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Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA

)
of Trinidad & Tobago

Water and Wastewater
Design Guideline Manual

Revision 1
March 2009

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Of Trinidad and Tobago

Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual

GENIVAR Trinidad & Tobago Ltd.
20th Floor, Nicholas Tower
63-65 Independence Square South
Port of Spain
Trinidad, W.I.

Revision 1 – March 2009

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations

Table of Contents.......................................................................................................... i

List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................... I

Section 1 General Information ............................................................................. 1

Other References ......................................................................................................... 1

Section 2 Design Approach & Approvals ............................................................ 1
2.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 1
2.1.1 Multi barrier approach......................................................................................................... 1
2.1.2 Sustainable development ..................................................................................................... 1
2.2 Design Guidelines................................................................................................................ 1
2.3 Review process of the guidelines......................................................................................... 2
2.4 Approvals............................................................................................................................. 2

Section 3 Design Standards ................................................................................... 1
3.1 Design requirements ............................................................................................................ 1
3.2 Acts, Codes and Standards................................................................................................... 1
3.3 Other Design & Construction Standards.............................................................................. 2
3.4 Industry Standards ............................................................................................................... 2

Section 4 Process and Equipment Redundancy .................................................. 1
4.1 General................................................................................................................................. 1
4.2 Minimum redundancy – Wastewater systems ..................................................................... 1
4.3 Minimum redundancy – Drinking Water systems ............................................................... 1
4.4 Standby Power ..................................................................................................................... 2
4.5 Standardization of Equipment.............................................................................................. 2

Section 5 Design of Water Distribution System .................................................. 1
5.1 General Requirement ........................................................................................................... 1
5.2 Water Demand ..................................................................................................................... 1
5.2.1 Design Water Demand ........................................................................................................ 2
5.2.2 Average Water Demand (light industrial and commercial) ................................................. 3
5.2.3 Residential Per capita demand............................................................................................. 4
5.2.4 Equivalent Population ......................................................................................................... 5
5.2.5 Fire Flow Requirements ...................................................................................................... 5
5.3 Hydraulic Design ................................................................................................................. 6
5.3.1 Pipe Design Flow ................................................................................................................ 6
5.3.2 Hazen Williams roughness coefficient ................................................................................ 7
5.3.3 Standard Pipe Sizes ............................................................................................................. 7

i March 2009
R1

............................ 11 5.................................................5 Pressure ....................................................................................................4 Tank Capacity .............................................................................................. 5 Section 7 Potable Water Pumping Stations .....................................................11 Ventilation ..............5 System Layout ..................................................................................................... 4 6............. 2 6............. 14 5......... 7 5...... 10 5...........................................................................................................................................5.......7...........................................4 Equipment Redundancy .................................................................................................................. 8 5........... 15 Section 6 Drinking Water Reservoirs ....4 Pipe Depth ................................................................................................................ 1 7................. 11 5................................................................7 Corrosion Prevention ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Location................................................................................................................3............... 12 5................................................................................................2 Pump design........................... 7 5........................ 13 5...6 Pipe Requirements ..................................................................................... 1 6..................................................................................5 Valves.... 1 6.... 1 6...........7 Blow Off............................... 1 7..................4.......................................................13 Alarms....1 General..................................................................................................................6.......................... 2 7............ 5 6...................................3 Tank Design......................... 1 6..3..........................................................................................3 Separation from Stormwater and Wastewater Mains ....5.........2 Impoundment design......................................................................... 10 5..................................................................... 10 5............................................................5................. 7 5.......................................5 Water Service Connections ...........2 Pipe specification........................................................................... 1 7...................................................................................................... 2 6... 4 6.......10 Mechanical..................................................6......2 Polyurethane coating ............................................................................................5 Re-chlorination System Requirements ............................... 13 5................................9 Structural............................................. 12 5............................................................................................................. 1 7.....3 Structural Requirements ...... 8 5.................................................................................................................................................1 Grid System........................................4...............................................................................3 Pumping capacity ........................ 2 7......7.......................................................................................................5..................................... 2 7.. 9 5.............5...........................................4 Minimum Pipe Sizes................................................ 3 7.........................4 Trunk systems ...............................................................................Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents 5.................................. 8 5.8 Architectural .......................................................... 9 5....................... 4 6.........................................................................................................2 Pipe redundancy ......................................14 Control System .................................5 Pumping Station Requirements.............. 5 6...........................6 Control System .........1 Pipe Material .............................1 Velocity ...........................................................................................................................................4 Tracer Wire........3 Layout of Pumping Station .....................8 Alarms........................................................................................................................ 2 6....................1 General.................................................6 Emergency Eye-wash ..............................6 Hydrants ................15 Equipment Redundancy ............... 10 5.7 Site Access Road and Security ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3 6................................................................................................................................................................6...... 8 5.................................................................5..................................................................................................... 8 5.4.. 3 6..........................................................................5............................................................................................................7..3 Cathodic Protection ......... 9 5..............1 Polyethylene Encasement .............7 Instrumentation ...................................6.8 Pipe commissioning.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Instrumentation and Control .................................................................. 3 2 March 2009 R1 ............................. 14 5........................................... 2 6...6................. 8 5.................................................

..................................................................................2................................4 Infiltration Allowance .......................................................................................Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents 7.............................3 Treatment based on physical removal of parasites and virus..... 16 9........................................................................................................................3 General design elements.......................8...........4 Treatment based on chemical inactivation of parasites and virus.............2 Naturally occurring chemicals........................................ 1 9.....5................................1 Chlorination System ................................... 10 9............................................................................. 2 10.................................................4...................................5 Raw water characterisation ............ 1 8.. 11 9................................. 10 9....................................... 1 8.............6.................................................................3.....................2 Design Flow.. 4 10................................................................................................................................7 Sludge Management ..........................6...............1 General ..2...............................................................................................3 Minimum Pipe Size .........3 Gravity Pipe Size .... 4 7................ 4 7........................................................................................................................................1 General ..................................11 Site Access Road and Security ..................................................................................................... 1 10..................................... 6 9......... 5 3 March 2009 R1 .....................................................................................................................2 Coefficient of Roughness ........................1 General.....3.................................................... 7 9........1 General..................................... 18 9....... 4 Section 8 Well Pumping Station Design.............................................................1 Manning’s Formula ...............8 Disinfection design guidelines.............. 2 9........................................................................5 Treatment based on physical inactivation of parasites and virus............................................................................................................2 Well Construction ...........................................................1 General Requirements.....2...............................................2 Ultraviolet Radiation (UV)..........................................2...............................................................2 Monitoring................................................................................................. 3 8... 2 8......6......................3......................... 6 9...................................................................8.................................................................................. 1 8...........................2..... 3 8......2........................ 4 10....1 Microbiological ...................................... 14 9............................................ 5 10...3......................................................................................3 Well Instrumentation & Control ..........2 Average Dry Weather Flow.........7 Equipment Redundancy ...............................................................................4 Alarms.............. 18 9....6 SCADA System ..................................................................4..2............4 Calculations of the water treatment performance ........................... 14 9..............................9 Ventilation ............................................................................................................................... 1 10......................................................................... 9 9.3 Performance targets and treatment objectives ......................................2 Evaluation of the water treatment efficiency..................................................................1 Water intake ..................... 16 9....................... 19 9.......................................................... 3 8.......3.....3 Additional treatment objectives for Class I water supplies.................. 1 10.................... 1 9...............3..... 19 9..........................................4........................................................................................................1 Raw Water characterisation and sampling................................................1 Design Wastewater Flow...2 Minimum treatment objectives .............4...................................................2 Drinking water standards .................................................4.............. 1 10............. 19 9....................................5 Preferred Layout ........................ 6 9.................................................................. 1 9.................................................... 4 Section 9 Water Treatment Plants .................................3 Peak Wastewater Flow Factor ........................................... 21 Section 10 Design of Wastewater Collection System ... 3 10................ 11 9.............................................................4 Aesthetic guidelines.......................................................................................................................10 Architectural .......................................6 Treatment plant general design......................................................2.......................................... 18 9.............................................................................3 Chemical contaminants ............................................................................ 4 10.......... 3 9........................................................................................................................ 18 9......................................................... 2 9.....................................................

........................ 3 11............11 Forcemains......................................................15 SCADA System ...... 8 10......................................................................................................................................................................................10..........................................................................................Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents 10........... 8 10..............................2 Connection Size and Grade For Multi Family Sites ................................................... 9 11............................ 1 11.......3 Sulphur Dioxide System..............................3 Wastewater Loads.........................................................7 Pre treatment – Inlet Works ............................10 Connection from Main to Street Line ............................1 Combined Sewer System vs.............7......... 2 11.........................8 Secondary and tertiary treatments......................................................................................................................................................................................10 Sampling and monitoring.........................8.........................................9 Disinfection System..................................3 Pipe Depth ..................................................................................... 6 10................................ 10 10......................................................................................................... 7 11.............................................................................7............................................ 5 10........................2 Pipe Size ........11.................... 8 10............... 6 10.................................. 10 10................................................................................................................. 2 11............................. 10 Section 11 Wastewater Treatment Plants.......... 7 11...14 Control System ....................................................................................................17................................9.......................................................................................... 9 10............................................................................................................9 Maintenance Chamber (Manhole) ...................10.......................2 Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe .............6 Equalization tank ...5 Thrust restraint ......................... 9 10.............................. 8 11......................................1 Location of Wastewater Main ...................... 6 11......2 Wastewater Effluent treatment objectives ..................................... 8 11................. 5 10.............................. 7 10..........2 Runoff impact..1 Street Line Connection ..................................................................................4 Tracer Wire............................... 9 10..................................................4 Plant Layout...............................................................4 Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) Pipes and Fittings........... 10 4 March 2009 R1 ........................................1 Maintenance Chamber Design..............................6 Structural Layout ........................................................................................................................................5 Ductile iron...................................................... 10 11.............................3 Pipe Material ..............................8.........................1 Concrete Pipe .... 6 10...................................4 Flow Velocities .......................................................................9........................................................11........ 6 10..3 Polyethylene Pipe ..................................................................... 5 11.................9................. 6 10................................. 9 11............................... 3 11.........................13 Water reuse for irrigation......................................... 3 11...................10........ 6 10......................7........................................................16 Equipment Redundancy .....1 System Design.......................................5 Pipe Slopes & Manhole distances........................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Manhole Hydraulics .................................................. Separate Sanitary Sewer .................................................................................................. 8 11....... 7 10.................... 9 10..........17...........................................................................................................................................7 System Layout ... 2 11......................................................................................... 7 10.....2 Ultra-Violet (UV ) ...............................3 Grid Design .....................................2 Pipe Depth ............................................................. 7 10.....................................................................................................12 Structural consideration ................................. 4 11..... 1 11....................................................................................1 General................................................... 6 10...........................................................9......5 Plant Design Capacity................................................................ 9 11......8.............................................8 Pipe Material........................................17 Stormwater management .............................................................................11...............................................................8................................................................................... 7 10..........................................9............11...................... 10 10........... 9 11......................8....................................11 Odor Control ...................3 Requirements.................1 Chlorination System .... 9 11............................................................................17....................................................... 7 10.............................. 4 11..............................................................................................................................................................................................................11....

.....2 Design of Water Retaining Structure..9 Light Fixtures....................... 1 13.......................................................................15 Equipment and Material Specifications ....... 3 13.........................................6 Wastewater Pumping Station (Inflow less than 20 l/s) ............................................................................................... 4 12.................................... 2 14....... 1 15.................................................................................................4 Windows ....................................................................................................17 Instrumentation & Control Alarms ......................................... 6 Section 13 Septage & Biosolids Management........................................................................................................ 4 13................................................ belt filter presses...... 1 12................................................. 2 13.....................................................................................................................................................................5 Design Wastewater Pumping Station Sizing ............................. 3 12.............................................19 Equipment Redundancy ... 3 13.........18 SCADA System .........................1 Septage Management – General .............2 Biosolids Management ......................................................................................................... 1 12........................ 5 12.........10 Piping & Valve Design .3 Alkali treatment ............................................7 Wall Finishes ....................................................... 5 13..................................... 1 5 March 2009 R1 ................................ 4 12.............................................................8 Floor Finishes .......1 Sludge drying beds .......................................................... 2 12..................................................................................... 5 12.................................................9 Pump Design.....................................................................5 Doors........................................... and other mechanical dewatering filters ................................................... 4 12......................................................2 Wastewater Pumping Station General Design ..............5 Dewatering..2 Vacuum filters...................................................... 1 13......................................... 1 12..................................... 2 12...............11 Corrosion resistance........5. 1 12... 1 14.............................................................................................1 General.........1 Aerobic digesters .................................................................. 1 14............ 3 Section 15 Structural Standards.......................................................................................................1...............2 Wastewater Treatment Plant....................................................................................................1.12 Pump Controls ......................................................................................................... 2 14................................................3.............. 5 Section 14 Architectural Standards ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Sludge stabilization............... 1 14...............................................5................................6 Ceiling............ 2 14......................3 Wastewater Pumping Station Layout................2 Anaerobic digesters .................................................................................................................................................................. 6 12.....................14 Ventilation .................................................................... 3 14..................................................... 2 13.......... 2 14................................................................... 5 12.................2 Laboratory control .................... 1 12...............................................................................................1 Stabilisation pond ..........1 General....................7 Wastewater Pumping Station (20 l/s<Inflow < 200 l/s)....3..........1 General....16 Site Access Road and Security ....................................................................... 1 13.. 3 14......................................................................................................................3 Roofing Design .....................................................................................................................................................Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents Section 12 Wastewater Pumping Stations .... 4 13...................1............................................................................................4 Configuration of Pumping System................................General....................................4 Incineration and heat treatment.......................10 Landscaping ...............................13 Odour Control ........ 1 13............................................................................................... 1 15............................... 1 14....................................................................................... belt filters............................................................................... 1 12.................. 2 12.................................................................... 3 13.......................................................................................................................................................... 1 12..................................... 1 12....................................8 Wastewater Pumping Station (Inflow > 200 l/s).......

......1.............. 2 16............. 1 16.................. 5 17.....................................................................................4 Structural requirements...........................6 Lamps .............................................11 Services ................... 2 16........3 Construction Requirements........................................................ 7 17.. 5 17. 3 18............................................................................................................................................................ 3 16.......................................3...........................................13 Preventive Maintenance Program........................................................................4 Screen ..........................................3 Precast Structural Concrete ..........................1.........1............................................9........................................................2 SCADA System Requirements ........1 General...................)...............................................................................................................................4 Structural Steel ............................... 7 17................ 7 17.................................. 3 16.... 2 17..1................ 2 16............................................. 6 17................................................... 2 18................................... 9 Section 18 SCADA System ............................................2 Interlocks ...... 1 16...................... 4 16............1......................Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents 15.. 2 17...................................................................... 5 16................................................4... 3 15. 4 17..............1................................................1 Concrete............................................................................5 Button Bars.................7 Automation of Treatment Process ........... 5 16....................................................... 3 16.........................6 Control Circuits ................................1 Design Criteria ............... 2 16................................................................................4 Indicators ......................... 2 16............................................................ 3 16...................................4................................................3............................................................................................ 1 15................................................5 Insulation Resistance Tests.................................................................................................. 7 18.............................................................................................................................................................12 Documentation ......................................................9.............................................5 Instrumentation Loops (Analogue).. 4 15........................................................... 3 17...........................................1.........7 Motor Control Centre.....................................................................................................8............. 3 16...1............................................................8 Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Control.............................................3................................2 Steel Reinforcement ......................1 SCADA Operating Characteristics ...........................2 Level 1 – Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) ..............................................................................................4...................................................................................2 Distribution Transformers ............................ 6 Section 17 Instrumentation & Control .............................................................................. 1 15...................................5 Steel protection.....................................................................................1 Field (Local) ..9..3....................................................8 Transformers........................................................................................... 1 17..............5 Concrete Block Masonry (C.................................................3.................4............4 Power System Study Report ...... 7 17...........2 Equipment Identification Nameplates Requirements .....................................................8.....................................................................................................................................9 Pump Control Systems for Wastewater Pumping Stations..................... 2 18.. 2 15................................................ 4 Section 16 Electrical Standards .......................................................9 Co-ordination Studies of Protective Devices .......3 SCADA System Control Levels ..............4.....1.........................................................................................9...................................................14 Testing and Commissioning ............................ 3 1........................ 1 15........................................1 High Efficiency Transformers . 1 18........................1.................................3 Wiring Identification..........................3 Field Instrument ..9.........3 Protective Device Co-ordination Study ..................................1.....5 Seismic braces............1.............................................................................................................1................3 Level 2 – PLANT ............................................................................B............ 4 16.............................6 High Efficiency Electrical Motor............................................1.....10 PLC/RPU Interface.....................................9........................ 4 17........ 8 6 March 2009 R1 ................................................................4.......1 Co-ordination Studies of Protective Devices Report ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 18...............M........................... 1 18.................................2 Short Circuit and Protective Device Evaluation and Co-ordination Study........ 1 16...................... 8 17.......... 3 18.............................................4 Panel Boards ..

.................... 6 19........................10 Equipment Name Tags ..2 Valves .............11 Raw Water Monitoring Parameters (Water)....5........3 Couplings.... 29 18.3.................................................................................... 20 18...................................3....... 10 19...................3........................................................................... 1 19....................................................7 Pop-Up Screen................ 11 Section 20 Ventilating & Air Conditioning Standards......................................................................... 11 19....5. 3 19.....1 General . 16 18.....................................................6 Overview Screens..........4 System Redundancy.....................9 Information Pop-Ups Screens.... 15 18. 13 18.........9 Nameplates .................................................................................................................................. 9 18.............................................................................5 Method of Application ......... 15 18............................5 Gauge Taps and Test Plugs .....................................3........................... 9 19.....................................................................................3....................................................8 Pumps & Valves Colour Schedule .................................................14 Raw Water Monitoring Program (Wastewater)..............................7 Equipment Maintenance Requirements .........5 Piping & Equipment Identification.........................4 Equipment Guard...........................................................................3.................... 2 19.....................20 Process Control Display ....................................................... 14 18...............3..................3 Piping Identification Labels............................. 4 19...................... 11 19............17 Trend Display Requirements ...................................................................2 PLC Programming Protocol .......................................... 1 20.........4............................................................... 10 19................ 23 18..............................................................6 Equipment...................................................3.......................................................... 1 20........................................... 8 18..........................4...................................................................................................... 29 Section 19 Mechanical Standards.....................................................................................................................................................................4 Symbols ................ 20 18................................3..............1 General .................................................................3.............. 4 19..................................................................5..5.......................................3 Minimum Air standard....3 Fittings ........................................................... 9 18.................................................................5........................................................................................................................................................ 7 19...21 Standard Colour Convention – Process Stream........................................................ 27 18............................................................................... 23 18.........................................5..........................................................10 Setpoint Pop-Up Screens ......................1 Bearings........................16 Process Parameters Monitoring Program (Wastewater) ............................................... 12 18..... 19 18.......................1 PLC Program Structure .......... 16 18..3..................................3...................................................6 Alignment.............................5...............6......................................................................................... 2 7 March 2009 R1 ........................................................................................4 Pumps ...............Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents 18........................3.5.......................................5...............................................................22 Standard Colour Convention – Pump/Motor/Valve .................13 Distribution System Monitoring Program (Water) ....1 General..........12 Treated Water Monitoring Program (Water) .... 10 19.................. 10 19............3...................5 System Architecture..................................2 Security equipment....................2 VAC System ......................................................................................................3.................. 22 18...............................5.........................................5.................................................................................. 8 19..................................................................................................19 Wastewater Treatment Plant Operating Statistics........ 10 19.......15 Treated Water Monitoring Program (Wastewater) .............7 Location of Labels..................................................................................6 Sizes of Characters .....18 Water Treatment Plant Operating Statistics............................................................................................................................... 1 19......................................................................................................................................................................... 8 18.......................................................... 7 19....................6.................................................... 15 18...................................................6................ 21 18.....................8 Control Pop-Ups Screens....................................................1 General.............. 10 18............................................2 Pump Shaft Seals...5............................................. 11 19......................6................................................................. 2 20......................... 1 19....................................................................3...........2 SCADA System Operation Manual Requirements....................................................................................................................6..................... 3 19........................................ 4 19................. 1 19...........4 Colour Legend ..................6............................................................ 1 20........3.....

........................ 5 21.............5 Electrical Engineering Works ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2 20.....................................4 Noise Attenuation ................................................... 2 21.................................................................................................... 2 21.........................................5 Fuel Tank....................1 Training Provided by the Contractor .........................................................4 Speed Governor .............................10 Gauges .................................4 Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual ......................7 Intake and Exhaust System................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Survey Drawings....2 CAD Standards .......................................5........................... 1 22................................................................................................8 Generator Requirements ...........9 Control System ................................................ 6 21.............................................................................................5.........1 Cartographic Production Standards .7 Diesel Engine Requirements.......................................................................7........4 Land and Engineering Surveying...2 Power Supply...................................8........... 2 22.................................... 6 Section 22 Treatment Plant Operation Manual.......... 1 23................ 3 21.... 1 21.........................................1 VAC Master Control . 1 21..........................................................................................................................7 Location of air intakes .................2......................................................................8 Cooling System ................................................ 6 21.........................................................................1 General ......................... 6 21.........7...................................................................................................... 5 21....................................... 1 22...................................2 Miscellaneous Drawings........... 2 21.....................5.................. 2 Section 21 Diesel Generator Standard .........................6 Diesel Generator System Operation................................................................7.... 6 23..............5 Diesel Generator Power Requirements ........ 4 21.. 3 21............................................. 7 23.............. 3 21........7 Training of WASA Staff...........5 VAC Control System .......... 3 21............................................. 4 21.......................... 8 22............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 23........................ 5 21............................................................................. 9 22....7...................................................2 Flame Detection System.. 1 22............3 Approvals.................................................................................................................................................... 9 Section 23 Draughting Standards........................................................1 Types of Drawings ...... 2 20................................2....6 Verification of VAC System...................................................1 General............................................................ 1 22...........................................................5..............................8......................11 Battery Start System ....................... 10 23............................................................................................. 2 20........................................................................................3 Ancillary Electrical and Mechanical Equipment ..........5 Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation Manual...........................................................................12 Failure Annunciator.................................................................7...................................9 Ventilation System .............................................................................................. 1 21......... 4 21.......... 1 21.................................................................................................................7..............................................................3 Format of Operation Manual .............................................1 General ................................................................................................7................................................................7....2 Voltage Regulator..........................2 Wastewater Pumping Station.....................................................................................................1 General........ 5 21.......................................Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents 20........... 4 22................ 1 23................................ 5 21................................. 2 21...........................................2............. 7 23........................ 14 8 March 2009 R1 ................................................................................2 Operation Manual Requirements .......................................7.....7......3 Fuel System ............6 Oil Lubricating System...........................................3 Standards ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4 21...................................7.......................................7...1 Water Supply System ...................... 2 21.................................7................... 10 23............................................................................................... 1 21...................................6 Training on the Use of the Operation Manual ..........................................................................................

.....................................3 Sheet .........................................................................................................................2 Block Name .....6 Survey.... 28 23................... 29 23........9........... 32 23............................9............................................................. 29 23.........................................10.........................................................Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Table of Contents 23.........................................................................................................................7 Symbology ..................................6 Checked By ..............3 Main CAD Types ... 28 23.......................... 28 23.......4 Architectural...10..5 Designed By ............................... 28 23........................ 15 23......................................................... 30 23.................... 29 23.......................................7 Engineering ..............................................2 Job Title......................................... 33 23................................................................................................1 General Name................................9 Standard Title Block Data Entry... 31 23..............................9.7 Approved By .................8 10 Golden Draughting Rules .....................10.................. 34 23.............................................................. 29 23.......9 File Path............................................................................9.......................................................... 28 23......................................................................8 Electrical............5.........................................................10................................................................................6 Sketches ............................................................................................................................ 16 23..................................4 Drafted By ............................................................................................. 30 23.............. 29 23.....................................1 Schematics........................................... 35 23..........9..................................1 Project Title ..............................10..............................................................................................................................10.............. 36 9 March 2009 R1 .....................10..................................................................................................................................................................9...................................................................9..........10..................10 File naming convention .........................9...........................................................................................9.......................................... 28 23...................................................................................5 Schematic ............................................................8 Scale .. 29 23........................................................................................... 18 23....................

Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers AWWA American Waterworks Association CAD Computer Aided Design CIBS The Chartered Institution of Building Services CPM Critical Path Method CV Curriculum vitae CVS Certified Value Specialist DI Digital Input DO Digital Output DTC Direct Torque Control EA Environnemental Analysis EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EPA Environmental Protection Act FAT Factory Acceptance Test FIDIC Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs – Conseils (International Federation of Consulting Engineers) HAZOP Hazard and Operability Study HFS Hydrofluosilicic Acid HLPS High Lift Pumping Station I&C Instrumentation and Control System (I&C) I/O Input / Output LOH Loss of Head MCC Motor Control Centre I March 2009 R1 .List of Abbreviations AI Analogue Input AO Analogue Output ANSI American National Standard Institute ARI Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating.

Land and Marine Resources EMA Environmental Management Agency MoH Ministry of Health MoPD Ministry of Planning and Development MoPUE Ministry of Public Utilities and the Environment NSF National Sanitation Foundation NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Units P&ID Proportional and Integral Derivative PDR Pre-Design Report PID Proportional Integral Derivative PLC Programmable Logic Controller QA Quality Assurance QC Quality Control RFP Request for Proposal RIC Regulated Industries Commission RPU Remote Processing Unit SAT Site Acceptance Test SCADA Supervisory.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual List of Abbreviations MoWT Ministry of Works and Transport MoALMR Ministry of Agriculture. Control and Data Acquisition SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association SPMDD Standard Proctor Maximum Dry Density THD Total Harmonic Distortion TKN Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen TTBS Trinidad & Tobago bureau of Standards UV Ultra Violet VAC Ventilation and Air Conditioning WASA Water and Sewerage Authority of Trinidad & Tobago WTP Water Treatment Plant WWTP Wastewater Treatment Plant WHO World Health Organisation II March 2009 R1 .

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual List of Abbreviations III March 2009 R1 .

The stipulated design guidelines must be complied with unless dispensation has been obtained in writing from WASA or specified in the Request for Proposal. The design guidelines as detailed herein are for the implementation of water and wastewater projects. WASA has the responsibility for the provision of water supply and sewerage services in Trinidad and Tobago. The Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) of Trinidad and Tobago has put together this document in order to guide the engineering design and establish the recommended standards for all new water and wastewater infrastructure. Some of the design standards. wastewater and linear services projects requires the services of Consultants to provide the required engineering expertise in accordance with the requirements as specified herein. chapter 54:40. W staff and other designers in the preparation of water and wastewater system infrastructure design. Increasing the levels of service provided to the population has been a continuous concern for WASA. new and refurbished water and wastewater infrastructures are needed all around the islands. The implementation of water. Other References This manual shall be used in conjunction with: 1. laws and regulations of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 2. under Water and Sewerage Act. All rules. The 2020 vision requires capital works from the government of Trinidad & Tobago in order to meet the goals set. Project’s Tender documents 3. However the information contained herein will serve as a preliminary basis for consideration by WASA and should be followed.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual General Information Section 1 General Information As Trinidad & Tobago moves toward a 2020 vision of a modern and developed country. Consultants should therefore familiarize themselves with these guidelines and provide their services accordingly to meet WASA’s expectation. including linear services and treatment plants. They will assist consulting engineers. Policies and Guidelines from stakeholders 1 March 2009 R1 . The present guidelines are adapted to Trinidad and Tobago’s context and are compatible with WASA’s long term operational policies. are not currently used by WASA in the implementation of water and wastewater projects. detailed herein this manual. They present a comprehensive document for the construction and rehabilitation of new and existing water and wastewater infrastructures. These variations from the guidelines should be determined on a project by project basis during scope negotiations between the Designer and WASA. These guidelines are primarily intended to outline acceptable levels of servicing and minimum criteria for future infrastructure in Trinidad & Tobago. This Water and Wastewater Design Criteria Manual is the property the Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) of Trinidad and Tobago. WASA requirements and standards 4.

the watershed or land surrounding the water source. installation of domestic water meters. as provided herein. Options and design optimisation are still to be conducted and investigated at the prefeasibility level. safe and reliable drinking water. protection of well’s head. 2. reliability and uniformity will be achieved for WASA services to the 1 March 2009 R1 . using effective water treatment. technology and priorities evolve. It includes protecting the available source from contamination. a multi barrier approach is to be implemented from the source all the way to the consumer's tap. The guidelines and standards. 2. as well as mapping all the potential threats to the water quality. this manual is aimed to be reviewed frequently and consultants are to assure that they are using the latest revision. Approvals by WASA of infrastructures will require compliance to these guidelines in conformity with WASA’s Water and Wastewater Policies. The water treatment standards and guidelines are established to ensure production of safe drinking water.1.2 Design Guidelines This manual provides details on the design of water and wastewater related infrastructure so that a standard of quality. environmental and technical dimensions are taken into account in the management of water resources. The approach of the required design is to provide for barriers to either eliminate the threats or minimize their impact. This requires an understanding of the general characteristics of the water. 2.1 Introduction These guidelines do not supersede nor replace any legislation governing the design of such treatment plants. were set by WASA in order to guide and frame the engineering and consultancy works and assure a standardised and adequate design level in the implementation of such systems. These are some of the good practices needed to assure long term sustainable and valuable water for Trinidad & Tobago. The amount and minimum scale of treatment processes are based on type and quality of raw water.1 Multi barrier approach In conformity with WASA’s policies. including their variability. in order to ensure clean.2 Sustainable development An integrated water resources perspective ensures that social. As examples.1. Since standards. and preventing water quality deterioration in the distribution system. WASA wishes to promote practices that encourage sustainable development so there won’t be any compromising of future generations’ ability to meet their needs. The Consultants must be fully familiar with Trinidad & Tobago legislations with respect to the design of water and wastewater infrastructure. Together the barriers work to provide greater assurance that the water will be safe to drink.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design Approach & Approvals Section 2 Design Approach & Approvals 2. economic. and setting wastewater effluent standards are part of the sustainable approach provided in this manual.

3 Review process of the guidelines As technology. In all cases. Architectural standard 3. Depending on the type of project. Equipment coding system standard 10.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) water.4 Approvals The Consultants shall comply with. Structural standard 4. Water quality and treatment standard 12. 2 March 2009 R1 . shall apply for all relevant approvals or certificates. The WASA’s administrative procedures are part of another document that must be consulted. the Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA) should have granted approvals on the outline and details of all projects prior to the installation of any facility. Items covered by this manual include the following: 1. Instrumentation & control standard 8. wastewater and linear services projects Design Approach & Approvals population of Trinidad & Tobago. exigencies and standards evolve. these guidelines will have to be submitted for a regular review by WASA in order to reflect the latest findings and comments. Electrical standard 6. Mechanical standard 7. 2. Equipment redundancy 2. and shall conduct all work with cognisance given to all relevant statutory regulations and requirements. SCADA 2. Underground pipelines 5. Emergency standby diesel generator standard 9. Operation & maintenance manual standard 11. all projects must meet Environmental Management Authority (EMA) approvals by obtaining a Certificate of Environmental Clearance (CEC). It is recommended that this document be revised at minimum every five (5) years to comply with the best interest of the population of Trinidad & Tobago. an Environmental Impact assessment (EIA) may be required as established by EMA. It covers a wide range of applicable standards and characteristics that need to be considered in order to assure the minimal quality requested. In addition. and where required. Wastewater effluent and treatment standards 13.

Where there are outstanding approvals. The Standards and Guidelines provided in this manual are intended to set the minimum acceptable standard and not to relieve them of their responsibilities to comply with their legal and contractual requirements and obligations. wastewater and linear services projects Design Approach & Approvals The Consultants shall comply with other stakeholders’ Policies and Rules. including costs. The Consultants must deliver to WASA a status report of all the applications for approvals required for the project. 3 March 2009 R1 . the Consultants shall indicate the time frame within which these approvals are expected to be in place. type and number of copies of documents to submit for approval. consult WASA’s approval process documentations. or tender documents. Consultants are responsible for ensuring that plants designed by them comply with Acts.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) water. For detailed information about WASA’s administrative procedures for review. Codes. Standards and Guidelines. They shall prepare all required documents for submission and review with WASA.

OSHA The standards specifications for materials should be consistent with the requirements of the following: 1. heavy rainfall. these standards are mandatory unless otherwise specified in writing by WASA. Ministry of Public Utilities and Environment (MoPUE) 4. 3. high humidity. Codes and Standards The design of infrastructure shall comply with the following regulations. Codes. North American Standards (ANSI/AWWA) 4. The infrastructure work includes both water and wastewater projects. The site for the new facility shall be appropriately selected or designed to be above the 20 years recurrence interval flood line. Mandatory standards include drinking water quality standards and wastewater treatment plant effluent standards.1 Design requirements It is the Consultant’s responsibility to ensure that they have fully understood the requirements of the project as detailed in the Request for Proposal as they will be required to fulfil the specified scope of work. WASA requires and expects that the Consultant will comply with the requirements as specified herein and therefore provide their services accordingly to meet this expectation. Acts.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design Standards Section 3 Design Standards 3. Trinidad and Tobago Standards (TTBS) 2. International Standards (ISO) 3.2 Acts. Guidelines for all projects undertaken by Consultants on behalf of WASA: 1. All WASA buildings or structures shall be flood proof. WASA retains the services of Consultants to provide the required engineering expertise to implement these projects in an integrated manner with all building. they are minimum requirements to be met by the system. British Standards (BS) 1 March 2009 R1 . When standards are provided. mildew and fungus conductive environment. safety and quality requirements. National Building Code 5. Environmental Management Authority (EMA) of T&T 2. Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) of Trinidad and Tobago 3. Standards. All materials and equipment supplied shall be suitable for being delivered. When specified. store and operated under tropical conditions of high temperature. National Fire Code 6.

Office of the Ombudsman (Ministry of Legal Affairs) .Town and Country Planning Division .Ministry of Local Government .Ministry of Finance .Ministry of Agriculture. AWWA or other approved equivalent standards.4 Industry Standards All materials for potable water and sewers shall meet the ASTM. Stakeholders if applicable should be included in the design.Environmental Management Authority (EMA) .Ministry of Works and Transport . 2 March 2009 R1 .Water Recourses Agency and Forestry Division . Land and Marine Resources .Regulated Industries Commission . The T&T water and wastewater stakeholders include but are not limited to: .3 Other Design & Construction Standards Consultants shall comply with all Trinidad & Tobago technical rules and regulations related to the design and construction of treatment plants as well as linear services.Consumer Affairs Division (Ministry of Legal Affairs) . The Standards also provide literature on Workmanship.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design Standards 3. The following standards are listed for guidance and are not final or exclusive to other standards.Trinidad & Tobago Fire Services 3.Ministry of Health .Ministry of Public Utilities .

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design Standards Storage Tanks Welded Steel Tank ANSI/AWWA D100-84 Painting for Welded Steel Tanks ANSI/AWWA D102-78 Factory Coated Tanks ANSI/AWWA D103-80 Disinfection ANSI/AWWA D652-86 Concrete Structures for Retaining Liquids AS 3735 1991 Pipelines Polybutylene (PB) AWWA C-902-78 Polyethylene (PET) AWWA C-901-78 Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) AWWA C-900-75 Fabricated Steel Pipe and Fittings AWWA C-208-83 Steel Pipe Flanges Class D AWWA C-207-86 Coal tar protection coatings and linings for steel water AWWA C-203-86 pipelines Flanged Ductile Iron Pipelines AWWA C-115/A21 Rubber Gasket AWWA C-111/A21 Disinfection AWWA C-651-86 Pressure Test AWWA C-600-82 Grey Iron Casting BS 1452:1977 GRP AWWA C 950 .ASTM D 3754 Elastometrix Joint Rings for pipework and pipelines BS 2494:1986 Flanges and bolting for pipes valves and fittings metric series BS 4504: Part 2 1974 (copper alley and composite flanges) Metal Washers for General Engineering Purposes Metric Series BS 4320:1968 Specifications for Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Solvent Cement for use with unplasticized PVC Pipes and TTS 413-1992 fittings for cold water applications Cast Iron Non-pressure pipes and pipe fittings metric units AS 1631-1974 3 March 2009 R1 .

for cold water services only excluding floats BS 1010 PT 2 1973 Draw off taps and stop valves for water services (screw down pattern) Safety Valves Safety Valves BS 6759 Specification for safety valves for steam and hot water PT 1 1984 Mixing Valves Mixing Valves BS 1415 Non-Thermostatic.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design Standards Valves Ball Valves AWWA C-507-85 Rubber Sealed Butterfly Valves ANSI/AWWA C-50 Sluice Valves AWWA C-501-86 Predominantly key Operated Cast Iron Valves for BS1 5163:1986 Waterworks purposes Butterfly Valves BS 5155:1984 Copper Alloy Gate Valve and Non-Return Valves for AS 1628:1977 use in water supply and hot water services Float Operated Valves BS 1212 Specifications for Piston Type Float Operated valves PT 1 1990 (Copper Ally Body) (Excluding Floats) Specifications for Diaphragm type float operated valve PT 2 1990 (copper Alloy Body) (Excluding Floats) Specifications for Diaphragm type operated valves PT 3 1990 plastic bodies. Non-Compensating mixing valves PT 1 1976 Specification for Thermostatic mixing valves PT 2 1986 4 March 2009 R1 .

suitable BS 3416 – 1980 for use in contact with potable water Bitumen based hot applied coating materials for BS1 4147 – 1980 protecting iron and steel including suitable primers were required Water Quality (Multi Standards) Physical. Sewerage and Drainage Applications Water Supply Metal Bodied Taps – Specified by AS 3718 – 1990 performance Water Well Casing BS 879 Specification for steel tubes for casing PT 1 – 1985 Specification for thermoplastics tubes for casing and PT Z – 1988 slotted casing Stationary circulation pumps for heating and hot water BS 1394 service system Specification for Cold Water Storage and combined BS 4213 – 1991 feed and expansion cisterns (polyolefin or olefin copolymer) up to 500L capacity used for domestic purposes Multi Standard BS 5728 Measurement of flow of cold potable water in closed conduits Safety and control Devices for use in hot water systems BS 6283 Code of Practice for test pumping of Water Well BS 6316 – 1992 Storage Cisterns up to 500L Actual Capacity for water BS 7181 – 1989 supply for domestic purposes Bitumen – based coatings for cold application.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design Standards Various standards Glass Filament reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP) AS 3571 1989 Pipes Polyester Based-Water Supply. Chemical and BS 6008 Biochemical methods PT 2 5 March 2009 R1 .

1991 Pipes TTS 16 80 30 Methods of test for unplasticized PVC pipes PT8 .Determining the fracture toughness of UPVC PT3 .Method for Hydrostatic pressure testing of UPVC short term test Methods of test for unplasticized PVC Pipes PT 9 . TTS 16 80 30 Methods of test for hydrostatic pressure testing of PT9 .resistance to external blows PT7 1991 6 March 2009 R1 .1991 PT8 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design Standards Water Meters Cold – Water Meters – Multi – Jet Type ANSI/AWWA C 708-82 Cold – Water Meters – Displacement Type ANSI/AWWA C 700-7 Cold – Waters – Turbine type for customer service ANSI/AWWA C 701-78 Filtering material ANSI/AWWA B 100 Meters for cold potable water AS 3565 .1991 UPVC pipes long term test Methods of test for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride TTS 16 80 30 (PVC) Pipes PT 7 . PT4 .1988 Water Sampling Water Quality – Sampling Pt 1 Guidance on ISO 5667 – 1980 Design of Sampling Programmes 13 p PT 2 Guidance on sampling technique ISO 5667 – 1991 PT 3 Guidance on the Preservation and ISO 5667 – 1987 handling of samples PT 6 Guidance on sampling of rivers and ISO 5667 – 1990 streams PT 8 Guidance on sampling of Wet ISO 5667 – 1993 depositions PT 9 Guidance on sampling from marine ISO 5667 – 1992 waters PT 10 Guidance on sampling of waste waters ISO 5667 – 1992 PT 11 Guidance on sampling of Ground waters ISO 5667 – 1993 Water Testing of Pipes Methods of test for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride TTS 16 80 30 (PVC) Pipes.1991 Requirements and Test method Method of test for unplasticized PVC pipes and fittings TTS 16 80 30 PT 3 .Effects of Sulphuric Acid – PT 4 .

BS 5481 or Class B.0 mm 54. Waste and vent pipes TTS 31 85 006 Technical Drawing Installation. Graphical symbols for PT 6 – 1998 supply water and drainage systems Recommendations for the Design of buildings.1mm) Unplasticized PVC (UPVC) Pipes and Fittings for storm AS 1254 and surface water applications Unplasticized PVC (UPVC) Pipes and Fittings for soil AS 1415 PT 1-4 waste and vent (SWV) applications Design charts for water supply and sewerage AS 2200-1978 Water supply – Mechanical backflow prevention AS 2845-1986 devices Plastics Waste Fittings AS 2887 – 1986 Specifications for compact type float operated valves for PT 4 -1991 WC Flushing Cisterns (including floats) BS 417 Specification for Galvanized low Carbon Steel.1985 7 March 2009 R1 . l Welded Steel Pipe AWWA C 202-59 Steel Fitting Couplings AWWA (Same as Water) Gate Valves ASA B16 10-1957 Sluice Valves AWWA C 501-41T Drain Pipes and Fittings BS 4660 Sewer BS 4660. F-894 Thermoplastics waste pipes and fittings BS 5255 – 1989 Polypropylene Waste pipe and fittings BS 5254 – 1976 (external Diameter 34. TTS 16 90 400 plumbing and drainage systems PT 4 . BS 3505 Grey iron BS 4622 Ductile Iron BS 4772 Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers ASTM D 2321.6 mm 41.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design Standards Wastewater systems Cement ASTM C-150 -60 Aggregate ASTM C-33-59 Steel (Reinforcer) ASTM A-15-58T Structural Steel ASA-ASA A57 1-1952 Manhole Bricks ASTM C-32-58 Grade MA Precast Sections ASTM C-478-61T usina Type II cement Manhole Frames Cones ASTM A48-60T Reinforced Concrete Pipes ASTM C76-60T Non reinforced Concrete Pipes ASTM C14-59. lid tanks and Cylinders TTS 414-1992 Specification for unplasticized PVC Drain. Cisterns.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Process and Equipment Redundancy Section 4 Process and Equipment Redundancy 4.1 General The provision for process and equipment redundancy depends on the process and/or the functionality of the associated process equipment. pumping stations shall be generally sized and installed with a 100% redundancy with the largest equipment unit out of service. filtration unit. 4. Similarly. shall be equal to 50% of the total design capacity with the largest unit processes out of service. to ensure that the wastewater flow will be handled to meet the required hydraulic throughput. The current standard for provision of process and equipment redundancy level in water and wastewater treatment plants is minimal. shall be equal to 100% of the total design capacity with the largest unit processes out of service. Consultants must ensure that the level of redundancy for process and/or equipment is provided such that the treated wastewater effluent or quality of the drinking water will be in compliance with the Design guidelines & Environmental Management Authority (EMA) Certificate of Environmental Clearance Rules or objectives at all times. See section 12 for more details. Similarly.2 Minimum redundancy – Wastewater systems To ensure that the plant’s treated wastewater effluent will be in compliance with WASA’s criteria or objectives at all times. Pipe lines and forced mains do not require redundancy. to ensure that the water flow will be handled to meet the required hydraulic throughput.3 Minimum redundancy – Drinking Water systems To ensure that the drinking water quality will be in compliance with WASA’s criteria or objectives at all times. the minimum redundancy of unit processes such as clarifiers. the following minimum level of redundancy for equipment and treatment processes shall be provided: To ensure that the process train is available to meet the wastewater plant’s treatment capacity requirements. key process equipments are to be provided with the redundancy level to safeguard the supply of potable water or the discharge of treated wastewater to the environment. chemical dosers. 4. pumping stations shall be sized and installed with a 100% redundancy with the largest equipment unit out of service. 1 March 2009 R1 . the following minimum level of redundancy for equipment and treatment processes shall be provided: To ensure that the process train is available to meet the drinking water treatment plant’s capacity requirements. screens. clarifiers. Other distribution equipment such as piping. etc. valves. etc. the minimum redundancy of unit processes such as aeration tankages. As existing plants are upgraded or expanded in the future. In the design of Water and Wastewater facilities.

standby power shall be provided in the following key process system: .5 Standardization of Equipment Consultants shall ensure that the selection of equipment for use in the plants shall be standardized as much as possible.Wastewater Pumping Station Power ratings for standby power are defined by ISO 8528-1 as the power available in the event of a main power network failure up to a maximum of 500 hours per year of which up to 300 hours may be run continuously.SCADA System . gravity feed reservoirs. The advantages of keeping the selection of equipment to a maximum of three are: . Other pumping stations shall be assessed to establish criticality based on network configuration. 4. See section 7 for more details.Plant disinfection system . the variety of major equipment manufacturers should be limited to a maximum of three.All equipment that is required to be operational to enable the water treatment plant to meet average day demand is to be provided with standby power or an alternate source of power. 4.All equipment required to enable effective treatment for plants discharging in environmentally sensitive areas. For each process. Load factor may be up to 100% of standby power.Wastewater treatment plant . Where this is not possible.4 Standby Power Whenever feasible. In all cases.Water Treatment Plant . . power supply to WASA’s plants shall be provided with dual feed from the power supply grid network.Water intake pumps and equipment . Main water trunk systems should allow for some level of redundancy by aiming for smaller double parallel pipe layout with adequate valving rather than one large pipe diameter.Plant VAC System .Potable Water Pumping Station on main trunk systems.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Process and Equipment Redundancy pressure reducing valves and water tanks do not require redundancy. . . consultants must first refer to WASA’s available list of approved suppliers and manufacturers for each application. No overload is permitted.Reduction of time required to review design information 2 March 2009 R1 . type of supplied customers etc.

. This requirement will be reviewed at the detailed design stage and alternate equipment or technology will be considered at that time.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Process and Equipment Redundancy . consideration shall be given for new equipment to be from the same manufacturer as those that are already installed in the same unit process train.Minimize the inventory of spare parts . 3 March 2009 R1 .Reduction of time for staff to become fully familiarized with new equipment and facility .In general.Approved and alternate equipment shall be specified in the tender document such that WASA has the right to accept or reject any equipment that the Contractor proposes to supply under the contract.

take account of possible improvements to street or utilities. For all new communities. relevant codes or design guidelines. the Consultants shall be familiar with the policy and standards related to fire protection services requirements in Trinidad & Tobago. 1 March 2009 R1 . assessment of trenchless construction techniques and rehabilitation methods for existing pipes shall be thoroughly prepared..Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System Section 5 Design of Water Distribution System 5. etc. All designs shall comply with Trinidad & Tobago National Plumbing Code.2 Water Demand In the past years. All of this information shall be incorporated on the “As-built” plans. The designs must as much as it’s applicable. The following design criteria for water demands is based on different sources. In all projects. the Consultants shall establish the geodetic invert elevations and ties of all water service connections at the street line. low volume faucets. obtain right-of-way and property line information. The available information is usually scarce and significant variations exist between the different studies. The assessment shall as a minimum cover the geotechnical conditions. To avoid proliferation of booster stations and reservoirs within each development. and include technology aspects on construction and costs etc. the Consultants shall apply sound engineering judgement and approach to the design of such systems. including but not limited to pressure control devices. WASA’s Master Plan for Trinidad & Tobago should be reviewed to grasp the bigger communities and regional planning priorities. risk and safety. AWWA Standards of Practice and Specifications.1 General Requirement This section outlines the requirements for the design of water supply systems. and various international figures including British and North American standards. the 2006 “Analysis and Estimation of Water Demand Forecasts” by Gordon Wyke. low flush toilets. many studies have been undertaken to assess the water demand for the different types of consumers in Trinidad & Tobago. survey the existing utilities and sub surface structures. Notwithstanding the above. notably the 1994 “Project Memoranda on Existing and Future Demands” by William Halcrow & Partners Ltd. traffic disruptions. 5. However. each project should be assessed through modelling of regional network and optimum development scheme. include mechanism for water conservation.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5. Special industries and major industrial areas 3. individual studies shall be conducted for the following: 1. High density residential areas 2 March 2009 R1 . Maximum Hourly Demand Where applicable. Maximum Daily Demand Plus Fire Flow 2. Special commercial establishments and major commercial areas 2. Institutional development 4.2.1 Design Water Demand The system shall be designed to meet the greater of either of the following demands: 1.

the following typical numbers should be used in order to establish the daily average flow demand for light commercial and industrial facilities (sources : WASA. central bathroom (per 160 – 200 person) Workers Work camp with bath facilities (per worker) 140 – 200 Theatre Per seat 10 Outdoor (per car) 15 School (per student) With cafeteria 50 – 60 With cafeteria.Consummation per usage [L/(capita·d) or L/(unit·d)] Airport (per passenger) 15 Shopping malls Per parking spot 8 Per employee 40 Vacation center Vacation colony .300 Room and pension (per person) 200 Motel with kitchen 400 – 600 Laundry self service (per customer) 190 Conference center (per person) 30 Stores Per customer 8 Per employee 40 Restaurants Medium size restaurant (per seat) 150 Medium size restaurant. open 24 h (per seat) 200 Bar (per place) 80 Gas station Per car served 30 Per employee 50 Industrial facility (small to medium size) Without cafeteria or shower (per employee) 70 With cafeteria and shower (per employee) 140 3 March 2009 R1 .2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5.2 Average Water Demand (light industrial and commercial) If individual data is not available. Metcalf & Eddy) : Facilities . shower and gymnasium 80 – 100 Boarding school or University Dormitory 285 Offices (per employee) 60 Health care facilities General hospital (per bed) 1000 General hospital (per employee) 40 Other institution (per bed) 400 Hotels and hostels Hotel room (per client) 200 .

the project and the state of the distribution system.2.000 2. The following design factors. As water meters are installed throughout the country.000 – 25 000 2. based on the “Water Consumption & Demand Study” GENIVAR (2008).5 x Avg. When possible. are to be used for the design of residential water distribution systems in the absence of actual flow data: Water demand 2007 2020 Residential per capita demand 330 litres/cap.d Tobago Note : The demand per capita does not include any unaccounted for water (UFW) which is historically very significant in Trinidad & Tobago. a case by case analysis is required for each project to include the UFW and leakages of the system.3 Residential Per capita demand Residential Water demands have been historically high in Trinidad & Tobago.5 x Peak Day Population 1.5 x Peak Day 4 March 2009 R1 . Maximum Daily and Maximum Hourly Demand Factors as noted in the table below: Peak Day Peak Demands: Peak Hour Population 0 .0 x Avg. Day 1.5.d Trinidad Residential per capita demand 315 litres/cap.d 280 litres/cap.000 3 x Avg.000 . Depending on the region.5 x Peak Day Population > 25 000 1. per capita consumption and peaking factors should be determined from historical data for the area. it is expected that residential water consumption will linearly be lessened by 10% by 2020.d 280 litres/cap. Day 1. Day 1.1.5 x Avg. Day 1.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5.5 x Peak Day Population 5.

3.25(Vfs +Vad) Where Vrc = Total reservoir water storage capacity requirement Vfs = Fire storage capacity required Vad = Annual average daily demand 5 March 2009 R1 .5. The following equivalent population densities shall be used to estimate the water service demand for the different types of developments in the design of water distribution systems. plus emergency storage. fire flow requirements are established in close collaboration with insurance companies and must involve capacity assessment of the Trinidad and Tobago Fire Services (TTFS). Recommended flows to be used are (area is development area excluding major public streets.2.5 Fire Flow Requirements 5. The required fire storage capacity may be equal to: Vrc = Vfs + 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5.75 Vad + 0.2. which is 25% of the sum of fire storage capacity and annual average daily demand. water conservation as well as night time usage. the following guidelines are to be used.1 Policy and Standards related to Fire Protection The 2020 vision aims to provide an adequate water supply for fire fighting for every building.2.4 Equivalent Population The design population is to be the ultimate for the area under consideration. freeways and railroad areas): Single Family Residential 13 litres/min/ha Multi-Family Residential 20 litres/min/ha Walk-up Apartments 26 litres/min/ha Community Services 10 litres/min/ha Light Commercial 22 litres/min/ha Light Industrial 40 litres/min/ha 5.2.5. derived from different sources including Fire Underwriters Survey (FUS) and NFPA. 5. See section 6 for more details. Since insurance risk assessments or fire protection technical guidelines are yet to be established. In general. The daily minimum flow is set as 35% of the average daily flow.2 Reservoir Storage Capacity Requirements Total reservoir storage capacity requirements shall be designed to be equal to the sum of the fire storage requirements. the design life threshold or local recommendation. 18 hours of average daily demand. The average daily demand shall take into account water distribution system leakages.

3.3 Hydraulic Design 5. the fire flow shall be calculated on a case-by-case basis. the pressure shall not be over 100 psi (70 m) and below 20 psi (14 m) for all sectors supplied by the reservoir as recommended by the Regulated Industries Commission.3 Fire Flow For residential areas. Unless specified.1 Pipe Design Flow The Consultants may use the following Hazen Williams equation or the Darcy-Weisbach equation in the design of watermains: f = 0.852 / dh4. In all cases. major industrial sites are not to be protected by the public water network.5. 5.2. The required fire flow demand shall be supplied from at least two fire hydrants. Development Type Fire Demand (usgpm) Fire Demand (lpm) Residential 1 000 3 800 5.8655 where f = friction head loss in feet of water per 100 feet of pipe (fth20/100 ft pipe) c = Hazen-Williams roughness constant q = volume flow (gal/min) dh = inside hydraulic diameter (inches) 6 March 2009 R1 . For other types of consumers. but shall always exceed the minimum residential fire flow requirements.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System Pressure zones with reservoirs should allow local pressure zone area of 40 to 80 psi (28 m to 56 m). the minimum acceptable fire flow shall be as stated in the following table for a duration of minimum 1 hour with a residual pressure of 140 kPa (20 psi).2083 (100/c)1.852 q1.

3. 200. 7 March 2009 R1 . For dead end mains and mains exceeding minimum size. No larger or other diameter pipes shall be used prior to a written approval by WASA. For pipe larger than 300 mm.4 Trunk systems Transmission pipelines are defined as larger diameter pipelines (typically 400 mm and higher) which serves to transport large flows of water in the Trinidad & Tobago national grid system.3. 5.4 Minimum Pipe Sizes The minimum pipe size for residential areas shall be 150 mm diameter. 900.5 Pressure The maximum working pressure at the point of connection shall not be more than 550 kPa (80 psi) and the minimum shall not be less than 140 kPa (20 psi) under fire flow conditions or not less than 275 kPa (40psi) under normal operating conditions.3. In all cases. 5. Any localized area which has a working pressure in excess of 550 kPa (80 psi).3 Standard Pipe Sizes The Consultants shall use the following standard pipe sizes for the design of water distribution systems: y 150. 750. The velocity of water flow should be between 0.2 Hazen Williams roughness coefficient The Hazen-William’s coefficients for water pipelines equal to or less than 300 mm diameter shall be set at 120 with no regard to pipe material.3. 400. 300. shall be provided with a pressure-reducing valve on the distribution main or on individual services as required.55 m/s.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5. proper analysis shall be carried out to ensure that the required pipe size is adequate to deliver the required water demand.9 and 1. use the following table : Pipe Material Hazen William’s “c” Coefficients Ductile Iron 130 HDPE 140 PVC or FRP 140 Steel 130 5. 500. 600. 1050. 1200 mm diameter. 5. Consultants must first refer to the WASA approved supplier and manufacturer list for approved supplier and available diameters. 450.

5.1 Grid System Grid systems shall be designed to ensure flexibility of operation and to minimize the area of the community required to be shutdown for the repair of the water distribution network. 5.4.2 Pipe redundancy Main water trunk systems should allow for some level of redundancy by aiming for smaller double parallel pipe layouts with adequate valving rather than one hefty pipe diameter.5.3 Pumping capacity Booster stations on the Trunk system must be designed in order to allow bidirectional (up flow or down stream) pumping capacity so as to offer redundancy to the national grid system. The valving configuration shall allow pumping in both directions and be controlled by the SCADA systems to accommodate emergency situations.5 m from edge of the Right-of-Way boundary.5 System Layout 5.4 m/s in the peak hour flow condition. the location of watermains shall be off-set 1. No flushing device is permitted to be directly connected to any stormwater. non potable water or wastewater main.2 Location In general. 5.4. Pipe barrel bending/deflection will not be permitted. Maximum allowable pipe joint deflection shall be 70% of the manufacturer’s specifications.1 Velocity The trunk system must be designed so the velocity shall not exceed 2. provide a fire hydrant or purge system for washout. Wherever possible. 8 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5. the Consultants shall consider the following in the design of the water distribution system grid: Dead ends shall be minimized by looping all watermains. 5. System should facilitate regular flushing of the network. The use of easements to loop watermains shall be minimized. At the dead end of all watermains. 5.4.

3 valves shall be provided on a tee intersection and 4 valves shall be provided on a cross intersection. watermains shall cross above the stormwater and wastewater mains with a minimum vertical separation of 450 mm to allow for proper bedding and structural support of the watermain.5 Valves On distribution mains. The watermain pipe shall be centred over the crossing so that the joints of the pipe are equidistant from the stormwater or wastewater main.4 Pipe Depth Consultants shall allow a minimum of 0. Single line valves up to and including 300 mm shall be buried. but shall not be greater than 1000m. Valves and washouts larger than 400 mm shall be installed in adequately designed shallow valve boxes. 5. special provision shall be considered to protect pipe from live loading. Under normal conditions. However.6 m.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5. one size smaller valve is permissible.5. As an alternative.5.5. up to 300 mm (12 inch) size. location of the valves should be determined by the Consultants in conjunction with WASA. gate valves shall be provided at every watermain junction but not greater than 500 m apart and shall be arranged and placed so that no more than 75 units (residential or commercial/institutional) and 2 hydrants are shut off at any time. the stormwater and/or wastewater main shall be constructed of material and with joints that will comply with watermain construction standards and shall be pressure tested to assure water tightness. stormwater and/or wastewater mains.3 Separation from Stormwater and Wastewater Mains Lateral separation of watermains from stormwater and wastewater mains shall be a minimum of 2. In areas where minimum cover cannot be achieved. On transmission mains over 250 mm diameter. Pressure reducing or pressure sustaining valves and chambers are permitted. to be opened by turning in a counter-clockwise direction. On open ditch or unimproved roads. special designs shall be incorporated to meet the requirements of the water system and of pressure zones. Where the watermain is located under the stormwater or wastewater main. the required vertical clearance between the stormwater or wastewater main and the watermain shall be a minimum of 0. Line valves shall be the same size as the watermain up to and including 600 mm diameter.9 m of cover for the watermain. with a non-rising spindle. Under normal circumstances on distribution mains. Where the specified vertical separation cannot be achieved. Resilient seat gate valves are to conform to AWWA C509. All bolts and nuts shall be 304 or 316 stainless steel. a minimum cover shall be provided to allow for future road improvements or lowering of the road profile.5 m. On 750 mm diameter and larger watermains. 9 March 2009 R1 . 5. the watermain may be located under the stormwater and/or wastewater mains with the required minimum vertical separation.

6.1 Pipe Material All pipes shall have a minimum designed pressure rating of 10 bar and calculation of the strength and thickness of the pipe shall be made in accordance with AWWA practice or procedures. This valve shall exist completely in the sidewalk or entirely out of the sidewalk and conform to the grade of the surrounding area. If hydrants are not applicable. 5. The connections are to meet BS336 as 2 x 63. 5. An isolating valve shall be provided on each hydrant lead. There should never be any connection to the sewer system from the flushing device. then blow offs should be installed at low points and dead ends and properly designed to allow minimum flushing velocity of 0. Hydrants shall be located outside of the ditch line.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System Butterfly valves could be provided on watermains larger than 300 mm diameter and valve selection must be done in consultation with senior design engineer and utility owner.7 Blow Off In design of new system. 10 March 2009 R1 .5.75 m/s.6 Pipe Requirements 5. Laterals shall have a secondary valve. & High Density Residential 100 m All hydrants shall be conform with TTS 622:20XX (in process by TTFS) and AWWA practices. Spacing of hydrants on all distribution watermains shall be adjusted to allow for the installation of hydrants at high points along the watermains and at all dead ends. valve box and anchor tee. Industrial. 5.5. hydrants should be installed in the distribution system to allow adequate maintenance of the distribution network.6 Hydrants Hydrants for fire fighting shall be of a type familiar to and approved by the Trinidad and Tobago Fire Service (TTFS). Pipes shall be one of the following unless otherwise approved in writing by the Local Authorities: Pipe material passing through structural walls should generally be steel.5 mm diameter nozzles and be installed as per fire service recommendation on all distribution watermains with the following maximum allowable spacing: Maximum Allowable Hydrant Spacing Development Area Maximum Spacing Residential 250 m Commercial.

AWWA C905. joint type. EN 10244 or BS Steel Pipe exposed above Spigot or flanged 534 surface. 11 March 2009 R1 . • Availability.ASTM D 3754 (GRP) 3000 mm Spigot 5. • Pipe Rigidity with regards to trench conditions. • Negative Pressure Capacity. Mechanical thrust restraint devices shall have third party testing certification for water systems. • Ease of Installation & Repair. The value of the transient pressure will not be less than the pressure surge that would be created by immediate stoppage of a water column moving at 0. tees and bends will have approved mechanical thrust restraints based on applicable AWWA standards.1 Thrust Restraints All watermains and thrust restraints shall be designed to withstand the cycling operation of water mains in T&T in addition to the maximum operating pressure plus the transient pressure to which it will be subjected. caps.6. The proper selection of water pipe material shall take into consideration the following: • Working and Surge Pressure Rating. and Preferred Design Range for Watermains Material Main Size Joint Type Services Specification Ductile Iron (cement AWWA C151. Glass reinforced plastic 450 mm to Gasketed Bell & AWWA C 950 . EN 545 or ISO ≤ 1600 mm Tyton > 50 mm lined) 2531 AWWA C900. • Material Composition e. Concrete thrust blocks shall be used with WASA’s approval. Polyvinyl Chloride Gasketed Bell & < 300 mm > 100 mm EN 1452 parts 1 to 5 (PVC) Spigot ISO 4422 > 750 mm Or when pipe Gasketed Bell & AWWA C200.6.2 Pipe specification See table below for the preferred watermain design range.3. All plugs. service connections and specifications.6 m/s. pipes and shall be lead free.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5.g.6. • Internal and External Corrosion Resistance.3 Structural Requirements 5. The design pressure shall not be less than 10 bar in any case.

2 Bedding and Backfill All buried pipes and conduits entering or exiting a structure shall be fully supported in backfilled zones by means of a structural bridge or other suitable system to protect against settlement. durable and watertight.3 Above surface Pipe Support Pipes shall always be supported adequately in accordance with applicable ANSI B31. A pressure reducing valve shall be installed on the connection if required. 2. No electrical grounding shall be connected to the water service. Valve box stem extension rods are to be used on water services up to and including 32 mm. the design must address the presence of concentrated loads (valves. 6.3. ANSI B31. 5. a loop of wire is to be brought up inside the valve box to the top of the box.6. Water service connections to any transmission main shall be provided only if no distribution main is available. If unsupported span is required (for a river crossing per example). etc) and changes in direction.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5. Bedding requirements shall be determined by the depth of bury of the pipe. the Consultants shall comply with the following requirements: 1. 12 March 2009 R1 .9 or other building service pipe codes. All water services shall be provided with a main stop. 5. curb stop and service box at the property line. 3.76 mm Polyethylene. considering bending stresses and deflection. watermain shall be laid on 100 mm of sand bedding conforming with AASHTO M-43 requirement. Connections shall be secure.5 Water Service Connections In designing service connections. 5. Consultants should address the requirements based on manufacturers recommendations. As a minimum requirement. All water services shall be installed at right angles to the watermain.6. The wire shall be installed between each valve and/or at the end of the new PVC watermain. Double service connection is not permitted. 7.6.4 Tracer Wire Tracer wire shall be installed on all new installations of PVC and Polyethylene watermain pipes for locating purposes. 4. Joints in the wire between valves are not permitted. Also. All underground water service connections up to and including two-inch sizes shall be extra Polyethlene PE pipe conforming to ANSI/AWWA C901-96. All underground services larger than 50 mm in size shall be ductile iron pipe or PVC pipe. soil type and trench conditions. strainers.6.1.5 mm diameter TWU copper wire shall be installed along the top of the pipe and strapped to the pipe at 6 m intervals.3. All wires shall be jacketed with a minimum of 0. 5. At each valve. A solid 1.

13 March 2009 R1 . operated. 15. Fire lines connected to any private fire system using chemicals are to be equipped with an approved check valve and back flow fixture. On high rise buildings or high buildings. Every water service shall be metered in compliance with WASA policies. restrainers and hydrants to top of lower barrel. 12. and shall be manufactured of virgin polyethylene material conforming to the requirements of ANSI/ASTM Standard Specification D1248.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 8.1 Polyethylene Encasement Polyethylene encasement can be used on metallic watermain pipes. where a booster pump is required. calibrated. 13. Meters must conform to WASA’s specification and must be installed. and maintained following generally accepted industry standards and information from the manufacturer. 5. Material and installation methods shall be in accordance with the requirements of AWWA C105. it shall be valved at the main and at the property line. Services longer than 30 m to the meter in a single family dwelling shall be 25 mm in diameter.7. No service shall be longer than 60 m without WASA’s approval. If the service crosses the road. The meter setting shall be as close as possible to the property line at the point of entrance of the water service connection. The specified minimum nominal thickness is 200 microns. Minimum depth for water service line is 450 mm.7 Corrosion Prevention The Consultants shall ensure that all metallic components in the water distribution system are protected from corrosion with appropriate protection measures. The size of water service connections shall be provided as follows: Minimum Service Connection Size Type of Development Service Connection Size Single Family 19 mm diameter Commercial and Industrial 25 mm diameter or higher 9. Pipe manufacturer’s recommendations shall be followed on the use of saddles when tapping services to mains. 11. No soldered joints or fittings shall be allowed before the meter or on the bypass valve. fittings. Soil condition reports and geotechnical recommendations should be applied where applicable. 10. 5. an approved check valve must be incorporated before the pump. Design calculations shall be done in accordance with AWWA M22. 14. Major water services 100 mm and larger shall be valved at the main. The volume of water delivered to consumers must be measured by meters installed on all direct service connections.

99.7. All metallic watermains.7. fittings and specials. comply with the following requirements unless otherwise recommended by a geotechnical survey: 1. fittings. the Consultants shall consider cathodic protection requirements as follows: 1.7. All sacrificial anodes shall be made of high grade electrolytic zinc. fittings.99% pure conforming to ASTM standards. Anode Requirement for Pipes and Fittings Pipe / Fitting Size (mm) Zinc Anode Size (kg) 150 and 100 2. a Cadwelder and CA-15 or equivalent cartridge shall be used. hydrants and restrainers must be coated and catholically protected to have one zinc anode per length of pipe in sizes according to the table below.3 Cathodic Protection 5. 3.2 Existing Pipe For existing cast iron or ductile iron watermains. Anodes may be used to cathodically protect existing cast iron or ductile iron watermains if the number of breaks is less than 5 break/km/yr for non-critical residential mains and 1 14 March 2009 R1 . Where new pipe is to be connected to existing ductile iron or cast iron pipe.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System 5. a 14. 100% solid polyurethane coating shall be used on ductile iron pipe.5 300 11 400 11 450 11 Hydrant 11 5. 4. Coating should meet ASTM D4541. 5.1 New Pipes For new pipes. 5. restrainers or to existing metallic watermains.2 Polyurethane coating Where soil corrosiveness is significant.3.3. hydrants. drain chambers or air release chambers. 2. For all anodes connected to new pipes. 6. Anode installation shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and ASTM requirements.7.7 200 5. G14 and 2240 for their performance and material be conform to the latest AWWA standard or ASTM D-16.5 kg magnesium anode is to be connected to the first length of existing pipe. All weld connections are to be coated. Anode installation is not required within valve chambers.5 250 5.

shall be flushed. Anodes used for protecting existing pipe shall be packaged 14. 5. which convey potable water or stored potable water. and disinfected in accordance with the latest AWWA Standard C651. the watermain is to be replaced. 15 March 2009 R1 . including resistivity. the appropriate cathodic protection measure will be determined. Based on the results of the soil investigation. 2. tanks and equipment. Soils investigation shall be undertaken to identify the aggressiveness of the existing soil conditions. cleaned or repaired water mains.8 Pipe commissioning Once pipes are completely installed. pH value and chloride ion concentration. All new.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Water Distribution System break/km/year for more critical mains. leakage test shall be driven and be conform to AWWA standards C600 and C605.5 kg magnesium anodes at a spacing to be specified by the Consultants. 4. and a satisfactory bacteriological report obtained. All metallic pipe extension and services should be electrically isolated from the metallic main. 3. For watermains with a higher break frequency (based on structural failures).

The pressure zones are to be defined according to prevailing topographic conditions.3 Tank Design Where land and topography allows. Finished-water storage facilities should have sufficient capacity to control the operation of pumps. stratification. pumping from ground level storage may be considered. As a primary goal. security and failure impact of a dam must be done by competent dam specialists. Where the higher standards have been specified or required. To promote water circulation.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Drinking Water Reservoirs Section 6 Drinking Water Reservoirs 6. balance the fluctuation in domestic demands. 6.2 Impoundment design For new impoundment reservoirs. If site conditions preclude elevated storage. 1 March 2009 R1 . 6. The tank should be divided in a minimum of two cells for maintenance and access.1 General The design guidelines as provided herein are for the design of new or rehabilitation of existing drinking water distribution reservoirs and shall be read in conjunction with the guidelines and codes applicable to Trinidad & Tobago including those mentioned in section 3 Design Standards. 2. hydrology. and provide emergency and fire protection reserves. in which case auxiliary power should be provided. A source water protection plan enacted for continued protection of the watershed from potential sources of contamination shall be also provided. nutrient loading. Each compartment should have human access and adequate ventilation. sediment accumulation. Preferred pressure zones are between 275 kpa (40 psi) and 550 kpa (80 psi). The tank shall be designed to meet the following criteria: 1. A separate report covering the safety. 3. Several intakes with different elevations should be provided to assure good water quality down to the lowest level of the reservoir. Ensure that the full depth of the reservoir is available for operation. This will account for daily fluctuations in demand and will balance the network. comply with such requirements. This storage should be reliably available. Provide isolation valve(s) and piping to permit the isolation of reservoir cell(s) for maintenance or construction work without having to shut the entire reservoir down. New reservoirs site should be prepared by removing bushes and trees to the high level elevation. a complete assessment of the project including as a minimum siting. geotechnical. interior walls (baffles) should be used. Locate inlet and outlet pipe separately to promote circulation of fresh water and minimize dead spots. operation and maintenance should be established and reviewed by WASA. it is considered advantageous to provide gravity storage for potable water distribution. water quality. reservoirs shall be sited at elevations which will ensure these pressures are maintained. preferably by gravity.

consider controlled discharge such as pumps and holding ponds. a screened roof vent. or local approval agencies. 6. Refer to section 5.4 Tank Capacity The capacity of the required tank will be dictated by the water supply system need study. Tank floors should have adequate slope and finish to allow draining and cleaning. the reservoir or tank access road shall be fenced off with 2100 mm high galvanized steel chain link fence and razor wire. and other potential sources of external contamination 5. Access gate(s) to the property shall be 7000 mm wide and 2100 mm high. Connection for pumps and washdown pump shall be made to the reservoir’s fill line. In the absence of municipal storm drain. 7.7 Site Access Road and Security Unless otherwise specified by WASA. Design tank to drain by gravity to the adjacent property drainage area.6 on chlorination systems. excessive dust. the instrumentation and control system shall initiate the valve to shut off to prevent further water supply into the reservoir and at the same time activate the reservoir high high level (HHL) overflow alarm condition to the operator through the SCADA system.2. 6. Allow for future expansion of reservoir capacity to its ultimate capacity in an orderly manner. The re-chlorination system shall be sized to provide an increase to the total chlorine residual at the maximum inflow of water. as applicable.4. When the water level reaches the high high level (HHL) condition. for all pressure zones to meet both normal as well as abnormal demands of the system. The design shall include provisions for a lockable weathertight roof. 2 March 2009 R1 . In all cases. insects.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Drinking Water Reservoirs 4. Operational. and fire suppression storage volumes must be considered. Overflow from the tank is not generally permitted at any time unless emergency conditions arise. 6. 6. animals. standby.6 Emergency Eye-wash Provide an emergency eye-wash station in the vicinity of the chlorination system and also close to the analyzer location. 6. an overflow pipe with atmospheric discharge and sample collection capability. Prevent entry by birds. include adequate measures to control erosion of earthen channels or scouring of paved sections.2 for calculation of recommended minimum storage. design and provide the required chlorination system at the reservoir with respect to Section 9. A separate instrumentation and control system shall be provided exclusively to prevent overflow. 8. The location of the gate(s) may be required to comply with the requirements of the approval agencies and or area municipality.5 Re-chlorination System Requirements Where specified.

Drains inside the valve house shall have easily accessible traps. Floor layout shall allow for an easy access to all equipment inside the Valve House. It shall complement with the surrounding environment and require minimum maintenance or watering. Reservoirs should have a minimum of two (2) cells with isolation valves between the cells. Roof access hatches shall be fabricated of aluminium frame with insulated cover and watertight. For new reservoirs. Floor areas shall be sealed with a waterproofing membrane and shall have a slip resistant finish.9 Structural Comply with Section 15 – Structural Standards. All hatches are to be lockable and keyed to WASA’s master lock system. Walls shall be treated with a waterproofing membrane. doors etc are to be vandal resistant. and recess padlock complete with cover. The exterior of tank shall be provided with high pressure sodium vapour light fixtures (vandal and tamper resistant) with high power factor ballast and lamps suitable for horizontal. The exterior material and or finishes shall be designed to be completely maintenance-free wherever possible. Unless it is absolutely necessary. All electrical equipment including control panel shall be located on the main floor. All roof drains shall have a dome protection. Interior lighting shall be wall mounted fluorescent light fixtures. Reservoirs shall be designed to withstand all force imposed on them and be watertight. The need for surveillance camera and alarms shall be assessed for each site. All exterior access such as the valve house doors and reservoir roof access shall be provided with locking devices. 3 March 2009 R1 . 6. 6. It shall be provided with a snap lock with a removable handle for topside hardware. Interior finish shall require minimum maintenance. do not paint interior surface of Valve House. and readily accessible for replacement/ maintenance purposes (but protected against vandalism). Ensure that all ventilation louvers to the reservoir are properly secured to prevent entry of foreign material. Design tank with valve chamber in front with access door and retaining walls. base up or base down operation.8 Architectural Comply with Section 14 – Architectural Standards. Select plant species that are native to Trinidad & Tobago. glass lined steel tanks should be prioritised. Landscaping within the property limits shall comply with the regional authority Site Plan Approval requirements.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Drinking Water Reservoirs Design tank exterior exposed surfaces such as access hatches. All openings in the exterior walls shall be equipped with insect screens and vandal-proof louvers. The reservoir shall be architecturally designed to ensure that the exterior complements with its surrounding environment. It shall be provided with two entrances and to be without any windows.

shall be chlorine resistant material or Fibreglass. 6. Hardware inside the reservoir. design new cell(s) capable of being isolated from existing cell(s) for repair and or cleaning or to float independently on the water supply distribution system. system must initiate the valve to shut off further water supply into the reservoir 4 March 2009 R1 . Altitude valves with closing speed control are the preferred mode of control for inflow in the reservoirs. handrails. Provide access and ventilation shafts. Internal manway from valve chamber to the reservoir. For expansion of existing reservoirs. The overflow pipe shall be secured with a non-corrodible mesh screen (size 25 mm) installed within the pipe at a location least susceptible to damage by vandalism. Provide a backup float system which will detect the reservoir water level. Provide perimeter drainage system and prevent erosion. equipment hatches. ladders.. if provided. Provide reservoir with an overflow piping capable of discharging the designed maximum inflow of water to the reservoir.11 Ventilation Comply with Section 20 – Ventilation and Air Conditioning Standards. shall be corrosion and chlorine resistant. Design drain to permit discharge of water in a controlled manner to the site drainage system. Design overflow capacity from each cell to meet maximum pumped input and combine discharge with reservoir drain.10 Mechanical Comply with Section 19 – Mechanical Standards. Control of the inlet valve and monitoring of the reservoir water level should be made possible through ultrasonic level sensor. Valve box shall be cast in place concrete with a lockable stainless steel cover. safety chains and rails. 6.12 Instrumentation and Control Provide one ultrasonic level sensor in each reservoir cell. gratings etc. two for each cell. Stainless steel will not be acceptable because of chlorine attack.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Drinking Water Reservoirs Interior of the tank shall be protected from corrosion by glass lining or other approved protection. 6. Provide valve box as required to allow easy operation. Ensure that the stainless steel cover is designed to prevent water from entering into the reservoir from the valve box. Provide dehumidification equipment in Valve House to reduce humidity below dew point. At the overflow water level condition.

5 March 2009 R1 . manual or automatic mode (where required) 7.13 Alarms The following alarm points shall be monitored at the reservoir by the SCADA System: 1. High. High/low chlorine residual level 6.15 Equipment Redundancy Comply with Section 4 – Process and Equipment Redundancy. manually set by operator 8. Reservoir PLC operation: 1. Chlorine metering pumps duty selection. High water level 9.14 Control System For additional information on I&C and SCADA systems requirements. Low chemical liquid level in the tank 7. 6. Low reservoir level. Reservoir inlet/outlet control valve 6. Chlorine residual set point.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Drinking Water Reservoirs and at the same time activate the reservoir high high level (HHL) overflow alarm condition at the Water Treatment Plant SCADA Control Room. Reservoir Low Level 6. Chemical metering pumps uncommanded stop 4. refer to Section 17 – Instrumentation & Control and Section 18 – SCADA System for control system requirements. Chemical metering pumps uncommanded start 5. Reservoir Cell duty selection 2. Levels sensor indications in each cell 3. Reservoir Fire Zone Level 5. Fire Alarms 2. Reservoir High Level 3. normally set at the fire zone 8. Reservoir High High Level 4. Chlorine gas alarm 6.

Design should always consider the hydraulics in order to avoid cavitation. valve etc. Lifting devices shall be provided for removing pumps or motors. comply with such requirements. 3.0 Design Standards. 5. Where the higher standards have been specified or required. Provide adequate space (min 1. pump material to be employed is cast steel (with surface protection).2 Pump design For any particular project there is likely to be more than one acceptable booster pump station design concept. If there are solids suspended or dissolved in the water. Provide flexibility for incorporating modification to facility to meet more stringent water quality requirements. maintain similar types of existing equipment. The valving configuration shall allow pumping in both directions and be controlled by the SCADA systems to accommodate emergency situations. Ensure that the facility is designed to allow for future expansion works. excessive vibration and noise. Usually. 7.3 Layout of Pumping Station Below are recommended requirements for the expansion or upgrading of pumping station: 1. with the impeller usually made from chromium steel.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Potable Water Pumping Stations Section 7 Potable Water Pumping Stations 7. 7. between existing and new equipment for operation and maintenance requirements. the speed of the pump should be limited to avoid abrasion.0 m) to allow removal of pump.1 General The design guidelines as provided herein are for the design of new or rehabilitation of existing potable water pumping stations and shall be read in conjunction with the guidelines and codes noted in section 3. In addition to the selection of the appropriate pump type and size. As much as possible. Pumps should be selected in order to have high efficiency under normal operating conditions. there is also a need to select the suitable resistant material or coatings. 4. Booster stations on the Trunk system must be designed in order to allow bidirectional (up flow or down stream) pumping capacity so as to offer redundancy to the national grid system. Firm pumping capacity for a water pumping station is based on the total pumping capacity with the largest pump out of service. 1 March 2009 R1 . which can guarantee an extended lifetime. 2. The pump’s parts and components should be chlorine resistant. where clean water is pumped. weather proof and rated for continuous operation in tropical countries.

Where there is a more stringent design standard. isolating butterfly valves should be preferred.6 Control System The need for installing a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) pump must be assessed with considerations to economical. . Low lift pumping stations are generally used to bring water from the intake to the treatment plant. Drive speed 11 Instrumentation & Control Programmable Logic Controller c/w all required field instrumentation hardware. maintenance and repair of the equipment. 2 March 2009 R1 . 7. minimum one per phase Requirement RTD for motor inboard and outboard bearings RTD connections for pump inboard and outboard bearings.5 Pumping Station Requirements Usually there are two types of pumping stations. Design the pumping station in accordance with the following guidelines. operational and maintenance aspects of such equipment. 7. and not to be provided for Standby Pump 7 Number of Standby Pump Minimum – 1 8 Capacity of Standby Equal to capacity of largest pump Pump 9 Drive Unit Starter Solid State Reduced Voltage Starter or Variable Frequency Drive 10 Equipment Monitoring RTD connections for windings. High lift pumping stations are generally used for water distribution.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Potable Water Pumping Stations 7.4 Equipment Redundancy See Section 4 – Process and Equipment Redundancy. For pipe diameter over 450 mm. Check valves and surge valves (if applicable) on the discharge side of each booster pump are to be provided. Equipment Comment 1 Design Standard Hydraulic Institute Standards 2 Number of Pumps Minimum – 2 3 Capacity of Pumps Maximum Daily Demand 4 Preferred Type Horizontal Split Case Centrifugal Pump & Vertical turbine pumps in canisters (canned) 5 Pump’s Standard EN 733 DIN 24255 6 Variable Frequency Drive To be considered but not a standard requirement. comply with the higher standard. Pumps should be adequately valved to permit satisfactory operation. 12 Emergency Standby Generator output shall be sized to meet pumps power demand for average Diesel Generator day water supply demand as well as for SCADA and ventilation systems. As per common practice the maximum number of pumps shall be limited to 5 or less in order to keep the complexity and lifetime costs at reasonable levels.

Provision shall also be made for the measurement of flow using a flow meter or other reputable flow measuring device at each pump station.7 Instrumentation Provision shall be made for the visual indication of the suction and discharge pressure at each pump and the common discharge line pressure. Pressure switches shall be installed at the suction line of each pump at water pump stations.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Potable Water Pumping Stations Control systems shall include automatic and manual Start/stop control for each system. 7. For additional information on I&C and SCADA systems requirements. Instrumentation should include ammeters and voltmeter for each station and include motor protection fixtures like thermal overloads and phase imbalance or loss protection. refer to Section 17 – Instrumentation & Control and Section 18 – SCADA System for control system requirements. Permanent pressure and flow monitoring and recorder should be provided.8 Alarms The following equipment or logic-defined alarms shall be generated for the following: Building • Access Security Authorized and unauthorized entry • Building – Smoke Smoke in building • Building – Flood Flooding Pump(s) • Overload trip • Thermistor trip • Bearing temperature • Fail to start • Fail to stop • High pressure • Low pressure • Uncommanded stop • Phase unbalance 3 March 2009 R1 . Adequate protection for adverse effects should be included in the design. All pump stations shall be designed with due consideration for the effects of water hammer. A common discharge pressure switch shall be installed at water pump stations. 7. The pressure switches shall be set as to trip pumps at low suction and high discharge pressures and to start pumps at the required pressure. Disposition should be taken to control moisture and condensation.

Access gate(s) to the property shall be 7000 mm wide and 2100 mm high. The location of the gate(s) may be required to comply with the requirements of the approval agencies and or area municipality. All hatches to be lockable and keyed to WASA’s master lock system. Provide dehumidification equipment in pumping rooms to reduce humidity below dew point. Drains inside the valve house shall have easily accessible traps. Floor areas shall be sealed with a waterproofing membrane and shall have a slip resistant finish. All openings in the exterior walls shall be equipped with insect screens and vandal-proof louvers. Interior finish shall require minimum maintenance. All roof drains shall have a dome protection.9 Ventilation Comply with Section 20 – Ventilation and Air Conditioning Standards. the building access road shall be fenced off with 2100 mm high galvanized steel chain link fence and razor wire. It shall complement with the surrounding environment and require minimum maintenance or watering. doors etc are to be vandal resistant. Floor layout shall allow for an easy access to all equipment inside the pumping station. and readily accessible for replacement/ maintenance purposes (but protected against vandalism). Design building exterior exposed surfaces such as access hatches. 4 March 2009 R1 . All electrical equipment including control panels shall be located on the main floor. The building shall be architecturally designed to ensure that the exterior complements with its surrounding environment. The exterior of the building shall be provided with high pressure sodium vapour light fixtures (vandal and tamper resistant) with high power factor ballast and lamps suitable for horizontal. Walls shall be treated with a waterproofing membrane. 7.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Potable Water Pumping Stations 7. base up or base down operation. The exterior material and or finishes shall be designed to be completely maintenance-free wherever possible.10 Architectural Comply with Section 14 – Architectural Standards. It shall be provided with two entrances and to be without any windows. The need for surveillance camera and alarms shall be assessed for each site. Select plant species that are native to Trinidad & Tobago. 7. Ensure that all ventilation louvers to the reservoir are properly secured to prevent entry of foreign material. Interior lighting shall be wall mounted fluorescent light fixtures. or local approval agencies.11 Site Access Road and Security Unless otherwise specified by WASA. Landscaping within the property limits shall comply with the regional authority Site Plan Approval requirements.

The issue of redundancy must be captured in the number of wells within the area so to allow operation on a rotational basis. The water quality shall respect WASA water quality standard as defined in Section and if required. It is important that wells and underground water supplies be always assessed through a Source Water Protection program with regional coverage to assure sustainability and health protection for users. Thermoplastic screen may be attached to steel casing with the use of an appropriate coupler. Adequate provisions for washout must be included. Well casing shall be made of steel conform to ASTM A53/A53M-01 or ASTM A589-96 or plastic conform to ASTM F480- 00. PVC casing and screen must not have glue joints. or threaded and coupled The upper terminal of the well casing shall be equipped with a well cap and be watertight with the exception of a vent pipe or vent tube having a downward-directed. and materials added to or brought in contact with water in a public water system well shall have either standard ANSI/NSF 60 or 61 certification. Drilling and construction of wells shall be supervised by a hydro-geological specialist and be tested for yield and drawdown. 1 March 2009 R1 .2 Well Construction Consultants shall make sure to protect the aquifer by avoiding the introduction of any contamination. 8. All underground material shall be made of new material. The well casing shall neither terminate below ground nor in a pit. The immediate 30 m radius surrounding of a well shall be protected from any source of contamination (minimum well head protection). Screen joints between screen sections and blank casing shall be welded. All chemicals.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Well Pumping Station Design Section 8 Well Pumping Station Design 8. Treatment for all secondary aesthetic standards should be included after confirmation by WASA.9 meter above the ground surface when the well is completed and always above flood line. All casing and screen must be supplied with threaded flush joints or threaded couplers. Measures shall be taken to avoid infiltration on the side of casing. adequate treatments are to be provided to comply with the water quality standards. The well casing should extend 0. Water quality must be defined prior to the construction of the well. Wells shall be located so that the drawdown of any well will not interfere with the required yield of another well. The screen shall provide sufficient column and collapse strength to withstand installation and borehole pressures.1 General The design guidelines as provided herein are for the design of new or rehabilitation of existing wells and shall be read in conjunction with AWWA Standard for Water Wells. substances. screened opening. Tubing must be equipped with a drive shoe when driven. All underground connections with the casing shall be sealed and waterproof. Screen shall be installed such that corrosion caused by contact with dissimilar steel casing is minimized. A report of at least a 24-hour pumping test to determine yield shall be submitted.

Turbidity meter 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Well Pumping Station Design Every water supply well shall have a continuous bond concrete slab or well house concrete floor extending at least 1 meter horizontally around the outside of the well casing. Mechanical Flow or pressure control device 8. and oil. The well must not be disturbed for at least 48 hours after grouting to allow the grout time to set up. For line shafts pumps. Chlorine gas detector 10. All pipes will have to be anchored to prevent movement and damages. Emergency standby diesel generator (if dual feed not available) 9. 3. Demonstration of well alignment shall be made by passing a 12 m long dummy through the inner casing. Chlorine residual analyser 6. an air release vacuum valve. Minimum thickness for the concrete slab or floor shall be 100 mm. a pedestal shall be provided to support the pumps and the shaft. A totalizing meter shall be installed in the piping system from each well. The annular space remaining above the seal must be grouted. A water supply well shall be secured against unauthorized access (see section 14.3 Well Instrumentation & Control The well pumping station shall be equipped with the following equipments: 1. A sampling point Comply with Section 16 – Electrical Standards for electrical protection requirements for the wells. Automatic chlorination equipment 5. Pressure monitoring gages 4. and wells that have been repaired or reconditioned shall be cleaned of foreign substances such as soil. Plumbing and alignment shall be in accordance with the pump manufacturer’ requirements. All new wells. 8. 2 March 2009 R1 .10). grease. The discharge pipe must have a check valve and if applicable. and then shall be disinfected. The grout mixture should be composed of Portland cement and powdered bentonite. Level sensors inside the well 7.

Level sensor low level alarm 2. All chemical systems shall be located in a separate room. A preliminary assessment of type of well pump must be done for review to WASA.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Well Pumping Station Design 8. If a building is required. Section 15 – Structural Standards and Section 20 – Ventilation and Air Conditioning Standards. Chemical metering pumps uncommanded stop 3. Adequate provision for wash out must be included. Provide fully automated chemical feed system with the capability of plant manual control through the SCADA HMI software. Provide all field instrumentation for local and remote control and monitoring of all equipment in the pumping station. 3 March 2009 R1 . All equipment shall be accessible for repair and or replacement and shall have a minimum clearance of one meter from the nearest obstruction. All electrical control panels and MCC panels shall be located in a separate room.4 Alarms The following alarm points shall be monitored (if applicable) at the reservoir by the SCADA System: 1. Chemical metering pumps uncommanded start 4. Hardware for the wells and inside the building shall be corrosion and chlorine resistant. 8.6 SCADA System Tie the pumping station PLC/RPU to the SCADA system. Landscape must be designed to allow drainage and aquifer protection. High/low chlorine residual level 5. Design of the well pumping station must allow for the removal of all equipment at all times when the work has been constructed. install a skylight immediately over the centre of the pump to facilitate removal of pumping unit.5 Preferred Layout Buildings must comply with Section 14 – Architectural Standards. Low chemical liquid level in the tank 6. Chlorine gas detector alarm 8. Provide an emergency eye-wash station in the vicinity of the chlorination system and close to the analyzer location.

4 March 2009 R1 .7 Equipment Redundancy No redundancy in process or equipment is required.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Well Pumping Station Design Provide a remote processing unit RPU for local and remote control and monitoring of all equipment through the SCADA MMI software. 8. Comply with Section 17 – Instrumentation & Control and Section 18 – SCADA System design standard requirements.

debris screens. The drinking water quality standards are a public health issue and have to be carefully set. 9.2 Drinking water standards The WHO has established guideline values for 94 parameters divided in three (3) different groups: microbiological contaminants. These guidelines are to be used as the WASA`s Water Quality Standards and are presented in the following tables. maintenance. sampling. All materials in substantial contact with potable water supplies shall conform to the ANSI/NSF Standard 60 or 61. Treatment systems or devices shall be piloted and designed to ensure finished water quality conforms to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) water quality standards The water supply strategy shall adopt the multi barrier approach which will ensure safe drinking water based on four barriers: • Source water protection • Water treatment • Distribution system integrity • Public information and legislation Protection of well’s recharge area (Source Water Protection) allied with concerted public involvement and watershed management are recommendations that should be implemented as part of a sustainable approach for drinking water. membranes. exchange or adsorption media. Materials associated with components such as valves. and a provision of safe and high quality drinking water in a reliable manner and in a quantity suitable for intended use. 1 March 2009 R1 . Examples of water system components that would be considered to be in "substantial contact" with drinking water are filter media. pipe fittings.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants Section 9 Water Treatment Plants 9. natural and chemical contaminants. These recommendations are specifically designed to ensure an adequate design. or other similar components that would have high potential for contacting the water.1 General The following sections are the design standards and guidelines for water treatment plants. The following standards are based on the 2006 World Health Organisation (WHO) addendum 1 to volume 3 maximum allowable concentration. construction. or similar appurtenances would not be considered to be in substantial contact. should any new plants be constructed or existent plants be expanded or upgraded in the future to current water treatment process standards. gaskets. and operation practices. distribution piping. storage tank interiors or liners. The aim is to frame the good practices needed for assuring acceptable raw water quality at the intake of treatment plants.

9. coli or thermotolerant coliform bacteria Must not be detectable in any 100-ml sample Treated water entering the distribution system E. resulting in consumer complaints. source protection.1 Microbiological Values for verification of microbial quality Organisms value All water directly intended for drinking E. D=provisional guideline value because disinfection is likely to result in the guideline value being exceeded. taste or odor of the water.5 Volume of water consumed and intake from other sources should be considered when setting national standards.4 (C) Molybdenum 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants Notes on standards : P=provisional guideline value as there is evidence of a hazard.coli or thermotolerant coliform bacteria Must not be detectable in any 100-ml sample Treated water in the distribution system E. C=concentrations of the substance at or below the health-based guideline value may affect the appearance. A= provisional guideline value because calculated guideline value is below the practical quantification level.2. Manganese 0.015 (P.07 Selenium 0. but the available information on health effects is limited.T) Only chemical aspects of uranium addressed 2 March 2009 R1 .01 (P) Barium 0.coli or thermotolerant coliform bacteria Must not be detectable in any 100-ml sample Treated water in the distribution system Total coliform bacteria Must not be detectable in any 100-ml sample 9.7 Boron 1. T=provisional guideline value because calculated guideline value is below the level that can be achieved through practical treatment methods.2. etc.0 (T) Chromium 0.2 Naturally occurring chemicals Values for naturally occurring chemicals that are of health significance in drinking-water value Chemical (mg/litre) Remarks Arsenic 0.01 Uranium 0.05 (P) For total chromium Fluoride 1.

300 (C) Dichloroethane. 2.2. 50 Dichloromethane 20 Dioxane.6 Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) 200 Pentachlorophenol 9 (P) Styrene 20 (C) Tetrachloroethene 40 Toluene 700 (C) Trichloroethene 20 (P) Xylenes 500 (C) 3 March 2009 R1 . 1. 1. 4. 30 Dichloroethane. 4. 2.3 Chemical contaminants Values for chemicals from industrial sources and human dwellings that are of health significance in drinking-water.006 For inorganic mercury Organics value (µg/litre) Remarks Benzene 10 Carbon tetrachloride 4 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 8 Dichlorobenzene. 1.003 Cyanide 0. 50 Edetic acid (EDTA) 600 Applies to the free acid Ethylbenzene 300 (C) Hexachlorobutadiene 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants 9.07 Mercury 0. 1000 (C) Dichlorobenzene. 1. Inorganics value (mg/litre) Remarks Cadmium 0. 1. 2.

4.4 (P) 1.4-D (2.2 (P) Long-term exposure Pesticides used in agriculture value (µg/litre) Remarks Alachlor 20 Aldicarb 10 Applies to aldicarb Sulfoxide and aldicarb Sulfone.5-T 9 Terbuthylazine 7 Trifluralin 20 4 March 2009 R1 .6 2. Aldrin and dieldrin 0.2-DCP) 40 (P) 1.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 30 Applies to free acid 2.2-Dichloropropane (1.03 For combined aldrin plus dieldrin Atrazine 2 Carbofuran 7 Chlordane 0.2 Chlorotoluron 30 Cyanazine 0.6 Fenoprop 9 Isoproturon 9 Lindane 2 MCPA 2 Mecoprop 10 Methoxychlor 20 Metolachlor 10 Molinate 6 Pendimethalin 20 Simazine 2 2.3-Dichloropropene 20 Dichlorprop 100 Dimethoate 6 Endrin 0. Non-pesticides value (mg/litre) Remarks Nitrate (as NO3-) 50 Short-term exposure Nitrate (as NO2-) 3 Short-term exposure 0.4-DB 90 1.2-Dibromoethane 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants Values for chemicals from agricultural activities that are of health significance in drinking water.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 1 1.

4. Disinfectants value (mg/litre) Remarks Monochloramine 3 Disinfection by-products value (µg/litre) Remarks Bromate 10 (A.3 5 March 2009 R1 .4 (P) Contaminants from pipes And fittings Values (µg/litre) Remarks Antimony 20 Benzo [a]pyrene 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants Values for chemicals used in water treatment or materials in contact with drinking water that are of health significance in drinking-water.T) Bromodichloromethane 10 Bromoform 40 Chlorate 700 (D) Chlorite 700 (D) Chloroform 200 Cyanogen chloride 70 For cyanide as total cyanogenic compounds Dibromoacetonitrile 70 Dibromochloromethane 100 Dichloroacetate 50 (T.6. 200 (C) Trihalomethanes 350 The sum of the ratio of the concentration of each to its respective guideline value should not exceed 1 Contaminants from Value (µg/litre) Remarks Treatment Chemicals Acrylamide 0.D) Dichloroacetonitrile 20 (P) Monochloroacetate 20 Trichloroacetate 200 Trichlorophenol. 2.7 Copper 2000 staining of laundry and sanitary ware may occur below guideline value Lead 10 Nickel 70 Vinyl chloride 0.5 Epichlorohydrin 0.

Refer to table 5.3.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants Values for pesticides used in water for public health purposes that are of health significance in drinking-water.3 Performance targets and treatment objectives 9. three (3) different pathogens micro-organisms be targeted: enteric virus. Some parameters are considered aesthetic objectives and others are considered operational objectives. 9.05 Silver 0.05 Total Dissolved Solids 500 Turbidity * < 5 NTU <1 NTU (See Note) Zinc 5 * Turbidity operational objectives are dependant on removal credit and performance targets set for the specific project.5-8.10 pH 6.5 Sodium 200 Sulfate 250 Sulfide 0. Value (µg/litre) Pyriproxyfen 300 Values for cyanotoxins that are of health significance in drinking-water Value (µg/litre) Remarks Microcystin –LR 1 (P) For total microcystin-LR (free plus cell-bound) 9.3 Manganese 0. 6. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Acceptability aspects Parameter Aesthetic objective Operational (mg/litre) objective (mg/litre) Aluminium 0.2 Chloride 250 Colour 15 TCU <5 TCU Hardness 150 Iron 0.2.4 Aesthetic guidelines The following guidelines called secondary drinking water guidelines are adopted by WASA. and 7.1 General In order to evaluate disinfection performance at a water treatment facility. The selection of those organisms is founded on the following facts: 6 March 2009 R1 .

The log removal for the reduction of the virus and parasites can be obtained either by a combination of: • Physical removal such as coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation and filtration and/or membranes. Removal of particulate matter by filtration. some causing illness to thousand of people. ozone or UV radiation. • The targeted organisms are resistant to disinfection. This disinfection is a two (2) part process that includes: 1. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts are considered among the most common intestinal parasites found in the world. 9.3. 2. 2 log decimal corresponds to 99% reduction and 3 log decimal corresponds to 99. Inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms by chlorine. removal of the particulates reduces the chance of pathogenic microorganisms in the effluent. 7 March 2009 R1 . because viruses and bacteria can hide within the rough texture of particulates.2 Minimum treatment objectives Water sources are to be classified and the minimum treatment objectives for the removal of the targeted objectives be as per the ones included in Table 1. it is very probable that other less resisting organisms will also be eliminated. Thus. A rule of thumb is that high turbidity in the effluent is a potential health risk.9% reduction and so on. Giardia and Cryptosporidium to evaluate the disinfection effectiveness of a water treatment facility is the preferred approach in most jurisdictions having drinking water legislation. The removal and inactivation of viruses. • Chemical inactivation such as chlorination or physical inactivation such as ultra-violet radiation.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants • The targeted organisms are frequently detected in surface water supplies of lakes. Log decimal is usually used as the method to evaluate organism elimination in a process train. by eliminating the targeted organisms. Water is disinfected but never completely sterilized in the water treatment process. For a specific water treatment facility. • The targeted organisms have been known to have caused epidemics. the sum of the total log removal obtained by physical removal and the total log removal obtained by inactivation must be greater than the treatment objectives established in Table 1.0. Therefore. chlorine dioxide. rivers and occasionally in groundwater sources.0. One log decimal corresponds to a 90% reduction of the original concentration.

streams.including dug-outs). wetlands. ponds . Note: Systems that rely on Sea water and brackish sources are considered surface water and must also conform to these minimum requirements. water courses (rivers. The following drinking-water systems are deemed to be drinking-water systems that obtain water from a raw water supply that is ground water under the direct influence of surface water: • A drinking-water system that obtains water from a well that is not a drilled well or that does not have a watertight casing that extends to a depth of at least 6 meters below ground level.5 log removal or inactivation of Giardia cysts and 2 log removal or inactivation of viruses must be provided through the disinfection portion of the overall water treatment process. water-filled drainage ditches).99%) II Groundwater under the direct 2 log (99%) 3 log 4 log influence of surface water (99.9%) (99.99%) III Groundwater not under the 0 0 2log direct influence of surface (99%) water Class I water: Class I water means surface water bodies (lakes. Class II water: Ground water under the direct influence of surface water means ground water having incomplete or undependable subsurface filtration. and areas of seasonal wetlands. slow sand filtration or membrane filtration). • A drinking-water system that obtains water from an infiltration gallery. 8 March 2009 R1 . At least 0. direct filtration.0 – Minimum treatment objectives for various raw water supplies Class Raw water source Mandatory minimum treatment objectives Cryptosporidium Giardia Virus I Surface water 2 log (99%) 3 log 4 log (99.9%) (99.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants Table 1. The minimum treatment objectives for raw water of Class I must necessarily be obtained with a filtration system (conventional filtration. infiltration trenches.

0. filtration should always be incorporated prior to disinfection. In all cases water turbidity must be below 5 NTU. Table 2.0 – Treatment objectives for Giardia. the level of treatment must be adjusted to the values included in Table 2.3. 9 March 2009 R1 . any part of which is within 500 meters of surface water. • A drinking-water system that obtains water from a bedrock well. The filtration requirement could be waived if it can be demonstrated that raw water average monthly turbidity is always below 1 NTU. • A drinking-water system in respect of which a written report has been prepared by a professional engineer or professional hydro-geologist that concludes that the system’s raw water supply is ground water under the direct influence of surface water and that includes a statement of his or her reasons for reaching that conclusion. For polluted sources. Cryptosporidium and virus versus fecal coliforms contamination in the raw water supply Fecal coliforms Treatment objective Treatment objective Treatment objective concentration in the for Giardia for Cryptosporidium for virus raw water (UFC/100 ml) < 20 3 log 2 log 4 log 20 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants • A drinking-water system that obtains water from an overburden well. • A drinking-water system that exhibits evidence of contamination by surface water. the filtration could be replaced by a double disinfection system consisting of UV radiation and chemical disinfection. For drinking-water systems that rely on a raw water supply which is considered ground water under the direct influence of surface water. Disinfection is required as an additional heath risk barrier.3 Additional treatment objectives for Class I water supplies For surface water supplies. In that case. to a level where the water supply may already be potable. The minimum water treatment objectives are for raw water supplies of good quality. 9. treatment objectives shall be adjusted to take into account the level of pollution in the source. Class III water: This class is for raw water which is considered groundwater meaning water located in subsurface aquifer(s) protected by overlay aquitards which act as an effective filter to removes micro- organisms and other particles by straining and antagonistic effect.200 4 log 2 log 5 log 200 – 2 000 5 log 2 log 6 log 2 000 – 20 000 6 log 2 log 7 log > 20 000 Must consider a change in the raw water supply The fecal coliforms values shown in the Table are annual arithmetic average values for fecal coliforms measured at the raw water source. any part of which is within 100 meters of surface water.

0 – Water treatment processes and capabilities for the removal of Giardia. flocculation. settling and filtration 2) Includes a coagulation with or without flocculation 3) Excludes a coagulation 4) If use as secondary disinfection 10 March 2009 R1 .1 General Once the treatment objectives have been determined. Table 3.4 Calculations of the water treatment performance 9. The treatment objectives must be achieved at all times including the critical seasons. consultants must verify that the process train selected or in place will provide sufficient treatment to attain the treatment objectives.0 presents a series of water treatment technologies which are generally known to achieve log removal for virus and parasites. Cryptosporidium and virus Process Targeted micro-organisms Virus Giardia Cryptosporidium Physical removal Conventional Yes Yes Yes treatment (1) Direct filtration (2) Yes Yes Yes Slow sand filtration Yes Yes Yes Microfiltration (3) No Yes Yes Ultra and Yes Yes Yes nanofiltration and reverse osmosis Chemical inactivation Chlorination Yes Yes No Ozonation Yes Yes No Chlorine dioxide Yes Yes No Chloramines (4) No No No Physical inactivation UV radiation Yes Yes Yes 1) Includes coagulation. Water treatment technologies can be combined to achieve the total log removal requires.4.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants 9. Table 3.

0 presents the log removal that can be obtained from various water filtration processes. the filtration process must meet the following criteria: • Use a chemical coagulant at all times when the treatment plant is in operation.0 Membrane filtration 3.5 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants 9.0 log removal credit for virus.0 + 2.4.0 log removal credit for Cryptosporidium oocyst and the 2. Table 4.2 Evaluation of the water treatment efficiency The evaluation of the water treatment process efficiency is done based on the physical removal of the targeted micro-organisms and on the chemical and physical inactivation of the targeted micro-organisms.0 Slow sand filtration 2.0 1.0 – Log removal credits for targeted micro-organisms for water filtration processes Treatment technology Log removal credit Giardia Cryptosporidium Virus Direct filtration 2.3 Treatment based on physical removal of parasites and virus Performance credits for log removal can be allowed to various water treatment processes and for various targeted micro-organisms.0 2.0 2. 11 March 2009 R1 . For a particular process train. Log removal = Sum of the log removal obtained from physical removal + sum of the log removal obtained from chemical inactivation + sum of the log removal obtained from physical inactivation 9.0 2. • Monitor and adjust chemical dosages in response to variations in raw water quality. the 2.4.0 Conventional filtration 2. Table 4.0 + Conventional filtration In order to be considered conventional filtration and meet the 2. the log removal of each process must be added to obtain the total log removal for the water treatment facility.0 (4) 0 to 2.5 log removal credit for Giardia cyst.0 2.

• Use filter-to-waste or an equivalent procedure during filter ripening periods. Membrane filtration In order to meet the 3. the 2. • Meet the performance criterion for filtered water turbidity of less than or equal to 1.0 + log removal credit for Giardia. and.30 NTU in 95% of the measurements each month. the 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants • Maintain effective backwash procedures. the 2. and. Temporary filtrate turbidity levels of over 1. the slow sand filtration process must meet the following criteria: • Maintain an active biological layer.0 log removal credit for Giardia cyst.0 log removal credit for virus.0 NTU can occur as a result of passage of inorganic particles through the filter without influencing the effective removal of harmful organisms.0 NTU therefore should not be interpreted as indicating an adverse water condition in the absence of additional supporting evidence. • Regularly carry out effective filter cleaning procedures.0 + log removal credit for Cryptosporidium oocyst and the 0 to 2. including filter-to-waste or an equivalent procedure during filter ripening to ensure that the effluent turbidity requirements are met at all times.0 log removal credit for virus. • Meet the performance criterion for filtered water turbidity of less than or equal to 0.0 NTU in 95% of the measurements each month. • Continuously monitor filtrate turbidity from each filter or take a daily grab sample. filtrate turbidity levels exceeding 1. • Continuously monitor filtrate turbidity from each filter.0 log removal credit for Cryptosporidium and the 1. the direct filtration process must meet the conventional filtration criteria above. Direct filtration In order to meet the 2.0 log removal credit for Cryptosporidium oocyst and the 2. the membrane filtration process must meet the following criteria: 12 March 2009 R1 .0 + log removal credit for virus.0 log removal credit for Giardia cyst. Slow sand filtration In order to meet the 2. Because of the selective mechanisms of slow sand filtration.

15 NTU <0. and.15 NTU <0.15 NTU 0.16-0. to ensure that the effluent turbidity requirements are met at all times.g.. Table 5 to 7 indicates the various Performance credits given depending on turbidity performances and for various targeted micro-organisms.0 NTU 4 Direct filtration 3 2.15 NTU 0.5 0 Slow filtration 2 2 2 2 2 Table 7 – Removal credit for Viruses Treatments Tubidity after filtration (95 centille) 1 2 3 3 3 <0.5 2 1. floculation.5 NTU 0.5 NTU 0.51-1. • Continuously monitor filtrate turbidity.5 NTU 0.31-0.31-0.16-0.5 2 1.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants • Maintain effective backwash procedures.15 NTU <0. • Monitor integrity of the membrane by continuously particle counting or equivalently effective means (e.5 2 1.1 NTU in 99% of the measurements each month.30 NTU 0.5 3 2. including filter-to-waste or an equivalent procedure.0 NTU 4 Direct filtration 1 1 1 1 0 5 Conventional treatment 2 2 2 2 0 Slow filtration 2 2 2 2 2 Notes: 1 Based on one measure per 15 minutes for each filter 2 Based on one measure per 4 hours for combined filter 3 Based on one measure per 4 hours for each filter 4 With coagulation with or without prior floculation 5 With coagulation.5 0 5 Conventional treatment 3.Removal credit for Giardia Treatments Tubidity after filtration (95 centille) 1 2 3 3 3 <0.30 NTU 0.51-1.5 2 0 Slow filtration 2 2 2 2 2 Table 6 – Removal credit for Cryptosporidium Treatments Tubidity after filtration (95 centille) 1 2 3 3 3 <0. Table 5 . • Meet the performance criterion for filtered water turbidity of less or equal to 0.15 NTU 0. intermittent pressure decay measurements).30 NTU 0.51-1.16-0. clarification and filtration 13 March 2009 R1 .31-0.5 0 5 Conventional treatment 3 2.0 NTU 4 Direct filtration 3 2.

4. but it is important to recognize what UV can do. The CT disinfection concept uses the combination of a disinfectant residual concentration (in mg/L) and the effective disinfectant contact time (in minutes). operating conditions (flow. 9. CT = Concentration (mg/L) x Time (minutes) Varying degrees of disinfection can be attained by altering the type and concentration of disinfectant.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants 9. UV radiation does not inactive parasites and virus by chemical action. and what maintenance is required. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems are used in many water treatment facilities to control pathogens micro-organisms. The decision to use one type of disinfectant versus another will set the precedence for the remainder of the values needed to attain the proper disinfection. temperature and pH) and ensuring that the employed disinfection process achieves these values at all times.4 Treatment based on chemical inactivation of parasites and virus The efficiency of chemical inactivation or disinfection is founded on the CT concept. UV units can be effective water treatment tools. Chemical disinfection CT values are calculated by multiplying the disinfectant residual concentration (in mg/L) by the disinfectant contact time (in minutes).5 Treatment based on physical inactivation of parasites and virus Water treatment based on physical inactivation of parasites and virus is achieved by ultra-violets (UV) radiation. Contrary to most of the other disinfectants. The log of inactivation obtained for a particular treatment step using chemical disinfection can be determines as follows: Log of inactivation = CT available = C residual x T10 CT required CT required where T10 must be calculated for the maximum flow exiting the water treatment facility. as well as the time water is in contact with the disinfectant. The use of this concept involves determining the CT values required at the actual. Table 8.4. often variable. what its limitations are. Refer to EPA’s “Technical Guidances for Implementation of the Microbial and Disinfection Byproducts Rules” for details. UV disinfection technology is developing rapidly across the world.0 presents the required doses to inactive targeted micro-organisms. to quantify the capability of a chemical disinfection system to provide effective pathogen inactivation to the required level. 14 March 2009 R1 .

0 – Design doses for UV radiation disinfection Dose (mJ/cm2) Supply source Parasites: 3 log Parasites: 3 log Virus: 2 log Virus: 4 log Surface water (1) (2) 40 80 Groundwater (3) Not required 40 1) Surface water with chemically assisted filtration. 15 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants Table 8. slow sand filtration or membrane filtration 2) Surface water sources also include groundwater under the direct influence of surface water 3) For groundwater sources non under the direct influence of surface water Refer to EPA’s “Technical Guidances for Implementation of the Microbial and Disinfection Byproducts Rules” for details. direct filtration.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants

9.5 Raw water characterisation
9.5.1 Raw Water characterisation and sampling
A fundamental element of water treatment plant design requires that a full-scale analysis of the
water sources be carried out to determine baseline characteristics of the various waters. Water
testing frequency is a function of water source type and process design and different analysis and
frequency were established based on water source type. Each period of testing consist of
minimum 60 continuous days, usually set as the worst period of a year for water quality. For
surface water or for GUDI "ground water under direct surface influence", two (2) periods of 60
days each in wet and dry seasons, are required to establish the water characteristics. A parameter
can be removed from the list if sufficient documentation can prove to WASA that it is not helpful
for the analysis of that water source. All testing should be done by a capable and certified
laboratory.

Table -Parameters and sampling frequency

Parameters Analysis

Surface Water or GUDI Groundwater
Arsenic (mg/L)
Barium (mg/L)
Bicarbonates (mg/L)
Boron (mg/L)
Bromide (mg/L)
Cadmium (mg/L)
Total Chrome (mg/L)
Conductivity (µS/cm)
Copper (mg/L)
B A
Cyanide (mg/L)
Fluoride (mg/L)
Mercury (mg/L)
Lead (mg/L)
Selenium (mg/L)
Sodium (mg/L)
Sulphate (mg/L)
Uranium (mg/L)
Zinc (mg/L)

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Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants

Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3)
Ammoniacal Nitrogen (mg/L-N)
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (mg/L-N)
Calcium (mg/L)
Atypical Colonies (UFC/100 ml)
Chlorine Demand (mg/L)
Total Hardness (mg/L CaCO3)
Dissolved Iron (mg/L) *1
Total Iron (mg/L) D
Magnesium (mg/L) C
Dissolved Manganese (mg/L) *1
Total Manganese (mg/L)
Nitrates and Nitrites (mg/L-N)
Nitrites (mg/L-N)
pH*2
Dissolved Solids (mg/L)
Total Solids (mg/L)
Temperature (°C) *2
Sulphurs (mg/L)
None
Enterococci Bacteria
Absorbance UV 254 nm (cm-1)
Dissolved Organic Carbon (mg/L)
Total Organic Carbon (mg/L)
Fecal Coliform (UFC/100 ml) *3 F E
Total Coliform (UFC/100ml)
Real Colour (UCV)
Turbidity (UTN)

Legend Per period
A - 1 analysis
B - 1 analysis for each season
C - 1 analysis per month
D - 1 analysis per month for each season
E - 1 analysis per week
F - 1 analysis per week for each season

Notes:
All tests frequency should be done for the whole period. Each period of testing consist of minimum 60
continuous days. All surface water include ground water under direct surface influence (GUDI)
*1 – To establish the dissolved element, filtration with 0.45 µm paper should be done on site after
sampling and the filtrate be send to the laboratory.
*2 – These tests should be done on site.
*3 – For ground water, E.Coli testing is preferred.

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Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants

9.6 Treatment plant general design
9.6.1 Water intake
The location of the intake should be set at such a depth that the quantity of suspended solids,
colloidal matter, and plankton is as low as possible throughout the year. The river intakes are to
be located in a reasonably accessible and stable reach of the channel, where erosion or deposition
will not endanger the intake. The intake shall be buried and graded to prevent accumulation of
grasses. Speed in the intake should be calculated with future peak demand and be low enough to
limit impact on fish and sediments.
Screening of the water may be done with a coarse bar screen followed by a medium bar screen.
Finer screening and grit removal may be necessary when the water has to be conveyed through a
long pipeline or when it has to be pumped. Grit removal necessity is to be analysed in each
project to eliminate gravel, sand or mineral particles larger than 200 microns from the water. All
screening must be provided with automatic and reliable cleaning systems to avoid maintenance
and operation works.

9.6.2 Monitoring
Water monitoring should be facilitated to allow monitoring of treatment efficiency at each unit
process.

9.6.3 General design elements
It is not the intent of this manual to replace professional expertise and innovation from the hand
of water treatment design engineers. It is therefore mandatory that a complete preliminary report
be provided for review to WASA giving the rationale for the recommended processes and their
design elements. This document must assess all the requirements of this manual and the
following :
1. Water need and design flows
2. Characterisation of water
3. Supply and treatment options
4. Treatment processes
5. Disinfection processes and by-products
6. Taste and odour treatment
7. Corrosion and stabilisation methods
8. Sludge management
9. Instrumentation and system control

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Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants

9.7 Sludge Management
Design of water treatment plant shall always consider the disposal of Water Sludge and cover all
aspect (volume, source, solid content, etc.) in the design report. A characterization shall be
included based on the process, including BOD, COD, nutrients, pH, alkalinity, aluminium,
hardness, and any other relevant element. Recommendation on treatment, stabilisation and
disposal shall be included. Usually, WASA approves land disposal of lime sludge, while Alum
and ferric sludge may cause some threat and will need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
The designer shall always assure that neither contamination of ground water or surface water nor
any significant threat to human health is expected. In addition, the sludge must not cause fugitive
dust emissions or objectionable odours, or create a public nuisance. No discharge shall exceed
the requirements of EMA Water pollution rules 2006.

9.8 Disinfection design guidelines
All design must comply with WASA "Chlorine Policy and Procedures General Guidelines".
As a general rule WHO recommends that there should be a residual concentration of free
chlorine of >0.5 mg/litre after at least 30min contact time at pH <8.0. Refer to section 9.4.4 for
more details on method for proving effective disinfection. Free residual chlorination may be
achieved through the use of chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite or free
chlorine producing electrochemical process.

9.8.1 Chlorination System
Chlorination pre and/or post-chlorination must be provided with gas-type chlorinator or
electrically operated, positive displacement hypochlorite solution chlorinator. If necessary,
alternative technologies such as ozone, UV etc. should be considered in accordance with
associated design guidelines.
For distribution system, the system shall maintain a detectable residual disinfectant concentration
measured as free chlorine, of at least 0.5 mg/L at all times (for 95% of the samples taken each
calendar month).

In a reservoir, the re-chlorination system shall be sized to provide an increase to the total chlorine
residual at the maximum inflow of water.

9.8.1.1 Gas Chlorination System
Depending on the plant process treatment capacity requirements, one chlorinator shall be
provided for each chlorine application point. A minimum of two (2) standby chlorinators, sized
to meet maximum day demand shall be provided. The chlorine piping and controls shall allow
the use of the standby chlorinators for all possible application points.
1. For gas chlorination system, provide one chlorinator for each chlorine application point.
A minimum of one (1) standby chlorinator, sized to meet maximum day demand shall be

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2 Hypochlorite Chlorination System The raw water quality and chlorine demand should always be assessed prior of using sodium or calcium hypochlorite systems and results should evaluate impact on disinfection by-products’ impact. special room. the following safety steps must be taken: Consult WASA "Chlorine Policy and Procedures General Guidelines" for the requirements of the room and the preferred layout in the standard drawings. Allow for at least 1. Two (2) chlorinators shall be provided for Post-Chlorination Where plants have SCADA system.1. At the PLC/Manual 3. 2.5 m free corridor for passage and operation around equipments. The room must be properly vented with minimum one air change per minute. The gas chlorination equipment room shall be provided with ventilation system that meets the requirement set by regulatory standards. 2. A gas mask must be provided and stored outside the chlorination room. 5. Chlorine gas detector shall be installed at each critical location. 3. 6. The ventilation start switch must be remote or door activated. 4. Unless specified. An observation window must be provided. The exhaust shall be near floor and the fresh air intake near ceiling. with door opening to out-of-doors and sign on door. Chlorination room: If gas chlorination is used. 7. 20 March 2009 R1 . Locally at the equipment 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants provided. The sealed chlorine dioxide tank(s) shall be vented to the exterior of the building. 1. The chlorine piping and controls shall be configured to allow the use of the standby chlorinator. the chlorinators shall have the capability of being controlled: 1. Scales must be provided with automatic switchover. The room dimension must allow for working staff to be able to work properly with no risk or hazard to their safety.8. The chlorinator and chlorine supply must be located in a separate. the following guidelines apply both to sodium or calcium hypochlorite disinfection systems. At the PLANT/Manual through the SCADA Human Machine Interface (HMI) using the Graphics User Interface (GUI) main screen The chlorinators shall be provided with the required switches to enable control of the feed rate through the SCADA system. 9.

8. • When calcium hypochlorite is used for disinfection. • Provide air vent to chlorine reservoirs and assure sufficient ventilation of room to avoid corrosion. For hypochlorite facilities include covered make-up and feed solution tanks. The chlorination system shall only operate when the water is flowing into the reservoir and the reservoir inlet valve is in the open position. • Where hypochlorite is used. Volume of containment area to be equal to110% of volume of hypochlorite tank(s). UV water treatment device shall meet the following standards: • Raw water quality shall be evaluated and pre-treatment equipment shall be designed to handle water quality changes and performance specs.2 Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) UV water treatment devices must comply with Class A criteria under ANSI/NSF Standard 55 - Ultraviolet Microbiological Water Treatment Systems. 9. • Isolate hypochlorite tank(s) in a separate containment area. the application points for the hypochlorite chlorination system shall be located similarly to the gas chlorination system but the system should be reviewed to ensure the needs of the treatment process has been complied.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants The hypochlorite chlorination system shall be positive displacement metering pumps with capacity located in the Hypochlorite Storage Room. • Sodium and calcium hypochlorite facilities should include a cool. • The UV device shall be fitted with a light sensor to safely verify that UV light is being delivered into the reactor. In general. dry. the tablets or granules shall be completely dissolved in water prior to injection. Provide strainer on the chlorine output to dosing pumps. Isolation valves shall be provided so that the analyser can sample water from the reservoir inlet pipe only. • The level of the hypochlorite in tank shall be monitored by the field instrumentation. clean. which shall be connected to the SCADA System for the monitoring and alarm. above ground and vented area for the storage and use of the hypochlorite disinfectant. provide a minimum of two metering pumps sized for maximum day demand. • Hypochlorite solution in tank should not be diluted unless dilution water treated for hardness. • The liquid hypochlorite shall be injected into the common inlet/outlet pipe by a metering pump and shall be controlled by the chlorine residual analyser or magnetic flowmeter. 21 March 2009 R1 . dark. When power is not being supplied to the UV unit. the valve should be in a closed (fail-safe) position. • The UV unit should be installed on a designated electrical circuit and equipped with a solenoid operated automatic emergency water shut-off valve that will shut off the water supply to the UV unit in the event of a loss of power supply to the UV unit or a drop in dosage below the minimum required level of 40 mJ/cm2.

• A sufficient number (required number plus one) of parallel UV treatment systems shall be provided to assure a continuous water supply when one unit is out of service. • Provide with a mean of recording the water quality test data. • Provide and have available on site at least one replacement lamp per unit and a 5 micron replacement filter where applicable. a record of when the device was shutdown and the reason for shutdown. 22 March 2009 R1 . • The UV assemblies shall be accessible for visual observation.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Water Treatment Plants • UV units installed vertically should have the water outlet located at the top to allow the chamber to completely fill with water and maximize water exposure to the UV lamp. and the dates of pre-filter replacement. lamp jackets and sensor window/lens. dates of lamp replacement and cleaning. UV units installed horizontally should have the water outlet directed upward. cleaning and replacement of the lamp. Similarly.

2. the Consultants shall establish the geodetic invert elevations and ties of all wastewater lateral connections at street line. However.2 Design Flow 10. survey the existing utilities and sub surface structures. To avoid proliferation of lift stations and package treatment plants within developments. design guidelines or standards as well as in accordance with current Trinidad & Tobago National Plumbing Code. The assessment shall as a minimum cover the geotechnical conditions. The information shall be incorporated on the “As- built” drawings. For new communities. The following formula shall be used unless a more rigorous analysis is carried out: Fd = Fadw x Kap + Ia Where Fd = Design flow Fadw = Average Dry Weather Flow Kap = Average Peak Wastewater Flow factor Ia = Infiltration Allowance 1 March 2009 R1 . WASA’s Master plan for Trinidad & Tobago should be reviewed to grasp the bigger communities and regional planning priorities. take account of possible improvements to street or utilities. the Consultants shall apply sound engineering judgement and approach in the design of such systems. traffic disruptions. assessment of trenchless construction techniques and rehabilitation methods for existing pipes shall be thoroughly prepared. and include technology aspects on construction and costs etc.1 Design Wastewater Flow All wastewater flow should be calculated to convey the maximum flow. All wastewater mains and appurtenances shall be designed in compliance with all relevant codes. risk and safety. In all projects.1 General Requirements This section outlines the minimum requirements for the design of wastewater collection systems. each project should be assessed through modelling of regional network and optimum development scheme. 10. obtain right-of-way and property line information.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System Section 10 Design of Wastewater Collection System 10. including inflow & infiltration in wet weather flow.

Detailed flow monitoring done in the Greater Port of Spain Region (Reid Crowther.156 Community Services 40 11. Individual studies are to be made for special commercial establishments. april 2005) have established local reliable ADWF. commercial. General per capita flows for all types of development 2005 2020 Total ADWF without infiltration 280 (litres/ capita/ day) 252 (litres/ capita/ day) Occupancy rate per unit house * 3.146 High density single family 85 280 0. major commercial areas.2.2 0.2 Average Dry Weather Flow The average dry weather flow (ADWF) includes all flow components from residential.462 2 March 2009 R1 . institutional and industrial usages. duplex and 4-plex 100 280 0. nov 1998) & in the Eastwest corridor (Safege.276 Semi-detached. Maisonette 135 280 0.324 Townhouse.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System 10.438 (6 storey apt. and Community Dry Weather Flow Equivalent Population Unit Wastewater Flow Type of Development Density 3 (persons/hectare) m /ha/day l/ha/s Light Commercial Areas 90 25.178 Single Family (existing) 45 280 0.7 (person/unit) 3. a 10% increase of the residential flow is expected in order to contain the grey water inclusion in new developments. and major industrial areas. special industrial areas. Since 1998. It is assumed that because of the planned metering of all supplied water. or less) Notes: i) lpcd = litres per capita per day ii) l/ha/s = litres per hectare per second Commercial. Industrial.5 (person/unit) * From T&T Central Statistical Office census 2000 Residential Dry Weather Flow Equivalent Population Unit Wastewater Flow Type of Development Density (persons/hectare) lpcd l/ha/s Single Family (new) 55 280 0.123 Light Industrial Areas 150 42 0. The Consultants shall perform the wastewater design flow calculations based on the following tables. the domestic consummation should gradually linearly lessen by 10% for 2020.2 0.

3. Kap = ratio of peak flow to average flow Pe = equivalent tributary population in thousands 3 March 2009 R1 . and rainy season wet weather peak flow. inflow and infiltration.2. illegal connections.3 Peak Wastewater Flow Factor Detailed assessment of peak flows. If these are not available. 10.3. apply the ratio established by the Harmon Formula to the average wastewater flow for residential and community services areas as follow: 14 Kap= 1 4 P where.2.1 Residential and Community Services Land Use For residential and community services land use. the peak wastewater flow shall be derived by assessing existing available data based on local catchment basins. Design flows are to be set with consideration for daily average and hourly peak flows. do not use a peak factor higher than 4. Kap = ratio of peak flow to average flow P = tributary population in thousands Note: For small populations. 10.2 Commercial and Industrial Land Uses For commercial and industrial land uses.2. based on existing data and local conditions are required for each project.80 1 4 Pe where.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System Notes: i) l/ha/s = litres per hectare per second 3 ii) m /ha/day = metres3 per hectare per day 10. the peaking factor shall be determined from a modified Harmon Formula as follow: 14 Kap= 0 .

The Infiltration rate should be substantially higher in old existing areas of Trinidad & Tobago and/or with high water tables and care should be taken to include wet weather inflow problems.4 should be used as general for Trinidad & Tobago. 10. industrial and commercial land uses.5 the average daily flow. The value 0. Minimum flow is estimated between 0.3. infiltration rate up to 15 000 l/ha/day could be required with justification data to support.3 Combined Land Use When a tributary area consists of residential. the peaking factor for the combined land use shall be calculated using the modified Harmon Formula as follow: 14 Kap = K av 1 4 P Pe AR 0. Manning’s Formula is expressed as: 1 2/3 1/2 Q= R S A n where. 80 AI AC where. Q = design flow (m3/sec) n = coefficient of roughness (dimensionless) R = hydraulic radius (m) S = slope (m/m) A = section area of flow (m2) 4 March 2009 R1 . In those areas.1 Manning’s Formula To determine the pipe size and its capacity.3.2.4 l/s per manhole.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System 10. K av = AR AI AC and AR = residential area AI = industrial area AC = commercial area 10.3 Gravity Pipe Size 10.4 Infiltration Allowance Except under individual assessment or suspected poor condition collection system.3 to 0. the Manning’s Formula may be used.2. Any manholes located in depressions are subject to an additional 0. infiltration allowance shall be determined at 5 000 l/ha/day for all types of land use.

3.0 m/sec with the pipe flowing full and the minimum velocity shall not be less than 0. The depth of flow should never exceed 75% of the internal diameter of the sewer.28 300 110 0.031 1800 assess 0.3. The maximum length between manholes and the absolute minimum slopes for different sewer sizes shall conform the following: Sewer size Maximum length Minimum slope (mm) (m) between Man hole (m/100m) 200 90 0.013.2 Coefficient of Roughness For all pipe materials.17 375 110 0.5 Pipe Slopes & Manhole distances The minimum slopes shown are those required for “self-cleansing velocity set as 0.15 400 120 0. the minimum pipe shall be 200 mm diameter. For commercial and industrial areas.020 5 March 2009 R1 .40 250 110 0. the minimum pipe size shall be 250 mm diameter.10 600 150 0.20 350 110 0. 10.046 1200 assess 0.14 450 120 0. V = flow velocity (m/sec) Q = design flow (m3/sec) A = cross section area of flow (m2) The maximum velocity shall not be greater than 3.60 m/sec with actual flow on a daily basis. the coefficient of roughness should be set as 0.12 525 120 0.4 Flow Velocities The flow velocity shall be determined from the following: Q V = A where.3 Minimum Pipe Size For residential areas.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System 10.7 meter per second. 10. 10.08 900 150 0.

10. System arrangement shall include redundancy and overflows to propose alternate routes in case of blockage.7 System Layout 10. Sewer easements are required if sewer located out of roadway. Gas pipelines need a minimum separation of 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System 10. Overflow shall be rerouted in the sewer system.8.3 Grid Design Wastewater mains changing in alignment shall have man holes at the point of the alignment change. In cases where geotechnical recommendations are not available.3 for distances from drinking water lines & pipes.2 Pipe Depth The depth for wastewater main pipe cover shall be determined in consideration of economic factor. 10.7. granular materials shall meet AASHTO M-43 requirement for the following pipe sizes: Pipe size AASTHO M-43 size Less than 375 mm 67. sewers are to be 1.5. Preferably.7. See section 5. All pipes are to be provided with minimum 150 mm compacted granular bedding and backfill up to 300 mm above the pipe. dead load.9 m for open areas.8 Pipe Material 10.7. The pipe manufacturer’s recommendations shall be incorporated into the design. 6 March 2009 R1 . the strength of the pipe and external loads due to trench backfill and wheel loads. live load.6 Structural Layout In determining the suitable pipe class to be used.1 Location of Wastewater Main All new wastewater mains shall be located within the road allowance. Minimum cover shall be of 1. Location of replacement wastewater mains shall be determined specifically based on the location of existing utilities and other site conditions and will be dealt with as situation arises. soil type and trench conditions shall be considered in the calculation.1 Concrete Pipe Reinforced concrete pipes may be used for pipe size greater than or equal to 300 mm in diameter. 7. Portland Cement shall comply with ASTM C150.5 m offset from roadway centreline.2 m for roadways and 0.9 m at crossings. or 8 375 mm to 750 mm 6 or 67 Greater Than 750 mm 57 or 67 10. 10.

5 for distances between manholes depending on pipe diameter.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System All concrete pipes. 3.8. The drop pipe shall be one size smaller than the wastewater main.9. 2. straight pipe with joint deflections is permissible. accessories and their joints shall be conform to ISO 7186:1996 requirements and test methods applicable.3 Polyethylene Pipe High density polyethylene profile pipe sizes from 150 mm to 600 mm diameter shall conform to ASTM and ISO 4437 and fittings to ISO 8085. Maximum joint deflection shall be 13 mm.8. Sulphate resistant cement or concrete shall be used for on site concrete pouring. For flat curves. Saddle type connections are not permitted. 10. The economic feasibility of providing deeper wastewater mains versus excessive invert drops. and ISO 10639. No curve radius or joint deflection shall be allowed on pipe layouts. fittings.9 Maintenance Chamber (Manhole) 10. See section 10. 10. Drop maintenance chambers shall be provided where the difference in elevation is greater than 0.2 Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe PVC pipe sizes from 150 mm to 375 mm in diameter are acceptable. The pipe shall only be used with manufactured tees. It is not permissible to design downstream pipe size smaller than the upstream pipe size.60 metres. 10.1 Maintenance Chamber Design All maintenance chambers shall be designed based on the following criteria: 1.4 Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) Pipes and Fittings Glass reinforced plastics (GRP) pipes and fittings for diameter over 200mm and shall comply with the relevant provisions of ASTM F1092-04.8. At maintenance chambers where pipe sizes change from smaller pipe size to a larger downstream pipe size. drop maintenance chambers. or BS 5480.8. 10. match the pipes obvert elevations. All concrete pipe to be manufactured to give Type V Sulfate Resisting Cement for all sub-structures. Joints shall be bell and spigot or butt fused. 10. fittings and joints shall conform to ASTM standards C-76 or EN 641. Tangent length of tee connections must be taken into considerations when calculating the minimum radius that can be achieved. or excessively steep benching shall be ascertained prior to 7 March 2009 R1 .5 Ductile iron Ductile iron pipe. PVC pipes and gaskets shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D-3034-77 & ISO 4435.

Watertight and locking covers shall be provided on maintenance chambers located on all easements and in areas where maintenance chambers are susceptible to flooding. Where the maintenance chamber depth exceeds 10 m. 10. provide safety grating.2 Manhole Hydraulics 1. 8 March 2009 R1 . Alignment Change and Required Drop Alignment Change Required Drop o o 15 – 45 min.015 m to 0.9.10 Connection from Main to Street Line 10. 2.050 m 10. 6. 0. 0. 8.030 m o o 45 – 90 min. On runs with horizontal alignment changes from 0° to 15°. invert drops from 0. Where significant sections of wastewater mains are provided with watertight covers. Where the alignment change exceeds 15°. All enclosures and rails should be corrosion resistant.10. For commercial and industrial establishments. Two or more units serviced on a common line with wye branches are acceptable. Prefabricated drops internal to the maintenance chamber are not permitted on 1200 mm diameter maintenance chambers. an inspection maintenance chamber must be placed at a location immediately behind the property line to service the lateral connection.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System finalizing the design. it may be permissible should the proposed sanitary sewer service falls within the same obvert elevation of the sanitary sewer entering the maintenance chamber. Sanitary sewer service connection to a maintenance chamber should be avoided. 7.1 Street Line Connection Single family and semi-detached dwellings in residential areas shall have a minimum of 150 mm diameter street line connection. 5. drops shall be provided in accordance with the following table.030 m shall be provided. 4. extended vents may be required which shall be determined by the Consultants on a case-by-case basis. However. Dual connections or two separate lines in a common trench are acceptable in residential areas where the difference in basement elevation does not exceed 0.60 m. Frames and covers to be a floating style (NF80 or 90) capable of withstanding H-20 loading. Tee maintenance chambers may be used for wastewater mains 1200 mm or larger in diameter.

To allow pumping stations to be by-passed during emergencies or major modifications. The valve shall be set horizontally and an insulated coupling. If the forcemains are subject to vaccum conditions.2 Connection Size and Grade For Multi Family Sites In multiple family blocks in residential areas.0 % 4. 10. 10. ball valve. All plugs. 9 March 2009 R1 . Service connections to the main line sewer shall be at a maximum of 45o from the horizontal. the lateral connections shall meet the following requirements: Connection Size and Grade Slope of Drain Diameter of Drain (mm) 2. The minimum and maximum cover at property line shall be 1.3 Pipe Material PVC pipe may be used for residential lateral connections.11 Forcemains 10.1 System Design All forcemains and thrust restraints shall be designed to withstand the maximum operating pressure plus the number and timing of the pump cycles to which they will be subjected.8 m. of Fixture Units Per Connection 150 840 1000 200 1920 2300 250 3500 4200 300 5600 6700 375 10000 12000 10. respectively.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System Where the diameter of the lateral connection is greater than or equal to half the diameter of the wastewater main.11. the connection shall be made with a tee-wye or wye connection.0 % Maximum No. Air release valves suitable for use with wastewater shall be positioned at all forcemain high points.10. avoid plastic and HDPE pipes. tees and bends shall have approved design mechanical thrust restraints. and pipe union shall be provided on each assembly to allow maintenance and removal of the air valve. all forcemains shall be equipped with suitable valve connections to permit connection of discharge piping from a portable pump. Pipe size change must be made through similar quality eccentric pipe reducers.2 m and 1. A 2% minimum grade for lateral connections shall be maintained.10.

an approved granular backfill shall be used with conformity to road structural support and design.11. Handwell spacing is not to be greater than 150 m apart. Joints in the wire between valves or handwells are not permitted. 10.11.5 Thrust restraint Mechanical thrust restraints shall be designed to withstand the maximum operating pressure plus the number and timing of the pump cycles to which they will be subjected. At each valve a loop of wire shall be brought up inside the valve box or handwell to the top of the box. As a minimum requirement.3 Pipe Depth Consultants shall allow a minimum of 1.0 m/s. 10. The minimum size of the forcemain shall be 100 mm in diameter.11.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Design of Wastewater Collection System The bedding requirements for the forcemains will depend upon the type and the class of pipe used.4 Tracer Wire Tracer wire shall be installed on all new installations of forcemain pipes for locating purposes. Concrete thrust blocks shall only be permitted for use in special circumstances subject to the approval of WASA. 10. The wire shall be installed between each valve or handwell and/or the end of the new pipe. Under the pavement. the forcemains shall be laid on 100 mm of sand bedding material conforming to AASHTO type 7 or as indicated by the geotechnical study. 10. 10 March 2009 R1 . The type of backfill material will usually be determined from the location of the forcemain within the right-of-way (ROW). with the lower limit being preferred for the initial phase.2 m of cover for forcemains.2 Pipe Size Forcemains shall be sized to have a flow velocity in the range of 0.11.7 to 3.

The design requirements for that type of system can be found in TTS 16 80 400. or disposal systems and to establish the minimum design criteria pursuant to existing state statutes pertaining to effluent quality necessary to meet state water quality standards. The subject of effluent reuse should be assessed in the preliminary design stage since there is a considerable potential for the reuse of wastewater in irrigation of parks and gardens. the variability of data should be considered and the design based on the highest flows and strengths encountered during normal operating periods taking into consideration possible infiltration/inflow. This section deals with community collected sewage and does not cover the design of septic tanks and associated secondary treatment and disposal systems. Whenever possible. in accordance with AWWA Standard C506 (latest revision) and AWWA Manual M14. existing data of flows and raw waste strength from the same plant or nearby plants with similar service areas should be used in design of treatment facilities. All collected users are required to meet WASA TES 101-2004 Trade Effluent Standards for Discharges into Sewers. agriculture and horticulture. These criteria are intended to promote the design of facilities in accordance with good public health and water quality engineering practices. aquaculture and some industrial processes. These design standards supplements do not supersede the requirements of the EMA and or any legislation relating to the design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. When using such data for design purposes.1 General These design criteria are minimum guidelines to be used for the comprehensive consideration of domestic sewage treatment. All inflow into the sewerage is assumed to meet the normal domestic water charges and quality. There shall be no water connection from any public drinking water supply system to a wastewater treatment plant facility unless made through an air gap or a backflow prevention device. 1 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants Section 11 Wastewater Treatment Plants 11. More information on wastewater design flows are found in section 10. All washdown hoses using potable water must be equipped with atmospheric vacuum breakers located above the overflow level of the washdown area.

April 2005) and experience in the remainder of the world. Consultants should assess the loadings in individual assessment reports.2 Wastewater Effluent treatment objectives The sets of standards for effluent quality are based on the T&T Water Pollution Rule 2004. Wastewater treatment plants shall be designed to consistently (95% average) meet the effluent concentration and loading requirements of the following criteria: Total Total Amm Phosphoru Suspended Fecal Residual Nitrogen s BOD Solids Coliform Chlorine (NH3-H) as P Discharge Point mg/l mg/l pH MPN/100ml mg/l mg/l mg/l Inland Surface Waters 20 * 20 * 6-9 400 1 10 5 Inshore Sea Waters 50 150 6-9 400 1 10 5 Offshore Sea Waters 100 200 6-9 400 2 10 5 Environmentally Sensitive Areas 10 15 6-9 100 0. The staging of each expansion phase is tied to the servicing of new development areas as well as growth in the existing urban designated areas.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants 11. Based on values measured in the Greater Port of Spain (Reid Crowther. Whenever possible. 1998). loads contribution shall be based on the following table for T&T. 2 March 2009 R1 . the Eastwest Corridor (Safege.1 * These criteria have been modified from the EMA 2006 objectives to impose a stricter environmental criteria and allow for design security. identified in studies or in master servicing plan. consideration shall be given for future expansions of the plant to its ultimate site capacity in order to maximize the utilization of the available space of the property. 11.: Maximum Dwelling Units Densities Type of charges Unit Loads (g/c/d) BOD5 65 TSS 90 NTK 10 Total Phosphorus (Pt) 2 11. Future expansion requirements are as a rule. especially for areas with significant industrial development.2 0.3 Wastewater Loads There is limited data available in Trinidad & Tobago upon which to make an accurate estimate of the unit loading rate expected. Nov.1 0.4 Plant Layout In designing the layout of wastewater treatment plants.

TSS. Tankage should be divided into separate compartments to allow for operational flexibility. which may be much higher than the capacity requirement. pumping stations) will be based on peak hourly flow. interceptor sewers. If a filter is present. Equalization units should be provided after screening and grit removal. Consideration shall be given in design for means to clean piping. repair. Removed wastes must be stored for retreatment or delivered to another treatment facility for processing. in order for repairs of the unit to be completed in as short a period of time as possible. The Consultants should in all cases maximize the site’s ultimate capacity in planning the plant layout. peak factors and concentration of BOD5. the sludge would flow from the clarifiers to the thickeners by gravity. the organic loading of a wastewater treatment unit is based on the design average flow and the hydraulic loading of a unit is based on the peak design flow. in general. the recirculation rate shall be added as required. The engineering report shall list the design influent flow. backwash water is discharged into the two equalization tanks where it is then pumped to the clarifiers. or partially mixed lagoons represent the initial treatment unit. plant operation will continue and emergency treatment can be accomplished. Generally.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants In this regard. 11. to the requirements for future expansion as well as the economical and practical sizing of plant process requirements. Settled sludge from clarifiers is pumped to the thickeners. Force mains from pumping stations will be sized to handle the pumping capacity of the station.5 times the average dry daily flow. an equalization facility requires a volume equivalent to 10% to 20% of the anticipated dry weather flow. Where recirculation is provided. The design for various components of the treatment plant will be based upon either peak design flow or peak hourly flow. N. shall consist of a minimum of two trains. and cleaning. facultative. sludges. Designing of the expansion works should be carried out to permit the orderly construction of the facility economically with minimal disruption of the existing facility. P. Imhoff tanks. scum. or shredders through which all wastewater will pass should be provided at all plants with the exception of plants in which septic tanks. H2S gas detectors shall be supplied with visual and audible alarms in order to protect staff working at wastewater treatment plants. consideration should be given at the design stage. 11. screens. or other parameters. In the event bar screens. The piping within all plants shall be arranged so that when one unit is out of service for repairs. aerated. 11. Generally.7 Pre treatment – Inlet Works Bar screens. Valves and piping shall be provided and sized to allow dewatering of any unit. and grit. Peak design flow is generally set between 2 to 2. especially piping carrying raw wastewater.6 Equalization tank The wastewater treatment facility.5 Plant Design Capacity The design for various components of the wastewater collection system (collector sewers. screens. Normally. or 3 March 2009 R1 .

Inlet Works shall be sized to handle hourly peak flow into the facility. Where mechanically cleaned bar screens or shredders are utilized. 11. H2S gas detectors shall be installed when such risks are present to working staff. Control and instrumentation for the heating and ventilation system shall be explosion-proof for all electrical equipment and system. depending on the hydraulics of the headworks. Peak flow is defined as the average dry weather flow multiplied by the peak flow factor plus the allowance for infiltration in the wastewater collection system (see section 10. tertiary polishing treatments should be also assessed. screen.1993 prior to its discharge into a receiving stream. Provide metering of wastewater entering the Inlet Works or Outlet.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants shredders are located 1. economical and social constraints and treatment objectives. Grit removal facilities should be considered for all wastewater treatment plants. Depending on type of environment or on the projects’ terms of reference. and cleanup of the facility so as to promote a positive working environment for the Operators. 7.2). including all necessary interlocks. 4 March 2009 R1 . 3. a backup unit or manually cleaned bar screen shall be provided. A means of diverting flow to the backup screen shall be included in the design. The ventilation systems shall be designed to maintain acceptable working and living environments for personnel and non. 6. compactor and grit bins shall be piped for return to the plant process stream. Provide screening compactor for the compaction of screening waste material. including the site. Provide grit removal equipment sized to meet service requirements.destructive conditions for equipment. appropriate equipment shall be provided to lift the screenings to ground elevation. Consultants shall assess the options for secondary and tertiary treatments as part of the prefeasiblity study and take into consideration all required information. Design the Inlet Work’s ventilation system. automatic bar screens and compactor equipment in the Inlet Works.8 Secondary and tertiary treatments Secondary treatment is mandatory in all processes in order to attain the effluent objectives. All wastewater originating from the grit cyclone and classifier. 1. 5. Adequate disinfection is to be provided for the Treatment Plant’s effluent in keeping with TT4417. 4. for proper operation of the system. Provide instrumentation for monitoring of the operation of the grit cyclone and classifier. 2. 11.9 Disinfection System Facilities for disinfection shall be provided in all cases to protect the public health and as an aid to plant operation. The Inlet Works shall be housed in a building and designed for ease of operation for the removal of grit bin(s). All monitoring and alarming methods shall be fail-safe.2 meters or more below ground level. All screenings and grit shall be disposed of in an approved manner. automatic bar screen waste material bin.

one chlorinator shall be provided for each chlorine application point.9. At the PLC/Manual 3. Where plants have SCADA systems. sized to meet maximum day demand shall be provided. such as ozonation. or other suitable locations. have to be submitted for approval on a case-by-case basis. Rapid initial mixing of the chlorine solution and wastewater is essential for effective disinfection. Chlorination systems shall be capable of operating under all design hydraulic conditions.1 Chlorination System Depending on the plant process treatment capacity requirements. Chlorination equipment may also be installed to control odors. A scale for determining the amount of chlorine used daily. the chlorinators shall have the capability of being controlled: 1. shall be provided. and chlorine dioxide. 1. The chlorine piping and controls shall allow the use of the standby chlorinators for all possible application points. in the effluent chlorine contact chamber. remove nutrients and generally assist treatment. Contact chambers shall be designed to provide a minimum average hydraulic residence time (chamber volume divided by flow) of 20 minutes at the design peak hydraulic flow. In the CPU/Manual control mode. 5 March 2009 R1 . Two (2) chlorinators shall be provided for Post-Chlorination 2. provide a GUI pop-up menu box to indicate the feed rate. the feed rate will be based on a closed feedback loop. so that continuous chlorination can be provided. Duplicate equipment with automatic switchover should be considered for standby service. A minimum of two (2) standby chlorinators. Disinfection techniques not in widespread use. At the PLANT/Manual through the SCADA Human Machine Interface (HMI) using the Graphics User Interface (GUI) main screen The chlorinators shall be provided with the required switches to enable control of the feed rate through the SCADA system. points of chlorine application may be established at the head of the plant for prechlorination. Chlorination equipment shall have a capacity greater than the highest expected dosage to be applied. Locally at the equipment 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants Ultraviolet disinfection is the preferred mode of disinfection. bromine chloride. One Standby Chlorinator shall be provided and sized for maximum day demand 3. as well as the amount of chlorine remaining in the container. 11. To accomplish these objectives. Chemical disinfection is not normally required when the total residence time in the wastewater treatment system (based on design flow) is at least 21 days. For chlorination system. For each chlorinator. provide a GUI pop-up menu box for the respective chlorinator to permit changes of feed rate set point from zero to 100%. Equipment shall be selected and installed which is capable of applying desired amounts of chlorine continuously to the effluent.

Ballasts and other electrical components shall be consistent with the ultraviolet lamp manufacturer's recommendations. The automatic level control shall be arranged so that it will allow suspended solids. each with a capacity to meet average day flow. One person should be able to replace lamps without the aid of mechanical lifting devices. 5. Cabinets containing ballasts and or transformers shall be provided with positive filtered air ventilation and automatic shutdown alarms at high temperatures. The two banks are to be operated in-series. but lamps shall be replaceable without draining the unit. Each individual ultraviolet lamp shall be provided with a remote operation indicator. Ultra-Violet (UV) is the preferred choice for the disinfection system and design system as follows: 1. 4.3) at the design daily average flow with the largest bank out of service. however. The ultraviolet unit shall be configured so that there is adequate space for the removal and maintenance of lamps. special tools. shall be provided to ensure that the lamps are submerged in the effluent at all times regardless of flow rate.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants 11. 3. Each ultraviolet bank shall be equipped with at least one ultraviolet intensity meter or some means to monitor changes in ultraviolet dosage.2 Ultra-Violet (UV ) Ultraviolet disinfection systems are considered applicable to treated wastewaters with daily average BOD 5 and TSS concentrations consistently less than 20 mg/liter. or equipment. Where possible. Techniques that result in nonirradiated flow pathways are prohibited. Disinfection units will be designed in accordance with methodologies presented in the United States Environmental Protection Agency Design Manual. the horizontal lamp arrangement is preferred over the vertical arrangements. such as an automatic level control. Turbulent flow is necessary due to non-uniform intensity fields in an ultraviolet reactor. A flow control device. which may settle. Temporary screens shall be installed to protect the lamps and other fragile components from construction debris. intensity meters shall not be relied upon to automatically control system operation. Disinfection systems shall consist of a minimum of two ultraviolet banks in series and shall be capable of providing disinfection to the effluent fecal coliform requirements (See section 11.9. Provide a cleaning solution tank for the UV lamps adjacent to the UV channels and pump the spent cleaning fluid to the head of the plant. For wastewater treatment with tertiary treatment. Municipal Disinfection. provide low intensity UV lamps. Proper ventilation is critical to the ultraviolet system operation. Provide a minimum of two banks of UV lamps with 100% redundancy. EPA/625/1-86/021. 6. 2. Provisions shall also be made to maintain the ultraviolet lamps at or near their optimum operating temperature and to filter ventilating air so as to limit ultraviolet light absorbance by dust 6 March 2009 R1 . The materials used to construct the reactor shall be resistant to ultraviolet light. Lamp failure alarms shall also be provided for a predetermined number of lamp failures. Drains shall be provided to completely drain the ultraviolet reactor unless the equipment can be easily removed from the effluent channel. to be washed out of the area of UV disinfection.

3 Sulphur Dioxide System Where the final effluent water must be dechlorinated as required by EMA or WASA. or chemical cleaning agents are required.10 Sampling and monitoring Monitoring stations shall be provided at influent. ultrasonic transducers. In the CPU/Manual control mode. Sampling sequence is to begin with high pressure air purge of intake assembly to clear obstructions. Sampler enclosure is to be weatherproof. Provisions for routine cleaning such as mechanical wipers. Provide one additional standby sulphonator sized for maximum day demand. insulated and c/w forced air heater and thermostat. Locally at the equipment 2. 7 March 2009 R1 . locking door and bolt down base. effluent and after each unit treatment during the process to allow for control and assessment of treatment. 7.9. Quartz sleeve ultraviolet systems shall have a chemical cleaning capability in addition to any ultrasonic and/or mechanical wiper systems. PLC/Manual 3. Operators shall be protected from exposure to ultraviolet light during normal operations. Controller to be programmable with LCD display and include battery to maintain program settings and stored information in the event of power failure. Provide with refrigerated sample compartment. corrosion resistant. flow proportional and time proportional sampling at the inlet and the outlet of treatment plants. 11. Sulphur dioxide system shall be sized for maximum day demand and a minimum of two (2) sulphonators shall be provided.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants accumulations. All sulphonators shall have the capability of being controlled: 1. For each sulphonator. high pressure sprayers. PLANT/Manual at the Plant through the SCADA HMI at the GUI main screen The metering pump shall be provided with the required switches to enable control of the sulphonators through the SCADA system. provide a GUI pop-up menu box to indicate the feed rate. Automatic sampling stations are required to perform discrete or composite. provide a GUI pop-up menu box for the respective sulphonator to permit changes of feed rate set point from zero to 100%. the dechlorination process shall be achieved by the use of sulphur dioxide or sodium metabisulphite. 11. Elapsed operation time meters shall be provided for each bank of ultraviolet lamps.

2 meters or more above or below ground level shall provide a stairway to the walkway.07 (in methyl sulphur) Ammonia <1 Mercaptans <0.11 Odor Control Provide odour control with appropriate ventilation system designed to minimize the odour level in the Inlet Works working area. H2S gas detector shall be supplied with visual and audible alarms. 8 March 2009 R1 .13 Water reuse for irrigation If the wastewater treatment plants include a tertiary treatment.0 mg/litre of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater.1 Amines <0.12 Structural consideration The structural design of treatment plants shall be sufficient to accommodate anticipated ground movement including any active geologic faults and allow for independent dewatering of all treatment units. which may be chemical or biological unit. the design should allow for pumping and using some of the effluent flow for irrigation purposes of plants in the neighbourhood of the treatment plant. At the outlet of the odour treatment system. Odour control may be achieved by isolation of the areas having odour problems and ventilating it separately or by providing direct ventilating capability at the source of odour. To protect working staff from gas inhalation risks. Refer to Section 15 – Structural Standards. The need for odour control facilities shall be evaluated for each plant. When required. the concentration of pollutants must be lower than the following values: Pollutant Concentration (mg/Nm3) Hydrogen sulphide <0. the air blower(s) air intake can be connected to the Inlet Works ventilation system for the removal of the odour and the air is used in a separate coarse air bubble aeration system in the aeration tank. provide odour treatment in the alternate with gas scrubbing system. Where odour control is not feasible. Guard rails on walkways shall have adequate clearance space for maintenance operations. 11. air supply must be sufficient to maintain 1. Alternatively. Basins having vertical walls terminating 1. Factors to be considered are the dissolved oxygen level of the incoming sewage and the type of treatment process proposed.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants 11.7 (in methyl sulphur) 11. All enclosures and rails should be corrosion resistant.

11. 11.1 Combined Sewer System vs. This has the advantage that the design capacity of the plant can be reduced to meet actual wastewater treatment capacity requirement only. Acceptable alternatives to auxiliary power include the ability to store influent flow or partially treated wastewater during power outage. size or capacity of process equipment can be reduced and it will also result in the reduction of chemicals and energy consumption. A combined sewer on the other hand has the opposite effects but it has the advantage that all wastewater is treated prior to the effluent being discharged into the environment. The preferred design approach to be implemented in T&T is for separate sanitary and storm water sewer systems.16 Equipment Redundancy See Section 4 – Process and Equipment Redundancy Auxiliary power facilities are required for all plants.15 SCADA System Comply with SCADA design standards as noted in Section 18 – SCADA System.g.17. both influent and effluent must be measured. 9 March 2009 R1 .. The positive aspect of separate sewer systems will result in a reduced peaking factor at the plant. and for plants discharging into environmentally sensitive areas.17 Stormwater management 11.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants 11. Therefore the designed capacity of the plant can be reduced. Where average influent and effluent flows are significantly different. Separate Sanitary Sewer The philosophy for combined or separate sewer systems is assessed in the long term on its impact on the operation of the wastewater treatment plants capacity.14 Control System Where SCADA control is implemented at the facility. e. plants with large water surfaces located in areas of high rainfall or evaporation or plants using a portion of effluent for irrigation. A means for measuring effluent flow shall be provided at all plants. Consideration should be given to providing a means to monitor influent flow. refer to Section 17 – Instrumentation & Control and Section 18 – SCADA System for control system requirements. Auxiliary power is required for plants discharging near drinking water reservoirs. unless dual power supply arrangements can be made or unless it can be demonstrated that the plant is located in an area where electric power reliability is such that power failure for a period to cause deterioration of effluent quality is unlikely. Multiple units may be required based on the uses of the receiving waters and the significance of the treatment units to the treatment processes 11. shellfish waters. areas used for contact recreation.

17. rooftop gardens.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Treatment Plants 11. Consultants are to provide for means of reducing development site runoff during and after construction. and • meet environmental effluent standard requirements (EMA 2004). efforts should be made to attempt to maintain the volume of runoff at predevelopment levels by using structural controls and pollution prevention strategies. public parks and construction sites • Implementation of agricultural best practices to avoid nutrient and pesticide pollution • In new development areas. erosion controls. and other household chemicals • Control of soil erosion on land. particularly in areas with a high population density. and debris from street gutters and storm drains • Provision of public disposal sites for used oil.) are often very effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls. vegetated swales. Urban surface runoff quality control installations (detention ponds etc. which are more expensive and time consuming before a positive effect is noticed on the benthic communities and the fish species. Experience in North America has shown that a key component to a proactive approach is a clear and consultative environmental planning procedure and the use of biological monitoring. buffers.2 Runoff impact Environmental impacts from stormwater runoff are not to be underestimated. Possible strategies to be implemented are: • Public education to prevent litter. particularly benthic community analysis. To achieve these goals one aspect of the management program is to prevent pollution and install measures to control runoff water quality. Implementation of mitigation strategies on receiving environments are preferred rather than restorative efforts. and preservation of trees. A proactive approach should be implemented. pet wastes. for all water and wastewater treatment facilities. Minimizing these development impacts include simple techniques such as green areas. 11. maximizing infiltration. A stormwater program must be designed to: • reduce pollution to the maximum extent practicable. antifreeze. 10 March 2009 R1 . • protect water quality. paints.17.3 Requirements Unless otherwise directed by WASA. Treatment processes may be necessary to diminish pollution. Storm drains and catch basins could include some form of treatment technology to help minimize impact on local eco-systems.

1 General Consultants shall design wastewater pumping stations in accordance with WASA’s requirements and all other codes. and equipment.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Wastewater Pumping Stations Section 12 Wastewater Pumping Stations 12. design standards etc. The cover shall be provided with the necessary hold open arm to keep the cover in the vertical position once it is opened. operating and maintenance costs. Studies shall assess future growth so the facility design will provide sufficient space for future expansion work. such as bar racks or screens. Vertical access ladder shall be a non-slip. The size and shape of the station will often be dictated by equipment other than pumps. As each pumping station is inherently different. will be carefully determined so that the proper size. along with the storage volume required in the wet well. In such cases. These guidelines are intended to establish the basic design parameters to be used in the development of wastewater pumping stations. Benching in the wet well shall be steep and close to the pump inlet to prevent sediment build-up on the wet well floor. Influent pipe for in-ground pumping stations shall be designed with a minimum distance of two- volute diameter away from the pump centre line. guidelines. and configuration of the pumping station can be selected. capital.2 Wastewater Pumping Station General Design Different types of pumping stations are possible and should be based on the incoming flow of wastewater. shape. An overflow pipe will be required in all cases unless the location prohibits its installation. 12. the specific design for each pump station will be unique and sound judgment and acceptable engineering practices are to be provided. Select specific pumps based on the optimal combination of pump efficiency. The space requirements of pumps. The minimum dimensions of the access hatch shall be 900 mm by 750 mm. the peak flow and the total head required. It must also be sized to permit the entry of Operators or Maintenance staff wearing retrieval equipment harness without having to disconnect the safety line. piping. Toilet/bath facilities are to be provided for wastewater pumping stations except for small submersible stations. Overflow pipes (minimum 200 mm) shall be installed in the wet well as high as possible without 1 March 2009 R1 .3 Wastewater Pumping Station Layout Design wastewater pumping station configuration based on most efficient layout of pumps and equipment for safe and cost effective operation and maintenance of the facility. non corrosive material. standby power will be required. to ensure compliance. The access hatch cover shall be fabricated with light non corrosive material and be hinged and lockable by a padlock. Lock port shall be recessed and provided with drainage pipe. 12. Access opening for the pump shall be located and sized for the efficient installation or removal of the pump.

Provide a minimum of one (1) meter clear space around equipment for servicing. consideration should be given to dividing the wet well into two sections. Away from all possible interference arising from the wastewater flowing into the wet well through the inlet pipe.4 Configuration of Pumping System Wet wells shall be designed to suit the pump capacity. Lights shall be explosion-proof and equipped with a switch located in the electrical utility box. enclosures and rails shall be made of certified corrosion resistant material. Wet wells shall be designed to prevent deposition of solids. Provide lifting devices for the removal and installation of equipment.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Pumping Stations causing a sewer backup or basement flooding. sized not smaller then 40 mm and shall be metered. As a general rule. A pressure gauge shall be provided at each pump discharge pipe above the flood line. All wet wells shall be provided with water service to enable flushing or cleaning of the wet well. Above the highest top water level. Away from all possible interference arising from water surface turbulence. The system must include a means of collecting and disposing of screen wastes. Within easy reach of the operator for maintenance or repair purposes. the screening requirements must be analysed and assessed to define the need for type and size of screens. for each pumping station. The depth of the wet well shall be sufficient to ensure adequate control bands for each pump. Where the continuity of the pumping station operation is critical. 2. 4. Laser or Ultrasonic equipments are to be preferred in the pump control system. Water service shall be provided with backflow preventer. In no case shall the wet well be designed which will result in the pump(s) cycling more than six (6) times per hour for a station with a motor of less than 30 kW. Provide required equipment for the safe retrieval of personnel in confined space. 3. 2 March 2009 R1 . All electrical equipment in the wet well shall be explosion-proof in accordance with applicable codes and/or standards. the more stringent criteria shall apply. provide piping from the pump discharge header to the bottom of the wet well for flushing when the pump starts for a short period of time. In no case shall this exceed that as recommended by the manufacturer but in all cases. be matched to the design flow for the station. All hardware inside the station shall be stainless steel. The size of the wet well in relation to the suction pipe(s) shall be in accordance with the Hydraulic Institute to prevent hydraulic interference. 12. properly interconnected. In all cases. to facilitate repairs and cleaning. and their installations are to comply with the following: 1. Duration of the flushing of the wet well shall be adjustable from the control panel or PLC. usually above the top of the overflow pipe. Coarse (50 mm and finer) screening systems must be provided upstream in the collection system to avoid damages to lifting pumps. All fixtures. and shall be equipped with a dedicated overflow alarm. which should in turn.

Ensure that the floats are installed complete with anti-sway hardware. 3 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Pumping Stations 5. Provide floats controls as a backup to the ultrasonic pumps control system.

One (1) rated at Direct Drive Provide for prefabricated submersible peak flow. control mobile Generator 2 Inflow greater than Submersible pumping station Two (2) pump For two or three Direct Drive Provide Gen Set 20 L/s but less than with wet well and configuration. standby (1) standby pump complete with generator etc. one level control flow. each rated at pumps with ultrasonic sized for peak 200 L/s. Locate pumps in wet well. Locate pumps in wet well. configuration. MCC. largest. level control. controls. with float connection to pumping stations. Three (3) equally sized rated at the same backup float pumps with two (2) in capacity of the control parallel at peak flow. capacity of the (VFD with largest unit bypass for Locate pumps in dry well. Design configurations. pumping system for most (2) standby pumps.5 Design Wastewater Pumping Station Sizing Station Size Building Type Number Of Pumps Standby Pump Type of Gen Set Requirement Drives 1 Inflow less than 20 L/s. Direct Drive) 1 March 2009 R1 . peak flow.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual 12. two ultrasonic flow. Pumps could be of efficient configuration for rated at the same submersible type. Typically small in-ground One (1) rated at peak flow. superstructure for housing peak flow or configuration. superstructure in a dry well number 2 or Multiple pump over four (4) VFD with sized for peak configuration. 3 Inflow greater than 200 Pumping station with Same as station size For multiple pumps Direct and Provide Gen Set l/s.

6 Wastewater Pumping Station (Inflow less than 20 l/s) Provide storage for a two-hour retention capacity on peak flow in the wet well. For stations with a multiple-pump operating system. Submersible pumps should be installed if there is a flooding risk. 12. lockable. shall be 200 mm in diameter. Control. 2. size each pump to handle 50% of peak flow.8 Wastewater Pumping Station (Inflow > 200 l/s) Use pumps in a dry pit configuration. pipe and isolating gate valves shall be 200 mm in diameter. The electrical utility box shall be compact and low profile to complement the aesthetics of the location. shall be completely separated from the wet well. Common walls must be gas tight. including their superstructure. with each pump sized for peak flow. Equally sized pumps. Provide an emergency standby diesel generator to provide power supply to the largest pumping unit in the station and other essential electrical equipment such as louvers. Dry wells. Combination of the above.7 Wastewater Pumping Station (20 l/s<Inflow < 200 l/s) Design pumping station with two constant speed submersible pumps in a single wet well configuration. Type and model of lock will be provided by WASA. MCC. The bypass. designed to provide electrical power to the station by a portable electric generator under a local power supply grid network failure. flanged and provided with a quick connector extending 450 mm above the finished grade.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual 12. A visual and audible alarm system should be installed for reporting to WASA. One small pump with several equally sized pumps. 3. Provide a separate union box for pump power supply and to enable the removal and installation of the pumps. Bypass fittings. generator and electrical equipment are to be situated in a dry well. Provide one standby pump sized for peak flow. Cabinet shall be located so as to permit the removal of the pump without undue difficulties. Design pump control system to alternate pumping sequence. 12. Provide a vandal- proof. Additional on-site wet well storage capacity is not required. etc. instrumentation. controls. Combination of 3 with variable frequency speed pump(s) 1 March 2009 R1 . regardless of the forcemain size. determine the most efficient pumping configuration for the station based on: 1. A bypass hook-up for the forcemain with the necessary isolation valves shall be located outside the wet well. fans. A positive forced air ventilator shall be provided with a switch in the electrical panel to permit operation of the ventilator on a required basis. or 4. electrical hardware connector and switch gear for hook-up on the exterior wall. For a station with two fixed speed pump operating systems.

Provide pipe flushing connections to facilitate the cleaning of plugged lines or pumps. provide an automatic screen complete with compactor and grit bin and/or comminutor. The final design decision shall be based on good engineering practices. Provide variable frequency drive pump(s) where there is a need for continual flow from one pumping station to the next pumping station or wastewater treatment plant. Stainless steel piping is not permitted for use in the forcemain. 3.8 m/s. 6. Knife gate valves shall only be allowed on the suction piping from the wet well to the pump when space is limited and the hydraulic head is less than 6 meters.9 Pump Design Pumps shall be non-clog and able to pump a 3 inch diameter solid. 2. 2 March 2009 R1 . In no case shall the minimum design discharge velocity be less than 0. Butterfly valves shall not be used in the forcemain. 12. The minimum velocity in a force main is 0.0 meter per second or greater must occur in a force main at least once daily. provide at least one standby pump with equal capacity to the biggest operating pump. 5. Convert to a "Vortex" pump volute any time pumping liquid contains lots of solids. 12.10 Piping & Valve Design In the design of wastewater pumping station piping.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual In all cases.6 meter per second with only the smallest pump in operation & a minimum flushing velocity of 3. Provide an emergency standby diesel generator. as dictated by the characteristics of the wastewater flowing into the pumping station. Depending on the size of the forcemain. A force main must terminate below a manhole invert with the top of the pipe matching the water level in the manhole at design flow. the Consultants shall comply with the following criteria: 1. provide piping and valves to allow re-circulation of pumped wastewater into wet well to prevent solids built-up at bottom of wet well. isolation valves shall be resilient seated full port gate valve or knife gate. Where required. For a dry pit with wet well configuration. Provide a back up seal for each seal. Provide an air vent pipe from high point on pump volute continuously discharging to wet well above overflow level to facilitate priming after wet well pump down. 4. Preferably ductile iron pipe shall be used for the forcemain.

Provide for surge protection by installing soft start/stop electrical control equipment or surge control on pumps main discharge header and recycle wastewater to the wet well above top water level (TWL). air-vacuum release. bolts. A force main must terminate in an appropriate structure and either at a manhole on the wastewater collection system or at a wastewater treatment facility 16. nuts. and shall be provided at critical locations in the pump station and force main.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual 7. Valves are not permitted to be installed in the vertical position. supports. 11. Design piping layout with “Y” configuration and not “T”. brackets. All pipe restraints shall be designed to resist maximum expected surge and earthquake forces. and pipe union shall be provided on each assembly to allow maintenance and removal of the air valve. No loads shall be transmitted to pump flanges. An insulated coupling. Air relief. Fiberglass grating and ladders are recommended. Provide isolation valve on the discharge header prior to it leaving the pumping station. All valves shall be located in the horizontal position. Sluice gates shall only be allowed for isolation of the trunk sewer from the wet well or to isolate two wet well compartments. Pipe restraints shall be adequately anchored for vertical and lateral support. 12. and stairs. or combination air release and vacuum valves shall be of a type and brand manufactured for the specific purpose in sewage service. ball valve. 14. 10. The exterior of ductile iron 3 March 2009 R1 . 8. 12. structural steel. 13.11 Corrosion resistance The wet well interior and exterior concrete surfaces shall be corrosion resistant and receive as a minimum two coats of a coal tar epoxy coating to protect the concrete from the corrosion due to hydrogen sulfide in the influent sewage. Provide flushing connections to facilitate cleaning of the pipe. The piping from the pump to the forcemain shall be designed for horizontal connection and not vertical. the pipe-nipple connection to the manifold and all other piping in the assembly shall be copper. 9. For each air-valve assembly. A force main design must include surge control measures to manage pressure due to water hammer that may exceed the working strength of a force main pipe. HDPE lining is also an adequate means to ensure protection of concrete. Provide horizontally placed anti-slam check valves on all pump discharge headers. 15. Sluice gates shall be fabricated from stainless steel. Properly located and sized pipe supports shall be provided. Type 316 stainless steel should be specified for guide rails. Operators shall be located at ground level. 17.

pump off (red). separate ventilation systems shall be provided for the wet well and dry well. pump running (green). The wet well air shall be treated by a replaceable activated carbon filter or an equivalent system. All indicating lights shall be connected to a push-to-test button to test for proper functioning of the bulbs. Provide an externally non-resettable elapsed time meter for each pump in service. and pump failure (flashing red).2 start 4. High Water Level (HWL) Standby pump starts Status reported by PLC to Central Control 5. 12. Ventilation of a wet well under normal operating conditions is not required. unless otherwise approved by WASA. 12. P1 Pump No. Indicator lamps shall be either transformer or diode-type device. provide odour control within 100 meters of residential dwellings. Corrosion resistant materials should also be specified for electrical components. High High Water Level Overflow condition Status reported by PLC to Central Control Where the operation of the pumps is controlled by ultrasonic level control tied to the station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) or remote programmable unit (RPU). Interconnections between the dry well and wet well ventilation systems are not allowed. provide float switches hardwired to the pump motor starter for starting the pump(s) on High High Level in the event that the ultrasonic level control and/or PLC control fails. The PLC/RPU for the pumping station shall be designed for integration with WASA’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for the operation of the wastewater collection systems and treatment plants.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual piping shall be epoxy coated. P2 Pump No..1 start 3.13 Odour Control For pumping stations located in residential areas.14 Ventilation Stations with pumps in a dry well shall be designed with ventilation systems for the dry well to be a Class 1 Division 2 classification per NFPA 820. 4 March 2009 R1 .12 Pump Controls For each pump include the following indicator lights: pump electrical supply (white). Low Water Level (LWL) Pumps off 2. At a minimum. 12. The configuration of the pumping system shall be set by level sensor or float devices and will generally be as follows: 1.

Magnetic. The location of the gate(s) may be required to comply with the requirements of the approval agencies and or area municipality. Bearings for all rotating equipment shall be rated for 100. The need for surveillance camera and alarms shall be assessed for each site.000 hours as a minimum. 12.15 Equipment and Material Specifications The primary drive system for all new sanitary pump stations shall be electric motors. doors etc to be vandal resistant. the efficiency shall be better than 94% when ever possible. or H. Design building exterior exposed surfaces such as access hatches. Electric motors greater than 7.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual For entry for maintenance and/or operation functions. The exterior of the building shall be provided with high pressure sodium vapour light fixtures (vandal and tamper resistant) with high power factor ballast and lamps suitable for horizontal. Ensure that all ventilation louvers to the reservoir are properly secured to prevent entry of foreign material. the building access road shall be fenced off with 2100 mm high galvanized steel chain link fence and razor wire. The enclosure shall be totally enclosed.17 Instrumentation & Control Alarms All new sanitary pump stations shall be equipped with a flow measurement device which will continuously measure the total flow being pumped by the station. Ventilation ducts shall be maintenance free and shall preferably be fibreglass or plastic with an unpainted finished surface. 12. Doppler. If a residential area is nearby.16 Site Access Road and Security Unless otherwise specified by WASA. base up or base down operation. then it shall have six (6) air changes per hour under normal operating conditions. fan cooled and the insulation shall conform to NEMA Class F. or ultrasonic meters are acceptable and the selection will depend on the anticipated 5 March 2009 R1 . Provide dehumidification equipment in dry wells to reduce humidity below dew point. which will also turn on the lights in the wet well. WASA’s list of preferred suppliers must be consulted in order to select the pump’s manufacturer. fans or motors shall be readily accessible for maintenance and servicing. The ventilation system in the well shall be started manually by a switch. Motors shall be explosion proof. Parshall flumes. solid shaft squirrel-cage induction type. 12. All ventilation equipment such as dampers. If continuous positive ventilation is provided. noise reducing features should be provided to avoid noise level disturbances. Access gate(s) to the property shall be 7000 mm wide and 2100 mm high. provide intermittent positive ventilation in the well with 30 air changes per hour.5 kW shall be of the high efficiency type and for motors greater than 90 kW. or local approval agencies. All hatches are to be lockable and keyed to WASA’s master lock system.

Wet Well / Dry Well : • Pump(s) • Overload trip • Thermistor trip • Fail to start • Fail to stop • Uncommanded stop • Low pressure • Overflow 3.18 SCADA System Comply with Section 17 – Instrumentation & Control and Section 18 – SCADA System design standard requirements. 12. Diesel Generator: • Fail to start • Fail to stop • Overload 12. 6 March 2009 R1 . The following equipment or logic defined alarms shall be generated by the PLC/RPU at the pumping station and transmitted to the SCADA system: 1. and in the valve vault on the discharge side of each submersible pump.19 Equipment Redundancy See Section 4 – Process and Equipment Redundancy.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual grease and solid content of the wastewater. Building: • Access Security – Authorized and unauthorized entry • Building – Smoke in building • Building – Flooding in basement 2. A pressure gauge shall be installed on the suction and discharge side of each pump that is installed in a dry well.

1. Solids must be periodically removed from the lagoon for use or disposal as indicated by WASA.2 Wastewater Treatment Plant If indicated by WASA. surrounding land uses.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Wastewater Pumping Stations Section 13 Septage & Biosolids Management 13. Siting of the lagoon must be established with careful consideration to soil. Assessment should be done on a case by case basis to properly design and keep the right mixture of septage to sewer water. and protection of public health and water quality. Wind direction shall be assessed in order to prevent public nuisance.1 Stabilisation pond Stabilisation lagoons should be designed to treat septage solids based on organic and nutrient loading rates and also hydraulic loading rates. dewatering. Slopes should be seeded and runoff prevented from entering the lagoons. and treatment of the separated liquid and of the solid fraction. Once stabilized. The solid fraction should be stabilized (See section 13. Solids retained in the lagoon are stabilized by anaerobic decomposition while the supernatant is treated in a second polishing lagoon or treated in a wastewater treatment plant. hydrogeological characteristics. Multi celled basins with two parallel lagoons are the minimum configuration in order to allow capacity for maintenance of the lagoons.1. 13. which is classified as all matter (liquids and solids) that is pumped out of septic tanks and holding tanks. The lagoons should be capable of operating as a single or two-step unit. which allows them to be often used for land application. septage solids are usually less metal contaminated than sewage solids.3) based on end objective of disposal indicated by WASA. Site must be fenced and signage should indicate the hazard. Design of treatment plants should be capable of treating these streams with careful knowledge of loadings in order to not adversely affect unit processes. Stabilisation ponds must be designed to allow easy access for loading and unloading septage. 13.1 Septage Management – General These design criteria deals with management of septage. The liner must be installed in order to protect from infiltration with monitoring wells included for control. These guidelines aim to provide guidance for the treatment of septage if indicated by WASA for a particular project. Septage pumped from individual septic tanks is not adequately stabilized and should not to be applied directly on land so as to protect the public health and the environment. The process usually involves screening. The treatment plant must allow separation of solid and liquid streams. Retention time must be calculated based on end objective of disposal indicated by WASA. Lime addition should be included if odor becomes be nuisance. the design of the wastewater treatment plants should allow discharge and treatment of septage. 1 March 2009 R1 . The facility must be designed in order to allow capacity and capability of treating the supernatant/liquid effluent with consideration to possible high BOD and grease contents.

and with sufficient hydraulic gradient to insure the flow of sludge. the process must be able to maintain a pH of over 12 for at least 30 minutes. with hose gates and cleanouts. Maximum flow velocity is 1. Piping under stationary structures shall be arranged so that stoppages can be readily eliminated by rodding or with sewer cleaning devices. The dewatered cake can be dried and incinerated to provide energy at the plant. the facility should allow for dewatering (See section 13. All units shall be capable of being drained independently of one another. The sludge piping within the digester. 2. including the sludge drain line.5) of the stabilized solids and pumping of the liquid part into a sewer. shall be a minimum of 150 mm in diameter. Provisions shall be made to insure that waste sludge will be discharged to the sludge digester in such a manner so as to minimize the volume of digester supernatant liquor.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Pumping Stations 13. 2 March 2009 R1 .3 Alkali treatment If indicated by WASA.8 m/s. Sludge pumps must allow transfer of all the volume to a hauling truck for land application.1. Provisions shall be made for the return of supernatant from sludge thickeners and digesters to the head of the treatment works or to the aeration system accounting for the impact on the treatment units.General These design criteria are minimum guidelines to be used for the comprehensive consideration of biosolid management and establish the bases of WASA’s requirements. At the maximum design volume. The activated sludge can be thickened followed by disposal in the following manner: 1. 13. These alternatives should be reviewed at the pre-design stage to ensure that the most economic and viable option is selected for the plant handling of its bio-solids. 4. an alkali treatment site should allow for stabilization of septage. Appropriate facilities for transfer of supernatant liquor shall be provided. Lime addition and replenishment should be mechanized with total control over rate of addition. 3. and shall include a minimum 150% over capacity for lime addition. Alkali facilities must be designed to allow easy access for loading and unloading septage and also screening of septage from hauled trucks. Screening should be mechanically compacted and disposed. The choice as to which method to proceed with depends on many factors. digesters.2 Biosolids Management . Sludge processing and treatment shall be in agreement with the requirements of the ultimate form of disposal. It can be dewatered and turned into pellets as a source of nutrient for farmers or gardener. The waste activated sludge can be dewatered and the solids disposed off on land-filled site. All piping from clarifiers to thickeners. If indicated by WASA. The stabilization basin must allow for separation of liquid and stabilized solids. Piping shall include a means to observe the quality of the supernatant from each of the withdrawal outlets provided. The waste activated sludge can be used as an agricultural source of nutrient. or other sludge processing facilities shall be arranged for ease of maintenance.

Heating coils inside the digester is not recommended. Provisions shall be made to include an effective means of removing solids from the digester.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Pumping Stations 13. All heated digesters shall include a thermometer with not less than a four-inch dial to indicate the temperature of digester contents. Mixing may be performed by mechanical equipment. Anaerobic digesters are to be in a covered facility. Adequate mixing of the sludge shall be provided to keep the solids in suspension and to bring the deoxygenated liquid continuously to the aeration device. and type of aeration mixing device. The amount of mixing shall be based upon the sludge characteristics. or by gas recirculation. This volume should be provided in two cells capable of operating as a single or two-step unit.3. then the compressor or blower system shall be designed so that the air requirements can be met with the largest single unit out of service.3 Sludge stabilization Sludge stabilization is recommended for all biological treatment processes with the exception of extended aeration processes (with a solids retention time of 20 days or more) in which case the sludge may be drawn directly to a sludge dewatering facility. Heating of the digester means that adequate facilities shall be provided for heating and mixing the sludge and maintaining a year-round temperature of at least 35 degrees Celcius. the tank geometry.2 Anaerobic digesters The digester volume shall be designed with a minimum solid retention time (SRT) of 30 days for unheated digesters and a minimum SRT of 15 days for heated digesters. Alternative stabilization techniques like composting. The sludge and supernatant withdrawal piping for all single-stage and first-stage digesters with fixed covers shall 3 March 2009 R1 . Consult with WASA with regards to examination of social. Digester covers shall be equipped with an air vent which includes a flame trap.1 Aerobic digesters Aerobic digesters should be provided with sludge thickening capability. 13. Adequate mixing of digester contents is required for all first-stage and all single-stage digesters.3. The rate of mixing shall be such that the flow created in the digester is sufficient to completely mix the incoming sludge with the digester contents and prevent the formation of a scum layer. 13. If a separate system of air compressors or blowers will supply air to the digester. The calculations for the required sludge digestion volume shall be based on the minimum percent solids in the sludge expected to be encountered. Considerations should be given to sludge treatment at centralized facilities at key plants. financial and technical issues. wet oxidation and other processes shall include the demonstrated level of stabilization achieved by the process to be employed. Sizing requirements must be determined using the BOD5 and design flow of the raw sewage influent to the plant. a vacuum breaker. and a pressure relief valve. A digester shall provide a minimum sludge retention time of 15 days. including external pumps.

13. If this means is by withdrawal of pipes at different levels in the digester. 4 March 2009 R1 . Piping for hot water heating systems may be of any size adequate for the flow. and for adequate facilities for the disposal of dried sludge or ash shall be provided. Adequate facilities shall be provided for storage of sludge during the longest period that drying and or incineration units might normally be out of service for repairs or maintenance. All rooms in digester buildings with floor level below grade shall be adequately ventilated. The main gas line shall be provided with a manometer or other acceptable devices which measure the gas pressure in inches of water. at least three different levels of supernatant liquor withdrawal shall be provided. All digester covers shall include a gas chamber adequate for the gas production anticipated. Manometers may be used to measure the gas pressure in other gas lines. Plans for control of odors. Every digester shall be provided with an overflow. 13. Supernatant liquor from anaerobic digesters may be treated by chemical means or other acceptable methods before being returned to the plant. As part of the biosolids handling and disposal process. flame checks or flame traps. vacuum. fly ash. The gas piping shall be adequate for the volume of gas to be handled and shall be pressure tested for leakage before the digester is placed into operation. The gas line to the waste gas burner shall include a suitable pressure.5 Dewatering Sludge shall be dewatered sufficiently to meet the requirements of the ultimate form of disposal. All manometers shall be vented to the atmosphere outside digester buildings. Drip traps shall be provided at all other low points in gas piping.4 Incineration and heat treatment The equipment shall be housed in a fireproof building. Flame traps with fusible shutoffs shall be included in all main gas lines. All supernatant liquor withdrawal systems shall be provided with sampling cocks or other means of inspecting and testing the supernatant liquor from each level. A means shall be provided by which the level can be varied from which supernatant liquor is withdrawn either automatically or by the operator.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Pumping Stations be arranged in such a manner so as to minimize the possibility of air being drawn into the gas chamber above the liquid in the digester. A gas meter to measure the rate of gas production is desirable. The fresh water supply to hot water heating systems shall be from a tank with an air gap between the top of the tank and the fresh water supply pipe to prevent a cross connection between the digester hot water system and the fresh water supply system. insects. the dewatering facility will also require the construction of a cake receiving and transfer facility to enable the hauling of the cake to landfill site or to the incinerator. A natural or bottled gas source shall be utilized for the burner pilot. The discharge end of sludge inlet piping shall be separated from the overflow of the supernatant liquor withdrawal point by a minimum distance equal to the radius of the digester tank. relief valve. Digester covers shall be gas tight and the specifications shall require a test of every digester cover for gas leakage. The main gas line from the digester shall have a sediment trap equipped with a drip trap.

Channels shall be of sufficient grade and size to facilitate the flow of the sludge to the various beds. upsets. Appropriate means shall be provided to facilitate the removal of the dried sludge from the beds for disposal without bed damage resulting. belt filter presses. A minimum depth of 300 mm of filtering material. means of accelerated dewatering. 13. alternate disposal means.1 Sludge drying beds The area of sludge drying beds to be provided will vary in accordance with the average rainfall. Consideration shall be given to the impact of the returned filtrate on the treatment units and to provide odor and insect control facilities.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Wastewater Pumping Stations 13. provisions shall be made in the design of beds for covering the beds. A splash block or slab shall be provided at the point where digested sludge is discharged onto each of the beds. of which 100 to 150 mm is coarse sand. average humidity. the bed shall be protected by a permanent wall which shall extend at least 300 mm but not more than 600 mm above the finished surface of the beds. The required area for aerobic sludge dewatering shall be determined from using a waste load based on sewage strength and the daily average flow of the raw sewage.2 Vacuum filters. provisions shall be made in the facility plan or preliminary engineering report for the location and connection of the portable dewatering unit(s) during facility operation. If sludge is to be treated using portable mechanical dewatering units. Because of the rainy season. the design engineer shall provide data to document sufficient capacity. etc. and other mechanical dewatering filters Where dewatering of sludge is proposed. and type of treatment process used. or extra storage capacity and alternate dewatering methods to effectively dewater the sludge during inclement weather.5. Every sludge drying bed should include a removal gate or stop planks on one end to provide access for machinery and trucks to remove and haul away the dried sludge. 5 March 2009 R1 . is required. Runners should be provided to facilitate sludge handling. belt filters. The filtrate from the filters shall be returned to the head of the treatment works or to the aeration system. or storage facilities capable of maintaining normal daily operations during breakdowns. To exclude surface water and eroded earth. Construction shall be such as to exclude surface water runoff from the beds and seepage from the beds into the ground. At least two sludge drying beds shall be provided and they shall be constructed at elevations above groundwater level.5. The filtrate (or drainage) from the sludge drying beds shall be returned to the head of the treatment works or to the aeration system.

and 3. Upon completion of the treatment plant. 14. In all cases. concrete. Appropriate facilities should be provided for the storage of tools and spare parts.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Architectural Standards Section 14 Architectural Standards 14. 2. The laboratory should be located on ground level and easily accessible to the treatment plant and sampling points.2 Laboratory control Laboratory capability for operational control and testing shall be provided. Allocate sufficient space for hygiene and safety. pre-painted aluminium or steel roofing tiles. or shell walkways should be provided for access to all treatment units and to the final sampling point. Have minimal maintenance requirements. Architectural design criteria are to allow Water and Wastewater infrastructure facilities to be: 1. 7. designs must comply with the architectural code of practice and Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code. The needs of male and female employees. and provision for fire 6. The laboratory should be located away from vibrating machinery or equipment which could have an adverse effect on the performance of the operation of laboratory instruments. 14. Asphalt. the handicapped. To withstand vandalism 4. and visitors to the plant.3 Roofing Design Roofs are to be designed to complement the surrounding environment. Energy efficient. these shall be included 1 March 2009 R1 . the grounds should be properly graded for surface drainage. 5.1 General These design criteria are minimum guidelines and establish the recommend WASA’s design standards. Consultants shall design the roofing architectural treatment and where the choice of roofing material is clay roofing tiles. gravel. Is conforming to requirements specified in the Occupation Safety and Health Act (OSHA). Be able to withstand hurricane/earthquake for the region. The extent of the equipment to be provided and the specific tests to be performed will vary according to the capacity and type of plant. Hand washing facilities should be provided for the protection of operating personnel. should be considered in the design of sanitary facilities. and a workshop should be provided to allow repairs and maintenance.

Ceiling tiles shall be washable matte white finish with light reflectance of LR-1 (over 75%). All exterior doors shall be keyed to WASA’s master key lock system. 14.800 mm in height. avoid windows altogether. The minimum width of all doors shall be equal to or greater than 900 mm and shall be provided with a minimum of four hinges.4 Windows Where possible. As much as possible. 3. For pumping stations or other such facilities. 14. minimize the number of windows and where possible. All exterior exposed concrete walls shall be given a sack rub finish and comply with the required wall finish schedule. 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Architectural Standards as part of the conventional roofing construction works to be installed by experienced roofing contractors. 2 March 2009 R1 . All exterior doors shall be provided with extra heavy-duty closer mechanism. The installation of the engineered roofing system shall be performed by applicators approved by WASA and the Consultants and are to be specified in the tender Specifications. For bathrooms and washrooms. consider aluminium windows with anodic (clear or colored) or epoxy finishes.5 Doors All exterior doors shall be insulated metal doors complete with touch-bar devices and concealed vertical rod devices. provide drop-in ceiling tiles having high sound-transmission resistance characteristics selected for the use intended. All interior walls shall be architecturally co-ordinated to provide a level of finish for the use or service intended.6 Ceiling Where ceilings are specified. 14. where applicable.7 Wall Finishes Interior and exterior walls shall be provided with the following finishes: 1. design plants with a minimal number of windows on the ground floor level unless they are located on a secured site. provide ceramic tile finishes on the wall not exceeding 1. 14.

Exterior of building is to be fenced with 2. Location shall be selected to provide (a) the required illumination intensity level in accordance with current legislation and (b) easy accessibility for changing of light fixtures. Do not locate fixtures directly over tall equipment such as a chemical tank or in the middle of open tank’s ceiling such as a water filtration basin. Provisions shall be made for adequate turning radius 3 March 2009 R1 . Landscaping shall be designed with minimum maintenance requirements such as watering or mowing of grass. Office floor finishes shall be finished with industrial grade carpet material. Locate ceiling light fixtures in readily accessible locations for maintenance. 5. Sod shall be provided only to areas. 2. 14. In all lighting requirements. computer control rooms. Exposed formed concrete walls shall be provided with a “sack rub”.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Architectural Standards 14. Laboratories. Fixtures may be located on walls to provide the required illumination intensity level and for maintenance accessibility. unless otherwise approved by WASA. provide access for servicing by crane or other practical alternate means of accessibility. which requires minimal watering. Double swing gates are to be installed with an adequate locking device. lunchrooms and others for general use shall be provided with ceramic tile floor finishes.9 Light Fixtures Mercury vapour light fixtures shall not be specified unless the lighting requirement makes it absolutely necessary.1 m high steel wire wall with razor wire. All other formed concrete finishes shall be at the discretion of the Consultants. Vehicular access to pump stations shall have a minimum five meter wide paved road at a 15 percent maximum slope. Concrete floors that are subjected to a continuous flow of dirty water shall be given an epoxy finish with anti-slip additive. 4. All other concrete floors shall be provided with non- coloured floor concrete hardener complete with floor sealer. Site layout of the pump station shall take into consideration vehicle access. Provide with several sodium vapour dusk external lights to avoid vandalism.10 Landscaping Design landscape requiring minimal maintenance work to meet the regional Site Plan Approval requirements. which are required immediately for the proper functioning of the plant. For light fixtures that must be located in very high ceilings. 3. but of a model that sustains vandalism. Specify only native plant or tree species in Trinidad & Tobago for landscaping design. All other areas shall be seeded and mulched. 14.8 Floor Finishes Floors are to be finished in accordance with the following usage criteria: 1. florescence light fixtures are preferable.

such as dump trucks. backhoes. and crane trucks required for the removal of equipment.The need for surveillance camera and alarms shall be assessed for each site.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Architectural Standards and room for outriggers for WASA’s equipment. 4 March 2009 R1 .

1 General Comply with applicable Acts. Design reservoir perimeter wall with reduced water depth. Where possible. For cast in place reservoir’s roof. Design an efficient structure to minimize the number of internal columns. Design walls as propped cantilevers. design structures in accordance with Working Stress Design. thus transferring loading to roof slab and reducing wall thickness and the need for internal wall support struts. The following types of Portland cement shall be used: 1 March 2009 R1 . 15. 15.2 Design of Water Retaining Structure Water retaining structure shall be designed with consideration for crack control design. seismic calculations may be based on another earthquake zone. design capital integral with column. The seismic design of civil structures will be based on an earthquake zone 3 as defined in UBC- 1997. Each cell shall be provided with a minimum of two entry/exit points. Ground storage reservoirs shall be designed with a minimum of two or more cells.0 – Design Standards. For all non-water retaining structures.3 Construction Requirements Interior surfaces of new concrete structures shall be smooth and Consultants shall specify the application of the available formwork liner manufactured or available in Trinidad & Tobago. permitting any combination of internal and external load (such as reservoir full. Codes or Design Guidelines as detailed in Section 3. design entry into reservoir cells through submarine hatches.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Structural Standards Section 15 Structural Standards 15. Consultants shall specify wet curing period requirements for a minimum of 7 days.4. Should it be required by the Client.1 Concrete Portland Cement shall comply with ASTM C150. Each cell must be capable of being isolated for inspection and maintenance purposes without affecting the operation of the other cell(s). Designs must assure that the structures are to sustain regional earthquakes and hurricane events. A reference is ACI-350R-89. For water retaining structures.4 Structural requirements 15. without backfill and vice-versa). design structures in accordance with Ultimate Strength Design (USD). 15. “Concrete Sanitary Engineering Structures”.

new steel bars complying with the “Specifications for Billet Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement”: ASTM A615 Grade 60 or approved equal.000 Waterproofing shall be applied to all concrete surfaces in contact with soil or liquids.4. d) Welded plain wire reinforcement shall comply with “Specifications for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement. grease or coatings of any character that would tend to reduce or destroy their bond with concrete. Type V Sulfate Resisting Cement for all sub-structures (below grade works).600 25 Concrete Curbs Superstructures 35 5. for Concrete” (ASTM A185) or approved equal with wire mesh sizes as shown on the drawings. Cast in Place 3. Type I Ordinary Portland Cement for all superstructures (above grade works). Do not use brackish water or seawater in any connection with masonry construction. c) Sizes shall be as shown on the drawings.Burgas Regional Water Company – Project Implementation Unit Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Structural Standards . b) Reinforcement bars shall be deformed. Bars shall be free of flaking rust. Consultants must ensure that specifications include provisions for procedures in conformance with American Concrete Institute (ACI) Recommended Practice 305. based on 28 days compressive strength as determined by tests on concrete cylinders according to ASTM. Plain. 2 March 2009 R1 . Duct Banks. The minimum strength requirements. with a minimum yield strength of fy = 400 MPa (60ksi).000 Sub-structures 35 5.450 Encasement. For hot weather concreting. Hot-Weather Concreting. are as follows: Minimum Strength Requirements for Concrete Concrete Strength PSI Type of Construction (N/mm2) Unreinforced Concrete. scale. 15.2 Steel Reinforcement Materials for structural steel shall comply with International Standards a) Carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete should meet TTS 583:2000 Specification. Lean Concrete 10 1. .

4.Code requirements for reinforced concrete ACI .3 Precast Structural Concrete 1.I. 3. 2) Steel Structures shall be designed in accordance with ASTM A36 to resist forces.301 . 1) Structural Steel shall conform with international standards and with the following ASTM standards: • ASTM A369 A36M – Specifications for Structural Steel • ASTM – A193A & 193M – Specifications for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel for Bolting Material for High temperature Service • ASTM – A307. For exterior uses. low-alloy steel with epoxy paint or elastomeric systems. specifications and standards.Burgas Regional Water Company – Project Implementation Unit Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Structural Standards 15. avoid exterior bolted connections. level. 3 March 2009 R1 .4. Where fasteners are exposed to the weather. Erect units without damage to shape or finish.C.4 Structural Steel The use of structural steel in a tropical environment requires painting exposed structural steel for interior uses. consider high-strength. As much as possible. Comply with the following codes. moments and shears. • American Concrete Institute (ACI) – 318 . plant and within design tolerances. specify galvanized or other corrosion resistant metals.Specifications for standard concrete for buildings • Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) MNL 120 – Design Handbook PCI MNL 122 – Architectural Precast Concrete • ASTM Specifications C33 – Concrete Aggregates C150 – Portland Cement A615 – Deformed and Plain Steel Bars for Reinforcement 2. 15. A325 & A490 – Specifications for Structural Steel Bolts and Bolted Joints. Fabricate all precast units in a precasting plant designated by WASA and certified by the P.

Burgas Regional Water Company – Project Implementation Unit Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Structural Standards 3) Steel structures shall be fabricated in accordance with ASTM A36 and reviewed shop drawings. ASTM C476 – Specifications for Grout for Masonry 2) Masonry construction shall conform to ASTM standards for load and non load bearing masonry units and for mortar and grout. ASTM – American Standard for Testing Materials 2.Inspection and testing of materials and workmanship shall be carried out by a testing company designated by WASA. c) Handrail: ASTM A53 or equivalent.2). reinforced steel shall be covered by a minimum of 75 mm of concrete. 1. 3) Reinforcing steel used in masonry construction should conform to the same specifications as for concrete work – (see 1.Inspection and testing of materials and workmanship will be carried out by a testing company designated by the WASA. If surface is to be exposed to direct saline weather. 4 March 2009 R1 . ASTM C129 – Specifications for Non-Load Bearing Concrete Masonry Units 4. e) Stairs and Ladders: ASTM A36 or equivalent.4. Use grout to ASTM C476 where reinforcing steel is grouted in the cavities in the block walls. 4) Quality control: . 4) Quality control: .B. ASTM C270 – Specifications for Mortar for Unit Masonry 5. Reinforcing steel may be epoxy coated for tropical construction to reduce corrosion damage in land based concrete construction.4.5 Concrete Block Masonry (C. d) Kick Plates: ASTM A36 or equivalent.4. 15.M.5 Steel protection All materials mentioned below shall be hot dip galvanized as follows: a) Grating: Galvanized ASTM A569 or equivalent. Welding must be done by a shop certified for both shop and field structural welding.) 1) Block masonry shall conform with international standards and with the following standards: 1. ASTM C90 – Specifications for Load Bearing Concrete Masonry Units 3. b) Checkered Plate: ASTM A36 or equivalent.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Electrical Standards Section 16 Electrical Standards 16. high humidity. 1 March 2009 R1 . 3 phase”. Comply with applicable Acts. Typical identification – “Pump No. 1. white face. 400 V. Self adhesive nameplates are not permitted. and mechanically attached to the equipment with self tapping screws. Size of nameplate shall be as follows: NAMEPLATE SIZES Size 1 10 x 50 mm 1 line 3 mm high letters Size 2 12 x 70 mm 1 line 5 mm high letters Size 3 12 x 70 mm 2 lines 3 mm high letters Size 4 20 x 90 mm 1 line 8 mm high letters Size 5 20 x 90 mm 2 lines 5 mm high letters Size 6 25 x 100 mm 1 line 12 mm high letters Size 7 25 x 100 mm 2 lines 6 mm high letters 2.0. 16. Codes or Design Guidelines as detailed in Section 3. starters and contactors shall indicate the equipment being controlled and the operating voltage and shall be mounted externally on switch box cover. In general. 3 mm thick plastic engraving sheet. Nameplates for terminal cabinets and junction boxes are to indicate system and/or voltage characteristics. The general requirements and characteristics of nameplate shall be as follows: 1. Design Standards. black core. the Consultants shall allow for an average of twenty-five (25) letters per nameplate. stored and operated under tropical conditions of high temperature.1 General All designs must comply with the electrical code of practice TTS 171: Parts 1 & 2: 2002 of Trinidad & Tobago and the National Electrical Code of USA. Plates shall be installed and secured with self-tapping screws except on the inside of panel doors where gluing will be permitted. heavy rainfall. 3.2 Equipment Identification Nameplates Requirements Identify electrical equipment with lamicoid nameplates. Nameplates for terminal cabinets and pull boxes shall indicate system and operating voltage. mildew and fungus conductive environments. 4. All materials and equipment supplied shall be suitable for being delivered. Nameplates for disconnected switches. Use rivets and/or nut & bolts to fasten nameplates to the equipment where access is not available. 5.

5 Seismic braces Seismic braces shall be installed on all electric service cabinets and other freestanding equipment per Code requirements. All necessary control transformers. All compartmentalized vertical sections shall be provided with common power bus-bars.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Electrical Standards 6.4 Panel Boards For all new or replacement panel boards. fuses. interlocks. 16. either numbered or coloured plastic tapes. primary and secondary voltages. Avoid ferrous metal enclosures and boxes when exposed to salt-laden air. amperage. Each vertical section of the MCC to be designed to permit ready removal or addition of motor starters and control units as required. and minimum system short circuit rating shall be specified on a one-line diagram. 16. % impedance and vector group. Nameplates for transformers shall indicate capacity. disconnect or breaker. New panel boards shall contain minimum 20% spare circuit breakers. Provide 20% future branch circuit breaker bussed spaces and choose the standard size manufactured panel board. terminal boards. Main circuit breakers shall be provided for all panel boards which are not located in the same room as their feeder. The MCC shall be complete with a neutral assembly to receive the grounded wye secondary conductor from the transformer.5 kW shall be high efficiency motors. MCC shall be 2 March 2009 R1 . The complete panels shall have adequate ventilation to limit the internal temperature rise to 55°C. All indicating light lamps shall be long life LED type. tap range and steps. shall be provided to suit the power and control requirements. 16. Maintain phase sequenceing and colour coding throughout. There shall be a continuous ground bus with accessible external connection for bonding to the station ground. on both ends of phase conductors of feeders and branch circuit wiring. 16. all pertinent information including the voltage. NEC & UL Standards. Details of the seismic braces shall be included in the design drawings.6 High Efficiency Electrical Motor All electric motors greater than 7. switches.3 Wiring Identification Identify all wiring with permanent indelible identifying markings. However.7 Motor Control Centre The Motor Control Centres (MCC) and all components shall be designed. manufactured and tested in accordance with the latest applicable standards of EN 60439 as well as applicable NEMA. wiring. The panels shall have individual lines and control leads brought to terminal boards suitably located in each starter. indicating lights. the minimum efficiency shall not be less than 94% at the specified operating point. Control wiring to have identical tags at both ends. For motors greater than 90 kW. the final determination shall be made based on life cycle costing analysis 16. etc. Adequate ventilation/cooling shall be provided for closets to avoid heat and corrosion.

freestanding. Feeder cables thermal short circuit damage curve. It is recommended that all switchboards and motor control centers be installed in enclosed buildings. each transformer bid must be evaluated based on the total life cycle cost. Largest 400 volt moulded case distribution breaker and characteristics. Maximum available ground fault current of systems. 3 phase. Fuses shall be provided on the primary and secondary sides of the control power transformers and separate power control transformers for each motor starter.8. dead front. there is a potential benefit under the energy conservation programs. 16. 3 March 2009 R1 . Motor starter coil and contacts shall be easily replaceable without removing the motor starter from its mounted position or without the removal of the phase conductors. Adequate ventilation/cooling shall be provided for transformers enclosed in closets. 115/230 V secondary. Largest distribution transformer thermal short circuit damage curve. 6. 16. Power transformer thermal short circuit damage curve.1 Co-ordination Studies of Protective Devices Report The study report shall be presented in tables and on composite charts and shall include but not be limited to the following: 1.8 Transformers Consultant to review the project load profile and select transformers to obtain peak loading between 60-80%. 16.8. In order to qualify.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Electrical Standards floor mounting.9 Co-ordination Studies of Protective Devices 16. 7. Primary fuse to power the transformer. 2. 8. Main secondary 400 volt system circuit breakers. 5.1 High Efficiency Transformers High efficiency transformers shall be investigated.9. Maximum available short circuit current of systems. completely enclosed control assembly and accommodating front mounting combination starters and circuit breakers. 4.2 Distribution Transformers Distribution transformers for lighting and convenience loads shall be 3-phase. Distribution transformers shall be suitable for installation in the selected location. phase to ground. 16. All motor starters shall be equipped to provide under-voltage release and overload protection on all three phases. 3.

unit substation primary and secondary terminals. 2. full-size. Maximum available fault current. Time-current curves graphically indicating the co-ordination proposed for the system. Calculate short circuit interrupting and momentary (when applicable) duties for an assumed 3-phase bolted fault at each supply switchgear line up. 2. short circuit kVA. Establish the required settings for all ground fault relays. 3 phase and phase to ground for the 400 volt system. log-log forms. Include on the curve sheets power company relay and fuse characteristics. function.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Electrical Standards 9. 4. 10. Include with each curve sheet a complete title and one-line diagram with legend identifying the specific portion of the system covered by that particular curve sheet. Largest 230 volt distribution breaker and characteristics.2 Short Circuit and Protective Device Evaluation and Co-ordination Study In the short circuit study. source impedance data including power company system characteristics. Include in tabulations fault impedance. the base per unit quantities selected. and recommendations. 12. switchboard. typical calculations. motor control centre. pickup. system medium voltage equipment relay and fuse characteristics. and time delay settings. Calculation methods and assumptions. The short circuit study shall be performed with the aid of a digital computer program and shall be in accordance with the latest applicable IEEE and ANSI standards. Maximum available fault currents. low voltage equipment circuit 4 March 2009 R1 . distribution panel board. X to R ratios. 3 phase and phase-to-ground for the 230 volt system. tabulations of calculation quantities and results. 3. single line diagrams. 16. and time-current characteristics. asymmetry factors. conclusions. 14. motor contribution. provide: 1. Maximum available fault current RMS symmetrical at each panel. low-voltage switchgear line up. Main 230 volt breaker and characteristics. including the associated zero sequence impedance data. centred on conventional. 13.3 Protective Device Co-ordination Study In the protective device co-ordination study. 4. Tabulate recommended device tap. 3. Include a detailed description of each protective device identifying its type. pertinent branch circuit panel board.9. provide: 1.9. 16. time dial. manufacturer. and symmetrical and asymmetrical fault currents. instantaneous. Provide a ground fault current study for the same system areas. and other significant locations throughout the system. 11.

16. 4.9. Tabulations of all protection and configuration settings for each microprocessor based protection relays including multifunction protection relays for branch feeders and motor protection relays. Description. For motor control circuits. Show the generator decrement curve and damage curve along with the operating characteristic of the protective devices. 8. pertinent transformer characteristics. Include all adjustable settings for ground fault protective devices. and commentary regarding same. Lighting and power circuit feeders shall be meggered and the insulation resistance between live parts and ground shall not be less than that specified in the Trinidad & Tobago regulations.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Electrical Standards breaker trip device characteristics. include phase and ground co-ordination of the generator protective devices. fuse and other protective devices ratings versus calculated short circuit duties. 6. and characteristics of other system load protective devices. When emergency generator is provided. 3.4 second time margin. 2. 9. pertinent motor and generator characteristics.5 Insulation Resistance Tests Insulation resistance tests shall be performed for all wiring and equipment installed. Insulation resistance tests shall be performed with a 500V megger instrument for equipment up to 350V and with 1000V megger for 350-600V circuits and recorded in log book for reference. fuse selection.4 Power System Study Report The results of the power system study shall be summarized in a final report and shall include the following sections: 1. Tabulations of circuit breaker.9. Separate medium voltage relay characteristic curves from curves for other devices by a least 0. Obtain the information from the generator manufacturer and include the generator actual impedance value. 16. 5. Include manufacturing tolerance and damage bands in plotted fuse characteristics. 5. basis and scope of the study. time constants and current boost data in the study. 7. Do not use typical values for the generator. Include at least all devices down to largest branch circuit and largest feeder circuit breaker in each motor control centre. and main breaker in branch panel boards. and commentary regarding same. Fault current calculations including a definition of terms and guide for interpretation of computer printout. purpose. tabulations of relay and circuit breaker trip settings. and commentary. show the MCC full load current plus symmetrical and asymmetrical of the largest motor starting current and time to ensure protective devices will not trip during major or group start operation. 5 March 2009 R1 . Protective device time versus current co-ordination curves. 10.

overload and low voltage protection and A.2 Emergency Lighting Emergency lighting shall be battery operated units and heads.1 Fluorescent lamps Fluorescent lamps shall be T-8 4100°K. high/low rate with indicating and pilot light. Lamps shall be provided with single or multi-lamp ballasts. Each battery unit shall be a sealed lead acid type. long life cells in plastic cases and ten (10) year design life. A D. as indicated on drawings. spaced and located to enclosure proper temperature conditions. solid state.6.6. They shall be 24 volt with indicated capacity for one (1) hour (to 91% voltage) operation and shall be in a standard shelf mounted cabinet. Each battery unit shall have an integral charger which shall be fully automatic.C.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Electrical Standards 16.9.6 Lamps 16. and have integrally mounted 24 volt sealed beam or quality halogen lamps. Ballasts separately mounted shall be accessible. approved for the type. ballasts shall be integrally mounted with the fixture housing and thus approved for the enclosure and ventilation.000 hours (average). 6 March 2009 R1 .9.9. 230 volt line cord and plug. high power factor. voltage and rating of lamp. 16. low harmonic distortion and shall be approved for use with T8 fluorescent lamps. Ballasts capacitors shall not contain PCB’s. Unless otherwise indicated. 2900 (initial) lumens 75 CRI and unless otherwise specified.C. test switch. fused block shall be provided for load circuits together with conduit entry. also for the operating and starting temperature of the ballasts. Fluorescent ballasts shall be rapid start electronic energy conserving. shall be rapid start and life rated at 20. meters. load transfer.

PLANT. mildew and fungus conductive environment. heavy rainfall. Junction boxes and interface cabinets as required. 3. A detailed engineering specification of all major components. or it can be operated in AUTO mode using the control program in the PLC/RPU. All materials and equipment supplied shall be suitable for being delivered. the closer the control switch is to the equipment. the equipment is activated based on START/STOP pushbuttons. Fire Alarm System.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Instrumentation & Control Section 17 Instrumentation & Control General Conform to the design standard as stipulated herein to ensure that the design of all instrumentation and control systems are uniform and consistent for seamless integration to existing system. If controlled through the PLC/RPU. When in the REMOTE position. the equipment is controlled by the programmable logic controller/remote processing unit (PLC/RPU) or is connected directly (hardwired) to the circuit of another piece of equipment. All field instruments. 1 March 2009 R1 . Connection of common alarms and status signals from VAC and other process area to the Local Control Panel for connections into the PLC/RPU. The LOCAL position overrides all other control modes including PLANT. Local Control Panels (for equipment control and monitoring). When in the AUTO mode . and the installation. and all associated instrumentation for each process area shall be included as part of the engineering assignment. the higher its precedence to control the equipment. The main instrumentation and control components shall be interconnected to establish a complete control hierarchy. the equipment is controlled in either MANUAL or AUTO mode from the PLANT level. Security System. testing and commissioning of these instruments. As a general rule. and the SCADA system. 6. 4. the equipment can be controlled in MANUAL mode through the Human Machine Interface (HMI). Instrumentation & Control General Information The main components of the Instrumentation & Control systems are listed below: 1. Local Control Switch All equipment shall be provided with a local control switch with LOCAL-REMOTE positions. 2. stored and operated under tropical conditions of high temperature. When in the LOCAL position. high humidity. 5.

17. required for full monitoring and controlling of the process area. and manual switches. The control hierarchy shall define how the field equipment. The signals will connect to the SCADA system through the PLC/RPU. valves. On-site functional acceptance tests (SAT) Design of I&C System 17. and the PLC/RPU programming will ensure fail-safe conditions result. These will be reviewed for conformity with the guidelines and will form as a part of the documentation package. the same equipment and safety interlocks will still apply (when hardwired).1. The display may be an HMI workstation. switches.2 Interlocks In LOCAL control from the Local Control Panel. indicator. software interlocks are sufficient to provide adequate protection. etc. controller. to the SCADA system. Factory or office simulation acceptance tests (FAT) 3. PLC/RPU and SCADA workstations are interrelated to provide a complete process control system. All automatic control shall be achieved by auto-programs in the PLC/RPU. Drawing/Specifications review 2. in the event of equipment or instrumentation failure.e. as defined during the design stage. the PLC/RPU software interlocks shall no longer be functional. which provides all recorder.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Instrumentation & Control The engineering will include detailed drawings showing connection of the instruments and equipment status signals into a Local Control Panel. A review of the SCADA system and the software implementation of the process design requirements will be undertaken and include as a minimum. pumps. It shall be provided with a display and keyboard. The following interlocks are possible hardwired protective interlocks and several of these are intrinsic to the design of motor control systems and each system must be evaluated on an individual basis. but operator action will be required to initiate equipment control. Control actions and the philosophy for control of the process will be defined by means of Process & Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs) and control narratives. Process control systems shall include varying levels of hardwired and software interlocks to ensure safety of the personnel as well as the automatic control systems and its interlocks inputs into the PLC/RPU. but may provide limited status monitoring of other associated areas. totalizer. which will also act as a termination cabinet for all input and output signals to and from the PLC/RPU dedicated to the process area. In several instances.1. 2 March 2009 R1 . This device will connect all field devices. Any personnel or equipment safety interlocks must be protected by means of hardwired interlocks.1 Design Criteria The PLC/RPU shall only control equipment associated with the local area of the process. annunciator. In MANUAL modes of control. flow meters. depending on the system architecture design. the following items: 1. Normal operation shall be in AUTO mode. i. which will interrupt operation of the equipment until the condition is reset in the field.

etc. Flow No flow conditions . the PIU will review the tender documents of the specified instruments and models. Field instrument enclosures shall be rated in accordance with the hazardous area classification assigned to the area. Gas Detection Personnel protection against hazardous and/or explosive gases and lack of oxygen.1. All instruments shall be provided with isolation devices. and the configuration of the facility. pumps. Pump shafts. and rain. 3 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Instrumentation & Control Hardwired protective interlocks shall be provided in accordance with the following table: Interlock Application Pressure Protection of piping. shall be provided with tip-up type hoods. and. Current Motor overcurrent protection. closed valves. Those with viewing dials.running pumps dry. High level overflow protection (chemical tanks.3 Field Instrument The PLC/RPU panel shall be located as required by the system architecture design. All instruments mounted outdoors shall be in weather tight enclosures and should be suitable for operating temperatures from 0 to +50 deg. reservoirs. Level Low level cutouts of pumps. Valves must be installed on all instrument lines to allow for its removal without disruption to the process. During preliminary and detailed design. Vibration/Motion Damage to motor/pump/piping from excessive vibration. 17.). Prime/Seal Pump protection. All instruments mounted outdoors shall be provided with hoods formed by three sides and a sloping roof. Voltage Motor over/undervoltage protection.). and Low pressure protection for run out conditions Temperature High temperature protection against overheating (motors. Torque Valves . Field instruments shall be standardized to a minimal acceptable number of different vendor’s equipment to minimize the stocking of different spare parts for water and wastewater treatment plants. etc. to provide protection against sun. valves. etc. or that require access for routine calibration.end of travel protection. Electrical switches must be located near the equipment to allow for isolation while servicing or installing instruments. pumps from high pressures (pipe blockages.). and. Limit Pump/valve operation in combination (pump discharge valves). C.

2. 3. taking into account both minimum and maximum values. Where field instruments such as analyzers require a 230V AC power supply. In cases where existing 0- 10Vdc or other signals exist. The output of the transmitter should be 4- 20 mA. 4.4 Indicators Indicators shall be provided with the following characteristics: 1. or required due to process conditions. this must be run in separate conduit from the signal cables. Where manual operation of valves or other equipment is required. All analogue instrumentation loops shall be 4-20 mA current loops (and 2 wire wherever possible).1. DC power supplies within the Local Control Panel shall be provided with power to the transmitters via fused terminal blocks or mini-circuit breakers.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Instrumentation & Control Local indicators shall be provided for all transmitters. The shields should be terminated and grounded to a dedicated instrument ground bar at the Local Control Panel end only. the indicator shall be located adjacent to the valve or equipment local control panel. 17. incorporate these instruments into the PLC/RPU. 3. based on a transmitter signal value. 4. which is not located in close proximity to high voltage power cables.5 Instrumentation Loops (Analogue) All instrumentation loops shall be designed to conform to the following requirements: 1.1. The signal cables should be shielded twisted pairs and should run through metal conduit. Unless specified otherwise. calibrated instrument ranges shall be selected such that the normal operating value will be between 50 and 75 percent of scale. Field mounted instruments generally require an identification number only. Nameplates carrying instrument/equipment numbers and services shall be provided for all equipment requiring manual operation (located locally at the equipment controls). 17. Dedicated or conventional analogue panel instruments such as chart recorders or indicators are not required unless specifically stipulated. There shall be no dedicated or conventional analogue panel instruments such as chart recorders or indicators unless specifically stipulated. and must be electrically isolated from the power supply. 4 March 2009 R1 . Local indicators shall read as follows: • Temperature – direct reading in °C • Level – 0-100 uniform as % of calibrated range • Flow – direct reading in m3/hr • Pressure – direct reading in bars or metres 2.

It is not necessary for all processes to be automated as this increases capital cost considerably without any real benefit.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Instrumentation & Control 17. 2. push-button operation of multiple solenoid routing valves instead of numerous levers. 4. 7. refers to the use of events. provide tracking software in the PLC/RPU to allow bump less transfers from local to computer control. Control circuits shall use normally open push-buttons and avoid the use of switches to simplify the interface to the PLC/RPU. the output shall be in the “normally closed” status when the PLC/RPU is energised. 2. The use of mercury switches for such purposes. 3. The PLC/RPU shall use momentary contacts instead of maintained ones in order to provide smooth bump less transfers without using tracking software. timing intervals or other trigger actions to affect control output to field devices in response to process changes. the PLC/RPU must be programmed to track all operator-initiated actions and adjust its output accordingly. Automation. Regardless of the mode of control. 5. These interposing relays shall be provided and installed in the Local Control Panel. Start. 5 March 2009 R1 . all digital output signals from the PLC/RPU will be 230V AC. etc.1. 6. and where the manual operation of such a process is not feasible for prolonged periods of time.7 Automation of Treatment Process In determining which process should be automated. the following factors should be taken into account. Complete hardwired automatic control systems shall be implemented where it is deemed that the process is critical to the facility operation. Local Control Panel LED’s and in general. when the process is under PLANT control. Where maintained contacts must be used. is not permissible in the water and wastewater treatment plants. When LOCAL (at the equipment) control is required (maintenance. Provide an interposing relay to maintain contact. or to continue running in the event of a PLC/RPU failure. 17.6 Control Circuits All control circuits shall be designed to conform to the following requirements: 1. 1. all digital inputs to the PLC/RPU will be DC (nominal 24V DC) sourced from a power supply in the Local Control Panel or PLC/RPU cabinet. stop commands and in general. or for any other purposes. Status inputs from equipment. For PLC/RPU outputs that have electronic devices rather than mechanical relays. All equipment controlled by the PLC/RPU must be evaluated as to whether it is required to stop. or operational mode changes due to equipment failure) automation in this context refers to provision of electrically powered actuators instead of hand wheels. The PLC/RPU tracking software shall provide smooth transfers by ensuring that the output of the PLC/RPU reflects the condition of the field equipment status. 3. This 230V AC shall be “sourced” from the equipment starter (MCC).1.

3. Start/Stop. • Uncommanded open/start or close/stop. 9. 4. Run indicator. (Initial plant start-up and commissioning modes should be considered here. the valve position (limit switches) and its service status (local/remote) is required.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Instrumentation & Control 4. 17. • Process parameters and analytical instruments. The PLC/RPU shall also monitor: • Equipment fails to open/start or fail to close/stop. • Power Supply loss of phase. 11. Where motorized valves are installed. do not implement automation. LOCAL-REMOTE. and the level of the manual operation required is not significant.8 Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Control All VFD’s shall be provided with a digital operator control module for control and indication of the following: 1. Equipment used infrequently should not be automated but shall be provided with full manual control unless stipulated otherwise. 10. For control of manual valves from the PLC/RPU in future automatic programs. 7. Where the increased downtime required by a manual changeover is not important. the control system shall generate an alarm immediately. For manually operated valves whose position is required to be known by the SCADA system. Should the equipment fail to start after three consecutive attempts. provide control wiring from the manual valve to the Local Control Panel or PLC/RPU cabinet at the time of construction. An alarm shall be generated and indicated at the SCADA workstations. • The control system shall generate an alarm immediately through the SCADA system. the control system shall inhibit any further attempts to start the piece of equipment. 2. The PLC/RPU shall monitor all equipment and should the equipment fail to stop.) 5. 8. Provide automatic control for equipment that is operated on a frequent basis. which will be displayed through the SCADA system. • Equipment status. Load indicator 0-100%. 6 March 2009 R1 . The PLC/RPU shall monitor the number of starts per hour and should the number of starts exceed the setting of the program an alarm shall be generated. 6. 5. field alarm conditions. Speed indicator 0-100%. position indications via limit switches shall be provided.1. etc. Manual speed adjustment. 6.

and conduit and wiring installed from the panel to the PLC/RPU cabinet location. 7 March 2009 R1 . LOCAL-REMOTE switch and associated pushbuttons to allow for the pumps to operate in the event of float control failure and/or maintenance. 3. for the future installation of communication cables. and alarming. Turn second duty pump on if first duty pump fails to start. 17. 4. 15 A lighting panel supply. loops to be from assigned blocks. as an interface for all signals between the field equipment and the PLC/RPU.10 PLC/RPU Interface Terminals. 17. 17. the drive shall stay shut down until the fault is removed and the drive reset locally at the starter. A minimum of three 230V AC. etc. 17. 2. shall be supplied. all terminals. wire tags. cycling pumps based on starts/runtime. 5. Automatic program capable of starting/stopping pumps based on wet well level. from the same phase. Additional dedicated conduit runs shall be provided from the PLC/RPU cabinet location to the designated building cable tray or cable access point.12 Documentation Documentation and drawings are to be included as part of the complete Instrumentation & Control/SCADA package.1. ISA tag numbers shall be used for PI&D’s. Process & Instrument Diagrams (P&ID’s) showing tag numbers of all inputs and outputs.1.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Instrumentation & Control 7. duty control.1. 4-20 mA current loops from field transmitters shall be provided with 250 ohm termination resistors at or within the terminal blocks in the Local Control Panel or PLC/RPU cabinet. For a VFD/motor control system. shall be allowed for.1.11 Services Electrical supplies for the PLC/RPU panel shall be provided. Hardwired float control to start/stop pump on PLC failure. in the event of a shutdown of the variable frequency drive due to a fault condition. Provide process/control narratives in the English language. Power-on indicator.9 Pump Control Systems for Wastewater Pumping Stations Standard pump control systems and alarm points connected to the PLC/RPU shall include the following: 1. Loop drawings for analog devices showing clearly the relationship between primary and final elements. Electronic level sensor used to monitor wet well level.

Instrument range and engineering units. 5. monitor. Interface wiring definition in tabular format. 6. 17. 8 March 2009 R1 . DI. Submission of the information in both hard copy and CD-ROM is required. Local control panel terminal block identification. the Consultants shall provide the following information at start- up and commissioning. safety.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Instrumentation & Control Provide all logic flow diagram of control functions and actions to control process including normal start-up. control. The tabular format shall be produced in a MS-Excel/MS-Access file format. 9. emergency shut-down and alarm scenarios. A paperwork system based on simple checklist procedure to monitor the ongoing maintenance. Process function or service. 3. Field contact status to achieve function (for DIs) or analog signal type (4-20 mA). Recommended routine maintenance. showing interface terminations between old and new equipment. 10. 2. 1. PLC/RPU cabinet termination point. showing field and interface terminations. 3. WASA shall commence the implementation of a preventive maintenance program.1. DO. Dimension layout drawings of local panel(s) with full legend plate and bill of material information for internal and panel mounted equipment. Equipment and instrumentation list for the specific area. 7. providing the following information with the following headings: 1. normal shut-down. 2. 4.13 Preventive Maintenance Program After the start-up and commissioning of equipment. Record drawings for all modifications within existing panels or cabinets. interlock). alternating and calibrating programs for the above items. In order to ensure that the preventative maintenance program is properly carried out. Setting (as required for function – alarm. Local control panel(s) wiring diagrams. 8. Instrument/signal identification number. Calibrated range. Software function required (alarm. interlock). AI or AO with respect to PLC/RPU.

Commissioning of the process area on LOCAL and PLANT-MANUAL control via the PLC/RPU. to check functionality. to minimize site work. “Commissioning” includes operation of equipment using initially simulated interlock and alarm signals where necessary. These checks may require further calibration of field instruments.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Instrumentation & Control 17. It also requires completion of loop checks from field instruments by simulated or quantifiable process inputs to the terminals in the Local Control Panel. and 100%). 9 March 2009 R1 . for interface with the PLC/RPU. and on AUTO control via the PLC/RPU must be completed. and verification of equipment performance against manufacturer’s data sheets by shop calibration over a minimum of five points (0.14 Testing and Commissioning Testing and commissioning of all plants’ instrumentation and control circuits from the field instrument up to and including manual control from the Local Control Panel and appropriate status indication shall be provided.1. 75. or fabricated panels should be performed wherever possible. Pre-delivery inspection and testing of instrumentation and controls for “package” equipment. 25. 50. “Testing” includes wiring integrity and setting of field adjustable instruments according to specifications.

All design and development of I&C and SCADA systems need to follow these standards. 18. Consultants shall apply directives from the following documents in order of preference: WASA has developed SCADA System and Management Standards related to I&C and SCADA systems. Consultants shall refer to the following documents produced by Genivar – MAAK as part of the WASA Masterplan: . Easily expandable for future additions of new sites and interconnection of plants 4.SSP2 . Storage/retrieval of short and long term historical data 3.Genivar / MAAK May 2008 If specifically indicated as not applicable or if the specific item is not covered by these reports. Real-time control and monitoring 2. consideration should be given for the inclusion of such a system in new plants or retrofitting to existing plants when they are expanded or upgraded in the future. Monitors personnel safety 4.1 SCADA Operating Characteristics The Supervisory.SCADA System Standards – Genivar / MAAK May 2008 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual SCADA System Section 18 SCADA System General The use of the SCADA system technology in water and wastewater treatment plants in Trinidad & Tobago has not been systematic. Open architecture systems that will permit future applications or existing applications to migrate to this environment based on industry standards 1 March 2009 R1 . The SCADA system offers the following advantages: 1.SCADA Project Delivery . Monitors plant effluent and water quality With confirmation from WASA. Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA) shall be designed to have the following characteristics: 1. unless specifically told otherwise by WASA in writing. Monitors plant security 5. Reduces plant energy consumption from process equipment 2. Reduces plant consumption of chemical by monitoring and feedback to the chemical metering system 3. However. the following recommendations (following sections) shall be applied.SSP3 .

all plant processes with analogue control capacities shall be fully automated through the SCADA system. All automatic process control programs shall reside in the PLC/RPU. 18. The system architecture must be open and easily expandable to permit future additions as well as allowing future applications or existing applications to migrate to this environment. has two distinct levels of control. All hardware and software (PLC/RPU programming and HMI application) must be standard off- the-shelf products requiring no customization of any kind. Water distribution systems shall include all associated pumping stations. The system shall be fully capable of archiving historical data and it must be capable of generating reports based on historical data as required. including that of the water distribution system and wastewater collection system. reservoirs. which will provide a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to the operators for real-time control and monitoring of the facility or system. PLANT 2 March 2009 R1 . PLC 2. zone valve chambers. Unless specifically instructed in the Request for Proposal that automation in the facility is not required. except for the FIELD level. Wastewater collection systems shall include all pumping stations and flow monitoring sites.2 SCADA System Requirements The system must be fully capable of real-time control and monitoring of all automated process operations within the water treatment plant and wastewater treatment plant.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System The SCADA system has a Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment. pressure reducing chambers and flow monitoring sites. which are as follows: 1. All process standby equipment shall be configured such that it can be operated in a fully automatic control mode under the PLC/RPU or manually controlled and monitored from the SCADA workstation(s). 18.3 SCADA System Control Levels The SCADA System. in the water distribution system and wastewater collection system on a continuous basis. All automatic processes must also be configured to allow fully manual control of all process equipment from any workstation within the system.

it shall control and monitor selected equipment and parameters.2 Level 1 – Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) LEVEL 1 includes the PLC/RPU and all automatic programs shall be configured to reside there. The REMOTE mode selection is made through the SCADA workstations or an operator interface at LEVEL 2 (PLANT) of the hierarchy. Communication between PLCs/RPUs will be selected on a site-by-site basis dependent upon the needs of the system. metering pumps and so forth. This layer also contains the Local/Remote switch that enables the equipment to be controlled locally at this level through pushbuttons or remotely in the subsequent levels. given the correct security clearance. either PLT-MAN or PLT- AUTO modes of control. They also provide the interface between SCADA.O. or other mediums dependent on the available systems at the sites involved.1 Field (Local) The FIELD layer is not identified as a control level. monitoring and alarming resides at this level. The information gathered at this level may be transferred to Level 1. 18. through a software switch. The plant auto mode will transfer control to the automatic program residing in the PLC. limit switches. blowers. but may involve remote site links via telephone lines. the operators shall be capable of controlling all equipment through the selection of control modes and setting of set points. The field devices consist of the hardwired interlocks and the emergency stop pushbuttons.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 18. which is determined on a case-by-case basis. the operator will select. the process is critical to the operation of the facility. because this level will exist for all equipment. There will be no automatic control available at this level unless. From this location. field instruments and equipment. They include devices/equipment such as air flow measurement instrument. The Local Control Panel is intended to provide back-up control in the case of failure of the PLC/RPU at Level 1.3. even those devices not connected to the SCADA system. the operator can start/stop equipment from the SCADA workstation or operator interface. 3 March 2009 R1 . Through any workstation. chlorinators. In PLANT mode. 18. the Graphic User Interface (GUI) shall provide a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to the operator for total control of the plant through workstation(s) in PLANT mode of control. Equipment supervision and alarm generation are tasks that are done at this level and reported to the SCADA level. where PLCs/RPUs provide an interface between the field devices and the HMI of the SCADA system. level transmitters. Communication links at this level are generally at the plant level. D. All control. This level of control will have access to all monitored points and data in the plant. In the plant manual mode. This also includes all field mounted instruments and equipment that directly or indirectly controls the process.3.3 Level 2 – PLANT At the PLANT level. modulating valves. and would be difficult to operate under changing conditions (see instrumentation and control).3.

7. through the HMI. There must be no duplication in configuration. In PLANT AUTO modes of control. all process related control system shall be of the two levels of control. Under PLANT MANUAL control. 4. Start/stop both systems from primary server. Global points are synchronized as are changes to alarm limits and the disabling of alarms. 5. The SCADA system shall be provided with integrated support for a secondary server to take over data collection in the event of a failure of the primary server and must be capable of: 1. 2. Automatic failover to secondary server. 8. Merge the two databases on recovery of a failure. 3. it shall provide all the operating information such as historical trending. Configuration provides for automatic update of secondary computer when the primary computer is updated. statuses and alarm are synchronised on both servers. All automatic control programs shall be resident in the local PLC/RPU wherever practical for devices frequently operated. Regardless of the Terms of Reference. Real-Time Control and Monitoring The configuration of the SCADA system architecture is to be based on the open distributed control concept. Run-time point values. and provides a link to other systems. the equipment is controlled by local switches and pushbuttons at the equipment. real-time trending and alarm prioritizing. All signals from the HMI are transferred to the PLC/RPU where the appropriate control actions are carried out. logs data. The Consultants shall provide a two level control hierarchy for all process related equipment. At this level the system generates reports. 6. Under LOCAL control. the PLC/RPU will be controlling all of the associated process equipment based on setpoints and process feedback. the equipment is controlled manually through the HMI system located in the plant/system. 4 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System At the PLANT Level. where required. Must automatically alarm when a communication error is detected and the graphic displays are changed to reflect error.

Notwithstanding the above. Safety of Personnel 2. the following list details the standard required for the process narratives to be provided by Consultants: 1.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System Automatic Control Equipment that is normally frequently operated shall be automated and software interlocks will be provided in the automatic program to protect equipment and personnel. indicate the valve fail status in a pop up menu. provide individual override buttons. all equipment shall be inhibited from further starting after three (3) failed attempts by the PLC/RPU. the software control logic in the PLC/RPU must inhibit starting of the motor. If the valve fails to open or close within the specified time. Security of the Process 5 March 2009 R1 . For all equipment that uses a 4-20 ma control system. For processes involving several pieces of equipment. Provide multiple start protection for all process equipment. the motor shall be hard-wired to permit manual start-up at the local control switch even with the discharged valve in the opened position. For process that is critical to the facility operation and where manual operation of such processes is not feasible for prolong periods of time. provide a pop up menu to set-up the equipment duty setting. All setpoints must be accessible through the HMI. Control Process Narratives For each process. provide pop-up windows to indicate the setpoint in AUTO mode. In the event of a transmitter failure. However. This protection shall be provided for all REMOTE modes of operation. In the MANUAL mode. Minimum Equipment Control Requirements Pump discharge valves are a function of their respective pumps and do not require on screen independent control. Safety interlocks shall also be incorporated for all manual operation through the SCADA system. This includes both local and compound loop controllers. provide a box on the menu such that a setpoint can be entered. such as a High Lift Pumping Station. Provide a separate fault reset button for process equipment’s software interlocks. local automatic control system shall be implemented. the status of the valve must be shown. Infrequently operated equipment shall be capable of manual operation through the SCADA System. Maintain all software protection provided for any equipment in AUTO mode while they are operated in the MANUAL mode through the HMI. Indicate failure status by a pop-up window. In general. Provide software reset for this protection. If the pump discharge valve is in an opened position.

Tagging/Description The format used to describe the required process operation and automatic control sequences to be implemented in the PLC/RPU shall be as follows. Field Adjustable Timers (Equipment. 4.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 3. Logic Flow Diagrams 5. Emergency Procedures (Shutdowns. The extent of each of these building blocks is defined in terms of the material going in and out of each block. etc. alarm acknowledgement. Virtual Points generated by PLC/RPU and/or HMI 6. Troubleshooting 10. This sub-process performs a distinct function that is the first major “building block” of the entire process. These standards and typically defined in other documents. This avoids repeatedly describing it in the more detailed information that follows. Software Interlocks 4. I/O interface. Options for Process Control 7.) 9. Setpoints for Each Process 8. BACKGROUND Presents the terms of reference and purpose of the document. PROCESS OVERVIEW This Chapter introduces the entire process and briefly describes the major steps involved and their sequence. 3. 5. Also include information that is common to all equipment but not described in other documents. 6 March 2009 R1 . This section briefly describes the major functions of this sub-process and its scope. SYSTEM 1. Any general deviation from the above standards should be elaborated upon in sub-sections. A list of these documents should be included here. alarm horns. 1. Sub Process #1 Title This title identifies the first portion of the process that uses one or more pieces of major equipment. These could include control modes. etc. GENERAL 2. It is intended to outline the scope of the work and its general form. CONTROL SYSTEM STANDARDS This Chapter refers to the standard methods or guidelines that are being conformed to in the work. Modes of Operation) 11.

equipment code. Control Modes The locations from where each component may be controlled are listed here. For AUTO logic which is hard wired. stop). Control Logic Control logic shall be used for any equipment required to be operated in the AUTO mode. If the equipment is PLC/RPU controlled. then all PLC/RPU logic needed for this equipment shall be defined in detail.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 2. 5. The responses to all possible alarms or failure are listed (if this varies from a standard that has been referenced). When this information is unavailable.3. and location shall be presented here. 18. SCADA Node Status 2. the default operation is defined. The following shall be the minimum screen display requirements for the SCADA system. 3. Enable/Disable Alarm Horns 7 March 2009 R1 . Equipment Runtimes 3. 4. Repeat as needed for all sub-processes. comply with the standards as referred to herein. List of I/O Points All instrument signals for this equipment are listed here. a large pump has 3 digital inputs (status. a description of this shall be provided. The options button on the Menu bar will provide miscellaneous information as follows and details will be decided on a per plant/process basis: 1. Totalizers 4. For example. Any time delays involved in these actions must also be specified. Sub Process # 2 Title This is the next major “building block” of the process (if it exists). 6.4 Screen Screen display shall be organized to provide various displays in predictable order. This includes definition of all input information required by this logic to operate correctly. Sub process # 2 to be prepared as per Sub Process #1 above. general alarm) and 2 digital outputs (start. control mode. Equipment A list of equipment including a brief description. these are noted here. If there are any exceptions to the standards. grouped by device. If standard methods are used. along with any specific setpoints.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 18.3. There may or may not be display screens at each level in the hierarchy. Equipment Specific The detailed view and the equipment specific screens form the contents of the pop-up screen. Generally. Process Overview The process overview is further sub-divided into the following: 1. trends. trends.3. Screens 2. and enter setpoints. A flowchart illustrating the display hierarchy is noted below. reports and event logs are each placed on a different screen. Control 8 March 2009 R1 . the structure should be maintained so that future graphics developments are similar.5 Button Bars Button bar shall be provided at the top of every screen with the following buttons to enable the operator to navigate between screens: 1. with increasingly detailed displays towards the bottom of the hierarchy. Detailed Views 2. Reports 4. Three main divisions in the display hierarchy for overview screens include: 1. Process 7. However. Map 6. 18. Alarms 5. System Overview (if applicable) 2. Setpoints 9. Process Narratives 18. The button bar is displayed at the top of all screens which allows the operator to navigate from one display screen to another.7 Pop-Up Screen Pop-Ups are generally accessed by clicking on the equipment icon from a process screen.3. Alarms.6 Overview Screens Provide the display hierarchy with the least detailed displays at the top. view the alarm page summary. three categories of programmable pop-ups exist: 1. Plant Overview 3. Options 8. Trends 3. reports.

Model Number 9 March 2009 R1 . Control the device (when in PLT-MAN mode) A three-state device pop-up is similar to a two-state one. If the device is a VFD or a modulating valve. or change the operating mode from within a control pop-up. they all permit the operator to interact with the equipment and its associated device specific setpoints and control outputs. etc. model #.3. The information pop-ups do not allow the operator to control the equipment. A typical three-state device pop-up allows an operator to: 1.3. 18. Information 3. Tag Number 2. Make 3. Changing the mode or state of a device from the control screen is done by clicking on the button (Auto/Manual or Start/Stop). Control the device (when in PLT-MAN mode) 4. Change the device’s operating mode from PLT-MAN to PLT-AUTO 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 2. The pop-ups shall be accessible either by clicking on the Main Menu or by clicking at a particular device. Information pop-ups are called by selecting the “Information” button which will reside on the control pop-up for a device. make. Control pop-ups vary with each type of device or control element. 18. Manually set the speed (VFD) or a percentage open (modulating valve) in the PLT-MAN mode 5. The information pop-up will include generic information as follows: 1. A typical two-state (on/off or open/close) device pop-up allows an operator to: 1. Change the mode of operation (depending on the operating philosophy) 3. The operator can operate the device. in manual mode.8 Control Pop-Ups Screens Although there are several types of control pop-ups. Change the mode of operation (depending on the operating philosophy) 3. the operator can enter the desired setpoint by clicking on the user input box and using the electronic keypad to enter the setpoints. Change the device’s operating mode from PLT-MAN to PLT-AUTO 2. which will allow the operator to interact quickly with the HMI. Setpoints Create appropriate pop-ups for both control and information control layouts that provide non- confusing layouts and language to the operator.9 Information Pop-Ups Screens Information pop-ups provide information about equipment such as tag #.

Duty pump setting 3. 10 March 2009 R1 . Plant setpoints 2. The operator can also change the setpoints for the alarms associated with that transmitter provided he/she has the correct access level to do so. etc. 4. Setpoint pop-ups can be classified into 2 types: 1. 1. The following is the standardized HMI alarming technique. 2. as mentioned above. intended to attract operator attention to a specific condition. This contains a description of the analog value being scanned. brings up the transmitter pop-up. Plant setpoints will include the following where required: 1. non-critical alarms and advisory or warning alarms. 3. the units and the setpoints associated with the alarms for that date.10 Setpoint Pop-Up Screens The setpoint pop-up allows the operator to enter values for parameters that are used to control the process. Plant Maintenance Information System Number 5. Alarm setpoints An operator will be able to enter plant setpoints by clicking on the “Setpoints” button on the main button bar. The operators can then choose the process(s) or transmitter they want to view and change setpoints. Equipment start/stop times 2. The alarm page will be accessible through the button bar located at the top of the screen. Alarm An alarm is a device or a function that signals the existence of a critical or abnormal condition by means of an audible and/or visible indication. These can be visibly indicated by the usage of colour and/or animation of the associated device.3.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 4. The Alarm setpoints can be accessed by clicking on the analog value display which will bring the transmitter (alarm setpoint) pop-up. Location 18. The operator can disable or enable the alarms as well as the scan for the transmitter. The alarms will be categorized into critical alarms. The alarm setpoint screen. pressure. Alarms can be displayed by changing the colour or state of the equipment and/or by printing an alarm summary on an alarm summary display. The critical alarm screen will pop-up regardless of the screen that is being currently being viewed. Process setpoints including start/stop flows.

). The process area associated with an active alarm will flash to indicate the presence of an alarm. all acknowledged alarms. All unacknowledged alarms shall be displayed in flashing red and acknowledged alarms be displayed in white.). tag name. alm. Alarms will be acknowledged through an acknowledge button. if it is still in an alarm condition. lo. the event (ack. The alarm summary page will provide the following information. comment. time it was acknowledged. This status shall be maintained even if the workstation crashes and has to be rebooted ie it must maintain its alarm status prior to the workstation crash. Trends/Reports Provide trends and reports to enable the evaluation of the performance of the system and make qualitative decisions about the processes. Provide a system master reset switch for acknowledging all alarms. 11 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 5. summary. The master reset switch will acknowledge all alarms activated at that time. etc. priority. etc. Any alarm generated by the SCADA system must be capable of being acknowledged on a global basis from any workstation. Configure software to provide required reporting. This also includes those that are required by the EMA and WASA. This normally occurs when the workstation handling alarms crashes and has to be rebooted. date and time of occurrence for each alarm. rtn). as a minimum. configuration and production data. will be shown to be in an alarm condition. value and alarm state (unack_alm. The following pages include parameters for Water Treatment Plants and Wastewater Treatment Plants. At that time. 7. the type of alarm (hihi. trending etc and integrate plant data with event. ack_alm. 6.

11 Raw Water Monitoring Parameters (Water) Daily Weekly Quarterly Flow Rate Total Coliform Alkalinity pH Fecal Coliform Hardness Colour pH Calcium Turbidity Turbidity Sodium Temperature Colour Iron Conductivity Copper Total Chlorine Residual Lead Zinc Arsenic Aluminum Manganese Conductivity Chloride Sulphate Ammonia and Ammonium (N) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Nitrite Nitrate Dissolved Organic Carbon Phenols 12 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 18.3.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 18.12 Treated Water Monitoring Program (Water) Daily Weekly Quarterly Flow Rate Total Coliform Alkalinity pH Fecal Coliform Hardness Colour Standard Plate Count Calcium Turbidity Turbidity Sodium Temperature Colour Iron Free Chlorine Residual pH Copper Total Chlorine Residual Lead Zinc Arsenic Aluminum Manganese Conductivity Chloride Sulphate Ammonia and Ammonium (N) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Nitrite Nitrate Dissolved Organic Carbon Total Trihalomethanes 13 March 2009 R1 .3.

3.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 18.13 Distribution System Monitoring Program (Water) Weekly Quarterly Total Coliform Alkalinity Fecal Coliform Hardness Standard Plate Count Calcium Colour Sodium Iron Copper Lead Zinc Arsenic Aluminum Manganese Conductivity Chloride Sulphate Ammonia and Ammonium (N) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Nitrite Nitrate Dissolved Organic Carbon Total Trihalomethanes 14 March 2009 R1 .

16 Process Parameters Monitoring Program (Wastewater) Daily Weekly Monthly Dissolved Oxygen Percentage Total Solid in Digester Sludge Chlorine Used (Thrice a week) Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids Percentage Volatile Solids in Digested Other Chemicals Used Sludge (Thrice a week) Sludge Volume Index Grit Removed Waste Activated Sludge Screening Removed Return Activated Sludge Secondary Clarifier Sludge Blanket Level Primary Clarifier Sludge Blanket Level Chlorine Used Other Chemicals Used Primary Sludge to Digesters Digester Sludge Removed Digester Gas Total 15 March 2009 R1 .3.3.14 Raw Water Monitoring Program (Wastewater) Daily Weekly Monthly Total Plant Flow Suspended Solids (Twice a week) Total Plant Flow Plant By-Pass BOD5 Secondary By-Pass Total Phosphorus Suspended Solids Ammonia BOD5 TKN Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Ammonia TKN Nitrogen 18.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 18.3.15 Treated Water Monitoring Program (Wastewater) Daily Weekly Monthly Chlorine Residual Suspended Solids (Twice a week) BOD5 (Twice a week) Total Phosphorus (Twice a week) Ammonia (Twice a week) TKN Nitrogen (Twice a week) E-Coli 18.

7. WATER QUALITY – GENERAL 4. minimum. At the end of each week.3. FINISHED & WASH WATER 6. equipment run-time. Last 12 hours 3. Include daily average. Raw water turbidity and individual filter effluent turbidity.3. low and total. each calendar month and on an annual basis. PLANT FLOW MONTHLY REPORT . provide a summary for the year for the following: 1. 5. Include Monthly average. high.RAW WATER FLOW 1. PLANT FLOW MONTHLY SUMMARY 1. PLANT FLOW ANNUAL REPORT – RAW WATER FLOW 1. water quality etc on the following basis: 1. Last six months 7. PLANT FLOWS SUMMARY – RAW. low and total. 8. Last 7 days 5. WATER QUALITY LIMITS 2. Last 6 hours 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System Digester Gas Used Digester Gas Wasted Trend Display 18. WATER QUALITY – TURBIDITY 1. Last 24 hours 4. Include volume and percent of washwater and number of washes.18 Water Treatment Plant Operating Statistics The following operating statistics for water treatment plant and water supply system shall be produced for each 8-hour shift. Last 12 months 18. Each display page shall be configured for a 3-shift period with sub-total for each shift and the grand-total for each 24-hour period.17 Trend Display Requirements Graphical trending display shall be provided for all processes. Last one month 6. high. Include Annual average. maximum for raw and finished water. 16 March 2009 R1 . WATER QUALITY – DAILY REPORT 3.

CHEMICAL TREATMENT – ANNUAL REPORT 1. 19.DAILY REPORT 1. CHEMICAL TREATMENT – DAILY REPORT 1. volume and percent of wash water. WATER QUALITY MONTHLY REPORT 1.4. 16. Include operating time. headloss and turbidity. number of washes. status. average wash volume and net production. 11. volume filtered. volume filtered. 18. Include average dose and total consumed. daily total consumed and status. 12. LOH. current residual. WATER QUALITY RAW WATER TURBIDITY – MONTHLY REPORT 1. Provide monthly average. Number of filter washes. PLANT FLOWS . Individual filter water quality reporting average. total number of washes and total filtration rate. FILTER LIMITS 1.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 9. Include operating time. 2. Include total daily raw and finished water produced. 2. daily average. number of washes. Include service. flow. CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION SUMMARY . 14. high and low raw water turbidity in NTU. 10. Include current dose. NTU. Include maximum and minimum rate for raw and finished water.DAILY REPORT 1.2. WATER QUALITY LIMITS 17 March 2009 R1 . FILTER STATUS 1. volume filtered. Daily report of the average.17. FILTER ANNUAL REPORT 1. Include total consumed and average dosage rate. 17. high and low NTU. 20. monthly high and low. See 9. average wash volume and net production. operating time. Include filtration rate. set point. CHEMICAL TREATMENT – MONTHLY REPORT 1. WATER QUALITY RAW WATER pH – MONTHLY REPORT 21. FILTER MONTHLY REPORT 1. 13. 15.

maximum and minimum day and the date of occurrence. Include flow rate. TOTAL WATER CONSUMPTION SUMMARY ANNUAL REPORT 1. 25. For each hour. the total for each month. 24. 27. Include annual average day. For each hour. provide average day. the total for each month. show the total hours of running time for each pump. Provide the total for each month for each zone and the annual total. range. temperature. DAILY PUMPING STATION PRODUCTION SUMMARY 1. 18 March 2009 R1 . 28. maximum and minimum day. 26. for each zone and the total for each zone and the daily total. DAILY RESERVOIR LEVEL SUMMARY 1. pH. For each pumping station. For each day. maximum and minimum day and the date of occurrence. pressure. provide the pumpage volume of finished for each zone. 29. TOTAL WATER CONSUMPTION ANNUAL REPORT 1. 23. Include annual average day. maximum and minimum day. maximum and minimum hour for the year for the entire water supply system. Provide also the daily total pumpage volume by day and zone. maximum and minimum day and the date of occurrence. operating pump(s) and Electrical power consumption for HLPS and the PS for each pressure zone. pre and post chlorine residual. HFS residual.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 1. ANNUAL PUMPING STATION PRODUCTION SUMMARY 1. 22. the total for each month. ANNUAL SUMMARY OF PUMP RUNNING TIMES 1. For each month. Include average. provide average day. For each month. ZONE CONSUMPTION ANNUAL REPORT 1. maximum and minimum hour for the year for the entire water supply system. 30. provide the pumpage volume for each zone pumping station. Include plant and water distribution system for current. maximum and minimum hour for the year for each pressure zone. maximum and minimum day. For each zone. DAILY WATER CONSUMPTION SUMMARY 1. high alarm and high advisory for raw and finished water turbidity. MONTHLY SUMMARY OF PUMP RUNNING TIMES 31. Include annual average day. reservoir level. MONTHLY PRODUCTION SUMMARY 1.

WATER QUALITY – GENERAL 4. CHEMICAL TREATMENT – DAILY REPORT 1. maximum for raw and treated wastewater. 11. each calendar month and on an annual basis. 9.19 Wastewater Treatment Plant Operating Statistics The following operating statistics for wastewater treatment plant shall be produced for each 8- hour shift. WATER QUALITY LIMITS 2. PLANT FLOW ANNUAL REPORT – RAW FLOW 1. PLANT FLOWS SUMMARY – RAW & TREATED 5. high and low residual level. low and total. high. Include average dose and total consumed. set point. 10. Include current dose. Include maximum and minimum rate for raw and treated wastewater. Include average. minimum. 7. Include Monthly average. WATER QUALITY – DAILY REPORT 3. Include daily average. 18. daily average. high. provide a summary for the year for the following: 1. current residual. At the end of each week. low and total. Include Annual average.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 32. RAW WATER CHLORINE RESIDUAL MONTHLY REPORT 1. Include total daily raw and treated wastewater processed. The above should be capable of being printed on the screen or on a laser printer.1 and printed on the screen and a laser printer.4. 8. PLANT FLOW MONTHLY SUMMARY 1. Include total consumed and average dosage rate. Each display page shall be configured for a 3 shifts period with sub-total for each shift and the grand-total for each 24-hour period.3. In addition. WATER QUALITY RAW WATER TURBIDITY – MONTHLY REPORT 19 March 2009 R1 . CHEMICAL TREATMENT – ANNUAL REPORT 13. 6. PLANT FLOWS – DAILY REPORT 1. CHEMICAL TREATMENT – MONTHLY REPORT 1. it should also be capable of being trended in accordance with 9. 12. CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION SUMMARY – DAILY REPORT 1. daily total consumed and status. PLANT FLOW MONTHLY REPORT – RAW FLOW 1.

MONTHLY TREATMENT SUMMARY For each day.20 Process Control Display Process control display shall commence with the overall system followed by more detailed graphic display for each subsequent smaller process area. There shall also be screen display developed for specific purposes such as a screen display for all reservoirs or a screen display showing all the pumping stations. 2. Archival of Historical Data Data collected at the PLC/RPU site shall be transferred to the SCADA workstation. Process Control Graphic User Interface 18. Short term access to the data shall be by reading the data from the remote workstation. Provide monthly average. 18.21 Standard Colour Convention – Process Stream The following table lists the standard colour conventions for process Stream: Element Colour Convention Potable Water Light Blue Raw Water Dark Blue Influent Water from WWTP Light Green Effluent Water from WWTP Dark Green Chlorine (Liquid) Chemicals .3. high and low raw water turbidity in NTU.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 1. At fixed periods.Yellow Aluminum Sulphate Ammonia Polymer Sulphur Dioxide Hydrofluosilicic Acid (Fluoride) Ferric Chloride 20 March 2009 R1 . Each process screen shall be designed to appear as similar to the actual layout of the system as possible.3. provide the collection volume for each drainage area.Orange Chlorine (Gas) Gas . Daily report of the average. etc. WATER QUALITY RAW WATER pH – MONTHLY REPORT 15. monthly high and low. Two-dimensional graphical representations shall be used on all process display screens. the data is transferred to the fileserver for long term storage. Provide also the daily total collection volume by day and area. 14.

3. White on Pop-Up . Isolating Grey Alarm Flashing Magenta Miscellaneous Hi or HiHi Alarm Flashing Magenta Lo or LoLo Alarm Flashing Magenta Background Process . levels pressures. White Control .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System Element Colour Convention Natural Gas Digester Gas WTP/WWTP Sludges Brown WTP Backwash Wastewater WWTP RAS/WAS WTP Settled Backwash WWTP Supernatant Values appearing at various locations on the screen shall represent current value for flows. Black on Process Screen 21 March 2009 R1 . Valve colour is green when less than 5% open and red when greater than 5% open. 18.22 Standard Colour Convention – Pump/Motor/Valve The colour convention for pump/motor/valve and miscellaneous details shall be as follow: Device/Status Colour Convention Pump/Motor Running Red with Text Off Green with Text Alarm Flashing Magenta Valve Opened Red with Text Transition Half red and half green Closed Green with Text Modulating Percentage open is displayed beside valve. Black Text Description . etc.

4 Symbols Use standard symbols on a process overview screen. Block of software or database changed All such changes shall be saved in a file which cannot be erased unless authorised by the Supervisor.) and the SCADA HMI (operator verification). Each of these will be one of two levels – administrator or user. as defined herein. The watchdog program. These are the workstation operating system (Window NT). Use ISA symbols (2-D) Watchdog Program A watchdog program shall be provided where specified in the Request for Proposal. Security system shall be configured based on three levels of security. Time 3. is a software program designed to track all changes made to the HMI and PLC/RPU logic software or database. plant networks and field controllers shall be installed to only permit access by authorised personnel with the required security clearance. Name of authorising Supervisor and security code 5. the Network Access (for e-mail. System Security Security of workstations. The administrator (Supervisor and/or Manager) will assign the rights and privileges of the users on the network. 22 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 18. The SCADA system security shall be dependent on a logon system and the use of distinct logons for the MHI is required. The following is the information that must be tracked by the watchdog program: 1. It should be developed for both dynamic and static equipment 4. It must be consistent. Symbols should reflect the P&ID drawings 2. intuitive and user friendly 3. Comply with the following practices when developing graphics: 1. Date 2. Name of authorised personnel and security code 4. corporate applications etc. The watchdog program may be custom written software to be provided by the Consultants to meet the intent of this requirement.

02 Control System Standards 1.1 General Provide Operation Manuals in accordance with the Project Guidelines.03 Microsoft Windows 3.08 Replacement/Addition of Workstation Section 3 THE BASICS 3.04 Using Microsoft Windows 3.4.4.01 General Information 1.2 SCADA System Operation Manual Requirements As a minimum.08 Accessories 23 March 2009 R1 .01 The First Step 3. disk and CD-ROM to be provided for all custom ladder logic and SCADA system application software installed. 18. Allowance will be made in the Operational Manual for inclusion of this Chapter.03 System Configuration (See Note 1) 1. Section 1 INTRODUCTION 1. PLANT MANUAL The sections covering PLC/RPU based operation will be developed from the English language process narrative and the logic flow diagrams produced. as well as all original disks and CD-ROMs provided under the contract for the software packages.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System SCADA System Operation Manual 18. This includes operating procedure descriptions for both PLANT-MANUAL and PLANT-AUTO operation of the facility in the following sequence: 1.05 Software – RPU Software 2.02 Hardware – Central Hardware 2. Hard copy.01 System Overview 2.02 Disk Operating System 3.03 Hardware – RPU Hardware 2.06 Windows Applications 3.04 Software – Central Software 2.07 Main Group 3.05 List of Running Programs 3. LOCAL Control 2.06 Hardware Configuration 2. the SCADA System Operation Manual shall include the following sections.07 Software Configuration 2.04 System Architecture Section 2 HARDWARE & SOFTWARE 2.

17 To Exit Windows Section 4 PROCESS DISPLAY 4.08 Reports (List and show all reports that will be generated) 6.) Section 5 EQUIPMENT CONTROL 5.02 Exit 6. all plant processes.04 Transmitter 5.09 PC Anywhere 3.06 Process 6.09 Trends (List and show all reports that will be generated) 6.15 Plant/System Automation through the HMI 3.13 Previous 6. all pumping stations and reservoirs. all chemical treatment processes.11 Setpoints 6.10 Backup Basics 3. It shall starts from the intake to the furthest pressure zones.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System 3.10 Options 6.07 Systems 6.03 Device Alarms 5.05 Process Area #1 (repeat for each major process area) 5.01 Device Control Mode 5.02 Equipment Control Displays & Popup Menus 5.13 HMI Software 3.12 Area 6.03 Alarms 6.01 Process Displays (Process Displays shall include all displays configured in the HMI and how to use them.06 Facility Security Section 6 USING THE HMI BUTTONS 6.11 Spread Sheet and InTouch 3.04 History 6.05 Map 6.14 Next 24 March 2009 R1 .12 The Second Step 3.16 Troubleshooting 3.14 Using the HMI Software 3.01 Top Row Buttons 6.

06 Trouble Shooting SCADA System Section 9 SYSTEM SECURITY 9.01 Provide all process narratives and for each process.02 Passwords 9.01 Communication Failure . Equipment iii.05 Power Failure and Backup Generator 8.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System Section 7 PROCESS NARRATIVE 7.Remote Workstations 8.02 Include all Auto Control Programs Narratives Section 8 SYSTEM FAILURE 8. I/O Points • Program Variables • Virtual Points • Field Points v.03 Workstation Failure and Restart Procedure 8. System Description ii.Workstation 8.01 Integration of WASA AM/FM/GIS System 10. Control Mode iv. Control Logic • Normal Operation • Fault Response Operation • Hardwired Interlocks • Associated Alarms 7.06 Watchdog Historical Data 9.07 Erasure of Watchdog Data and Authorization Section 10 WASA AM/FM/GIS 10.03 E-Mail Appendix A POINT LISTS Appendix B SCADA SYSTEM EQUIPMENT LISTING Appendix C SOFTWARE LISTING Appendix D REDUCED SET OF CONTRACT DRAWINGS 25 March 2009 R1 . include the following minimum information: i.03 Changing Password and Authorization 9.04 System Crash and Restart Procedure 8.04 Watchdog Program 9.05 Function of Watchdog Program 9.02 Communication Failure .01 SCADA Access Security 9.02 Accessing into the SCADA System from WASA System 10.

All configuration settings for communications 4. Manuals • LAN Card Manufacturer. IRQ and COM Port Addressing. etc. Configuration Setting. jumper. Alarm Logger Configuration 7. etc. Manufacturer’s Manuals 2. User Manuals. Device settings (video. Input/Out put ports. Specification for 2 or 4 wire. LAN Card Software. Model. Network LAN Hub Manufacturer. Node configuration (communication. mouse.Video Card Specifications. All port.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System In assembling the information for the SCADA system for the Operation Manual. Manuals • Modem(s) Manufacturer. Configuration Settings. Installation and Operations Manuals • I/O Cards Manufacturer. Office Applications 3. Type of Cabling (e.06 . Alarm Printing 8.Hardware Replacement: 1. Configuration Settings. Historical Logging Configuration 9. addressing. the Consultants shall provide all the information of all workstation or view node software to be included under Section 2.) 2. Operating System 2. Hardware: • Monitor Manufacturer. configuration settings 26 March 2009 R1 . Model. Model. Setup Procedure for leased Line Configuration. Jumper Settings. etc. Jumper Settings. Model. Hard Drive Specification. Software 1. PLC Software 1.g.) 6. Port settings 5. 10 Base T) The SCADA Software information shall be provided in the Operation Manual and the minimum requirements are as follow: 1. Model. Model and Resolution • Computer Manufacturer. Node addressing for all PLC’s in the SCADA Network 2.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System

18.4.2.1 Replacement or Addition of Workstation
The procedure for the replacement and or addition of a workstation shall be provided as follows:
1. Step by step instructions on how to replace a work station which has failed. How a new
computer would be configured to replace the existing workstation.
2. Step by step instructions on how to add a new work station to the system.
3. Step by step instructions explaining how to upgrade the SCADA system strategy (on all
work stations) via a laptop computer. Note details which would be specific to each work
station.
4. Detailed description of report writing macro and a step by step account of how to
integrate a new workstation into the automatic report output.

18.5 System Architecture
The system architecture is based on the following requirements:
1. The workstation operating system is to be Microsoft Windows
2. Database application software conforms to existing.
3. Networking at all levels is based on an Ethernet backbone.
4. The in-plant communications network is hard-wired to avoid delays and failures in
communication (details to be developed during the pre-design phase).
5. Communication between the plants and the remote sites is to be optimal to avoid delays
in data transmission.

SCADA Control Strategy
The SCADA and control strategy shall be developed for each plant (the same application will
apply to the remote stations linked to the plant) and must be capable of being updated from all
view nodes through a single node. It must have the capability to monitor and control the plant
and all the remote stations from any SCADA node within the plant’s LAN.
The SCADA system’s server must be provided with full redundancy backup, thereby insuring the
ability to switch to a backup server if the main server fails. This will provide the continual ability
to control the plant and sites from individual client nodes if the main server fails.
To ensure the security and integrity of the SCADA system, fire-walls and virus detection
software shall be installed on all SCADA nodes.
The SCADA system shall be configured to provide the ability to use portable computers to dial
into any LAN to view and control the processes.

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Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System

Network Requirements
Reliable and high speed communication network of the SCADA system for water and
wastewater systems.

SCADA Software
The standard requirements for HMI general configuration requirements for the system (server
and client nodes) are as follows:
1. Single product HMI
2. A server-client configuration is required where there will be one server node and several
client nodes
3. Each server will be a runtime node
4. The client node can be configured to be either a runtime node that allows control and
monitoring features or a view only node
5. The server node will contain the application and all client (view) nodes will point to this
directory on the server to run the application
6. The client nodes will maintain a copy of the application as well for redundancy
7. There will be one backup client node capable of operating as the server for redundancy
8. Visual Basic scripting will be used to notify and update the client nodes so that system
development can be completed on one node and automatically copied to the client nodes
9. Use of a browser package that provides Internet visualization to view factory information
anywhere and anytime

Database Software
A real-time relational database that acquires and stores plant data will be implemented on the
SCADA nodes. The database will have client applications that can be used to access this data for
viewing, analysis, reporting, etc.
1. The database will be used as a real-time database for data storage and analysis; there will
be one database server and several database clients
2. One server can be used for both the database and HMI software
3. The database server will be used to store all the data and the client nodes will be
configured to provide the required analysis and summary/report generation

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Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System

Communication Links
Due to the high reliance of the SCADA network project on communication links, use high-speed
communication to avoid delays which may be critical in various processes. For fast and reliable
communication, the following strategy shall be implemented:
1. All in-plant communication to be hardwired (no modems)
2. ISDN (Two 64kb channels per connection) service to be used at all sites unless this
service is not available

PLC/RPU Programming Standard
18.5.1 PLC Program Structure
The programming of PLCs shall be carried out in a uniformly structured manner, which shall be
as follows:
1. Main Program
2. Start-Up Sequence
3. Output I/O Task
4. Input I/O Task
5. Input Conditioning
6. Data Communication
7. Alarm Handling Subroutine
8. Duty Selection
9. Automatic Control Logic
10. Equipment Control Logic Tasks
11. Device Driver Modules

18.5.2 PLC Programming Protocol
Consultants shall comply with IEC-61311 programming format. No program(s) will be accepted
by WASA if it does not conform to this requirement. In addition, the Consultants shall also
observe the following programming protocol when carrying out PLC or HMI programming. This
may be verified through a third party retained to perform the peer review work.
1. Data addresses that are to be communicated to other controllers, operator interfaces,
and/or SCADA workstations are to be grouped together.
2. The adoption of a predefined program structure that orders the common tasks to be used
in PLC/RPU programs.

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Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual SCADA System

3. Use function blocks or subroutines to avoid repetitive blocks of identical logic. If these
are not available, consider common flags/variables instead of repeated code.
4. Use the status of any field input only once in the I/O task to drive a logic relay/bit or
register/word (point). This “translation” of all field inputs forms the first portion of the
I/O task. One function of the “translation” is to ensure a ‘positive logic’ sequence in the
development of the code. These logic points are then used by all other logic, rather than
the field inputs. Debounce timers/ramps are required for all inputs and are included here.
5. Outputs are addressed as per inputs noted above, that is, all tasks except the I/O task
address outputs through logic points. The I/O task then uses these logic points to drive the
field outputs. The writing of all field outputs should be grouped together at the end of the
I/O task. Any field output may be written at only one location in the code.
6. Place all checks for device response together in the I/O task, with a timer for each device.
7. Group all registers/words and relays/bits that are of interest to monitoring personnel in
sequential blocks. This includes setpoints, timer limits, tuning constants, and status flags.
This simplifies the transfer of this data to supervisory systems. Maintain the “translated”
field inputs in separate block(s) from other data.
8. Use constants in the code only where it is unlikely they will ever be changed.
9. Layout I/O points having identical functions for successive devices in identical,
consecutive blocks. For example, group the start/stop outputs for all low lift pumps in
similar order and in adjacent terminals.
10. Avoid latches & jumps.
11. Avoid drum sequencer.
12. Use an IBM compatible workstation to program the PLC and use the manufacturer’s
programming software to fully document the code.
13. Label every register/word, relay/bit, and rung with a name or comment.
14. Do not sacrifice program clarity and simplicity to achieve higher execution speed and
smaller code size.
15. Monitor and alarm all available diagnostic data such as task and I/O board errors.
16. Where PID loop control is required, disable the derivative factor.
17. Configure all alarm points in software to be TRUE when in alarm. (In general, field
wiring of alarms is FALSE when in alarm.)
18. Include logic for simulation of normal field feedback. This is used in factory and site
testing as well as training.
19. Include minimum times for equipment to be running and stopped, to prevent possible
output ‘chattering’.
20. Include interlocks to prevent simultaneous starts of major equipment (in auto mode only).

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19. All valves and actuators shall have at least 5 years of operating service in Trinidad & Tobago. under normal plant operating conditions.0. with indicator to clearly indicate whether the valve is in the opened. The design must as much as it’s applicable. low flush toilets. including but not limited to pressure control devices. for both manual and electric valves. Design Standards.2 Valves Valves shall comply with EN 593 and ISO 5996. ANSI B16. etc. ANSI B16.3 Fittings Flanges shall be Class 125. Choice of material and equipment shall be based on WASA standard and where such standard has not been provided. Orient valves and valve operators to meet the following requirements: 1. Gaskets shall be Butyl or EPDM. Above-ground fittings shall be flanged. Below ground fittings shall be welded or coupled. Valves mounted higher than 2 m shall be provided with chain for opening or closing Specify valves operators. and to be supplied by regional based vendors. Ease of operation 2. The indicator must be visible from 3 meters away. Mechanical systems shall be designed to provide ease of operation and maintenance. For operating pressures above 250 pounds per square inch.1. for operating pressures up to 250 pounds per square inch. All design shall comply with Trinidad & Tobago National Plumbing Code. AWWA Standards of Practice and Specifications.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Mechanical Standards Section 19 Mechanical Standards 19. Nuts and bolts shall be grade 316 stainless steel. Nuts and bolts shall be hot dip galvanized steel or epoxy painted. closed or partially opened/closed position. Limit interference with structures and with any other equipment or piping 3. 19.1. Space allowance requirement for maintenance and disassembly 4. flanges shall be Class 250. it shall be based on the track record of the material or equipment in a similar Trinidad & Tobago facility. welded. low volume faucets. or coupled. All valves used for potable water supply system shall be certified for potable water use. include mechanism for water conservation.1 General Comply with applicable Acts. Codes or Design Guidelines as detailed in Section 3. 1 March 2009 R1 . relevant codes or design guidelines.

Capacity 5. Electric motors will meet the requirements of IEE 60034-1. All rotating parts shall be in true dynamic balance and operate without vibration caused by mechanical defects. store and operated under tropical conditions of high temperature. Performance rating 8. All rotating equipment shall be provided with bearings selected on the basis of life expectancy at rated conditions of service of at least 100. 60034-6 and 60034-8. excessive lubrication or undue attention required by the operating staff. A more stringent requirement may be specified in the detailed equipment specifications.4 Pumps All materials and equipment supplied shall be suitable for being delivered. Alemite-type or buttonhead grease fittings shall be provided for bearing lubrication. mildew and fungus conductive environment.000 working hours. Impeller Diameter 6. Bearings for electric motors shall be constructed so that no oil or grease can escape from them. Efficiency 7. In general. 6. Head 4. 5. Serial Number 3. Performance data in SI metric units 3. For pumps. etc. belts. To be provided for all couplings. 2. faulty design or misalignment of parts. Equipment Guards: 1. heavy rainfall. which can be easily read. All equipment and motors shall be supplied with corrosion resistant metal nameplates fitted securely in an location. high humidity. Other information required to uniquely identify the equipment 9. the limit of vibration velocity is 1mm/sec for equipment. fans. Mechanical equipment furnished shall operate satisfactory without excessive wear. Equipment Operating Characteristics: 1. 2 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards 19. Bearings requirement: 1.: 1. 4. valve operators. 60034-5. Model Number 2. complete with stamped inscriptions of the following information where applicable: 1. instruments. chain drives and extended shafts. valves. 2.

equipment shall be installed directly on machined bases without shims. Surfaces for mounting equipment and driver shall be machined to an arithmetical average roughness height of less than 125 micro-inches. provide base plates with a drip lip and drain connections to the exterior of the base. Equipment base plates shall be of heavy cast iron or of welded structural steel with a minimum thickness of 13 mm. fittings and valves. These color requirements have been covered by the TTBS standard for pipe codes/colors. Piping and equipment shall be properly identified as provided herein. 2. 8. Base Plates: 1. provide stainless steel shims under driver mounting feet. 7.A more stringent requirement may be specified in the equipment specifications.5 Piping & Equipment Identification 19. mechanical and electrical equipment including sleeves through floors.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards 2. Piping shall be provided from the drain connections to the building drainage system. Where shims are required.5. 4. All piping. In general. Bossed connection to drip lips shall be below the gutter invert and shall be at least 25 mm N. shall be painted. 3 March 2009 R1 . 3. Provide arrows indicating the direction of flow. For equipment where leakage or condensation may occur. 19. The labelling of all pipes shall conform to WASA. Equipment shall be designed for quiet operation with the overall sound pressure level at any equipment not exceeding 85 decibels when measured on the “A” weighting network (IEC 60034. internal and outlet piping for pumping station shall be provided with isolation valve(s) to permit isolation/removal of pump(s) for maintenance work without impacting on the integrity or operational capability of the pumping station itself. All inlet. 3. It shall be painted yellow in colour.1 General All pipes inside the plant or valve house shall be colour coded in accordance with WASA requirements for pipe identification in water and wastewater treatment plants. the plates shall be at least 20 mm thick.T. Equipment Noise Level: 1. suitably reinforced and neatly formed of at least 12 gauge steel perforated sheet or expanded sheet metal.P. For mounting equipment and driver base. It shall be securely mounted. It shall be hot-dip galvanized after fabrication.

2 Group #2 Label Band Letter/ Max.5. Band Background Colour Intervals Intervals Flammable Materials Propane Gas Natural Gas Yellow Black 3m 3m Hydraulic Oil Fuel Oil Digester Gas 19.3 Piping Identification Labels All piping shall be labelled to conform to WASA requirements as stated in applicable TTBS standard. then the following standard based on ASME A13.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards All existing equipment.1-2007 could be applied. Identify exposed piping and ductwork in locations as follows: 19. piping etc shall be protected from paint splashes when new equipment or piping is painted.4.4 Colour Legend 19. Label Max. Band Piping System Background Intervals Intervals Colour Fire Fighting (Protection) Standpipe System Sprinkler System Red White 3m 3m Halon Fire Protection Carbon Dioxide Fire Protection 4 March 2009 R1 . 19. If not covered.5.5.4.5. 19.5. Label Max.1 Group #1 Piping System Label Band Letter/ Max.2 Security equipment All security guards and railings shall have a yellow colour to conform to WASA requirements.

Label Max.5.) (Hot Water) LP Stream LP Condensate Hp Steam Lp Condensate 19.4. Label Max.5. Band Colour Band Colour Intervals Intervals Piping System Back- ground Other Chemical Substances: Alum Chlorine Solution Polymer Solution Orange White Black 3m 3m Lime Solution Sodium or Calcium Hypochlorite Solution Glycol Solution (Heating) Diesel Exhaust 5 March 2009 R1 .4 Group #4 Piping Label Letter/ Max.3 Group #3 Piping Label Letter/ Max. Band Colour Band Colour Intervals Intervals Piping System Back- ground Dangerous Substances: Boiler Feed Boiler Blow Off Acid Drain Compressed Air > 670 kPa Ferric Chloride Purple White Black 3m 3m (High Temp Dom.4.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards 19.

Brown Green White 6m Scum Dk. green White White 6m Dom. Grey Green White 6m Return Sludge Mid-Brown Green White 6m Waste Sludge Mid Brown Green White 6m Raw Sludge Dk. Grey Green White 6m Plumbing Vent Lt. Grey Green White 6m Filtrate (San) Dk. Band Band Letter/ Intervals Intervals Piping System Back. Colour ground Process Drainage Raw Water Olive green Green White 6m Clarified Water Aqua Green White 6m Treated Water Dark blue Green White 6m Dom. labels shall be 10 mil PVC sleeve complete with two-sided permanent tape and liquid weld. Brown Green White 6m 19.5.5. Grey Red White 6m Storm Drain Lt. Colours to meet WASA Standards.5 Method of Application On painted piping system (pipes up to and including 45 mm o. Lt. Label Max.d.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards 19. Hot Water Ret. Lt. Sleeve shall be of sufficient length to wrap completely around the pipe with a minimum 25 mm overlap. 6 March 2009 R1 . green Red White 6m Chilled Water Blue Green White 6m Condenser Water Lt. Label complete with permanent adhesive. Hot Water Sup. Colours to meet WASA Standards.).). On painted piping system (Pipes over 45 mm o. green Red White 6m Dom. Cold Water Lt.4. Grey Green White 6m Not Effluent Water Lt. labels shall be 2 mil vinyl/polyester of sufficient lengths to wrap completely around the pipe with a minimum of 8 mm overlap.d.5 Group #5 Piping Colour Label Max. Brown Green White 6m Supernatant Lt. Grey Green White 6m Required Compressed Air Safety Blue Green White 6m Instrument Air White Green White 6m Vacuum White Green White 6m Nitrogen Orange Green White 6m Sanitary Drain Dk. PVC to be 25/50 fire rated. Grey Green White 6m Hot Water Heating Lt.

All labels to be installed in a workmanlike manner. Both sides where pipes and ducts pass through walls. labels shall be vinyl/polyester of sufficient length to wrap completely around the pipe with a minimum 8 mm overlap.6 Sizes of Characters Provide the following sizes of characters for labels: Outside Pipe Diameter Letter Size Pipe less than or equal to 25 mm 12 mm Pipe greater than 25 mm but less than or equal to 50 mm 25 mm Pipe greater than 50 mm but less than or equal to 300 mm 38 mm Pipe Greater than 300 mm 50 mm Ducts 50 mm 19. Both sides of valves 2. as indicated above 5.). 7 March 2009 R1 . 3.d. Directional arrows are required with each of the above labels. All branch fittings and elbows 3. labels shall be.d. 10 mil PVC sleeve complete with two-sided permanent tape and liquid weld. centre to centre. Where circumstances make contents or direction of flow doubtful 2. The label shall be 300 mm long complete with 100 mm colour banding at each end with colours to meet WASA Standards for colour banding. PVC to be 25/50 fire rated.5. The label shall be 300 mm long complete with 100 mm colour banding at each end with colours to meet WASA Standards for colour banding. Straight runs at maximum distance. The labels shall be supplied as a one-piece unit and permanently self-adhesive. Apply labels in positions that allow them to be easily read from normal operating positions. Sleeve shall be of sufficient length to wrap completely around the pipe with a minimum 24 mm overlap. 19.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards On unpainted piping systems (pipe up to and including 45 mm o. The labels shall be supplied as a one-piece unit.5.). Apply identification label and directional arrows at or near the following locations: 1. floors and ceiling 4. On unpainted piping systems (pipe over 45 mm o.7 Location of Labels Application of Labels shall conform to the following: 1.

lockable device to Light blue keep valve open for reverse flow application Gate valves Reservoir drainage Light grey Valves Chemical solution Light grey Valves Plumbing and drainage system Light grey Equipment Colour Emergency Standby Diesel Generator Light Grey Equipment Guard Red Air Blower Light Grey 8 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards 19.8 Pumps & Valves Colour Schedule Colour Schedule Pump Type WASA Code Sump Pump Light Grey Sodium Hypochlorite Metering Pump Light Grey Hydrofluosilicic Acid Metering Pump Aluminium Sulphate Metering Pump Chlorination Metering Pump Light Grey Ferric Chloride Metering Pump RAS Pump Sludge Loading Pump Wastewater Pump (Normally in Wastewater PS) Washwater Pump Light Blue High Lift Pumps Light Grey Low Lift Pumps Light Grey Colour Schedule Valve Type Purpose WASA Code Manually operated butterfly valves Cell isolation Light blue Electrically operated butterfly Automatic reservoir level control Light blue valves Check valves with lockable device Direction of flow control.5.

Impeller Diameter 10. Continuous Service Factor 9. Type 2. Year of Manufacture 9 March 2009 R1 .9 Nameplates All equipment. Size 2. Electrical Requirements 5. Bearing Details 10. Drive Unit 1. Frame Number 7. Weight 11. Rated Dynamic Head (TDH m) 6. Current Draw 6. Weight 13. Number of Stages (Vertical Turbine Pump) 7. Speed 8. Diameter of Suction/Discharge 9. Seals 11. Rated Temperature Rise 8. Serial Number 4. Year of Manufacture 2. Type 3. Rated Capacity (L/S) 5.5. except electrical. Serial Number 4.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards 19. Model 3. shall be provided with a nameplate with the following information stamped on it: 1. Bearing Details 12. Pump 1.

The equipment name tags shall be black embossed or engraved on polished rectangular aluminium tags 50 mm high. Non-destructive. Buna-N or Viton O-rings for clean water applications. wastewater.6 Equipment 19. 3. Pump shaft shall have no reduction in size through the seal area.5. drill and tap for installation of seal water supply. 19. 10 March 2009 R1 . which requires no wearing sleeve for the shaft.10 Equipment Name Tags Special equipment name tags shall be provided to identify equipment. Sludge – Sintered silicon (or tungsten) carbide on carbon 2.4 kW and less than 120 kW and where the driver is directly connected to the driven unit. Specify Viton O-rings for sludge. cartridge type. Nameplate for submerged portion 2. Submersible Pump 1.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards 3. 19. Wastewater.2 Pump Shaft Seals 1. For all contaminated water services. 4. Potable water – Tungsten carbide on carbon 19. scum or grit applications. Single. 1. 6. mechanical pump shaft seals.3 Couplings Provide flexible coupling for all equipment with drives over 0.1 Bearings All equipment bearings shall have a minimum rating life of 100. The identification characters will be alpha numeric and 10 mm high and should be attached with at least two stainless steel self-tapping screws or black nylon ties where screws fasteners are not practical. Faces: 1. 2. 5.5 mm thick and long enough to display adequately all the identification characters. Nameplate for non-submerged portion 19.6.6. self-aligning seals of the stationary design. unless specified otherwise. 7. Stainless steel spring or Hastelloy C spring.000 hours. unless specified otherwise.6.

070 mm 3. Level base. the Consultants shall make provisions for its removal. All guards shall be yellow painted. all required lifting devices for removal of equipment must be in place or can be put in place to facilitate its removal. In addition. Base is to be true and levelled.03 mm 2.7 Equipment Maintenance Requirements Provide a minimum of one (1) meter of clear space around all equipment for maintenance work.6. Piping strains to pump shall be within a tolerance of ±0. Equipment guard is to be removable to facilitate maintenance of moving parts. Isolation devices shall be as close to the equipment as possible and shall not require the use of a ladder for access. blowers and compressors and install gauges at each location.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Mechanical Standards 19. For equipment that requires replacing in the future.025 mm to 0.4 Equipment Guard Provide guard on moving parts fabricated of 1.5 mm sheet steel and galvanize after fabrication. 19.070 mm 19. No equipment shall be designed such that it cannot be removed and if it is to be designed in that manner. All lifting device shall be engineered for the purpose intended. 11 March 2009 R1 . 3. 2. it shall be provided with electrical and mechanical isolation devices to permit removal without interfering with the operation of the process or facility. the intention must be identified by the Consultants and accepted by WASA.6.6.025 mm to 0.5 Gauge Taps and Test Plugs Provide gauge taps on the suction and discharge side of pumps. Make provision to extend lube fittings through guard. Alignment of shafts. Isolation devices must be visible from the equipment to be removed. 1. rim to rim and face to face. use machinists level on all machined surfaces. In designing the layout of the equipment. Shaft shall be aligned within a tolerance of ±0. Soft foot will be rim to rim vertical and horizontal mode.6 Alignment All rotating equipment is to be set and aligned in accordance with the more stringent requirements of either the equipment manufacturer or the following: 1. soft foot of motor and couplings shall be performed by reversed dial. Soft foot of motor shall be checked to be within a tolerance of 0. 19.

Engineering site supervision should be provided during construction.2 VAC System The ventilation systems shall be designed to maintain acceptable working and living environments for personnel and non-destructive conditions for equipment. Provide the proper design. Humidity. Installation shall meet and/or exceed the requirements of: a) ASHRAE Guide and Data Book b) SMACNA Sheet Metal and Duct Construction Standards (Low and High Velocity) c) CIBS Building Services Code d) CIBS Commissioning Codes e) ARI Standards f) Other relevant ASHRAE. Codes or Design Guidelines as detailed in Section 3. and bugs.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Ventilating & Air Conditioning Standards Section 20 Ventilating & Air Conditioning Standards 20. snakes.1 General Comply with applicable Acts. sizing and selection of equipment according to the purpose of each specific room or space. Provide separate ventilation systems in laboratories. Power supply of equipment should be compatible with the new. temperature and rates of ventilation should be properly determined according to each specific environment to meet all codes and security standards. 1 March 2009 R1 . Design Standards and also with The Trinidad & Tobago Building Code. Ventilation openings shall be screened with a sufficiently fine mesh to prevent entry by birds. H2S gas detectors shall be installed when such risks are present to working staff in wastewater treatment plants or pumping stations. Provide air conditioning or humidity control when electronic equipment (Control panel) is located in a room. Provide refrigeration piping. rodents.0. chill water piping and condensate drainage when required. SMACNA and ARI publications g) Trinidad & Tobago ASHO Act 20. The design shall take into account both normal and emergency operation requirements. future or existing site building.

The robustness consists. 20. the system must be of a higher quality and more robust. 20. However. The concentration of pollutants shall meet at minimum the following guidelines: H2S : 4 mg/Nm3 or less NH3 : 3 mg/ Nm3 or less Methyl Mercaptan : 1 mg/ Nm3 or less 20. Avoid the use of pneumatic control systems. but is not limited to. As a general rule. They also have to emphasise shop drawing’s review for mechanical equipment and materials prior to purchase by contractors.3 Minimum Air standard Ventilation networks shall be designed in order to avoid any hazard or discomfort by the working staff in the plants.5.6 Verification of VAC System Consultants should request from the contractor that they provide all as-built drawings. Operation and Maintenance manuals for review and approval upon completion of project. the zone control unit must be capable of being over-ridden manually from the VAC master control system. in order to avoid any hazard for the working staff in the plants. the prevailing wind in Trinidad & Tobago is from the North East.5 VAC Control System Controls for the VAC system shall be digital with individual Application Specific Controllers (ASCs) for each zone. 20. 2 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Ventilating & Air Conditioning Standards 20. assuring 100% redundancy of ventilation systems.4 System Redundancy Where ventilation is designed to assure security of workers. 20.1 VAC Master Control The cooling requirements for each zone shall be achieved by a dedicated control unit linked to the master control system. Design the system to permit verification of cooling demand of the VAC system and provide all necessary field instrumentation.7 Location of air intakes The Consultants must consider the source and direction of the upwind to allow for adequate positioning of air intakes for the VAC system. per example to avoid intoxication by H2S emanations in wastewater treatment plants.

4 Standby Power. Consult Trinidad & Tobago regulations such as the OSHA Act and Noise Pollution Control Rule.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Diesel Generator Standard Section 21 Diesel Generator Standard 21. 21. 21.2 Power Supply Where possible. Where this requirement can be met. 21. submit and obtain approval for noise attenuation requirements for the proposed emergency diesel generator and emissions. the Consultants shall specify the required synchronizing equipment to permit the generator to synchronize with local power supply grid for peak shaving. Where required by WASA. for the installation of diesel generator in the facility. Determine the output capacity of the generator in accordance with the facility backup power requirements. that are in force at the time of award of the engineering assignment.4 Noise Attenuation Arrange for a qualified Acoustics Engineer to prepare a noise attenuation report. Prepare. Comply with Section 4. Load factor may be up to 100% of standby power. the provision of standby diesel generators may not be required.1 General This section covers the requirements for the design and installation of diesel generators and all related ancillary equipment. 1 March 2009 R1 .3 Approvals The Consultants are responsible for securing of all required approvals including the EMA and WASA and/or any other such regulations or Acts etc. all plants shall be provided with two feeds from local utility power supply grid network. Power ratings for standby power are defined by ISO 8528-1 as the power available in the event of a main power network failure up to a maximum of 500 hours per year of which up to 300 hours may be run continuously. Noise level shall be site specific and provide adequate protection to operators. No overload is permitted.

In a closed loop system where system storage is not available.5.5. • on resumption of normal power supply. where the water distribution system floats on a storage reservoir. 21. • automatically transfers power supply to the emergency generator. the standby power generator requirements are identical to the water supply system requirements and it shall be sized to meet the pumping system power demand under peak flow conditions. Blowers for aeration system (for wastewater treatment plant) 21. Chemical system (where applicable) 4. An automatic transfer switch in compliance with UL 1008 standard. The automatic transfer switch senses power outage and: • initiates start-up of the diesel generator.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Diesel Generator Standard 21.5 Diesel Generator Power Requirements 21. shall be included as part of the diesel generator power supply system. the diesel generator shall be sized to meet the pump(s) electrical power requirement for the average day demand.5. Specify reduced voltage starting for electric motors.3 Ancillary Electrical and Mechanical Equipment In addition to the above. Ensure that the generator is capable of meeting the inrush power demand under all operating conditions. The equipment that is to be maintained in service by the diesel generator will be reviewed and finalized at the Pre-Design stage.1 Water Supply System For potable water supply pumping stations. 2 March 2009 R1 . Sequence pumps are to come on- line one at a time when power fails and power supply is from the generator. SCADA system 3. 21.6 Diesel Generator System Operation The diesel generator is required to meet the power demand of the facility in the event of local power supply grid network power outages in order to maintain minimum operation services. the standby power shall be sized to meet the pumping system power requirements for maximum hour plus fire flow demand. Ventilation system 2. provide electrical power from the diesel generator to the following during power outages: 1.2 Wastewater Pumping Station For wastewater pumping stations. transfers load back to normal power supply. • times the engine running without load and allows it to cool down and then shuts it off.

7. Fuel line piping shall be fully secured to the engine for the fuel supply.3 Fuel System 1. Dedicated infrared flame detector sensors shall be supplied and installed for each diesel generator and integrated into the fire alarm panel and monitored as individual alarm zones.2 Flame Detection System 1. Provide flexible connectors. including de-rating and deductions.2 diesel fuel oil. Fuel system shall include injection equipment including fuel pump(s) and injectors with fuel rack or shutdown solenoid. shall be equal to the generator net input power. bronze corrugated type for the suction and return lines.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Diesel Generator Standard 21. located in a horizontal plane and secured at one end to the engine base. 2.7. 21. energised to run (maximum fuel at start) and lift pump with the required minimum suction lift capability with check valves to maintain prime. Engine shall be naturally aspirated or turbo charged. 3 March 2009 R1 .7 Diesel Engine Requirements 21. Diesel engine operating speed shall be 1800 revolution per minute. It must be suitable for operation on commercial Grade No. unless otherwise approved by WASA.7. Infrared flame detector sensors shall also be monitored by the PLC and an alarm shall be sent to the plant Central Control Room. Engine shall conform to EPA Tier 1-3 Emissions standards. 3. 1. 21. Fuel filter(s) shall be of the replaceable element type. 2. It shall be supplied with factory installed primary filter(s) and a secondary fuel filter/water separator. The power rating should be rated for Standby power.1 General The perspective of a bi-fuel engine must be assessed in the preliminary stage or as indicated by WASA. 2. two or four stroke cycle with pressurized induction having a minimum of four cylinders and removable wet liner. The diesel engine net continuous power output at the engine flywheel. 4. 4. injector and bleed return. Fuel line shall be provided with automatic shut-off system which may be initiated by the PLC following a signal. 3.

full pressure lubrication systems complete with oil filter(s) full flow element types and a sump drainpipe with gate valve and plug to extend 100 mm beyond bedplate. all with nipples required for connection.7 Intake and Exhaust System 1. shutdown lever and over speed stop. 2. 3. 3. 2. with strainers and adjustable pressure relief valves.7.4 Speed Governor 1. 4. 3.6 Oil Lubricating System Oil pumps must be engine driven gear type. steady state. This will dictate the type of silencer that will be required for the diesel engine. fuel tanks shall be provided and sized for 48 hours of continuous operation of the emergency standby diesel engine operating under full load. vent. from start of load to steady state condition.7. Diesel engine speed governors shall be mechanical or hydraulic type and shall be provided with micrometer screw type manual speed adjustment. The recovery time. shall not exceed the manufacturer’s recommendation. which requires that the noise at the property line shall not exceed 50 dbA in residential areas. return and drain. All diesel fuel tanks shall have a Vent to the exterior. and at eight (8) percent speed regulation. Exhaust silencer shall be provided with condensate cock. plug and ASA flanges. Air intake filter shall be of the dry replaceable element type located close to the inlet manifold. Provide fuel level indicator(s) at the loading station. In addition to the integrated day tank.7. transient peak no load to full load and full load to no load and at plus or minus one (1) percent stability at any constant load and free from further hunting or oscillation. shall be better than three (3) seconds. supply.5 Fuel Tank 1.7. 21. All required fuel line accessories shall be provided including manual shut-off valve and primary fuel filter. 21. 21. Silencer capacity is to be sized so that the backpressure at the engine when loaded at 110% capacity. Fuel tanks shall be of the double walled type and shall be floor mounted.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Diesel Generator Standard 21. 2. The noise emitted from the exhaust pipe shall not exceed the limits for the stationary engines. with tapped connections for fill. It shall be provided with a sight-glass for fuel level indication and condensate drain and cock. 4 March 2009 R1 . Engine speed shall be maintained at plus or minus two (2) percent regulation.

2.7. Overspeed – nominal setting 110 percent rated speed 3. Provide a common alarm relay for: 1. Ventilation fans and dampers must be operating before the diesel engine is permitted to start. Cooling of diesel engines by municipal water is not permitted under any circumstances and engines shall be cooled by a radiator complete with fan.7. 3. 2. Battery charger to be specified for 230 volts AC input.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Diesel Generator Standard 21. which may either be 12 or 24 volts system.10 Gauges 1. 21. The following gauges shall be provided as a minimum: 1. Relays shall be dry relay contacts with 230 V. Lube oil temperature gauge 3. Separate ventilation shall be provided for the room. fan guard and air duct adaptor flange.11 Battery Start System 1. Exhaust pyrometer(s) 21. Lube oil pressure gauge 2.7.8 Cooling System 1. shroud. High engine temperature 5 March 2009 R1 . Electrical tachometer gauge. 2. scaled in rpm to approximately 120 percent of rated speed 5. 21. Low oil pressure – nominal delay 10 seconds 4. Coolant temperature gauge 4. 3 A minimum contacts. Locate charger outside the control panel. Over-crank – nominal setting 20 seconds 2.9 Ventilation System 1.7. dampers etc to meet the required air volume for engine combustion and ventilation requirements. Relay shall be normally closed and to open under alarm conditions.7. Annunciators shall be of individual visual type with long life lamp(s) removable from the panel front complete with manual alarm reset features and clearly labelled. Diesel engines shall be started by an electrical cranking motor with power provided from storage batteries.12 Failure Annunciator 1. 21. Ventilation systems shall be complete with fans.

9 Control System Refer to Section 17 – Instrumentation & Control and Section 18 – SCADA System for control system requirements. 3. It shall be provided with Class H insulation or better. 3 phase 60 Hz. with easily removal bolt-on diodes.2 Voltage Regulator 1. Control potentiometers arranged for clockwise rotation to increase the related function. i. It shall be provided with protective devices to sense generator overload condition and supply output contacts for SCADA and/or generator trip function. 21.8. 2. Control rheostat or tapped choke. unless specified otherwise. Generator shall be sized to meet the standby power loading requirements. Generator output supply shall be 400/230V. The generator revolving field shall be of amortisseur winding and have a brushless exciter connected directly to the generator shaft.8. 3. It shall be capable of generator voltage build-up without batteries and protected against fault during under speed running. 2. Control panel shall have the following controls: • Manual Start/stop control switch • Man-Auto-off Switch • Battery condition monitor • Current / voltage monitoring on all phases • Frequency meter • Rune time meter • kWh meter 6 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Diesel Generator Standard 21. 4.e. It shall be horizontal synchronous type in protected enclosure with ground lug and readily accessible terminal box.8 Generator Requirements 21. 21.1 General 1. static type with ‘Fail-safe’ features. voltage range shall be plus or minus 2 percent of nominal volts. Voltage regulator shall be an automatic. no excess voltage if the regulator fails when located on the engine control panel.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Diesel Generator Standard Alarms relays shall transmit the followings signals to the SCADA system: • Start • Stop • Uncommanded stop • Overload • High temperature • Overspeed • Infrared flame detection 7 March 2009 R1 .

The front cover of the manual of the respective binders to be printed as follows: POMORIE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT PROJECT NO. to the included table of contents of the Manual.g. The hard copy of the Operation Manual shall be bound in binders. CD-ROM copy and the hard copy version must be identical.2 Operation Manual Requirements The Operation Manual shall be prepared in Microsoft WORD. In addition. Depending on the Unit Operation. The Unit Operation Descriptor shall conform. submit two complete sets of CD-ROM of the Operation Manual when approved by the Project Manager. 22.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Treatment Plant Operation Manual Section 22 Treatment Plant Operation Manual 22.3 Format of Operation Manual The Consultants are required to prepare and submit hard copies. or as an online interactive document running under Microsoft Windows XP or VISTA. as a minimum. 22. version currently used by WASA. A Descriptor is a typical task to be performed for a Unit Operation. OPERATION MANUAL VOLUME 1 CONSULTANT: 1 March 2009 R1 . The spine of the binder shall be lettered with the full identification title of the project e. it may or may not require all of the Descriptor listed in a table of contents.1 General The Consultants shall prepare the structure and format of the Operation Manual for water and wastewater treatment plants as follows. [Name of Plant] WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT PROJECT No. Date of issue of CD-ROM and hard copy must also be clearly identified. The Consultants shall ensure that the online text version.

Operation Manual Overview 3. Plant Overview 4.8 Public Relations 4.2 Operation Manual Organization Section 1: Introduction Section 2: Operation Manual Overview Section 3: Plant Overview Section 4: Unit Operations Section 5: Design Parameters & Dimensions of Each Process Unit Section 6: Appendices 4.3 Utility Classification 4. Introduction 2. Table of Contents 2.1 Technical Information 3.9 Plant Tours 4.2 Plant History 4.4 Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual The following is the Table of Contents for Water Treatment Plant Manual: 1.12 Vandalism/Theft 4.3 Acknowledgement 2.1 SOURCE 10 Lake 20 River 30 Groundwater 5.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 22.11 Complains 4.14 Injuries 5.13 Spill/Pollution 4.1 General 4.10 Requests for Information/Literature 4. Detailed Unit Operations 5.6 Certificate of Approval and Design Brief 4.4 Operator Classification 4.5 Distribution System Classification 4.1 Record of Revision 2.4 Table of Contents 3.2 Title Page 2.2 RAW WATER HANDLING 10 Intake 20 Intake Pipe 2 March 2009 R1 .7 Water Quality 4.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards

30 Screening
40 Low Lift Pumping
50 Pipeline

5.3 PARTICULATE REMOVAL
10 Microstraining
20 Flash Mixing
30 Flocculation
40 Clarification
50 Filtration including membrane ultra filtration or sand
60 Filter Backwash System
70 Sludge Handling

5.4 DISINFECTION
10 Pre-Chlorination
20 Post Chlorination

5.5 OTHER PROCESSES
10 Taste and Odour Control
20 pH Control
30 Fluoridation
40 Coagulation
50 Coagulation Aid
60 Dechlorination

5.6 STORAGE AND TRANSMISSION
10 Clearwell
20 Reservoir
30 High Lift Pumping
40 Elevated Tanks
50 Pumping Stations
60 Pressure Zones
70 Distribution System

5.7 COMMON UTILITIES
10 Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning
20 Plant Service Water
30 Plant Instrumentation/Air
40 Power Supply and Distribution
50 Emergency Standby Diesel Generator
60 Security/Alarm System
70 Communications
80 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
90 Laboratory

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6. Appendices
6.1 REFERENCE
6.2 CONVERSION TABLE
6.3 DIRECTORIES
Plant Personnel
Treatment Plants
Municipal Participants
MOE Personnel
Local Contractors
Equipment Service Representatives
Emergency
Media
6.4 FORMS
Index
6.5 GLOSSARY
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Water Treatment Chemicals
General terms

7. List of Figures

8. Drawing Number/Section/Title

9. “As-Built” Contract Drawing Title

22.5 Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation Manual
The following is the Table of Contents for Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation Manual:
1. Table of Contents

2. Introduction
2.1 Record of Revision
2.2 Title Page
2.3 Acknowledgement
2.4 Table of Contents

3. Operation Manual Overview
3.1 Technical Information
3.2 Operation Manual Organization
Section 1: Introduction
Section 2: Operation Manual Overview
Section 3: Plant Overview
Section 4: Unit Operations
Section 5: Design Parameters & Dimensions of Each Process Unit
Section 6: Appendices

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Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards

4. Plant Overview
4.1 General
4.2 Plant History
4.3 Utility Classification
4.4 Operator Classification
4.5 Wastewater Collection System
4.6 Certificate of Approval and Design Brief
4.7 Wastewater Effluent Quality
4.8 Public Relations
4.9 Plant Tours
4.10 Requests for Information/Literature
4.11 Complains
4.12 Vandalism/Theft
4.13 Spill/Pollution
4.14 Injuries

5. Detailed Unit Operations
5.1 WASTEWATER PUMPING STATIONS
10 Wastewater Pumping Stations
20 Odour Control

5.2 PRETREATMENT
10 Inlet
20 Fine Screening
30 Screenings Compactor
40 Grit Removal
50 Odour Control

5.3 PRIMARY CLARIFICATION
10 Primary Clarifier
20 Primary Sludge Pumping Facility
30 Primary Scum Pumping Facility
40 Odour Control

5.4 AERATION SYSTEM
10 Aeration Tank
20 Air Blower Equipment
30 Fine Bubble Diffuser System
40 Dissolved Oxygen Control
50 Odour Control

5.5 SECONDARY CLARIFICATION
10 Secondary Clarifier
20 Return Activated Sludge Pumping
30 Secondary Scum Pumping
40 Odour Control

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5.6 SLUDGE THICKENING/DEWATERING FACILITIES
10 Waste Activated Sludge
20 Digested Sludge
30 Thickening
40 Dewatering
50 Odour Control

5.7 INCINERATION
10 Preheating
20 Sludge Feed
30 Continuous Emissions Monitoring
40 Gas Scrubbing
50 Auxiliary Fuel System
60 Fluidized Bed (Air/Sand)

5.8 FLOW METERING FACILITIES
10 Metering Facilities

5.9 CHLORINATION FACILITIES
10 Chlorination Storage Facilities
20 Chlorine Contact Tank

5.10 CHEMICAL TREATMENT FACILITIES
10 Chemical Feed Systems
20 Chemical Storage Facilities

5.11 AEROBIC/ANAEROBIC DIGESTION FACILITIES
10 Aerobic/Anaerobic Digester
20 Sludge Handling Facilities
30 Odour Control

5.12 ULTRA-VIOLET DISINFECTION SYSTEM
10 Ultra-Violet Disinfection System
20 UV Lamp Cleaning System

5.13 VENTILATION & AC
10 Administration Facility
20 Pre-Treatment Facility
30 Wastewater Pumping Station
40 Blower Building
50 Sludge Dewatering Facility
60 Tertiary Treatment Facility
70 UV Disinfection Facility
80 Digester Gas Control Building

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15 POWER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 10 Administration Facilities 20 Wastewater Pumping Station 30 Air Blower Building 40 Return Sludge Pumping Facility 50 Sludge Dewatering Facility 60 Emergency Standby Diesel Generator 70 UV Facilities 5.16 SAMPLING & MONITORING 10 Equipment 20 Raw/Activated Sludge Sampling 30 Digested Sludge Sampling 40 Flow Monitoring 50 Influent 60 Effluent 70 Dewatered/Thickened Sludge Sampling 80 Sludge blanket level monitoring 90 Dissolved Oxygen Monitoring 5.14 SLUDGE LOADING/UNLOADING FACILITY 10 Digested Sludge Loading Facilities 20 Digested Sludge Pumping Facility 30 Digested Sludge Overflow Control & Cleanup 5.17 SAFETY & SECURITY 10 General 20 Sewers 30 Confined Spaces 40 Electrical Hazards 50 Mechanical Equipment Hazards 60 Explosion and Fire Hazards 70 Bacterial Infection Hazards 80 Chlorine Hazards 90 Ferrous/Ferric Chloride Hazards 100 UV Hazards 110 Safety Equipment 120 Process Chemical Handling & Storage 130 Facility Security 140 Emergency Response Program 150 References 160 WASA Compliance Manual 5.18 MAINTENANCE RECORDS 10 Process Operations and Daily Operating Reports 20 Monthly Reports 30 Annual Reports 7 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 5.

3 DIRECTORIES Plant Personnel Treatment Plants Municipal Participants WASA Personnel Local Contractors Equipment Service Representatives Emergency Media 6.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 5.1 REFERENCE 6.4 FORMS Index 6. Prior to the project being closed out. Provide two copies of the Manual on a CD-ROM 3. the Consultants are required to: 1. Revise and bring the hard copies up to date 8 March 2009 R1 . “As-Built” Contract Drawing Title 22. CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION 10 Refer to SCADA Operation Manual 6. Revise and bring the Manual completely up to date 2. List of Figures 8.6 Training on the Use of the Operation Manual The Consultants will be required to train the operators on the use of the Manual.19 SUPERVISORY.5 GLOSSARY Acronyms and Abbreviations Wastewater Treatment Chemicals General Terms 7. Appendices 6.2 CONVERSION TABLE 6. Drawing Number/ Section/Title 9.

7 Training of WASA Staff 22. and subject of each training session and identity the qualifications of the individuals to be conducting the training. handouts.7. Lesson planned for each training session by the manufacturer’s representatives. in the proper operation and maintenance of the equipment and systems provided and installed under his contract.1 Training Provided by the Contractor Consultants shall integrate measures for providing training to WASA’s personnel/operators by skilled trainers retained by the General Contractor specifically for the purpose. 3. 2. visual aids and other reference materials shall be provided to attendees. 9 March 2009 R1 . 4.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 22. All training manuals. Concurrent classes will not be allowed in training schedule. Date. The following information shall be submitted: 1. time.

Systems Optimization Department.5 to 7.25 to 3.0 GRAY 50% 40% GRAY ARIAL 3.0 COAST 0.5 to 7.0 BLACK POINT FEATURES FILE/SYMBOL FEATURE TYPE SIZE COLOUR SYMBOL LIBRARY GRAY BUILDINGS 2-40 80%-30% SQUARE 1 ESRI APPURTENANCES LEGEND 1.0 BLACK LAYOUT 0.01 to 2.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Water and Wastewater Design Guideline Manual Draughting Standards Section 23 Draughting Standards These drawing standards have been produced by WASA Business Services Division .0 RED RED 3.1 Cartographic Production Standards The GIS Section produces several different types of maps and as such the need to have standard formats to plot them is important. Consultants need to apply these standards when producing cartographic and engineering drawings unless otherwise indicated by WASA.0 ROADS ALL OTHERS 0.0 GREEN GREEN 3. 23. VTILITIES 1 March 2009 R1 .0 SEWER MAINS ALL 0. AVL WATER/WASTEW MAN HOLE SEWER 5-10 BLACK MANHOLE ATER GUAGE RAINFALL 10-40 BLUE WATER ENVIRONMENTAL STREAM 10-20 BLUE CIRCLE 18 ESRI OBSERVAT WELL DRILLED WELLS IONS 5-40 GREEN INDUS. VTILITIES WELL DRILLED PRODUCTI 5-40 BLUE INDUS. The following are currently used as standardize: LINE FEATURES LABEL TEXT THEME TYPE THICKNESS COLOUR COLOUR FONT SIZE RIVERS ALL 0.0 GRAY 80% 50% GRAY ARIAL 3.0 WATER MAINS ALL 0.0 BLUE BLUE ARIAL 3.0 ROADS MAIN 0.25 to 5.01 to 2.5 to 7.01 to 2.01 to 2.5 to 7.5 to 7.01 to 2.01 to 2.0 BLACK BOARDERS MAP AREA 0.

5 to 5 LIGHT APPLE BLACK BLACK 5-50 ST ANDREW 0.5 to 5 ROSE QUARTZ BLACK BLACK 5-50 ARIAL- ST DAVID 0.5-50 2 March 2009 R1 .5 to 5 30% GRAY BLACK ARIAL. WATER/WASTEW STATION 10-30 BLACK LIFT STATION ATER POLYGON FEATURES OUTLINE LABEL TEXT THEME TYPE/NAME WIDTH FILL COLOUR COLOUR FONT SIZE BUILDINGS PRESIDENTIAL 0-1 SODALITE BLUE COMMERCIAL 0-1 LIGHT APPLE PUBLIC 0-1 DARK AMBER GOVERNMENT 0-1 HELIOTROPE POLICE STATION 0-1 CRETEAN BLUE POST OFFICE 0-1 FIR GREEN FIRE STATION 0-1 MARS RED T&TEC 0-1 SOLAR YELLOW TSTT 0-1 PEONY PINK SCHOOL 0-1 SAHARA SAND OLIVENITE RELIGIOUS 0-1 GREEN SEVILLE HOSPITALS/HEALTH C 0-1 ORANGE INDUSTRIAL 0-1 60% GRAY ARIAL- COUNTIES ST GEORGE 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards ON SPRING 5-20 RED CIRCLE 21 ESRI INTAKE 5-20 GREEN TRIANGLE 7 ESRI ENCLOSED WATER/WASTE STORAGE TANK 10-40 BLUE STORAGE WATER WATER TREATMENT TREATMENT WATER/WASTEW PLANT 10-30 BLACK PLANT ATER BOOSTER PUMP WATER/WASTEW STATIONS 10-30 BLACK STATION ATER SEWER TREATMENT PLANT 10-30 GREEN STEP TRANS UTILITIES SEWER PUMPING.

25 to 3.25 to 3.25 to 3.0 255 115 223 Black Arial Black 3-30 Point-A-Pierre 0.25 to 3.25 to 3.5 to 5 ROSE BLACK BLACK 5-50 ARIAL- VICTORIA 0.0 190 232 255 Black Arial Black 3-30 Toco 0.0 209 255 115 Black Arial Black 3-30 Charuma 0.0 255 235 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 Manzanilla 0.5 to 5 SODALITE BLUE BLACK BLACK 5-50 RHODOLITE ARIAL- NARIVA 0.25 to 3.0 190 232 255 Black Arial Black 3-30 Guayaguayare 0.25 to 3.25 to 3.25 to 3.25 to 3.0 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 Diego Martin 0.0 178 178 178 Black Arial Black 3-30 St.0 156 156 156 Black Arial Black 3-30 Tamana 0.0 190 210 256 Black Arial Black 3-30 Arima 0.25 to 3.5 to 5 SUGILITE SKY BLACK BLACK 5-50 OUTLINE FILL COLOUR LABEL TEXT THEME TYPE/NAME WIDTH RED GREEN BLACK COLOUR FONT SIZE WARDS Erin 0.25 to 3.25 to 3.25 to 3.25 to 3.25 to 3.0 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 3 March 2009 R1 .5 to 5 BERYL GREEN BLACK BLACK 5-50 ARIAL- MAYARO 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards BLACK ARIAL- CARONI 0.0 233 255 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 POS 0.0 255 190 232 Black Arial Black 3-30 Tacarigua 0.0 115 255 223 Black Arial Black 3-30 San Rafael 0.0 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 Blanchisseuse 0.0 255 127 127 Black Arial Black 3-30 Cedros 0.25 to 3.25 to 3.0 223 115 255 Black Arial Black 3-30 Chaguanas 0.0 178 178 178 Black Arial Black 3-30 Couva 0.0 115 223 255 Black Arial Black 3-30 Cocal 0.25 to 3.0 255 255 115 Black Arial Black 3-30 Turure 0.0 255 167 127 Black Arial Black 3-30 Montserrat 0.0 232 190 255 Black Arial Black 3-30 Moruga 0.25 to 3.25 to 3.25 to 3.Anns 0.0 255 255 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 Matura 0.5 to 5 YUCCA YELLOW BLACK BLACK 5-50 ARIAL- ST PATRICK 0.25 to 3.0 104 104 104 Black Arial Black 3-30 Savana Grande 0.0 190 255 232 Black Arial Black 3-30 Cunupia 0.25 to 3.0 255 190 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 Valencia 0.25 to 3.

5 to 50 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 South East 0.25 to 2.5 to 50 178 178 178 Black Arial Black 5-50 Port-of Spain 0.0 190 255 232 Black Arial Black 2-20 Central South 0.5 to 50 255 255 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 Ortorie 0.5 to 50 190 232 255 Black Arial Black 5-50 North West 0.0 190 210 256 Black Arial Black 2-20 Barataria/Laventille 0.5 to 50 255 255 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 South West 0.0 190 232 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 San Juan-Santa Cruz 0.0 255 190 232 Black Arial Black 2-20 Diego Martin (South) 0.5 to 50 255 190 232 Black Arial Black 5-50 HYDROLOGICAL North Coast 0.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 3.25 to 2.5 to 50 190 210 255 Black Arial Black 5-50 South Oropuche 0.5 to 50 255 190 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 Nariva 0.0 156 156 156 Black Arial Black 2-20 4 March 2009 R1 .25 to 2.5 to 50 233 255 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 Cedros Peninsula 0.25 to 2.0 255 190 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Ariam (North) 0.5 to 50 255 190 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 San Fernando/Central 0.5 to 50 210 255 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 North Central 0.0 178 178 178 Black Arial Black 2-20 Tacarigua (Tunapuna) 0.5 to 50 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 Central/West Coast 0.25 to 2.5 to 50 255 190 232 Black Arial Black 5-50 Southern Range 0.25 to 2.0 255 190 232 Black Arial Black 3-30 San Fernando 0.25 to 3.0 232 190 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 Caroni 0.25 to 2.5 to 50 178 178 178 Black Arial Black 5-50 Peninsula/Caroni 0.0 232 190 255 Black Arial Black 3-30 Siparia 0.0 255 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Diego Martin (North) 0.0 255 235 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 DISTRICTS North East 0.5 to 50 190 232 255 Black Arial Black 5-50 North Oropouche 0.5 to 50 232 190 255 Black Arial Black 5-50 DISTRIBUTION Toco 0.25 to 3.0 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 D'abadie (Arouca) 0.0 190 210 255 Black Arial Black 3-30 Trincity 0.25 to 2.5 to 50 210 255 190 Black Arial Black 5-50 West 0.0 233 255 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 La Brea 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards OUTLINE FILL COLOUR LABEL TEXT THEME TYPE/NAME WIDTH RED GREEN BLACK COLOUR FONT SIZE Ontoire 0.0 255 255 190 Black Arial Black 3-30 Naparima 0.0 233 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Sangre Grande 0.25 to 3.25 to 3.0 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Ariam (South) 0.25 to 2.25 to 3.0 255 235 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Central North 0.

25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.0 156 156 156 Black Arial Black 2-20 Central North 0.25 to 2.0 255 190 232 Black Arial Black 2-20 Santa Cruz 0.0 178 178 178 Black Arial Black 2-20 S/Juan-Laventille 0.25 to 2.25 to 2.0 178 178 178 Black Arial Black 2-20 Naparima 0.0 190 210 256 Black Arial Black 2-20 D'abadie/Tacarigua 0.0 115 223 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 Pt.25 to 2.0 255 127 127 Black Arial Black 2-20 Mayaro 0.25 to 2.25 to 2.0 115 255 223 Black Arial Black 2-20 Cumuto 0.0 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Moruga 0.0 255 190 232 Black Arial Black 2-20 5 March 2009 R1 .25 to 2.0 255 235 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Arima 0.25 to 2.0 255 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Cedros 0.0 115 255 223 Black Arial Black 2-20 P/Town.Joseph 0.25 to 2.0 223 115 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 Rio Claro 0.25 to 2.0 255 255 115 Black Arial Black 2-20 Caroni 0.25 to 2.0 255 115 223 Black Arial Black 2-20 Blanchisseuse 0.0 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Dibe/Maraval 0.0 190 232 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 La Brea/ Pt.25 to 2. Fortin/Cedros 0.25 to 2.25 to 2.0 104 104 104 Black Arial Black 2-20 Penal/Erin 0.25 to 2.0 209 255 115 Black Arial Black 2-20 Naparima 0.25 to 2.0 190 232 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 St.25 to 2.0 190 232 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 Toco 0.0 190 255 232 Black Arial Black 2-20 Maturita 0.0 255 127 127 Black Arial Black 2-20 Central South 0.0 255 190 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Sangre Grande 0.0 233 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 O'mera/Malabar 0.Fortin/Cedros 0.25 to 2.0 223 115 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 San Fernando/PAP 0.25 to 2.0 232 190 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 POS 0.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards OUTLINE FILL COLOUR LABEL TEXT THEME TYPE/NAME WIDTH RED GREEN BLACK COLOUR FONT SIZE POS 1&2 0.0 255 255 115 Black Arial Black 2-20 N/Grant-R/Claro 0.Moruga 0.0 255 115 223 Black Arial Black 2-20 San Fernando 0.25 to 2.0 255 167 127 Black Arial Black 2-20 La Brea/Fyzabad 0.25 to 2.Fortin 0.25 to 2.0 255 167 127 Black Arial Black 2-20 Princess Town 0.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.0 115 223 255 Black Arial Black 2-20 Mayaro 0.0 209 255 115 Black Arial Black 2-20 Debe/Erin 0.25 to 2.0 104 104 104 Black Arial Black 2-20 BILLING Pt.0 211 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Blanchisseuse 0.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.0 255 255 190 Black Arial Black 2-20 Carenage-D/Martin 0.0 178 178 178 Black Arial Black 2-20 Biche 0.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.25 to 2.

Scale Bar: Double Alternating 3.0=Blank. piping arrangements. Labels Arial (0. Spheroid: International b. Projection: Cassini. Projection: Transverse Mercator. Units of Measurement: Metre 8. motors. Architectural and Survey Works. Projection Transverse Mercator. Spheroid: Clarke 1858 c. text 10. polygon.2. electrical site plans. line. Datum: WGS 84. Grid: UTM Zone 20N. floor plans. Map Data: a. Plinth detail. Reference Grid 7. Pressure indicator.5pts – 100pts). 6 March 2009 R1 . Jim Pole detail.5pts – 80pts) 9. 23. • Electrical Engineering Works Schematic and block diagrams.1 Types of Drawings Design (Proposed) and As-Built Drawings for: • Civil Engineering Works Water and Sewer Pipeline Systems. Cardinal Points (must North. panel support details etc. panel assembly. South. (0. CAD/E Section produces various types of drawings that are categorized as ‘Design’ and ‘As-Built’ drawings: Civil. 168. Legend: Title Arial. Systems Optimization Department. spool piece etc. dams. East and West 2. pumps. Location on PC. file extension) Date (date/month in text/year) 23.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards Each Layout should display: 1. Grid: Tobago. Legend order: points. intakes etc • Mechanical Engineering Works Vat and Flange details. Datum: Naparima 1955.2 CAD Standards The Water and Sewerage Authority. layouts and details Value chamber details. WASA logo: Symbol Code. Units of Measurement: Metre. roads section and details. Unit of Measurement: Metre. Mechanical. Electrical. Sea Label: Times New Roman 11. Title: Rockwell Extra Bold (18pts – 200pts) 6. colour = 5 (0. Map must also show the following information usually placed under the Company Logo: WATER AND SEWERAGE AUTHORITY Systems optimization GIS Section File Path (Net Id. Thrust blocks. Bridges. schedules. Scale Text: Optional 4. instrument panel detail arrangement. steel supports. 1=Black. Grid: UTM ZoneN. 135) (RBG) 5.

Report Covers etc. Updates to this document will be made only with the approval of the Manager. Black should be the predominant colour in the entire drawing. This document contains information on the various components of drawing production that is currently used by the Systems Optimization Department. • Land and Engineering Surveying Profiles. Systems Optimization Department. Signs. floor plans. Location Plans. It must say specifically what the drawing is representing.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards • Architectural and Structural Works Elevations. Quality Production of Drawing • All drawings must have a ‘Titled Border’ and unless specified otherwise. roof plans and details. • Show the Drawing’s Title in the space provided in the Title Block of the standard border. • Yellow should be used at a minimum. section or buildings. Site Plans. Center lines and dimensions lines in their standard colours. 23. foundation plans and details.2.2. use the appropriate standard ‘Title Blocks’ (Borders) available. Vicinity Plans etc 23. Examples are: Organizational Structural Charts. Cadastral. fence post and hinge details etc.2 Miscellaneous Drawings All drawings that are not categorized with the types mentioned above are considered miscellaneous drawings. if it must be used in drawings.3 Standards For any organization to function efficiently. Sketches. • Ensure all words are spelt correctly. Schematic Drawings and Diagrams. it must be guided by appropriate standards. Traverses. 7 March 2009 R1 .

3 Txt.g.shx Arial Narrow or Generally used for Size Main Bold NEW 100mm PVC main 8 March 2009 R1 . COCONUT DRIVE. North sign. mains and sizes must be included in each viewport • Viewport scale 1/500 • Location/ File Path in Title Block • As-built sheet (see sample page 6) CAD File Specifications Layers LINE USE(in order of pen LAYERS COLOUR TYPE weight from light to dark) groundplan Black Continuous Light Lines waterwa Blue Continuous Dark Lines Detail Circle Cyan Continuous Light Lines Matchline Red Dashdot Dark Lines Text Black Chainage Red Continuous Light Lines Text Styles TEXT NAME TEXT STYLE USE 1 Simplex Narrow Generally used for labelling of Chainage 2 RomanD Narrow For general text headings Road Name E.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards Design (Proposed) and As-built Drawings These drawings should consist of the following: • Ground (alignment) and street names • Existing and Proposed mains and sizes • Appurtenances • Detail of interconnection • Street name.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards

As-Built Sample Template

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23.3 Survey Drawings
Layers

LAYERS COLOUR LINE TYPE USE (in order of pen
weight
Road Outline BLACK Continuous 0.00
Major Contours GREEN Continuous 0.00
Minor Contours GREY Continuous 0.00
Stations BLACK Circle 0.00
Iron put/Iron Found RED Circle 0.00
Wire Fence GREEN Dashed X 0.20
Trees BLACK Continuous 0.00
Text BLACK Continuous 0.00
Electricity Pole BLACK Circle 0.00
Telephone Pole BLACK Circle 0.00
Retaining Wall BLACK Dashed-Dot 0.00
Colour of Road BROWN Continuous 0.00
(255,214,160)
Colour of Parcel PINK Continuous 0.00
(255,219,237)
Colour of Drain BLUE Continuous 0.00
Reserve, River and the (210’226,240)
Sea
Houses Black Continuous 0.00
Earthen Drain BLACK Arrow 0.00

23.4 Land and Engineering Surveying

Cadastral (Surveys Drawing)
A Cadastral Drawing shows the location, identification and legal description of the, access,
appurtenances, encumbrances, improvements or other conditions that may affect a property for
the title company. The quantification of appurtenances, encumbrances and total areas of the
property required by the appraisers to assist in validating the purchase price and the inventory of
parcels and the identification/perpetuation of lines and corners of the property for land
management purposes.

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Use Standard cadastral Sheet
- Buildings to be hatch in gray
- North Arrow in Cyan at the Top Right of the Viewport

Text Styles

TEXT NAME TEXT STYLE USE

1 Simplex Regular Bearings, Distances, Ir. put, Ir.
Fd.
2 Arial black Regular Road Name, Neighbors

Drawing Scales

SCALE CIRCLE TEXT HEIGHT NEIGHBOUR
Ir. Put/Ir.Put (Adjourning Parcels)
1 1/500 0.4 0.75 1.0
2 1/750 0.6 1.13 1.5
3 1/1000 0.8 1.5 2.0
4 1/1250 1.0 1.88 2.5
5 1/1500 1.2 2.25 3.0
6 1/2000 1.6 3.0 4.0
7 1/2500 2.0 3.75 5.0
7 1/2500 2.0 3.75 5.0

Architectural and Structural Works
These drawings should consist of the following:
• Elevations
• Floor Plans
• Foundation Plan & Beam and Column Details
• Roof Plan & Details
• Sections of Building
• Fence Post & Details
• Site Plan/Location
• Drainage Details
• Standard Drawing Block/Sheet (see Page 12)

11 March 2009
R1

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA)
Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards

CAD File Specifications
Layers

LAYERS COLOUR LINE TYPE USE (in
order of pen
weight from
light to dark)
Hatch, Plants, Tiles, etc. COLOUR 9 Continuous Light Lines
Centre Lines/Section Lines, COLOUR 8 Centre, Light Lines
Grid lines, Hidden Detail Dashdot,
Lines, Stairs, Dimension, Hidden,
Roof Sheeting, RC Continuous
Columns, Roof Outline etc.
Fixtures BROWN 30 Continuous Medium
Lines
Windows, Railing, Roof CYAN Continuous Medium
Lines
Walls, Details, Foundation MAGENTA Continuous Medium
Lines
Doors BROWN 41 Continuous Medium
Lines
Electrical, Rafters RED Continuous Medium
Lines
Ring Beam, Reinforcement BLUE Continuous Dark Lines
All Text WHITE Continuous Dark Lines
DIMENSIONS CYAN Continuous Dark Lines

Text Styles
TEXT NAME TEXT STYLE USE

1 Simplex Narrow Generally used for labelling of
building fixtures. E.g. WC, FB, SH
etc.
2 Romantic Narrow For general text headings i.e. room
names, room numbers, etc.
E.g. MASTER BEDROOM, etc.
3 Arial Arial Narrow or Generally used for dimensions and
Bold drawing names E.g. FLOOR PLAN,
etc.

12 March 2009
R1

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards Architectural and Structural Works Sample Template 13 March 2009 R1 .

2 Romantic Narrow 6 mm Headings and labeling of all drawings. Height 1.5 Electrical Engineering Works • Text and Dim Line in Blue.75mm or 2mm • Sub-title. Height 2.5mm or 3mm • Lines are Color-Coded R Red Y Yellow B Blue N Green • Rest of line work in Black/White • Symbol in Blue. 3 Arial Arial Narrow 3 mm Appurtenance or Bold 14 March 2009 R1 . Symbols are to be created in accordance to the nature of the drawings and must be specified in a menu box which must be usable at all times. CAD File Specifications Layers LAYERS COLOUR LINE TYPE LINE SIZES Ground wire Green Continuous Set as Default Positive wire Red Continuous Set as Default Negative wire Black Continuous Set as Default Positive wire Yellow Continuous Set as Default Text Styles TEXT TEXT TEXT USE NAME STYLE SIZE 1 Simplex Narrow 5mm Generally used for labelling of streets and street names. Roman Duplex. • Text Roman Simplex. Oblique 15.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23.

5 – 3 mm.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23. for example. • All proposed Appurtenances. for example. • Whenever the Schematic diagram is modified.shx. CAD File Specifications Layers LAYERS COLOUR LINE TYPE USE (in order of pen weight from light to dark) Street name Blue Continuous Medium Lines Appurtenances Red Continuous Medium Lines Proposed Appurtenances Green Continuous Medium Lines Size Red Continuous Light Lines Existing main Black Continuous Dark Lines Proposed mains Green Continuous Dark Lines Proposed mains size Green Continuous Light Lines 15 March 2009 R1 . Mains etc are to be indicated in green. • All data required on the sheet must be entered. the revised date must be entered on the Schematic sheet. • The main size and the type of main are to be labeled in red using Romans. unless otherwise stated.shx. • All symbols used in the Schematic diagram must be from the block symbols set for Schematic diagram only.5. • Street names should be indicated in blue using text style Romans. • All symbols used in the Schematic diagram must be included as part of the Symbol Key in the sheet. • The height of the street name in the view port should be between 2. • All existing mains to be indicated in black/white continuous lines. 100 PVC.1 Schematics The drawings should comply with the following: • The Schematic diagram block sheet must be used for all Schematic drawings. WARREN STREET.

6 Sketches These drawings are not drawn to scale.3mm Appurtenances Red Continuous Default 16 March 2009 R1 . they are consistently used to specify areas in which work is to be done or in draughting terms (Proposed work to be done). CAD File Specifications Layers LAYERS COLOUR LINE TYPE LINE SIZES Roadway Black Continuous Default Pipelines Blue Polylines 1. These drawings are not to be used for accurate measurement. they are only for proposals.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards Schematic Sample Template 23. Drawing standards that have been set are to be met at all times to ensure proper quality control is maintained and kept.

2 Romantic Narrow 65 mm Headings and labeling of all drawings.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards Text Styles TEXT NAME TEXT TEXT USE STYLE SIZE 1 Simplex Narrow 5mm Generally used for labelling of streets and street names. 3 Arial Arial 3 mm Appurtenance Narrow or Bold 17 March 2009 R1 .

2 W-SYM RED 1 WVALVE WO Washout Valve 2.5 W-SYM RED 1 FIREH FH Fire Hydrant 1.5 W-SYM RED 1 VALVE 1 SV Gate Valve 1.6 W-SYM RED 1 METER M Meter 1.8 W-SYM RED 1 VALVE 2 V2 Gate Valve 1.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23.8 W-SYM RED 1 Valve BVALVE BV Butterfly Valve 1.5 W-SYM RED 1 PUMP PRV Pump Set 2 W-SYM RED 1 PDN PD Pipe Down 1 W-SYM RED 1 PUP PU Pipe Up 1 W-SYM RED 1 SMH SMH Sewer Main Hole 1 S-SYM GREEN 3 18 March 2009 R1 .5 W-SYM RED 1 RED R Reducer 1.SCALE 1: 500 DEFAULT BLOCK BLOCK BLOCK ASSOCIATED SCALE COLOUR NAME ALIAS DESCRIPTION LAYER FACTOR MAP 3 SP Stand Pipe 1.8 W-SYM RED 1 Pressure Reducing PVALVE PRV 1.8 W-SYM RED 1 AVALVE AV Air Valve 1.8 W-SYM RED 1 RVALVE RV Reflux Valve 1.7 Symbology The following standards are used when producing surveying type drawings WATER SYMBOLS .

5 Blue 5 Sewer Main Continuous (Proposed/AS- Polyine Built) PS-LIN 0.1:500 BLOCK LINE INSERTI LINE LINE DESCRIPTI ASSOCIAT ON THICK.COLO COLOUR SYMBOL TYPE ON ED LAYER SPACING NESS UR CODE Water Main Continuous (Proposed/AS- Polyline Built) PW-LIN 0.5 Blue 5 Dashed Water Main Polyline Existing AW-LIN 0.5 Brown 9 Dashed Sewer Main Polyline (Existing) XS-LINE 0.1:500 BLOCK COLO LINE LINE LINE ASSOCIATED THICK- INSERTION COLOUR UR SYMBOL TYPE DESCRIPTION LAYER NESS SPACING CODE Converted Dashed Earthen Drain Drains 1 0 Cyan 4 Polyline Dimension Kerb and Slipper Drains 1 Cyan 4 Leader Drain Converted Dashed Cutting Ground 0 White 7 Polyline Converted Dashed Cliff Ground 0 White 7 Polyline Converted Dashed Wire Fence Property 0 White 7 Polyline UTILITY SERVICE LINE TYPES.3 Brown 9 Border Electricity Polyline Cable E-LIN 0 Yellow 2 Phantom Telephone Magenta Polyline Cable T-LIN 0 A 6 Divide Polyline Gas/Oil Line G-LIN 0 Red 1 19 March 2009 R1 . Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards SURVEYING/MAPPING LINE TYPES .SCALE .SCALE .

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards SURVEYING/MAPPING SYMBOLS .1:500 BLOCK DEFAULT BLOCK BLOCK DESCRIPTIO SCALE ASSOCIATE COLO COLOUR NAME ALIAS N FACTOR D LAYER UR CODE Map 1 S Survey Station 0.9 Utility White 7 Map 4 4 White 7 Map 5 5 White 7 Map 6 6 White 7 Map 7 FP Fence Post 0.SCALE .85 Control White 7 Map 2 UP Utility Pole 0.9 Property White 7 Map 8 White 7 Map 9 White 7 Sign SGN Sign 3.5 Ground White 7 TVS TVS Traverse Station Control White 7 TGS TGS Trig Station Control White 7 MM MM Mile Mark Control White 7 BM BM Bench Mark Control White 7 T1 Tree 4 Vegetation Green 3 T2 Tree 4 Vegetation Green 3 T3 Tree 4 Vegetation Green 3 T5 Tree 4 Vegetation Green 3 20 March 2009 R1 .

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards SURVEYING/MAPPING ABBREVATION DICTIONARY ABBREVIATION MEANING ABT ABUTMENT AVE AVENUE CORNER OF b BUILDING B BOTTOM BM BENCH MARK BEG BEGINNING BE BOTTOM EDGE BR BRIDGE BDR BOX DRAIN BF BLOCK FENCE BUTTERFLY BV VALVE CI CAST IRON CONC CONCRETE CL CENTRE LINE CENTRELINE OF CTR TRACE CENTRELINE OF CRD ROAD CONCRETE CP PAVEMENT KRB KERB KERB AND KSDR SLIPPER DRAIN CULV CULVERT DI DUCTILE IRON DRN DRAIN DW DRIVEWAY EOR EDGE OF ROAD EDG EDGE EDT EDGE OF TRACE EDR EARTHEN DRAIN E EAST ELECTRICITY EP POLE 21 March 2009 R1 .

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards ABBREVIATION MEANING FH FIRE HYDRANT GP GATE POST GS GROUND SHOT CORNER OF h HOUSE IDR INVERT DRAIN I INVERT IR FD IRON FOUND IR PT IRON PUT JCT JUNCTION LP LAMP POST SDR SLIPPER DRAIN L LEFT MM MILE MARK mm MILLIMETER M METER N NORTH PRESSURE PRV REDUCING VALVE PS PUMP SET PIPE PD DOWNWARDS PR PIPELINE ROUTE PU PIPE UPWARDS POLY VINYL PVC CHLORIDE R RIGHT RW RETAINING WALL RED REDUCER RD ROAD RV REFLUX VALVE RIV RIVER REINFORCED RCP CONCRETE PIPE S SOUTH STL STEEL SV SLUICE VALVE SP STAND PIPE SPK FD SPIKE FOUND 22 March 2009 R1 .

TREE W WEST w WIDE WO WASHOUT VALVE WF WIRE FENCE VRG GRASS VERGE X CROSSING INT INTERSECTION AV AIR VALVE PL PROPERTY LINE SWK SIDEWALK SOF SOFFIT 23 March 2009 R1 . T5. ..Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards ABBREVIATION MEANING SPK DT SPIKE PUT ST STREET STM STREAM SGN SIGN SEWER MAIN SMH HOLE T TOP TEMPORARY TBM BENCH MARK TP TELEPHONE POLE TR TRACE T2.

0070 SIGN TRI TVS TRAVERSE STATION 0.3800 CONTROL RED RHO BM BENCH MARK 0.0055 W-SYM RED AVALVE AV AIR VALVE 0.0025 PROPERTY SIGN SGN SIGN 0.0060 W-SYM RED PDN PD PIPE END DOWN 0.0090 VEGETATION GREEN TREE3 T3 MANGO TREE 0.0085 W-SYM RED RED RD REDUCER 0.4200 CONTROL RED CIRPLP KM KILOMETER MARK 0.0030 ELECT-MH MAGENTA FIREH FH FIRE HYDRANT 0.4500 CONTROL RED TGS TGS TRIG STATION 0.0020 UTILITY MAP7 BP BOUNDARY POST 0.0055 W-SYM RED PVALVE PRV PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE 0.0020 S-SYM MAP1 S SURVEY STATION 0.0055 W-SYM RED RVALVE RV RELUX VALVE 0.0023 W-SYM RED SMH SMH SEWER MANHOLE 0.0095 VEGETATION GREEN TREE4 T4 TREE 0.0050 W-SYM RED METER M METER 0.0035 W-SYM RED WVALVE WO WASHOUT VALVE 0.55 CONTROL RED TREE1 T1 TREE 0.0090 VEGETATION GREEN TREE2 T2 PALM TREE 0.0030 W-SYM RED VALVE1 SV SLUICE VALVE 0.0090 VEGETATION GREEN 24 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards GIS SURVEYS TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY AND MAPPING SYMBOLS LIBRARY DEFAULT SCALE FACTOR GRAPHIC BLOCK FILE FIELD ASSOCIATED LAYER SYMBOL NAME CODE BLOCK DESCRIPTION 1:000 1:500 LAYER COLOUR PLUS SH TOPO SPOTS 0.3000 TOPO-SPOTS BLACK EMH EMH ELECTRICAL MANHOLE 0.0045 W-SYM RED PUMP P PUMP SET 0.0055 W-SYM RED BVALVE BV BUTTERFLY VALVE 0.0023 W-SYM RED PUP PU PIPE END UP 0.0018 CONTROL RED MAP2 UP UTILITY POLE 0.

WATER LINE XS XS-LIN 30 PHANTOM2 NONE EXIST.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards GIS SURVEYS TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY AND MAPPING SYMBOLS LIBRARY NAME LAYER COLOUR LINETYPE PATTERN LINETYPE LINE DESCRIPTION SYMBOL GL G-LIN 1(RED) PATTERN LINE GL GAS LINE EL E-LIN 2 PATTERN LINE EL ELECTRICAL LINE ML M-LIN 3(GREEN) PATTERN LINE ML METHANOL LINE TV CABLETV 220 PATTERN LINE TV CABLE TV LINE WF PROPERTY 7 PATTERN LINE WF WIRE FENCE R1 GROUND 7 CONTINOUS NONE ROAD EDGE R2 GROND 7 CONTINOUS NONE ROAD EDGE D1 DRAINS1 7 CONTINOUS NONE CONC.SEWER LINE H HOUSES 40 CONTINOUS NONE HOUSE B BUILDINGS CYAN CONTINOUS NONE BUILDING TL T-LIN MAGENTA PATTERN LINE TL TELEPHONE LINE BL PROPERTY 7 PATTERN LINE BF BLOCK FENCE 25 March 2009 R1 .DRAIN D2 DRAINS2 141 DASHED NONE EARTHEN DRAIN XW XW-LIN BLUE DASHED NONE EXIST.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards The following are symbols used for Schematic Drawing 26 March 2009 R1 .

Additional symbols may be needed for the Emergency Evacuation drawings symbol set.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards The following are symbols used for the Emergency Evacuation Drawing 1. 2. The text style used for labeling the symbols is Stencil 27 March 2009 R1 .

Sections/details should all be lined up so that the floors can be easily identified and related.g. 28 March 2009 R1 . Certain standards notes should always be considered. The use of abbreviations should be avoided unless space on the drawing dictates otherwise.1 Project Title • Here the name of the project should be entered. 2. 7.3 Sheet • Here the sheet number is entered. Annotation should be as close to the information to which it relates.9. 6. A drawing should be laid out to allow clear interpretation of the data. • E. Annotation should be kept to a minimum and always be orientated so that it reads from the bottom or the right-hand side of the drawing. Symbols should be consistent on all drawings. • Note: Text should be all CAPS. but clear of linework.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23.9. the plan grid should line up with the elevation grids for easy reference. 8. Sheet # 5 Of 13 23. 23. Note arrows (leaders) should never cross. Sections/Elevations should be drawn as projections of the plan whenever possible.9. • E. If the project consists of more than one drawing the total amount of drawings should be indicated on each sheet. • E. 9. 4. 5.8 10 Golden Draughting Rules 1.2 Job Title • Here the name of the drawing should be entered. 3.g. Always ensure that the drawing is independently checked and approved before issuing. 10.g. MARAVAL WATER TREATMENT BUILDING UPGRADE WORKS 23.4 Drafted By • Here the draughting technician should enter his/her name. • Note: Text should be all CAPS. PROPOSED GROUND FLOOR LAYOUT 23.9 Standard Title Block Data Entry The following are lists of instructions to be used when editing the title block information 23.9. Never draw a line unless you understand what it represents.

9. A series of discussions were held with the major stakeholders (CAD/E and IT Staff) to determine the specific requirements of our CAD file name and the working model is described below. The file naming rules developed were modeled after one used by the Connecticut Department of Transportation whose approach seemed to best fit our needs.9.g. In the example the figure two indicates that the drawing has been updated.DWG 23. GIS103/STAFF/ARCHITECTURAL/ ARC-PRO-FPLAN-MARAVAL- ARAVALWATERTREATMENTPLANT-2.5 Designed By • Here the designer of the proposed drawing should include his/her name.7 Approved By • Here the person or body that is responsible for the works being done.9. ARC-PRO-FPLAN-MARAVAL-MARAVALWATERTREATMENTPLANT-2 23.g. the drawing should be saved as another version. 23. • E. should sign here indicating that the drawings has meet the required standards.9 File Path • Here the location where the drawing could be found should be indicated by the use of a file path.9.8 Scale • The scale of the drawing on the present sheet should be indicated here.6 Checked By • Here the drawing should be check and the person checking the drawing should indicate his/her name. 29 March 2009 R1 . Wellington Note: If the drawing is modified.9. F. This is important so that anyone who is aware of the convention rules can easily identify files when necessary. 23. 23. General and Block. • E. 23.g.10 File naming convention A File Naming Convention was developed to enable anyone to identify the contents of a CAD file without actually opening the file.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards • E. There are two major categories of file names.

1 General Name The General Name would be applied to any drawing file used as a working drawing. Syntax: CAD Type/Sub-Type/Sub-Sub Type/Location/Location-Type(Facililty)/Version. Mechanical. 30 March 2009 R1 . Survey or Schematic. Booster Version Checkpoint of currency of drawing 23.10. scalable.2 Block Name The Block Name would be applied to any drawing used as a block or in a symbol library. These would fall into the categories of Architectural.dwg FILE NAME DESCRIPTION COMPONENT CAD Type General Grouping of Cad drawings Blk Block Block Name Name of the Block User-Defined Identifier Identifier devised by user to define the block contents The following diagrams illustrate the categories of CAD files (CAD Type) and their sub classifications (Sub-Type).Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23. which are defined later. Syntax: CAD Type/Blk/BlockName/User-DefinedIdentifier. A block is any collection of related.g. Arima Location-Type (Facility) Area office or other facility e.10.dwg FILE NAME DESCRIPTION COMPONENT CAD Type General Grouping of CAD drawings Sub-Type Division of the CAD type (adding more specificity) Sub-Sub Type Further division of the sub-type (adding more specificity) Location Geographic place of the drawing contents e. Electrical.g. CAD Objects that can be used in many drawings of the same type.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23.3 Main CAD Types • Architectural – any drawing related to a building • Schematic – line model of linear type network • Survey – drawing from field survey data • Engineering – design of networks or other infrastructure • Electrical – any drawing related to an electrical configuration that pertains to mechanical. engineering and architectural works Key CAD TYPE SUB-TYPE SUB SUB-TYPE 31 March 2009 R1 .10.

4 Architectural Architectural Proposed Existing 3-D Elevation 3-D Elevation Complete Floor Plan Complete Floor Plan Electrical Roof Plan Electrical Roof Plan Plumbing Structural Plumbing Structural Location Site Plan Location Site Plan 32 March 2009 R1 .Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23.10.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23.10.5 Schematic Schematic Proposed Existing Electrical Water Electrical Water Waste Water Waste Water 33 March 2009 R1 .

6 Survey Survey Surveys GPS (From the Surveys Department) (From the GPS Section) Site Plan Site Plan Cadastral Topographic Topographic As Laid As Laid Location Plan 34 March 2009 R1 .10.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23.7 Engineering Engineering Network Mechanical Infrastructure Pipe Water Arrangem Building ents Waste Water Pump & Vat Details Reservoir Booster Appurtena Station nce Details Miscellan eous (Pipe Fitting) 35 March 2009 R1 .10.

8 Electrical Electrical Proposed Existing Schematic Block Schematic Block Wiring Wiring • After some testing and research. • It was assumed that this trend could be applied to present and future incarnations of the applications. Both the CAD application and Operating System are able to handle the long names. 36 March 2009 R1 . the whole place name would be used to avoid confusion.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards 23. • A list of common abbreviations was developed to help reduce the amount of typing. it was agreed by all that in the case of the Location component of the file name.10.

Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards LOCATION CADTYPE CODE CODE PRE FIX/SUB FIX ARCHITECTUR ARC AVENUE AVE AL SCHEMATIC SCH BOULEVARD BLVD CNTR SURVEYING SUV CENTRAL L ENGINEERING ENG DRIVE DR ELECTRICAL ELEC EAST EST GARDENS GDNS SUBTYPE CODE JUNCTION JUCT PROPOSED PRO LOWER LWR EXISTING EXT MOUNT MT BLOCK BLK NORTH NRT SURVEYS SUV NUMBER NO GPS GPS PARK PRK NETWORK NTW PHASE PHS INFRASTRUCTU INF ROAD RD RE MECHANICAL MEC SAINT SNT STLM SETTLEMENT T SUB-SUBTYPE CODE STREET STR 3D 3D SOUTH STH COMP COMPLETE TOWN TWN L ELECTRICAL ELECT TRACE TR ELEVATION ELEVA UPPER UPR FLOORPLAN FPLAN VALLEY VLY ROOFPLAN RPLAN VILLAGE VILL PLUM PLUMBING WEST WST B WATE WATER R SITEPLAN SPLAN CADA CADASTRAL S 37 March 2009 R1 .

dwg = Complete set of architectural drawings for the Four Roads Pumping Station (elevations. electrical etc) 38 March 2009 R1 .dwg xxx-xxx-xxxxx-Location-Identifier-#. floor plan.g. ARC-PRO-COMPL-FOURROADS-PUMPINGSTATION-1. site plan.Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) Project Design and Technical Specifications Manual Draughting Standards TOPOGRAPHIC TOPOG ASLAID ASLAD SEWE SEWER R BUILDING BLDG RESERVOIR RESEV BOOSTERSTATI BSTAT ON MISCELLANEO MSCEL US WIRING WIR CADType-SUBType-SUBSUBType-LOCATION-USERIdentifie - Version.dwg e.