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Digital Camera

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Digital Camera (disambiguation).

Canon EOS 5D Mark III, a digital single-lens reflex Digital Camera

A Digital Camera is an optical instrument for recording images, which may be stored
locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The images may be individual still
photographs or sequences of images constituting videos or movies. The word Digital Camera
comes from Digital Camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin name of
the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern
photographic Digital Camera evolved from the Digital Camera obscura. The functioning of
the Digital Camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye.

Basic elements of a modern still Digital Camera

A Digital Camera may work with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of
the electromagnetic spectrum.[1] A still Digital Camera is an optical device which creates a
single image of an object or scene, and records it on an electronic sensor or photographic
film. All Digital Cameras use the same basic design: light enters an enclosed box through a
converging lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium. A shutter mechanism
controls the length of time that light can enter the Digital Camera.[2] Most photographic


The earliest daguerreotype Digital Cameras required several minutes to half an hour to expose images on the plates. Its design was the most widely used for portraits until Carl Zeiss introduced the anastigmat lens in 1889. created in 1841 a double-box Digital Camera using a half-sized plate for imaging.5 Petzval lens was nearly 30 times faster than any other lens of the period. commonly at a rate of 24 frames per second. the illusion of motion is achieved. except for having a knob-fronted worm gear on the front of the Digital Camera.or chamfered-box Digital Camera.[45] Another French design emerged in 1841.[6] After the introduction of the Giroux daguerreotype Digital Camera. bringing exposure times down to 3 minutes. [50] Having the bellows in the middle of the body facilitated making a second. allow for a desired part of the scene to be in focus. except it records a series of static images in rapid succession. and the Lewis-type Digital Camera. Peter Friedrich Voigtländer designed an all- metal Digital Camera with a conical shape that produced circular pictures of about 3 inches in diameter. 3 general forms of Digital Camera were in popular use: the American. The distinguishing characteristic of the Voigtländer Digital Camera was its use of a lens designed by Josef Max Petzval. letting in different amount of light into the Digital Camera. and a prism at the front of the lens. and another slot in the back for close-ups. who had earlier provided Niépce with lenses. and to advances in 2 .[46] Instead of using nested boxes to focus. a set screw was tightened to hold the rear section in place. Chevalier’s Digital Camera had a hinged bed. in-Digital Camera copy of the original image.[47] In Germany. Once focused.[48] The f/3. the Digital Camera had a faster lens. exposure. which moved the back box for focusing. By 1840. created by Marc Antoine Gaudin. The top of the Digital Camera had hinged doors for placing photographic plates. Rotating to a different hole effectively provided variable f-stops. the Robert’s-type Digital Camera or “Boston box”. The third popular daguerreotype Digital Camera in America was the Lewis- type. When the images are combined and displayed in order. and to control the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. and an opening in the rear where the formed image could be viewed on ground glass.[4][5] A movie Digital Camera or a video Digital Camera operates similarly to a still Digital Camera. exposure times were reduced to just a few seconds owing to improvements in the chemical preparation and development processes. The main body of the Lewis- type Digital Camera was mounted on the front box.[3] A display. introduced in 1851.[49] Within a decade of being introduced in America.[51] Daguerreotype Digital Cameras formed images on silvered copper plates. permits the user to view scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed. allowing for half of the bed to fold onto the back of the nested box. The Nouvel Appareil Gaudin Digital Camera had a metal disc with three differently-sized holes mounted on the front of the lens. In addition to having increased portability. which allowed the image to be laterally correct. often a liquid crystal display (LCD). Inside there was one available slot for distant objects. Charles Chevalier. other manufacturers quickly produced improved variations. and shutter speed.Digital Cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to be recorded. and was the first to be made specifically for portraiture. The Robert’s-type Digital Cameras were similar to the American-box. The American-box Digital Camera had beveled edges at the front and rear. The lens was focused either by sliding or with a rack and pinion mechanism. Many Robert’s-type Digital Cameras allowed focusing directly on the lens mount. but the rear section was slotted into the bed for easy sliding. which utilized a bellows for focusing. the Gaudin Digital Camera used nested brass tubes.

5 x 16. The Kodak came pre-loaded with enough film for 100 exposures and needed to be sent back to the factory for processing and reloading when the roll was finished.5 x 7 1/8 inches). useful when making cartes de visite. Gradually in the 2000s and 2010s. with sizes such as 9 x 13 inches (“double-whole” plate). Early wet plate Digital Cameras were very simple and little different from Daguerreotype Digital Cameras.25 x 4. television and movies. Sasson combined the CCD device with movie Digital Camera parts to create a digital Digital Camera that saved black and white images onto a cassette tape. and plate sizes became internationally standardized: whole plate (6. 3 . which he called the "Kodak. He used a charge-coupled device (CCD) provided by Fairchild Semiconductor. which provided only 0.[55] The images were then read from the cassette and viewed on a TV monitor. digital Digital Cameras became the dominant type of Digital Camera across consumer. His first Digital Camera. Other Digital Cameras were fitted with multiple lenses for photographing several small portraits on a single larger plate. and ninth plate (2 x 2. which along with its relatively low price appealed to the average consumer. For many years.5 x 8. The Dubroni of 1864 allowed the sensitizing and developing of the plates to be carried out inside the Digital Camera itself rather than in a separate darkroom. As more sensitive photographic materials became available. but more sophisticated designs eventually appeared. By the end of the 19th century Eastman had expanded his lineup to several models including both box and folding Digital Cameras. Larger plates were produced. who started manufacturing paper film in 1885 before switching to celluloid in 1889. The first Digital Camera using digital electronics to capture and store images was developed by Kodak engineer Steven Sasson in 1975.[52] American daguerreotypists introduced manufactured plates in mass production.75 x 3.[56] Later.[53] Plates were often cut to fit cases and jewelry with circular and oval shapes. Digital Cameras began to incorporate mechanical shutter mechanisms that allowed very short and accurately timed exposures to be made.lens design.5 inches (Southworth & Hawes’ plate). The use of photographic film was pioneered by George Eastman. cassette tapes were replaced by flash memory. or 13.01 megapixels to capture images.5 inches). making the bulkier and less easily adjusted nested box design obsolete. counted off the number of seconds (or minutes) estimated to be required by the lighting conditions. It was during the wet plate era that the use of bellows for focusing became widespread.25 inches).25 inches).5 inches). It was a very simple box Digital Camera with a fixed-focus lens and single shutter speed. three-quarter plate (5. then replaced the cap. half plate (4. Films also made possible capture of motion (cinematography) establishing the movie industry by end of 19th century." was first offered for sale in 1888. quarter plate (3.[54] The collodion wet plate process that gradually replaced the daguerreotype during the 1850s required photographers to coat and sensitize thin glass or iron plates shortly before use and expose them in the Digital Camera while still wet. sixth plate (2. exposure times were long enough that the photographer simply removed the lens cap.5 inches).5 x 5.

Mechanics Image capture Traditional Digital Cameras capture light onto photographic plate or photographic film.[57] Focus The distance range in which objects appear clear and sharp. because it often has a wide aperture. The normal lens. Digital Camera lenses are made in a wide range of focal lengths. The technological revolution in Digital Camera design in the 19th century revolutionized optical glass manufacture and lens design with great benefits for modern lens manufacture in a wide range of optical instruments from reading glasses to microscopes. 4 . those designed for single images are still Digital Cameras. Lens Main articles: Digital Camera lens and Photographic lens design The lens of a Digital Camera captures the light from the subject and brings it to a focus on the sensor. called depth of field. This allows for a photographer to control which objects appear in focus. Each lens is best suited to a certain type of photography. medium telephoto. The telephoto lens is useful for sports and wildlife but it is more susceptible to Digital Camera shake. Pioneers included Zeiss and Leitz. is often used for street and documentary photography. and standard. The extreme wide angle may be preferred for architecture because it has the capacity to capture a wide view of a building. Digital Cameras that capture many images in sequence are known as movie Digital Cameras or as ciné Digital Cameras in Europe. and which do not. However these categories overlap as still Digital Cameras are often used to capture moving images in special effects work and many modern Digital Cameras can quickly switch between still and motion recording modes. usually a charge coupled device (CCD) or a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in a memory card or other storage inside the Digital Camera for later playback or processing. The design and manufacture of the lens is critical to the quality of the photograph being taken. can be adjusted by many Digital Cameras. Video and digital Digital Cameras use an electronic image sensor. They range from extreme wide angle.

Single-lens reflex Digital Cameras allow the photographer to determine the focus and composition visually using the objective lens and a moving mirror to project the image onto a ground glass or plastic micro-prism screen. one component of the 2D Fourier transform) about the far-away scene. In contrast. Each pixel thus relates an independent piece of information about the far-away scene.000 lenses working together to grab the optimal picture. lenses or mirrors map all of the light originating from a single point of an in-focus object to a single point at the sensor plane. The Digital Camera can also have a limited focusing range or scale-focus that is indicated on the Digital Camera body. A current plenoptic Digital Camera design has 40. There are various ways of focusing a Digital Camera accurately. In conventional digital photography. Equivalent exposures can be made using a large aperture size with a fast shutter speed and a small aperture with a slow shutter. Modern Digital Cameras often offer autofocus systems to focus the Digital Camera automatically by a variety of methods. for example the planar Fourier capture array (PFCA). The process of adjusting this range is known as changing the Digital Camera's focus. Rangefinder Digital Cameras allow the distance to objects to be measured by means of a coupled parallax unit on top of the Digital Camera. and the shutter controls the length of time that the light hits the recording surface. Shutters Main article: Shutter (photography) 5 . On some Digital Cameras this is indicated by symbols (head-and-shoulders.[58] Some experimental Digital Cameras. is in reasonable focus. The simplest Digital Cameras have fixed focus and use a small aperture and wide-angle lens to ensure that everything within a certain range of distance from the lens. do not require focusing to allow them to take pictures. Together. mountains). one tree.[59] Exposure control The size of the aperture and the brightness of the scene controls the amount of light that enters the Digital Camera during a period of time.Due to the optical properties of photographic lenses. Fixed focus Digital Cameras are usually inexpensive types.) in a parallel body for composition and focusing. usually around 3 metres (10 ft) to infinity. allowing each pixel to likewise relate an independent piece of information (specifically. The Digital Camera uses many tiny lenses on the sensor to capture light from every Digital Camera angle of a scene and is called plenoptics technology. a PFCA does not have a lens or mirror. allowing the focus to be set with accuracy. Twin-lens reflex Digital Cameras use an objective lens and a focusing lens unit (usually identical to the objective lens. Some Digital Cameras have post focusing. complete scene information is captured and images can be reconstructed by computation. but each pixel has an idiosyncratic pair of diffraction gratings above it. only objects within a limited range of distances from the Digital Camera will be reproduced clearly. such as single-use Digital Cameras. The user will guess or calculate the distance to the subject and adjust the focus accordingly. two people standing upright. Post focusing means take the pictures first and then focusing later at the personal computer. View Digital Cameras use a ground glass screen which is removed and replaced by either a photographic plate or a reusable holder containing sheet film before exposure.

"top-left" is at the bottom right of the sensor as seen by a photographer behind the Digital Camera). 6 . since covering the film rather than blocking light passing through the lens allows the photographer to view through the lens at all times except during the exposure itself. In fact in practice the curtains do not run at a constant speed as they would in an ideal design. Disadvantages of such shutters are their inability to reliably produce very fast shutter speeds ( faster than 1/500th second or so) and the additional cost and weight of having to include a shutter mechanism for every lens. The focal-plane shutter operates as close to the film plane as possible and consists of cloth curtains that are pulled across the film plane with a carefully determined gap between the two curtains (typically running horizontally) or consisting of a series of metal plates (typically moving vertically) just in front of the film plane. the leaf shutter closes. only on the difference between the time a specific point on the film is uncovered and then covered up again. since such a large focal-plane shutter would be difficult to make and/or may run slowly.Although a range of different shutter devices have been used during the development of the Digital Camera only two types have been widely used and remain in use today. exposing the whole film plane can take much longer than the exposure time.e. In this shutter design. The Leaf shutter or more precisely the in-lens shutter is a shutter contained within the lens structure. The direction of the slant depends on the direction the shutter curtains run in (noting also that as in all Digital Cameras the image is inverted and reversed by the lens. the leaf shutter opens then closes again. When photographing rapidly moving objects. Covering the film also facilitates removing the lens from a loaded Digital Camera (many SLRs have interchangeable lenses). often close to the diaphragm consisting of a number of metal leaves which are maintained under spring tension and which are opened and then closed when the shutter is released. The exposure time does not depend on the time taken to make the exposure over all. and finally the blind closes and the leaf shutter re-opens (the last step may only occur when the shutter is re-cocked). A blind inside the Digital Camera covers the film prior to and after the exposure (but is not designed to be able to give accurately controlled exposure times) and a leaf shutter that is normally open is installed in the lens. A manually inserted blade known as a dark slide allows the film to be covered when changing lenses or film backs. the use of a focal-plane shutter can produce some unexpected effects. an exposure of 1/1000 second may be achieved by the shutter curtains moving across the film plane in 1/50th of a second but with the two curtains only separated by 1/20th of the frame width. the blind opens. i. obtaining an even exposure time depends mainly on being able to make the two curtains accelerate in a similar manner. Using a focal-plane shutter. The focal-plane shutter is primarily associated with the single lens reflex type of Digital Cameras. This makes flash synchronisation much simpler as the flash only needs to fire once the shutter is fully open. For example. the whole film frame is exposed at one time. The exposure time is determined by the interval between opening and closing. Complexities Professional medium format SLR (single-lens-reflex) Digital Cameras (typically using 120/220 roll film) use a hybrid solution. Typically this can result in a moving object leaving a slanting image. since the film closest to the start position of the curtains is exposed earlier than the film closest to the end position. To take a picture.

and 1/125th if using a vertical run metal shutter. In 1932. It was used for nearly all film-based professional motion picture production.  Lens extension tubes allow close focus in macro photography. 17.  Lens cap: covers and protects the lens during storage. usually after exposure and processing. For cine Digital Cameras.  Lens adapter: sometimes called a step-ring. adapts the lens to other size filters. reflector. introduced in the US in 1923. 12 or 16 exposures. Typically 35mm film SLRs could sync flash at only up to 1/60th second if the Digital Camera has horizontal run cloth curtains. was introduced in 1965. For amateur use. Digital Camera accessories Accessories for Digital Cameras are mainly for care. was one early amateur format. and 16 mm film. 7 . introduced in Europe in 1922.  Lens hood: used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source to prevent glare and lens flare (see also matte box). but 9. In the early history plate sizes were often specific for the make and model of Digital Camera although there quickly developed some standardisation for the more popular Digital Cameras.5 mm film. before the second curtain starts to travel and cover it up again. 220 film providing 16 or 24 exposures. soft box. the even more economical 8 mm format was created by doubling the number of perforations in 16 mm film. trigger and cord. created by splitting 35 mm film. special effects and functions. protection. The introduction of roll film drove the standardization process still further so that by the 1950s only a few standard roll films were in use. Formats Main article: Film formats A wide range of film and plate formats have been used by Digital Cameras. 127 film providing 8 or 12 exposures (principally in Brownie Digital Cameras) and 135 (35 mm film) providing 12.5 mm film. film 35 mm wide and perforated with sprocket holes was established as the standard format in the 1890s. then splitting it.  Lens filters: allow artificial colors or change light density.  Flash equipment: including light diffuser. 20 or 36 exposures – or up to 72 exposures in the half-frame format or in bulk cassettes for the Leica Digital Camera range. soon became the standards for "home movies" in their respective hemispheres.Focal-plane shutters are also difficult to synchronise with flash bulbs and electronic flash and it is often only possible to use flash at shutter speeds where the curtain that opens to reveal the film completes its run and the film is fully uncovered. still 8 mm wide but with smaller perforations to make room for substantially larger film frames. The Super 8 format. These included 120 film providing 8. several smaller and therefore less expensive formats were introduced. mount and stand.

much longer in 20th century. Focussing of these plate Digital Cameras was by the use of a ground glass screen at the point of focus. Digital Camera designs Plate Digital Camera Main article: Photographic plate The earliest Digital Cameras produced in significant numbers used sensitised glass plates were plate Digital Cameras. Digital Cameras which take single exposures on sheet film and are functionally identical to plate Digital Cameras were used for static. a simple optical viewfinder was often fitted. cable release. see Large-format Digital Camera.  Tripod. Many of these Digital Cameras had controls to raise or lower the lens and to tilt it forwards or backwards to control perspective. maintenance tools.  Some professional SLR could be provided with interchangeable finders for eye-level or waist- level focusing. Glass plates were later replaced by sheet film in a dark slide for sheet film. the image on the ground glass screen was faint and most photographers had a dark cloth to cover their heads to allow focussing and composition to be carried out more easily.There were simple box Digital Cameras for glass plates but also single-lens reflex Digital Cameras with interchangeable lenses and even for color photography (Autochrome Lumière). Light entered a lens mounted on a lens board which was separated from the plate by an extendible bellows.  Battery and sometimes a charger. view finder.  Care and protection: including Digital Camera case and cover. the dark slide was carefully slid out and the shutter opened and then closed and the dark slide replaced. focusing screens. data backs. the ground glass screen was removed and a sensitised plate put in its place protected by a dark slide. In addition to the ground glass. microscope adapter. adaptor sleeves were made to allow sheet film to be used in plate holders. Folding rollfilm Digital Cameras were preceded by folding plate Digital Cameras. Folding Digital Camera Main article: Folding Digital Camera The introduction of films enabled the existing designs for plate Digital Cameras to be made much smaller and for the base-plate to be hinged so that it could be folded up compressing the bellows. below. electric wire release. 8 . focusing rail /truck. To make the exposure. motor-drives for film transportation or external battery packs. These designs were very compact and small models were dubbed vest pocket Digital Cameras. more compact than other designs. angle finder. high- image-quality work. and screen protector.  Large format Digital Cameras use special equipment which includes magnifier loupe. Because lens design only allowed rather small aperture lenses. When focus and composition were satisfactory. eye-cup.

the object is in focus.engine driven - could be made without having to remove any cover sheets from the picture. each lens requiring its own range. 12 or 16 photographs on a 120 roll and twice that number of a 220 film. Rangefinder Digital Camera Main article: Rangefinder Digital Camera As Digital Camera and lens technology developed and wide aperture lenses became more common. The ultimate development was the SX-70 system of Polaroid. Instant picture Digital Camera Main article: Instant Digital Camera After exposure every photograph is taken through pinch rollers inside of the instant Digital Camera. the cover sheet just needs to be removed and one gets a single original positive image with a fixed format.Box Digital Camera Main article: Box Digital Camera Box Digital Cameras were introduced as a budget level Digital Camera and had few if any controls.and full-frame 35 mm and rollfilm (medium format). Rangefinder Digital Cameras were produced in half. Notable manufacturers of large format and roll film SLR Digital Cameras include Bronica.and viewfinder linkages. Graflex. Later the viewfinder and rangefinder were combined. Thereby the developer paste contained in the paper 'sandwich' distributes on the image. These correspond to 6x9. Single-lens reflex Digital Cameras have been made in several formats including sheet film 5x7" and 4x5". When vertical lines in the object being photographed meet exactly in the combined image. Hasselblad. roll film 220/120 taking 8. The two separate images are brought together on a ground glass viewing screen. one of which is linked to the focusing mechanisms and moved right or left as the focusing ring is turned. However the most common format of SLR Digital Cameras has been 35 mm and 9 . as well as cartridges with instant film for normal system Digital Cameras. After a minute. Mamiya. 6x7. in which a row of ten shots .5 respectively (all dimensions in cm). This avoids the problem of parallax which occurs when the viewfinder or viewing lens is separated from the taking lens. With some systems it was also possible to create an instant image negative. Many rangefinder Digital Cameras had interchangeable lenses.10. rangefinder Digital Cameras were introduced to make focussing more precise. Later models such as the Brownie 127 had larger direct view optical viewfinders together with a curved film path to reduce the impact of deficiencies in the lens. 6x6 and 6x4. from which then could be made copies in the photo lab. The original box Brownie models had a small reflex viewfinder mounted on the top of the Digital Camera and had no aperture or focusing controls and just a simple shutter. Single-lens reflex Main article: Single-lens reflex Digital Camera In the single-lens reflex Digital Camera the photographer sees the scene through the Digital Camera lens. There were instant Digital Cameras for a variety of formats. and Pentax. Early rangefinders had two separate viewfinder windows. A normal composition viewfinder is also provided.

and later digital backs are available in addition to the standard dark slide back. ranging from monorail systems through the classic Hasselblad model with separate 10 . The viewing lens projects an image onto a viewing screen which can be seen from above. they are suitable for static subjects only. Large-format Digital Camera Main article: View Digital Camera The large-format Digital Camera. using almost identical sized bodies and sometimes using the same lens systems. parallax errors were encountered and some Digital Cameras also included an indicator to show what part of the composition would be excluded. The most common image sizes are 6×4. There are three common types. These Digital Cameras have a wide range of movements allowing very close control of focus and perspective. At the time of exposure the mirror is flipped up out of the light path before the shutter opens. architectural and industrial photography. Composition and focusing is done on view Digital Cameras by viewing a ground-glass screen which is replaced by the film to make the exposure.[61] Twin-lens reflex Main article: Twin-lens reflex Digital Camera Twin-lens reflex Digital Cameras used a pair of nearly identical lenses. At close distances however. the older 6×9 cm is rarely used. including the use of a semi-transparent pellicle as in the Canon Pellix[60] and others with a small periscope such as in the Corfield Periflex series. and are slow to use. the view Digital Camera with its monorail and field Digital Camera variants. Some TLR had interchangeable lenses but as these had to be paired lenses they were relatively heavy and did not provide the range of focal lengths that the SLR could support. Some manufacturers such as Mamiya also provided a reflex head to attach to the viewing screen to allow the Digital Camera to be held to the eye when in use. The lenses were arranged with the viewing lens immediately above the taking lens. Backs taking rollfilm. one to form the image and one as a viewfinder. some used the smaller 127 film. The designs of this kind of Digital Camera show greater variation than their larger brethren.subsequently the migration to digital SLR Digital Cameras. Typically these systems use 120 or 220 rollfilm. is a direct successor of the early plate Digital Cameras and remained in use for high quality photography and for technical. The advantage of a TLR was that it could be easily focussed using the viewing screen and that under most circumstances the view seen in the viewing screen was identical to that recorded on film. Medium-format Digital Camera Main article: Medium-format Medium-format Digital Cameras have a film size between the large-format Digital Cameras and smaller 35mm Digital Cameras.5 cm. Almost all SLR Digital Cameras use a front surfaced mirror in the optical path to direct the light from the lens via a viewing screen and pentaprism to the eyepiece. Most TLRs used 120 or 220 film. and the press Digital Camera. taking sheet film. 6×6 cm and 6×7 cm. Some early Digital Cameras experimented with other methods of providing through-the-lens viewing. They have an extensible bellows with the lens and shutter mounted on a lens plate at the front.

Movie Digital Camera Main article: Movie Digital Camera A ciné Digital Camera or movie Digital Camera takes a rapid sequence of photographs on image sensor or strips of film. There are even compact amateur Digital Cameras available in this format. Subminiature Digital Camera Main article: Subminiature Digital Camera Digital Cameras taking film significantly smaller than 35 mm were made. The size and complexity of ciné Digital Cameras varies greatly depending on the uses required of the Digital Camera. the only type of Digital Camera produced by the company from 1937 to 1976.5 mm film. to smaller rangefinder Digital Cameras. Subminiature Digital Cameras were first produced in the nineteenth century. The first ciné Digital Camera was built around 1888 and by 1890 several types were being manufactured. the term "camcorder" is used to describe a portable. Image quality with these small film sizes was limited. the ciné Digital Camera takes a series of images. which captures a single snapshot at a time.backs. became very widely known and was often used for espionage (the Minox company later also produced larger Digital Cameras). some using rewound 16 mm cine film. called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). self-contained device. Camcorders A camcorder is an electronic device combining a video Digital Camera and a video recorder. In contrast to a still Digital Camera. each called a "frame" through the use of an intermittent mechanism. Later inexpensive subminiatures were made for general use. a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures to create the illusion of motion. Although marketing materials may use the colloquial term "camcorder". While viewing. the name on the package and manual is often "video Digital Camera recorder". Professional video Digital Camera Main article: Professional video Digital Camera 11 . The frames are later played back in a ciné projector at a specific speed. Most devices capable of recording video are Digital Camera phones and digital Digital Cameras primarily intended for still pictures. Other professional standard formats include 70 mm film and 16mm film whilst amateurs film makers used 9. The expensive 8×11 mm Minox. Some professional equipment is very large and too heavy to be hand held whilst some amateur Digital Cameras were designed to be very small and light for single-handed operation. with video capture and recording its primary function. 8mm film or Standard 8 and Super 8 before the move into digital format. The standard film size for ciné Digital Cameras was quickly established as 35mm film and this remained in use until transition to digital cinematography.

A professional video Digital Camera (often called a television Digital Camera even though the use has spread beyond television) is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images (as opposed to a movie Digital Camera. These Digital Cameras earlier used vacuum tubes and later electronic sensors. Finally movie Digital Cameras transitioned to digital in the 2010s. Consumers adopted digital Digital Cameras in 1990s. 12 . direct-to-video movies. digital Digital Cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded. Digital and film Digital Cameras share an optical system. Most digital Digital Cameras can also record moving videos with sound. Professional video Digital Cameras transitioned to digital around the 2000s-2010s.[63] and digital Digital Cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from mobile phones (called Digital Camera phones) to vehicles. marriage videos etc. and store and delete images from memory. Some digital Digital Cameras can crop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing.[62] Most Digital Cameras sold today are digital. However. Digital Digital Camera Main article: Digital Digital Camera A digital Digital Camera (or digicam) is a Digital Camera that encodes digital images and videos digitally and stores them for later reproduction. just as with film but the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical. they are now also used for music videos. typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. unlike film Digital Cameras. Originally developed for use in television studios.[64] The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the imager. that earlier recorded the images on film). corporate and educational videos.