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Graduate School of Business A dminis tration UVA-DRAFT

University of Virginia


Introduction GM’s OnStar System

OnStar is a subscription-based dashboard For the model year 2000, the OnStar system
communication service created by General Motors cost consumers around $600 for installation. GM
(GM). The service provided numerous safety and offered two different subscription packages. The
convenience features, from emergency assistance to basic service plan cost $199 per year, and provided
remote door unlocking to hotel reservations. GM customers with roadside assistance and emergency
announced in the spring of 2000 that voice-activated help. The premium service plan cost $399 per year
Internet access and cellular telephone and, in addition to OnStar’s basic
services would be available through offerings, provided various concierge
OnStar beginning in the fall. and convenience services, as well as
routing assistance. See Exhibit 1 for a
OnStar is a telematics device. full comparison of the features of the
A telematics system combines vehicle basic and premium service plans.
control and monitoring systems with
location tracking and wireless telecommunications. OnStar was designed and developed by
A study of the telematics market by The Strategis General Motors North America Operations, Delco
Group in 1999 projected an increase in revenues for Electronics, Hughes Electronics Corporation, and
automobile telematics services from less than $40 Electronic Data Systems. GM launched OnStar in
million in 1999 to $1.7 billion in 2004. The number Cadillac models in 1996. Initial customer reaction to
of subscribers to telematics services was expected to OnStar was positive, and by 1998 OnStar had 22,000
climb from under 200,000 at year-end 1999, to more subscribers. GM, seeking to leverage its first-mover
than 11 million by 2004 (see Figure 1).1 advantage in the automotive telematics arena,
increased the types of vehicles equipped with OnStar
to include top line models from Oldsmobile, GMC,
Figure 1: Projected growth in subscribers Chevrolet and Pontiac. By the end of 1999, OnStar
to telematics services had nearly 150,000 subscribers and revenues of $43
12 million. In 2000, General Motors expanded the
10 number of OnStar-ready vehicles to 31 models. The
8 company was adding 5000 new OnStar subscribers
# of Users 4 per month in the spring of 2000, and expected to roll-
(millions) 2 out over 1 million OnStar-equipped vehicles by the
0 year’s end.2,3 General Motors predicted that OnStar
'98 '00 '02 '03 '04
“Automotive Telematics ‘Hotter than a Jalapeno in
a Heat Wave,” Dow Jones Interactive PR Newswire,
November 11, 1999.
Lee Copeland, “GM Lures Consumers with OnStar
Service,” Computerworld, April 17, 2000, p. 20.

This case was prepared by William McCormack (Darden ’02) and Richard R. Johnson, under the supervision of Paul
Farris, Landmark Communications Professor of Business Administration, and Phil Pfeifer, Professor of Business
Administration. This case was written as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate effective or ineffective
handling of an administrative situation. Copyright  2000 by the University of Virginia Darden School Foundation,
Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. To order copies, send an e-mail to No part of
this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form
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Darden School Foundation.

The radio transmitter sent signals growth for GM’s OnStar unit. In 2000.4 Auto analyst John A.7 General Motors’ located in the dashboard picked-up the user’s voice. General Motors began a transformation it strategy dealt with OnStar. . E2. The London Free both generated the same signal. and was the only site to also provide their interaction was hands-free. and (3) rolling communications devices. As Wagoner How OnStar Works explained. rose by 90%.” Forbes. 2000 site-redesign. Aug 13. After pressing the OnStar BuyPower site contained information on every GM button or the OnStar emergency button. “Merrill analyst sees 33% annual revenue a radio transmitter. systems worked together to provide OnStar users B2B e-commerce. hoped would recast the world’s biggest firm in terms of sales as a New Economy giant. GMAC Insurance and OnStar is a universal communications advertising. through 2010. General Motors developed a three-pronged strategy that focused on: (1) business- to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce. A small microphone information on dealer inventories. and A New Strategy for General Motors delivered within days.5 Indeed. 2000. and sales leads for dealers on the Global Positioning System (GPS) network. 24-hour communications conjunction with Ford and DaimlerChrysler. called a pseudo- Press. called BuyPower. By combining the first and second parts. June 30. B2C e-commerce. would save the company $1 vehicle production. We need to lead in that whole e-business area.8 The secondary communications system functioned through a nation-wide cellular network. General Motors predicted that the parts would account for 29 percent of the company’s entire market. In the three months following the April device that bridges satellite and cellular technology. Casesa billion per year from improvements in cost forecasted revenues of $900 million for OnStar by efficiencies and through the streamlining of its supply 2002. create a Web-based service whereby customers could purchase cars online. called Covisint.8 million cars in an online parts-buying and communications which the option would be available in 2001. (2) business-to- business (B2B) e-commerce. to create service. . (29 May satellite and the vehicle. “Digital Drive. and then used this time 2000): 128. period to calculate the distance between the two 7 Meredith.” Chicago Tribune. News. The GPS satellite and the GPS receiver in the vehicle 4 OnStar Making Big Connections.”6 In order to accomplish its e-business goals. UVA-DRAFT would be ordered on half of the 2. Figure 2: The OnStar System Source: www. used BuyPower as a tool to cross-sell goods and services like GM Mortgages.” Dow Jones Business from the vehicle to a GPS satellite orbiting the Earth. random code. Under the leadership of CEO Richard The third part of General Motors’ e-business Wagoner. OnStar was viewed as a General Motors believed it would have the ability to potent source of future income for GM. OnStar customers connected strategy. p. 2000. with average revenue growth of 33% a year The first part of General Motors’ new From the car. OnStar used measurements from four 8 Jim Mateja. visits to the GM BuyPower Web The primary OnStar communications system relied site increased by 130%. have them built to order. “The Internet is offering all sorts of capabilities to do things faster . which enterprise. All OnStar-equipped vehicles used GPS via 3 Staff. objects.onstar. was the company’s attempt. Both The second part of GM’s strategic change. (14 February 2000). in with a coast-to-coast. the system (see Figure 2). The OnStar system measured the time 5 “Merrill analyst…” it took for the radio signal to travel between the 6 Robyn Meredith. the rest of model. -2. accuracy of within 30 feet. with an Column. “Chicago Tribune Transportation Notes satellites to pinpoint a vehicle’s location. (See Exhibit 2) . was related to its online to an OnStar Advisor through OnStar’s three-button shopping service.

e. OnStar’s Evolution The second factor General Motors addressed OnStar began as a closed.” PR Newswire. In order to attain this goal.verizon. on-board linking OnStar customers with OnStar advisors only. embedded chip built into the car gave users access to real-time information. Both Microsoft and IBM played integral roles able to make personal phone calls from any location in the development of this software.” and then Figure 3: OnStar’s telematics network speak the number. The OnStar coast-to- The secondary communications system that coast cellular network will position General Motors OnStar employed was a nationwide cellular as the largest reseller of cellular services. GeneralMagic. General Motors contracted with Verizon to provide the cellular network. The architecture in the United States to practically any place in the gave General Motors the capability of connecting world. the “thin-client Verizon companies were the largest providers of model”). by the partnership between Bell Atlantic and and ObjectSpace to perfect the in-vehicle platform VodafoneAirtouch. say “dial. Cellular Telephony The planned OnStar cellular telephony service was called OnStar Personal Calling. Microsoft. they saw OnStar as a universal Staff. To General Motors announced that it would add provide its planned voice-activated cellular telephone Internet access through a voice-activated portal called service (named OnStar Personal Calling). and the creation of an Extensible Markup Language (XML) database. system manager that could tie together all of OnStar customers did not use the system to contact OnStar’s various technologies. There were three essential factors that wireline and wireless communications in the United General Motors had to address when developing the States. OnStar customers will be traffic. General Motors partnered with Motorola and Saturn Electronics and Engineering to redesign OnStar’s dashboard system to accommodate these changes. accessed via a small. Through the office software package that could handle the web OnStar-Verizon network. The service will be voice-activated. Telephony refers to communication made through a telephone network Internet Access comprised of both cable and wireless services. The service will handle incoming calls through a number assigned to each vehicle by Source: www. a company created GM worked with IBM. (27 March 2000). . However. serving the equivalent of nearly 95 million OnStar Virtual Advisor. Internet access. Users will push an OnStar button on the dashboard. Applications running on the network and networks in the country (see Figure 3).9 Given OnStar’s anyone outside of the OnStar advisor network. telephony network. internal system was the creation of a “OnStar selects ObjectSpace to provide communications device. infrastructure for in-car communications system. Verizon was also the world's largest provider of print The first factor was the creation of a back and on-line directory information. access lines and 25 million wireless customers. As of 2000.html GM. The primary changes included cellular telephony. Motors partnered with Verizon. OnStar’s GPS and telephony networks wirelessly to a server and to applications anywhere in combined will produce one of the largest telematics the world. would use to manage the service (i. General OnStar Virtual Advisor beginning in the fall of 2000. UVA-DRAFT the OnStar design team had to make several major technological changes to the OnStar system in order to create a network that could allow outside communications. as executives within General Motors recognized the financial potential of the telematics 9 industry. to give OnStar customers access and the back office software that General Motors to Verizon’s telephony network. -3.

) was provided through the OnStar Virtual Advisor. In order to be information for the OnStar network. weather forecasts.10 All Internet access in the OnStar system interacts. . the data The initial OnStar model relied on human advisors to could be relatively easily delivered to a variety of provide OnStar customers with the information devices. data. such as cell phones and hand-helds. Programmers at OnStar underlying application for the portal. GM custom-built its XML database to activated interface created by General Magic. (22 May 2000): 21. from in-car systems to hand.13 customers sought. (19 December 1999). for example. UVA-DRAFT existing communications features. a other markup languages are based. create the desired platform. OnStar’s General Motors was the world’s largest firm in sales.” Advanced Materials and Composite News 6. General Motors chose to use magicTalk. OnStar OnStar’s traditional services. provided an manipulated for use in any number of applications. OnStar engineers wanted the new platform to be Internet accessible so Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a that engineers. and stock quotes General Motors the ability to add any number of through OnStar’s XML-based voice files in the fall of heterogeneous services while maintaining the same 2000. the new system manager had to be a was creating a fast and efficient way for the multilingual integration tool capable of linking information to be accessed by customers without the together the diverse interfaces already supporting the need for human intervention. “OnStar takes voice XML for drive. and based on open standards. news. In addition. a voice. The decision to use an XML database to support Virtual Advisor and Personal Calling gave Extensible Markup Language GM the option to make its OnStar database available Despite advances in cellular and Internet through its company Web site. played over the vehicle’s stereo speakers. 11 12 Carol Sliwa. ObjectSpace’s Therefore.12 (See factor was the creation of a voice-activated user Exhibit 4 for a diagram of how OnStar’s technology interface. Internet-centric platform that was easily scalable and adaptable. an outside Web site of an OnStar partner as XML- tagged data. called OpenBusiness. The answer was XML. Sliwa. An OnStar subscriber would. As the foundation language upon which most held devices. technicians and users could access it low-level computer syntax for representing structured in any number of ways. OnStar partnered with ObjectSpace. General Motors incorporation of Internet features created the need for wanted to develop a platform that could handle a more technologically advanced model. to different languages and applications (see Exhibit 3).11 creating pure XML content on the back-end. as the respond to voice commands. information. The difficulty effective. The requested data will be retrieved from tied together twelve major systems into one interface. “the quintessential stuck-in-the-mud Staff.” Sliwa. General Motors took an equity with XML tags that associate voice requests with stake of approximately $15 million in General Magic. “OnStar invests in GeneralMagic. A bonus for OnStar was that by address issues with its proprietary OnStar database. The dynamic nature of the OpenBusiness request a sports score. XML enables leading provider of integrated Internet infrastructure computers to understand programming codes across and business-to-internet-business (B2Bi) solutions. General Motors realized that it needed to other outlets. which is translated by voice- platform allowed it to drive OnStar’s Vehicle recognition software into an XML-tagged data Communication subsystem (VEHCOMM). or through a host of technology. In addition. However. GM planned to offer voice-activated sports the OpenBusiness service architecture offered scores. and then translated into voice-XML and The third. scalability. In order to not only re-formatted the entire OnStar database into ensure that magicTalk would be available over the XML. on-board system. 13 Computerworld 34. they also ensured that all content was coded next several years. a database written in XML can be application. -4. and perhaps most important. it had a reputation as a lumbering 10 behemoth. while incorporating contracted with numerous companies to provide new features in a seamless manner. While this scenario worked when a customer needed help filing a police report or OnStar: Strategy Issues reporting a medical emergency. which request.

p. such as notification of a Motors. As one analyst noted.” partners and subsidiaries. General Motors Motors had to establish a network of key partnerships created a voice activated. or one-fifth of annual income. proficiency. As Mark Hogan. 1999.5 billion. Despite minor attempts to gain equity not just cars. positions in a few of its smaller OnStar related 16 Mark Ribbing. OnStar’s revenues to surge from $61 million in 2000 available only in General Motors vehicles. the profit margin is in the single offer OnStar to some of its competitors. and telematics itself.”16 syndication when it signed a deal with Honda in early 2000. “Traditionally in for telematics services in vehicles. By to use OnStar as a key part in the effort to reshape the expanding OnStar’s services to include personal company was risky. (2) syndication and entry into the license OnStar to Toyota for use in the Lexus LS 430 telematics retail arena. and GM income on revenues of $177 billion in 1999. 25. Sept. “It’s a matter of morphing our company to backbone. GM’s 1999 Wall Street valuation was Syndication only $33. Electronics. June 5. forecast OnStar began as a proprietary service. they company could that of their competitors. Expansion Acquisitions OnStar began as an in-house communications system. Bell Atlantic join in wireless partners. memo- recording capability. Seeking to capitalize on the growing demand spokesman Todd Carstensen noted. See Exhibit 5 for a diagram of the OnStar each week commuting in their cars.” The Baltimore Sun. 2000. many critics were puzzled .”17 The procedures and pay OnStar subscription fees for OnStar strategy had four primary elements: (1) access to the OnStar network. “Are Smart Cars a Dumb Idea?” could have a major impact on the functionality of The San Jose Mercury News. To create OnStar. fit seamlessly and function at a high level of 15 Lee Copeland. (3) the acquisition of new sedan starting in October. “GM. Americans spent roughly 500 million hours industries. Branded as “Lexus Link. cellular telephony.18 General Organizational Flowchart. For OnStar to lack of vertical integration could have serious docs/car092699. OnStar’s critical partnerships. it’s in the double digits. 18 Cate Corcoran. General Motors development and expansion of OnStar’s telematics announced an agreement in September of 2000 to capabilities. GM had very little control over the direction revolution. GM agreed to supply the OnStar service to OnStar was an essential element in General Honda for use in Honda’s Acura RL sedan model. General telephony and Internet access. head of e-GM. implications. UVA-DRAFT company.” Computerworld. and a system back-up battery. GM posted $6 billion in customer reaction to OnStar was positive.” The Detroit News. participants. Initial to $2. “GM now sells Web technology. sudden loss in the vehicle’s battery power. In addition. Chet Huber. (26 March 2000).mercurycenter. OnStar’s central priority Critics contended that General Motors’ plan was roadside assistance and emergency services. while Honda will handle all installation embrace customers in a whole different way.14 OnStar’s Managing Director. 2000. all of the pieces had to 14 Meredith.3 billion in 2005. and (4) a movement to the option will provide some features not available to increase OnStar’s independence from General GM’s OnStar customers.15 OnStar project release. Web design. supply the device schematics and telematics explained.” GM’s net profit margin was well below Motors hoped that with OnStar. March 12. 2000. 7. and will Economy enterprise. digits. if one capitalize on the increased time commuters were were to subtract General Motor’s stake in Hughes spending in their vehicles. In telecommunications. universal communications with several companies across a number of network. GM decided to the auto business. Critics worried that it was possible that 17 Jon Pepper. -5. Critics argued that this http://www. with experienced increased vehicle sales and OnStar nearly a quarter of the profits coming from its subscriptions in the time period after the product’s financial services branch.htm accessed Sept. Motor’s efforts to reposition itself as a New GM licensed the OnStar service to Honda. and well-being of the majority of OnStar network 1D. “GM is on threshold of reinventing changes within several of the key industries. If we can move to a subscriber relationship. like transaction. General Motors agreed to its first OnStar there’s the potential for huge revenue.

garage en route to independence. other than other characters such as Indiana Jones and the companies chose to develop their own telematics Terminator. “Forward Motion: OnStar exits GM’s 19 Julia King and Lee Copeland. The Competition Launched in the spring of 2000. was also an The primary goal of the OnStar branding important competitor. The response by Batman and OnStar was a good fit because Batman other car companies was mixed. Toyota was involved in discussions tested higher in recognition. many OnStar feature available in General Motors vehicles. credibility and likeability with GM to license OnStar. to OnStar executives. a directive required General Motors. unreliable and old-fashioned. Exhibit 6 provides an campaign was to create a GM-free image. However.19 image similar to the one cultivated by microchip manufacturer Intel and its “Intel inside” campaign. while not as developed as Ford’s or AAA’s. General Motors was counting following of users. when discussing the service in marketing efforts. 2000. Critics argued that too closely with GM. high-tech help from subsidiaries like Hughes Electronics to communications service. Association (AAA). . consumers typically thought that General Motors’ products were stodgy.21 General Motors wanted to recast dynamic product in and of itself – it had generated its image from an Old Economy Goliath to a New product-specific revenues and had developed a loyal Economy enterprise. In 2000.” company initially responsible for branding OnStar. “GM retools for e. with While the long-term success of OnStar as a Detroit based Campbell-Ewald Advertising (CEA). Mercedes Benz’s system. Honda licensed achieved much of his power through the innovative OnStar from General Motors to add as an option for use of advanced technology. April 17. OnStar underwent a process through GM divisions that used OnStar to use a conjunction which it hoped to become independent. An revenues. company within the General Motors umbrella was the APL’s branding campaign presented OnStar as a driving issue behind OnStar’s actions. According overview of the competing telematics systems. GM’s two greatest rivals in several OnStar commercials and in an online contest telematics were Ford and the American Automotive called the Batman Challenge. However. OnStar’s executive managers were IPO had the potential to raise billions of dollars for unhappy because they felt OnStar was being linked General Motors and OnStar.” April 2000): 18. Batman its Acura line. An independent OnStar. rather than craft an To further support the OnStar brand name image in which OnStar was but one segment within and perception of independence. The idea was to create an update the OnStar system. such as “Cadillac and OnStar” or “Oldsmobile with In 1998. on OnStar to help with the transition.20 headquarters for all consumer-oriented electronic business initiatives. OnStar replaced APL with CEA and undertook the development of a new OnStar image.” Brandweek 41. Despite and General Motors’ executives thought that OnStar success in increasing OnStar’s customer’s base and could be spun-off in an initial public offering. CEA and OnStar deemed that pairing in the telematics industry in 2000. OnStar’s new advertising campaign used Batman as the product General Motors and OnStar were the leaders spokesman. with only 5% of respondents associating GM. -6. (17 April 2000): 18. Independence from GM Survey data indicated that OnStar had 60% brand OnStar was a wholly-owned subsidiary of awareness. corporate. critics felt. New York based Ammirati Puris Lintas (APL). Copeland. UVA-DRAFT why General Motors did not utilize more in-house consumers to consider OnStar a sleek. the company’s OnStar with General Motors. The overriding sentiment OnStar’s push for independence was a misstep for within the OnStar division was that OnStar was a General Motors. (10 commerce that goes well beyond cars. They wanted 20 Jeff Green. In addition. The Batman character was seen in systems. OnStar replaced the advertising OnStar. would diminish With the blessing of General Motors General Motors’ high-tech appeal. 21 Computerworld 34. situated within e-GM.

three million cars by 2003. Motor Company planned to integrate Wingcast into However. based on a syndicate OnStar. the Wingcast system. Called RESCU system. dispatch a tow truck. Ford announced a partnership network. the system generated a distress signal CEO Jacques Nasser. or alert emergency services after a crash. or is it of more value to GM as an portable phone. 22 Ronna Abhramson. Nissan was not a universal communications device. Second. AAA planned to package other services. 23 Aaron Robinson. a mobile phone models. Qualcomm. track a stolen vehicle. (10 April 2000): 8. AAA hoped to expand the service through its existing membership base of 43 million people and its association of 86 affiliated clubs. TELEAID designers were working closely its Nissan and Infiniti brands. called TELEAID. If a TELEAID equipped car was Wingcast. . automatically notifying TELEAID operators when an fledged. telematics devices become standard for all vehicles. The Mercedes Benz roadside assistance roadside assistance network by 2000. “Don’t Like my Driving? Call Ford.” Automotive News 74. Wingcast will consist of The OnStar system left GM executives full digital hardware. While AAA’s telematics service was still in its nascent stages in 2000. UVA-DRAFT Ford already had an established. but limited. was primarily an accident (Remote Emergency Satellite Cellular Unit). The goal of Wingcast. with plans to eventually go public. -7. Unlike OnStar. TELEAID and all of its new cars and trucks by 2004.” The Standard. Wingcast will function as an mobile Internet portal. emergency personnel.”22 Ford expected to install Wingcast in location using GPS and notified the nearest one million cars by 2002. with other Mercedes Benz engineers to integrate the TELEAID system with Mercedes Benz’s existing Wingcast will differ from OnStar in several hands-free cellular phone device and prototype ways. Comprised of three main available as an expensive option on high-end Lincoln elements – an on-board device. rather than depend on a physical Conclusion device that may require updates (at the consumer’s expense) as with OnStar. (31 July 2000). will work outside the vehicle. Operators tracked the vehicle’s consumers. with upgrades in the form of of questions. “Who you gonna call?. including an instant link to an operator who could provide route guidance. exclusive feature? Should OnStar be spun-off? Will whereas the OnStar system is hard-wired into the car. It offered subscribers many of industry standard? the same features available through OnStar. it was reporting mechanism. Should the company continue to downloads. such as Internet connectivity and remote vehicle diagnostics. the company had an excellent reputation and loyal customer base upon which it could rely. AAA will launch challenge to GM’s OnStar. Third. and a call center – TELEAID worked by with Qualcomm in July 2000 to develop a full. according to Ford in an accident. in the near future. OnStar-like telematics system called accident occurred.23 emphasis on a nebulous market or has it not been AAA’s Response Services Center LLC was tested in aggressive enough establishing OnStar as the six markets in 2000. was to make all Ford vehicles that was sent to the call center over existing mobile “personalized portals for [Ford’s] global phone networks. However. and if so how would this affect decision-making The AAA used its reputation and experience regarding OnStar? How should GM respond to as the premiere roadside and emergency assistance Wingcast? Has General Motors placed too much service as a springboard into the telematics arena. First. independent company.

EMERGENCY SERVICES.00 PER YEAR CONVENIENCE SERVICES: OnStar advisors assist drivers with help from finding the nearest ATM to making hotel reservations. they can contact an OnStar advisor to help them diagnose the problem and to contact the appropriate assistance. UVA-DRAFT Exhibit 1: OnStar Service Plans SAFETY AND SECURITY PLAN (Basic Plan) COST: $199. an OnStar advisor can contact a taxi or a driver’s relative or friend to take the driver to their destination. RIDE ASSIST: In case a user’s vehicle is inoperable or a user is unable to drive. MED-NET: an OnStar feature that stores a user’s health information so that it can be provided to medical personnel in case of an emergency. ROADSIDE ASSISTANCE: When a driver has roadside problems. ROADSIDE ASSISTANCE and THEFT DETECTION Scheduled Fall 2000: MYONSTAR VIRTUAL ADVISOR: OnStar customers can log into the Internet to access a wide array of information using OnStar’s voice activated web portal .00 PER YEAR AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT NOTIFICATION: The in-vehicle OnStar system immediately notifies an OnStar advisor when a vehicle’s airbag is deployed. OnStar can contact the police. and track and locate the vehicle. a driver’s distress call is directed to an OnStar advisor who plots the vehicle’s location and notifies the nearest emergency service personnel. Scheduled Fall 2000: PERSONAL CALLING: OnStar customers can use their in-vehicle cellular telephone to make hands-free calls from anywhere in the United States PREMIUM PLAN COST: STARTING AT $399. OnStar users can instruct an OnStar advisor to remotely unlock or lock their vehicle’s doors. Also includes AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT NOTIFICATION. REMOTE DOOR LOCK/UNLOCK. CONCIERGE SERVICES: OnStar advisors can help customers buy theatre tickets. ACCIDENT ASSIST: links users to advisors who can help with insurance issues and police reports. ROUTE SUPPORT: OnStar customers can contact an advisor for help plotting directions to their destination. EMERGENCY SERVICES: By pressing the Emergency button. THEFT DETECTION: If a user’s vehicle is stolen. -8. REMOTE DOOR LOCK/UNLOCK: Armed with a unique customer PIN. gifts and many other items while users are on the road or at home.

w3. and has recommended that all future Web applications be based on XML.>) . (Source: < http://www. The W3C recognizes the universal applicability of XML. a World Wide Web regulating body located at the Massachusetts Institute of helped develop XML.html> Exhibit 3: Extensible Markup Language (XML) Diagram The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).colorado. UVA-DRAFT Exhibit 2: GPS Satellite Diagram Source: < http://www. as shown in this diagram.

-10. UVA-DRAFT Exhibit 4: OnStar Technology Map Exhibit 5: The OnStar Organizational Flow Chart .

-11. in Fall 2000 * * * Roadside Assistance Yes Yes Yes Yes Emergency Services Yes Yes Yes Yes Convenience Services Optional * No No Concierge Services Optional * No No * Indicates that the company is developing this feature and plans to add it to their system in the near future. in Fall 2000 * * * Internet Access Optional. . UVA-DRAFT Exhibit 6: Overview of Different Telematics Systems GM/OnStar Ford/RESCU Mercedes AAA Benz/TELEAID GPS Technology Yes Yes Yes Yes Cellular Telephony Optional.