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What is coarticulation

What is coarticulation?
 Coarticulation is the way the brain organizes sequences of vowels and consonants,
interweaving the individual movements necessary for each into one smooth whole.
In fact, the process applies to all body movement, not just speech, and is part of how
homo sapiens works.
 It takes about a fifth of a second to produce a syllable, or about a fifteenth or
twentieth of a second for each consonant or vowel.
 Now it turns out it takes a little longer than that to move the lips, tongue and jaw for
each vowel and consonant. So what is happening?
 The brain coordinates these individual articulator movements in a very ingenious
way, such that movements needed for adjacent vowels and consonants are
produced simultaneously.
 This results in speech being produced very smoothly.
 At the same time it spreads out acoustic information about a vowel or consonant and
helps a listener understand what is being said.
 Speech coarticulation is thus also a very important part of the special code that
enables us to speak at five syllables a second.
 For example, suppose you say the word happy on its own:
 Before you say anything, you will start breathing out, and you will have moved your
tongue into position for a and started opening your mouth for a
 Then, while you are hissing for h, it will sound a bit like a whispered a
 When you stop hissing for h, you will turn your voice on for a
 When you start saying a, you will continue opening your mouth for a
 Once your mouth is fully open for a, you will start closing it again, and your lips,
for pp
 As your lips meet, you will switch your voice off for pp
 While your lips are together for pp, you will be moving your tongue from where you
had it for a towards where you need it for y
 As you separate your lips from pp, you will let a tiny puff of air escape between them
 As the puff ends you will turn your voice on for y
 While you start saying y, you will continue to move your tongue to where you need it
for yand continue opening your lips after pp
 Once your tongue is in position for y, you will keep it there

Some people might have their own individual timings.  The second vowel might vary from [i] to [ɪ].  A typical phonemic transcription might be /ˈhæpi/. part of what makes you sound just you.  Ordinary spelling was used for this example. each representing 13 milliseconds. while a very conservative British version might be [ε].  In some accents.  Simultaneous activity for â. Some people might have deviant timings that reflect some injury or illness requiring the assistance of a speech pathologist. Linguists and speech pathologists would usually prefer to use some form of phonetic transcription. using the IPA alphabet. An example from Bulgarian Activity for the sequence â r e during the r constriction and the e vocoid:  The numbers refer to image frames on the X-ray motion film. either between slashes /…/ (an abstract minimal representation in phonemes).  The first vowel might vary through [ε … æ … a] between different regional accents. move your tongue away from y. Once your done with y you will switch your voice off. or between square brackets […] (for fine pronunciation detail disregarding phonemic abstraction). and start breathing in  The whole word will usually be uttered in less than half a second  The precise timings might differ collectively between different accents. /h/ might be dropped. r and eduring the vibrant r constriction (26-27) and the first part of the e vocoid (28-31)  Tongue body activity for â (26-27) .

reaching the e posture in frame 31. . Tongue blade activity for r (26-31)  Tongue body activity for e (28-31) .  (a) The elevated tongue blade of r was withdrawn during frames 28-31 (the first part of thee vocoid segment).  (c) The tongue body posture of the vowel â was still maintained during the vibrant phase ofr (frames 26-27). c) The tongue body was raised towards the hard palate for e during frames 28- 31.  (b.