMPERATURE. 3.The atmosphere is divided into five different layers because the atmosphere is not uniform. The troposphere goes from 0km to 16km. Lets look at each layer individually. its properties change with altitude. The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere nearest to earth. ozone becomes a major pollutant. 4. 5. All weather happens in the troposphere. 2. What is SMOG? Pollution formed by the interaction of pollutants and sunlight (photochemical smog). 6. At lower levels. usually restricting visibility. . More than half the air in the total atmosphere is in this layer.

the temperature drops with altitude. . The thermosphere is the hottest layer of the atmosphere. 3. 2. Curtains of light called auroras occur in this layer. 4. MESOSPHERE 1. 3. 2. 3. Rivers of air. can be found at the base of this layer. STRATOSPHERE 1. 5. 4. 3. The stratosphere goes from 16km to 50 km. 2. The exosphere is the outermost layer of the atmosphere. Radio waves are reflected back to earth in the mesosphere THERMOSPHERE 1. Satellites orbit earth in the exosphere. The Ionosphere is found in the thermosphere. In the mesosphere. The thermosphere goes from 90km to 300km. The temperature goes up with altitude. 2. This is the component of the thermosphere that makes the auroras. The protective ozone is at the top of the atmosphere (It protects us from the ultraviolet radiation of the sun. The Mesosphere goes from 50km to 90km. In the thermosphere the temperature goes up with altitude. The temperature in the exosphere goes up with altitude.) 5. The mesosphere is the coldest layer of the atmosphere. 4. called Jet Streams. a. Most jets fly in this layer. EXOSPHERE 1. Meteors burn up in this layer.

Tornadoes: Winds in high altitude flow faster than the surface winds due to the friction with ground cause updrafts (within the thunderstorm) with the rotation axis perpendicular to the ground.Lapse Rate The rate at which air temperature decreases with height. ascends. The atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel: . 14. air pressure. day-to-day of the condition of the atmosphere. It’s the snapshot of the climate. 17. wind speed and direction. 15. though! It includes temperature. Tropical Cyclones: Surface airflow converges into low-pressure area. relative humidity. and flow outward as it diverges aloft. The standard (average) lapse rate in the lower atmosphere is about 6. Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect The warming of the atmosphere by its absorbing and emitting infrared radiation while allowing shortwave radiation to pass through. seasonal factors such as changes in insolation Violent Weather Thunderstorms: The condensation of large quantity of water vapour in clouds releases tremendous energy. The gases mainly responsible for the earth’s atmospheric greenhouse effect are water vapor and carbon dioxide. 16.5°C per 1 km or 3.6°F per 1000 ft.Simulatin techniques in atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel.what’s difference between weather and climate Climate: long-term average(over decades) of weather conditions and extremes in a region Weather: short-term.

helicopter landing areas (CAP437). . Typical ABLWT Measurements Airflow characteristics around buildings and structures including pedestrian environment. The 15 metre upstream fetch makes it possible to generate the turbulence and shear characteristics essential for accurate simulation of the Earth’s atmospheric boundary layer. The atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel is a purpose-built facility designed specifically to simulate flow fields associated with atmospheric winds.The UC Davis Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel (UCD-ABLWT) was specifically designed to model the turbulent characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer. natural ventilation (BS 5925). Since the thickness of atmospheric boundary layer is determined by the height at which surface friction no longer affects the general flow of the wind. The atmospheric boundary layer is a layer of air covering the earth in which the airflow is influenced by viscosity (fluid friction). the boundary layer thickness depends on the shape and condition on the surface.

Six component dynamic force/moment balance 4. Hydrocarbon analyser for plume dispersion studies . Floor mounted 360˚ rotating turntable 3. chimneys (BS 4076) and bridge structures (BS 5400). Static and dynamic wind loading of tall structures. Computer controlled three axis over-head traverse system 2. Four channel hot wire anemometer 6. Multi-port simultaneous pressure scanning system 5. ventilation and air conditioning testing (HVAC) and gas turbine intakes. building heating. Multiple smoke filament flow seeding 8.Surface pressure measurements are taken for wind loading for buildings (BS 6399-2). lattice towers (BS 8100-1). High speed Particle Image Velocimetry 7. Key Equipment 1.

which requires collaboration between engineers and meteorologists. . both the overall forces and the local fluctuating pressures on cladding. The other is to help solve engineering problems such as (i) predicting the wind forces on structures. he said. S. (ii) predicting the way in which the structures affect the wind. 2. Plate (Karlsruhe) began the technical sessions with a review lecture. Fig: atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel Simulation methods 1. Simulation methods involving thermal stratification R.Simulation methods without stratification E. One reason is to help the understanding of airflows in the atmosphere. Scorer (Imperial College. two main reasons for simulating the atmospheric boundary layer in a wind tunnel. for example so as to disturb people walking near buildings. There are. and (iii) studying diffusion from chimney stacks and other sources of air pollution. London) began by showing a film of the surface of a reservoir on the downwind side of a wall along the top of the dam.

. Scorer advanced the unusual idea that motions in the cats’paws were similar to those caused by fronts of cold air moving into warm air. It showed the merit of looking at nature as well as motion in wind tunnels.A marked pattern of ‘ eat’s paws ’ was seen where advancing wind discontinuities (increases) ruffled the surface.