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Atomic bonds

L2

and van der Waals Bonds) . Ionic.Atomic bonds • In this module we shall explore the nature of atomic bonds in solids • What is an atom? Atomic Bonding • (Metallic. Covalent.

Metallic bond • Metallic bonding is the force of attraction between valence electrons and the metal ions. .

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.Ionic Bond • Ionic bond develops between two atoms having widely different electro‐negativity. • Two elements: one in group I and the other in group VII. • For example: A bond between Na and Cl.

Covalent bond • A covalent bond. is known as covalent bonding. is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms • When they share electrons. . also called a molecular bond.

Van der Waal bond • Are the residual attractive or repulsive forces between molecules or atomic groups • Van der Waals forces are relatively weak compared to covalent bonds .

• The net energy under such a condition should be the lowest and the net force should be zero. Bond energy The bond energy is a measure of the amount of energy needed to break apart one mole of covalently bonded molecules. This acts in the opposite direction. Units:(kJ/mol) • Bond formation takes place when two atoms are close enough • Under equilibrium there is no net force acting on these. It tries to bring the two atoms closer. This happens when the distance is r0. . Figure : When atoms are far apart there is little interaction. However if you push further there is a force of repulsion as well. The net force is the sum total of the two. Under the position of equilibrium the net force is zero. • However if you try to pull them apart a restoring attractive force acts on it. As the distance decreases the force of attraction increases. This is why the force is negative. The net energy under such a condition is the lowest.

• Bond Energy = attraction + repulsion .• The bond may therefore be visualized as an elastic spring. • The negative term denotes the force of attraction and the positive term is the force of repulsion.