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Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10), Amman, Jordan, March 21-24, 2010

Adam Ragheb* and Magdi Ragheb**
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
216 Talbot Laboratory,
104 South Wright Street,
Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.,

Wind gusts lead to misalignment of the drive train and
gradual failure of the gear components. This failure interval is
ABSTRACT disturbing, as it creates a significant increase in the capital and
The reliability problems associated with transmission or gearbox operating costs and downtime of a turbine, while greatly reducing
equipped wind turbines and the existing solutions of using direct its profitability and reliability. Existing gearboxes are a spinoff
drive gearless turbines and torque-splitting, are reviewed. As from marine technology used in shipbuilding. The gearboxes are
alternative solutions we propose the Geared Turbofan Engine massive components as shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
(GTF) technology, and magnetically-levitated bearings from the
aerospace industry, and the consideration of Continuously
Variable Transmissions (CVTs) from the automobile industry,
and discuss their promise in addressing the gearbox problems
currently encountered by existing wind turbine technology.


Operational experience reveals that the gearboxes of modern
electrical utility wind turbines at the MW level of rated power are
their weakest-link-in-the-chain component. Small wind turbines at
the kW level of rated power do not need the use of gearboxes since
their rotors rotate at a speed that is significantly larger than utility
level turbines and can be directly coupled to their electrical
The typical design lifetime of a utility wind turbine is 20
years, but the gearboxes, which convert the rotor blades rotational
speed of between 5 and 22 rpm to the generator-required rotational
speed of around 1,000 to 1,600 rpm, commonly fail within an
operational period of 5 years, and have to be replaced. That 20
Figure 1. View inside a Liberty wind turbine gearbox. Source:
year lifetime goal is itself a reduction from an earlier 30 year
lifetime design goal.


Among insurers, who joined the market in the 1990s, wind power
is currently considered a risky sector. German industry giant
Allianz was faced with around 1,000 damage claims in the year
2006 alone. Gearboxes had to be replaced in large numbers
according to the German Insurance Association.
On average, an operator has to expect damage to his facility
every four years, excluding malfunctions and uninsured
Many insurance companies now are writing maintenance
agreements requiring wind producers to write the replacement of
vulnerable components such as gearboxes every five years
directly into their contracts. A gearbox replacement can cost up
to 10 percent of the original construction cost, enough to cut deep
into the projected profits. Figure 2. Rotor bearings, gearbox and generator assembly of
M5000 wind turbine. Source: Multibrid.


which negates the need for a gearbox It is interesting to note that based on Fig. and a 200-pole generator at only 30 rpm reduces the number of moving components. These components are traditionally located on the ground. 3. An image of where ωgenerator is the rotational speed of the generator and ωrotor is Enercon’s annular generators undergoing assembly is shown in the rotational speed of the rotor. we identify and shed light on current or on-the- horizon gearbox technologies in the wind industry and other In order to produce AC power at the required 50 and 60 Hz industries in the hopes of disseminating the knowledge. which depicts a JSW turbine. Source: Source: Enercon Enercon. 6. of repair work and associated turbine downtime. March 21-24. Figure 3. Figure 4. This work will review the current solutions to the gearbox f problem through the direct drive approach. Highly reliable gearboxes currently exist. This copper winding is then installed ωrotor by hand. design for Europe and the USA. with Enercon suggesting that the continuous insulating materials have the opportunity to be fully tested. Enercon GmbH of Aurich. 5. while a 200-pole generator operating at 30 rpm with rotor blades operating at 30 rpm yields a gearing ratio of 1.Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10). Amman. A 4-pole generator operating at 1. where ω is the rotational speed in rpm. NINREC10-2 . while a 6-pole generator would gearboxes. and examine the benefits and disadvantages of using a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). As the number of poles appears to be limited exchange of information between the increases. GEARLESS OR DIRECT DRIVE WIND TURBINES For the USA frequency of 60 Hz. Jordan. lowering the amount to produce a 60 Hz electrical current. In order to satisfy The gearing ratio G for a transmission is defined as: the service life requirements specified by Enercon. 3. Multipole generator coupling to rotor hub and tower. while Fig. while the finished stator and rotor are shown in Fig. and lessons learned across the wind turbine industry need to run at a nominal rotational speed of about 1.000 rpm. Figure 5. which utilizes This shows that an 8-pole generator would need to operate only at an annular multiple poles generator. the copper winding of the stator component of the generator consists of ω generator individual insulation class F round copper wires that are bundled Gearing ratio : G = (2) and insulated with varnish. This generator significantly approximately 750 rpm. Germany has presented a 6. It has ωgenerator = rpm N licensed the technology to Japan Steel Works (JSW) in Japan. This solution is their direct drive wind turbine. respectively. provide a background ω generator = 100 rpm (1) on turbofans from the aerospace industry and their technologies as N a possible solution. and N is the number of generator poles. 1 yields: Currently.500 and possibly avoiding costly duplication of research into reliable revolutions per minute (rpm). 2010 In this work.500 rpm and rotor blades rotating at 20 rpm would require a transmission with a gearing ratio of 75. 000 mass-produced solution to the low gearbox reliability. both in rpm. Multipole annular generators under assembly. Fig. f is the frequency in Hz. Stator and rotor of E-70 wind turbine. Eqn. a 4-pole generator would technologies. but there operate at a setting of around 1. appears to use the transformer and converter to counterbalance the blades and generator. 4. Source: Enercon. the rpm required to operate decreases linearly: aerospace propulsion industry and the wind turbine industry. the Enercon wind turbine appears to leave the weight of the rotors and blades unbalanced on the upwind side of the tower.

It offers the advantages of totally avoiding the gearbox components. individual round wires that are gathered in bundles and insulated Enercon in Germany. In addition. MANUAL LABOR VERSUS AUTOMATION It should be noted that outsourcing has two inherent problems. As turbine sizes increased. If annular generator. The result is an improved adaptation of the pole shoes to the slow rotation of the annular generator with no significant noise being generated. 5. As the wealth of the outsourcee country grows. turbine loading is variable and Combined with the rotor hub. March 21-24. Most electrical generators have 4 or 6 has been given to manual labor in this case since it ensures that magnetic pole pairs in their windings and must use a gearbox. Regular turbine with no direct grid coupling. outsourcing may inadvertently be creating a new competitor through the technology transfers. the mobile part of the annular generator. This achieves a high degree Manufacturers have made their turbines more reliable by of speed variability improving the oil lubrication and filtration system in the gearbox The copper winding in the stator. it can be inferred that hand-wound electrical generators for wind turbines are not viable in the far-term 4. The output voltage and frequency realignments can reduce the frequency of failure. the stationary part of the so it can remove all particles larger than seven microns in size.Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10). Counterbalanced JSW J82 permanent magnet unaffordable in the industrialized nations. which causes misalignment of the subjected to minimal mechanical wear. a lower wear caused by a The weakest link of a utility size wind turbine has been their slow machine rotation. which makes it ideal for gearbox with the generator shafts and leads to failure. In addition to this. and it is only a temporary solution. the use of allows continuous windings to be produced. become a problem. Direct Current (DC) link and inverter. failure occurs in the high speed rear gearing portion of the The annular generator is a low speed synchronous generator gearbox when the bearings become faulty. In spite of have increased the number of generator poles in their machines. Such particularly heavy demands and a long service life. The copper winding is done manually. preference eliminating the gearbox. By outsourcing. For these reasons. These are located on the disk rotor. Since the shape and position of the pole shoes have a decisive influence on the noise emission of the annular generator. and Japan Steel Works under license. Unlike Most of these failures have been attributed to the movement conventional asynchronous generators. with varnish. GEARBOX DESIGN OPTIONS system design of the E-70 wind turbine. it provides an almost hard to predict. 2010 • Elimination of the contact resistance • Elimination of weak points that are susceptible to corrosion and material fatigue The magnetic field of the stator winding is excited by pole shoes. but do not vary with the speed and are converted for output to the grid by a preclude their occurrence. continuous from start to finish. Each wire strand is electronic control can eliminate the need for a gearbox. The coupling of the blades directly to the generator in Advantages of continuous winding include: machines without a gearbox also eliminates the mechanical or • Prevention of processing faults in the production of tonal noise produced by conventional turbines. which is becoming ever-increasingly Figure 6. the design of gearboxes able variability. the incorporation of yield optimized control and a high to handle the torque generated by longer and heavier blades has level of grid compatibility. and through the aforementioned technology transfer. while the gentle running of fewer years of operation. A special processing method With the generator built with 50-100 pole pairs. the annular generator is of the machine chassis. Some gearboxes have failed in less than two frictionless flow of energy. Jordan. Technology transfer is a significant disadvantage to outsourcing of manual labor. synchronous generator gearless wind turbine. Research and Development (R&D) has dedicated particular attention to this aspect. low stress due to the high level of speed gearbox. the materials used are fully tested. uses a single layer basket winding that is a particle of that size breaks free of the meshing gears. its workers will demand ever-increasing wages and benefits. funds are exiting the outsourcing country to the outsourcee. proprietary technologies and/or processes are transferred to the receiving country. ANNULAR GENERATOR and an automated winding process of annular generators must be given serious design and investment consideration. It consists of damage other gears and bearings. The annular generator is of primary importance in the gearless 6. it can produced using the insulation Class F to 155 °C. Source: JSW. increasing automation in other manufacturing areas. moving components guarantees minimal material wear. electrical connections • Maintains the high quality copper wire insulating system NINREC10-3 . Amman.

owns 70 percent of the Vensys 8. a trade news South Korea Unison 0. effectively having scaled up the Lagerway technology. design installed by December 2008. and at what level direct drive systems can be made competitive. Japan Steel Works (JSW) became involved in Wind Power Systems using its long experience in industrial machinery and energy technology. in late 2006. Iowa. encountered a problem with its 2. The Netherlands DarWinD 4. there exists a high level of optimism problem in the turbines. that is also a listed Superfund toxic waste site.5 competitive with their geared counterparts at the upper end of MW turbine. and through these two test rigs hopes to determine if design problem.5 same problem and required repairs.600 systems reliability by using distributed gearing using multiple paths and 4 produced by 2009. Current Market Direct Drive Market Entrants. on a former Bethlehem Steel site below in Table 1. engineers discovered that a tooth on one Germany Vensys 1. Inspections found the Spain Mtorres 1. but filed for bankruptcy in 2003 after fabricating only 200 units. excitation generators as well as the fact that it is widely held that this generator design exhibits a very high efficiency even when NINREC10-4 . This unique approach splits the large blade diameter. 2010 Enercon of Germany has dominated the direct drive wind 7. Country Company Power (MW) The operators of the project. SNL Financial. competition. Torque splitting between four electrical generators Ringkøbing. which in some cases are longer than the wing of a Boeing 747. The eight wind turbines rolled off the Table 1. company’s assembly line in Cedar Rapids. but sold it to Harokasan in Japan. a number of companies are currently attempting several months. has been shut down because of a gearbox direct drive market sector. the market share for direct drive wind Permanent Magnet (PM) type of generator. and Heidelberg have all offered direct drive turbine concepts.5s wind turbines in Japan. This concept machine was installed near the coast of Figure 7. TORQUE SPLITTING. it delivered 30 sets of General Electric (GE) 1. Currently.2. to gain a foothold in the direct drive sector. Upon inspection. Emergya Wind Technology purchased the Lagerwey technology and since 2004 has offered a 900 kW DirectWing 900*54 wind turbine. which generators to ensure continued turbine operation even if one of features a 12 meter diameter annular generator and a 127 meter the generators fails. Jordan. 1. Source: Clipper Wind Power Inc.5. none have yet demonstrated a significant commercial impact. The Steel Wind turbines were all under warranty. Henrik Stiesdal commented that Siemens realizes that direct drive wind turbines may become This design however.Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10). They are summarized The Steel Winds project. The 20 MW Steel Winds wind farm in upstate New York. and as of recent. reported that 50 turbines required repair.5 MW machines. 2. generators include their compactness relative to external field with the number standing at 14 percent in 2007. All eight turbines suffered from a and a growing level of interest.5 2007. according to a UPC Wind It should be noted that interest from coal-rich China indeed official.75 service. Enercon has been effective in meeting its amount of torque experienced by the gearboxes due to the blades. Benefits of PM turbines accounted for 13-15 percent of the total turbine market. HISTORY OF THE DIRECT DRIVE APPROACH shares. with a second slightly different generator operated in parallel. Siemens Energy embarked upon a 2-year testing program for a 3. In addition to the efforts of manufacturing problem and repairing the problem required Siemens Energy. the direct drive generator design of choice is the During the past few years. so the manufacturer covered the costs of repair. Using the acquired operational experience. Seewind. does exist. DISTRIBUTED GEARING turbine market since they introduced their first direct drive system in 1993. The former leaders of Lagerwey produced one 2 MW direct drive prototype under the auspices of the Zephyros consortium. Similar turbines at projects in Iowa and Minnesota had the Italy LeitWind 1. caused by poor quality control and an apparent turbine sizes. March 21-24. Their flagship model is the E-126.65 problem on all of the turbines on the site. In July 2008. but Figure 7 illustrates this arrangement.7 first noticed the problems with the wind machines in August Norway ScanWind 3. 1. as companies such as Jeumont Industrie. was the first to use the 2.5 of the four gears in the box had broken.2. UPC Wind and BQ Energy. using Despite the prior failings of competitors to Enercon in the eight of the turbines. Amman. Lagerwey of the Netherlands offered a 750 kW family of turbines. Denmark.6 MW rated power experimental direct drive turbine. Initially. and Turbine Rated went into service at the site on Lake Erie in April 2007. with their current product range offering turbines of A California based wind turbine manufacturer improved rated power 100 kW to 6 MW and about 12. as Goldwind currently licenses production of Vensys wind turbines. JSW adopted the technology of permanent magnet gearless synchronous generator wind turbines from Enercon in Germany and manufactures its own wind turbine including the rotor blades and the tower. affecting the company’s financial performance.

gear velocity bypass air. Jordan. GEARED TURBOFAN DEVELOPMENT In a turbofan engine. reliability. the majority of the thrust is derived from air that does not pass through the core of The Geared Turbofan (GTF) engine is not a new concept.5 to 6:1. 12. allowing optimization of the turbojet diameter came at a high cost. Gas turbo machinery currently represents the most efficient means of converting the chemical energy of fuel into kinetic energy for use as propulsive thrust. physically the largest turbofan engine significantly more stringent manufacturing and tolerance currently in service. and is thus technology and materials development required to satisfy the significantly quieter air. Amman. as the large-diameter fan operates most efficiently at lower rpm relative to the LP turbine. In order to solve these percent. 9. on the other hand. March 21-24. such as the Boeing 707. and are characterized by a long narrow-diameter cylindrical shape. and is would have to withstand high centripetal loading while subjected projected to offer an efficiency increase of approximately 9 to very high temperatures and pressures. the turbofan engine was developed. The reason for this concept only now. a supersonic speed. the maker of jet engines powering aircraft such as the F-15 Eagle. one must first understand how and within what environment a turbofan engine operates. is a whopping 9:1. In industry terms. Not surprisingly. the amount of useful thrust significantly increased. as all of the fan blades performance of the fan for various flight conditions. system. colder. due to the fact that all and the LP turbine of a turbofan allows adjustment of the ratio of of the thrust was derived from “hot” air. Disadvantages of PM generators through the core of the engine.” Turbofan engines currently in-service employ a direct connection between the Low Pressure (LP) turbine and the fan. hot. De Haviland Comet. spent over 10 years of research and over $350 million in development costs to develop a Geared Turbo Fan Engine (GTF). Rolls Royce Trent 1000 Turbofan engine. known as a turbojet. advances in bearing. with a large diameter ducted fan installed on the front. 2010 subjected to a partial load. and lubrication design have been made and incorporated Typical bypass ratios. scalability and noise problems. Figure 8 depicts a B-58 Hustler with its 4 General Electric (GE) J79-GE1 turbojet engines visible beneath the large delta wing. passing through the core of the engine. while the Rolls Royce requirements. but instead enters the large-diameter fan on the front and Whitney understood the theoretical justification behind the and bypasses the core. In order to understand why this jet engine technology development has potential positive implications for the wind turbine industry. this is referred to as concept by the early 1980s. when engine manufacturers coupled the turbojet with a fan directly linked to the turbine. This is due to the fact that the smaller-diameter LP turbines can operate at higher rpm before the tips reach supersonic speeds. Additionally. as Pratt the engine. 9. shockwaves and other instabilities significantly reduce the aerodynamic efficiency of the blades. Source: Rolls Royce. and lower. Figure 9. which powers Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner. and the Convair B-58 Hustler. bypass air. GEARED TURBOFAN TECHNOLOGY Pratt and Whitney. all of the thrust is derived from air unwanted stresses. This bypass air is not heated. Turbojets were used on early jet-powered aircraft. significantly reducing the noise of the engine. these shafts are simply referred to as “spools. and high-velocity air that passed through the core is modern jet turbines. and exits the fan at a nearly 30 years later. 747 Jumbo Jet. The bypass however include the inability to control the field strength and ratio of the GE-90-115B. Once tip speeds reach Figure 8. shown in Fig. A turbofan is essentially a standard jet engine. and C-17 Globemaster. In the late 1960s. At the end of the turbofan engine. are around 0. Current jet engine technology consists of the fan and core rotating on separate shafts. Pratt and Whitney suggests that through surrounded by and mixed with the quieter. which emerges at a very Pratt and Whitney’s insertion of a gearbox between the fan high speed and temperature. Trent 1000. the stringent safety. the ratio of bypass air to air passing NINREC10-5 . Inherent inefficiencies exist in this configuration. thousands of hours of development. and introduce In a turbojet engine. appearing on actual jet engines is the level of lower speed than the air that passes through the core. has a bypass ratio of 11:1. and thus the two rotate at the same speed. significant increases in fan rpm to LP turbine rpm. and ruggedness requirements of loud. Turbojet-powered Convair B-58 Hustler.Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10).

The rotor fits over the shaft. in some The radial stator is formed by a buildup of laminations.000 shp gearbox is currently undergoing full scale tests. full-scale. Five axis control of magnetic bearing [20]. which is shaped with poles. has a diameter of 17 inches. Figure 11. The systems have three main elements: bearing actuators.5 mm but. ADOPTION OF MAGNETIC BEARINGS Pratt and Whitney goes on to suggest the existence of a proprietary “self-centering” technology to nearly eliminate all instances of stress and gear misalignment. 2010 into their new family of GTFs. Bombardier CSeries. and which is in the air gap but need not be centered. position sensors. An image of a stator A magnetic thrust bearing provides axial control. each of applications. bearing rotor is a solid steel disk attached to the shaft and positioned at a preset distance from the stator on one or both sides. They control the shaft along five axes: an attractive force on the ferromagnetic rotor and levitate it within two axes for each radial bearing and a fifth axis along the shaft.Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10). a 40.000 lb and have expected Entry Into Service (EIS) dates between 2013 and 2016. and operate contamination free with extremely low vibration. 11. The thrust- and rotor of a magnetic bearing is presented in Fig. Magnetic bearings can precisely control shaft position. March 21-24. load below 50 percent of what was originally expected. while Fig. Jordan. Magnetic bearing stator and rotor [20]. The gap usually measures about 0. the PW8000. and Irkut MC-21 aircraft. Pratt’s new GTF engine. It is reported that their GTF 12 depicts the five axis control achievable with two radial and one gearbox operates at an efficiency of over 99 percent and a heat magnetic thrust bearing. PW8000 gearbox. Amman. Figure 10 depicts a GTF gearbox. They generate no friction. including high speed capabilities and the ability to operate lubrication-free and in vacuum environments. Component. Typical units consist of two magnetic radial bearings and one Controlled electric currents passing through the coils produce magnetic thrust bearing. Figure 10. GTF engines have recently been selected to power the Mitsubishi Regional Jet.500 hours on Boeing 747 and Airbus Industries A-340 test bed aircraft. Additionally. The laminations stack together. measure external forces acting on the shaft. and monitor a machine's operating condition. an air gap. control algorithms. Magnetic-bearing systems electromagnetically suspend shafts by applying electric current to a bearing's ferromagnetic materials. and flight tests have currently totaled approximately 2. NINREC10-6 . coils of wire are wound around each pole. Source: Pratt and Whitney.000 and 32. and handles a shaft horsepower (shp) of 32.000. Magnetic bearings offer a host of advantages. and controller and Figure 12. problems discussed by Ragheb [1] on wind turbine gearboxes that cause severe reliability problems. 13. The GTF engines for these aircraft will have thrust ratings of between 15. The gearbox currently being tested in the PW1000G. can be as large as 2 mm. experience minimal wear. We surmise that magnetic levitation with permanent or electromagnets is used in lieu of ball bearings to self-align the transmission shafts.

the green annulus would be of teeth is directly proportional to the diameter of a gear. Nannulus. rpm planet =   rpmannulus (7) Somehow the aerospace industry has moved beyond these  N annulus  problems. Amman. one must first determine the number of teeth N that each of rpm. results in the sun gear rotating approximately 135 degrees. Table 2 summarizes some of the cars on the road today that utilize CVTs. respectively. the three component gears have. SIMILARITY BETWEEN WIND AND TURBOFAN GEARBOXES Figure 14. N sun + 2 ∗ N planet =N annulus (3) Sun. this epicyclic gearing system is depicted below in Fig. 13. The latter of the three is suspected to have created the majority of problems for  − N sun  wind turbines. 14.  2 +  rpmannulus + rpmsun =2 ∗  1 + sun  rpm planet  N   N planet  N planet  planet  Planetary gearing systems exhibit higher power densities than parallel axis gears. an outer ring gear or annulus is required. the planet gears. and planet gear. 6 and 7: general inaccessibility. has only recently reached mass production in passenger vehicles. determine the relative rpm of the sun and annulus gears. March 21-24. Rotation of the annulus by 45 degrees gears will fit within the annulus. Nannulus. rotor shaft where Nsun. 3 which shows that the connected to the generator. a planetary gear system contains three outer gears revolving around a single gear. Transmissions of the CVT type are capable of NINREC10-7 .Proceedings of the 1st International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference (INREC10). noting Disadvantages include the requirement for complex designs. rpmsun =   rpm planet (6) Minor misalignments due to wind gust loads or manufacturing N inconsistencies rapidly wear down the gears. These values will be referred to Figure 13 depicts a planetary spur-style gearing system. Eqn. while the yellow sun gear would be values should satisfy the equality of Eqn. electromagnetic forces produced by the stator act on the rotor and control axial movement. Pratt and Whitney’s PT6 gas turbine engine utilizes an epicyclic gearing system. and the annulus. Planetary spur gearing [1]. 2010 During operation. as helicopters and geared turbofans exhibit the impeccable reliability required for air vehicles – the answer exists 15. and Nplanet. 3 satisfied. With Eqn. annulus gear. is also commonly known as epicyclic gearing. yielding a threefold rpm increase or a gearing ratio (G) of 3.” In order to achieve a reduction or increase in system. The general concept behind this gearing involves multiple As depicted in Fig.” while the single center gear is In order to calculate the reduction potential of a planetary gear viewed as the “sun. 14. and are able to offer a myriad of gearing Known values may be substituted into Eqn. CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSIONS somewhere. which in turn creates  planet  a vicious and ultimately destructive feedback cycle between  − N planet  misaligned components and gear wear. 5 in order to combinations and a large reduction in a small volume. Since angular velocity is directly proportional to the rpm. Jordan. Their main function is to support the shaft when the machine is idle and protect machine components in case of power outage or failure. often regarded as the “planets. the following two equalities of Eqns. and has been used on the Bell UH-1 Another option for solving the gearbox problem is the use of a Huey helicopter and the DeHaviland DHC-6 Twin Otter passenger Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). 4 simplifies Eqn. generator shaft Annulus. and ωplanet are the angular velocities of the respective gears. 5 below: Planet  N sun  N sun  N  (5) Figure 13. Using the relationship that the number would relate to wind turbines. As it as Nsun. the equation of motion for the three gears is:  N  N  N   2 + sun  ωannulus + sun ωsun − 2 ∗ 1 + sun  ω planet =0 (4)  N planet  N planet  N planet  where ωsun. and high bearing loads. and Nplanet are the number of teeth in the sun gear. Magnetic bearing arrangements include touchdown or auxiliary bearings. This gearing design aircraft. Planetary spur or epicyclic gearing system. ωannulus. The touchdown bearing's inner ring is smaller than the magnetic-bearing air gap to prevent potential damage if the shaft loses its levitation. the three connected to the rotor hub. the outer gears are component gears: the sun gear. Pratt and Whitney PT6 turbine engine reduction gears.

” John Wiley and Sons. the use of state-of-the-art lubricants. “Wind machines. Palz. effectiveness of wind turbines. Brown and Anne Ensign Brown. 63A.” The Stephen Greene Press. 1997. [11] Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA).” John Wiley and Sons. “A velocities..alliedfsgroup. to [3] American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) maintain a constant rate of rotation for varying input angular and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).com/rea/magazine/story?id ratings of up to 40. Company of Japan appears to State of the Art Wind Energy Converters in the European have initiated work on a wind application for chain-driven CVTs.wikipedia. “Harness the Wind. ratcheting. 1986. Amman. and racing cars as early as [6] Frank R. and chain driven.sae. Derivative (PID) controller have Design. 59. 1977. the potential to significantly increase the efficiency and cost- [5] Joseph E. 1982. 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Theses cyclic stresses significantly affect the shape and alignment of the transmission and gear NINREC10-8 .