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)

Let us now consider a case where two lines, having impedances Z̄a and Z̄b are removed from the

terminals ‘e-f’ and ‘g-h’ respectively. Here it is to be noted that in the original system, impedance Z̄a

and Z̄b are already included and we are now considering the outages of these two lines. As has been

done previously, here also we assume that the bus injection currents do not change on account of

outages of these two lines. Now, we have already seen that outage of any line having an impedance of

Z̄b can be simulated by adding an impedance of −Z̄b between the same two terminals. Therefore, the

outages of lines having impedance Z̄a and Z̄b can be simulated by connecting impedances −Z̄a and

−Z̄b between the terminals ‘e-f’ and ‘g-h’ respectively. Subsequently, following the same procedure

as discussed in the best lecture, the matrix Z̄1 can be formed as;

**Z̄T h, ef − Z̄a (Z̄eg − Z̄eh ) − (Z̄f g − Z̄f h )
**

Z̄1 = [ ] (5.38)

(Z̄ge − Z̄gf ) − (Z̄he − Z̄hf ) Z̄T h, gh − Z̄b

**Note that equation (5.38) has been obtained by replacing Z̄a by −Z̄a and Z̄b by −Z̄b respectively
**

in equation (5.36). Hence, from equation (5.37) we have,

**Z̄T h, ef − Z̄a (Z̄eg − Z̄ef ) − (Z̄f g − Z̄f h ) I¯a V̄e − V̄f
**

[ ][¯] = [ ] (5.39)

(Z̄ge − Z̄gf ) − (Z̄he − Z̄hf ) Z̄T h, gh − Z̄b Ib V̄g − V̄h

Dividing each row of equation (5.39) by its diagonal element, we get,

⎡ V̄ − V̄ ⎤

⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ (Z̄ − Z̄ ) − (Z̄ − Z̄ )

fh ⎥ ⎡ ¯ ⎤ ⎢ e f

⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢Ia ⎥ ⎢⎢ Z̄T h, ef − Z̄a ⎥⎥

eg ef fg

1

⎢ Z̄T h, ef − Z̄a ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥

⎢ (Z̄ − Z̄ ) − (Z̄ − Z̄ ) ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

(5.40)

⎢ ge ⎥⎢¯⎥ ⎢

⎢ gf he hf

1 ⎥ ⎢ Ib ⎥ ⎢ V̄g − V̄h ⎥⎥

⎢ Z̄T h, gh − Z̄b ⎥⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎢ Z̄T h, gh − Z̄b ⎥

⎣ ⎦

Now, from equation (5.27), we have

**∆I¯ef Z̄b (Z̄eh − Z̄eg ) − (Z̄f h − Z̄f g )
**

= [ ] = Lef, gh (say) (5.41)

I¯gh Z̄a Z̄T h, gh − Z̄b

**∆I¯gh Z̄a (Z̄gf − Z̄ge ) − (Z̄hf − Z̄he )
**

= [ ] = Lgh, ef (say) (5.42)

I¯ef Z̄b Z̄T h,ef − Z̄a

241

ef ¯ I¯a = [ I¯ef + b Igh ] (5. gh − Z̄b Now. gh Z̄b Z̄T h.45) in equation (5.49) ∆V̄j = Z̄je ∆I¯e + Z̄jf ∆I¯f + Z̄jg ∆I¯g + Z̄jh ∆I¯h = (Z̄jf − Z̄je )I¯a + (Z̄jh − Z̄jg )I¯b (5. the change in current in line ‘i-j’ (having an impedance Z̄c ) is given by. ∆Vi = Z̄ie ∆I¯e + Z̄if ∆I¯f + Z̄ig ∆I¯g + Z̄ih ∆I¯h = (Z̄if − Z̄ie )I¯a + (Z̄ih − Z̄ig )I¯b (5. ∆Vi − ∆Vj ∆I¯ij = (5. ⎡ V̄ − V̄ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ Z̄b ⎤⎡¯ ⎤ ⎢ e f ⎥ ⎢ − Lgh. ef Lef.42) we have. gh Z̄T h. gh ⎢ Z̄a ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Ib ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ V̄g − V̄h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ Lef. V̄e − V̄f V̄g − V̄h I¯ef = and I¯gh = (5. gh ⎥ ⎢ I¯ ⎥ ⎢ V̄g − V̄h ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎣ b⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Z̄b ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Z̄T h. ef − Z̄a ⎥⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎢ Z̄a ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ (5. 1 Z̄a Z̄ 2 Lgh. gh − Z̄b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Now. ⎡ V̄ − V̄ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡I¯ ⎤ ⎡ Z̄b ⎤⎢ e f ⎥ ⎢ a⎥ ⎢ Lgh.50) Thus.48) Z̄c Now. gh 1 ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Z̄b ⎦⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Z̄T h. ef ⎥ ⎢ Z̄T h.Nothing that the matrix Z̄ is symmetrical (Z̄ij = Z̄ji ).47) 1 − Lgh. gh − Z̄b 1 Z̄a2 Lef. gh − Z̄b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Or.40)-(5. ef − Z̄a Z̄T h. gh ¯ Z̄b I¯b = [ Ief + I¯gh ] (5.44) ⎢¯⎥ ⎢ gh.46) 1 − Lgh.45) Z̄a Z̄b Utilizes equation (5.43) ⎢ Z̄a ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− Lef. (Z̄if − Z̄ie ) − (Z̄jf − Z̄je ) ¯ (Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg ) ¯ ∆I¯ij = Ia + Ib (5. the pre-outage currents in lines Z̄a and Z̄b are given by. ef − Z̄a Z̄a Z̄T h. ef ⎥ ⎢⎢Ia ⎥⎥ ⎢ Z̄T h. ef Lef. from equations (5. ef − Z̄a ⎥⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥= 1 ⎢ Z̄a ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1−L ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ (5. ef Lef.51) Z̄c Z̄c 242 .44) we get.

54) Z̄c Z̄T h.52). Z̄a2 Lef. ef − Z̄a Hence. gh Lgh. ef − Z̄a Now.51) we have. ef (5.51) we have. gh − Z̄b 243 . gh − Z̄b Hence. Z̄b2 Lgh.58) Again.46) and (5. gh X̄1 = + a [(Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg )] (5.ef − Z̄a Z̄b (Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg ) Z̄a (Z̄eh − Z̄eg ) − (Z̄f h − Z̄f g ) =[ ]×[ ] Z̄c Z̄T h. ef Again. (5.55) Z̄b Z̄c Z̄T h. ef + Lij. we have [using equation (5.56) has been written using equation (5. ef − Z̄a Z̄a2 Z̄b (Z̄eh − Z̄eg ) − (Z̄f h − Zf g ) (Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg ) = Z̄b Z̄c Z̄a Z̄T h.55). gh − Z̄b Z̄b Z̄T h. gh [(Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg )] Z̄b Z̄c Z̄T h. expanding the second term of equation (5.42) and by noting that. gh = (5. gh − Z̄b Z̄c Z̄T h. Z̄a2 Lef. we recognize. Z̄a (Z̄if − Z̄ie ) − (Z̄jf − Z̄je ) Lij.Substituting equations (5.59) Z̄a Z̄c Z̄T h.gh − Z̄b Z̄T h.52) 1 − Lgh. gh Lgh. ef − Z̄a Equation (5. gh [(Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg )] = Lij.57) Z̄c Z̄T h. ef − Z̄a Or. X̄1 = Lij. from equations (5.47) into equation (5. ef Lef. ef Z̄b (Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg ) X̄2 = [(Z̄if − Z̄ie ) − (Z̄jf − Z̄je )] + (5. Z̄b (Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg ) Lij.46). 1 ∆I¯ij = [X̄1 I¯ef + X̄2 I¯gh ] (5. [(Z̄if − Z̄ie ) − (Z̄jf − Z̄je )] Z̄a Z̄c Z̄T h. Z̄a (Z̄if − Z̄ie ) − (Z̄jf − Z̄je ) Z̄ 2 Lef.56) Z̄b Z̄c Z̄T h.41)]. ef = (5. ef + [(Z̄ih − Z̄ig ) − (Z̄jh − Z̄jg )] (5. gh − Z̄b Z̄b2 Lgh. ef − Z̄a Now. Z̄a2 Lef.47) and (5. gh Where. (5. ef (5. ef − Z̄a Z̄b Z̄c Z̄T h.53) Z̄c Z̄T h. gh X̄1 = Lij.

all complex impedances are replaced by their corresponding reactances). gh + Lij. imposition of the conditions of the DC power flow makes all the factors being represented by the corresponding reactances (i. they actually represent the different line outage sensitivity factors (LOSF). gh − Z̄b Or. However. Therefore. Hence. ef Lef. ef − Z̄a Z̄a Z̄T h. ef + Lij. gh Lgh. Also. gh − Z̄b Please note that equation (5. we will look into an example of contingency analysis for outages of two lines. ef )I¯ef + (Lij. Now.61).58) and (5. for contingency calculation. gh )I¯gh ] (5. gh (5. 244 . gh + Lij. ef Equation (5. ef Lef. from equation (5. Z̄b2 Z̄a (Z̄gf − Z̄ge ) − (Z̄hf − Zhe ) (Z̄if − Z̄ie ) − (Z̄jf − Z̄je ) = Z̄a Z̄c Z̄b Z̄T h. under the assumption of DC power flow. gh − Z̄b Z̄a (Z̄if − Z̄ie ) − (Z̄jf − Z̄je ) Z̄b (Z̄gf − Z̄ge ) − (Z̄hf − Z̄he ) =[ ]×[ ] Z̄c Z̄T h.62) 1 − Lef. as discussed earlier. the change in power flow in line ‘i-j’ can very easily be calculated from equation (5. ef − Za Z̄T h. As already noted earlier. X̄2 = Lij. In the next lecture.60) has been obtained by using equations (5. gh Lgh. 1 ∆I¯ij = [(Lij.61) Therefore from equations (5.54). the current flow quantities are replaced by corresponding power flow quantities.62) gives the change in the current of line ‘i-j’ in terms of the original currents of the lines which have gone out of service.28) we see that when these functions are represented by reactances only. ef Lef.41) and (5.e. Z̄b2 Lgh.62) all the factors are in terms of complex impedances. (5.60) Z̄a Z̄c Z̄T h.62) using the information of pre-outage power flow in lines ‘e-f’ and ‘g-h’. in equation (5. ef [(Z̄if − Z̄ie ) − (Z̄jf − Z̄je )] = Lij. there LOSFs are already pre-calculated and stored. Now.52) we get. gh (5.

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