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Kelompok 1

For the control volume shown in Figure, determine the air volume flowrate leaving through

surface 3-4. The entering profile at 1-4 is uniform. The exiting profile at 2-3 is parabolic (u/U = 2

(y/δ) – (y/δ)2). The free stream velocity is U = 3 m/s and δ = 6.0 mm at surface 2-3. Find force in

x direction to hold the plate. Use mass balance and momentum balance on CS. Assume that

velocity in x direction on surfaces 41 and 43 = U.

No 2. Kelompok 1.

For laminar flow over a flat plate, a reasonable assumption for the velocity profile is a

polynomial in y: u = a + by + cy2. The physical boundary conditions are:

1. at y = 0; u = 0

2. at y = δ; u = U, where U is the freestream flow approaching the plate in parallel direction.

3. at y = δ; u = uy

a. Find constants a, b and c.

b. Find an equation u/U as a function of where =y/δ

c. Find w as a function of U and δ

d. Find cf as a function of Rex.

No 3. Kelompok 2

A laboratory wind tunnel has a test section that is 305 mm square cross-section. Boundary-layer

velocity profiles are measured at two cross-sections and displacement thicknesses are evaluated

from the measured profiles. At section 1, where the freestream speed is U1 = 26 m/s, the

displacement thickness is δ* = 1.5 mm. At section 2, located downstream from section 1, δ* =

2.1 mm. Calculate the change in static pressure between sections 1 and 2. Express the result as a

fraction of the freestream dynamic pressure at section 1. Assume standard atmosphere

conditions. See Slide 35 of the lecture material for guidance

No 4. Kelompok 2.

1 m x 2 m sheet of plywood is attached to the roof of your vehicle. At what speed (in km/hr, in

30oC air) will the boundary layer first start becoming turbulent? At what speed is about 90

percent of the boundary layer turbulent?

No 5. Kelompok 3.

Consider two-dimensional laminar boundary-layer flow along a flat plate. Assume the velocity

profile in the boundary layer is sinusoidal, u/U = sin (/2 y/δ) where U is a constant.

Find:

and the pressure drop between the two sections. Kelompok 5. Kelompok 4. A fluid. Using control volume abcd. A supertanker is 360 m long and a draft (height part of supertanker side which is in contact with seawater) of 25 m. as a function of x. Kelompok 5. as shown. No 6. At a section a few meters from the entrance. The total friction force on a plate of length L and width b as a function of ReL.25 mm. Determine the drag force on the upper surface of the plate. displacement thickness. δ.7 m/sec in seawater at 10oC. δ*. the turbulent boundary layer is of thickness δ1 = 5. No 8. shown by the dashed lines. No 10. Evaluate the boundary layer thickness due to disturbance. at x = L. in the inviscid central core at the second section. The boundary layer thickness. Kelompok 4. . The tanker sides are assumed to be two vertical plates. Velocity profiles in laminar boundary layers often are approximated by the equations Linear: u/U = y/δ Sinusoidal: u/U = sin (π/2 y/δ) Parabolic: u/U = 2 (y/δ) – (y/δ)2 Compare the shapes of these velocity profiles by plotting y/δ (on the ordinate) versus u/U (on the abscissa) and find δ*/δ for each profile. Kelompok 3. U2. Find the velocity. b. No 9. Use momentum integral equation involving w.9 m wide. compute the mass flow rate across surface ab. Air flows in a horizontal cylindrical duct of diameter D = 100 mm. Assume the velocity profile is linear. The boundary layer is tripped (collided with a small vertical plate) so it becomes turbulent at the leading edge. τw.5 m/s. At the trailing edge. Water flows at U = 1 m/s past a flat plate with L = 1 m in the flow direction. and the velocity in the inviscid central core is U1 = 12.a. Assume a 1/7-power turbulent velocity profile for turbulent boundary layer. Use mass balance and momentum balance on CV. and wall shear stress. Assume that velocity in x direction on surfaces ad and ab = U. Estimate the force and power (=drag force x U) required to overcome skin friction drag at a speed of 6. c. Compare with laminar flow maintained to the same position.4 mm. Farther downstream the boundary layer is of thickness δ2 = 24 mm. flows at U = 3 m/s over a flat plate 3 m long and 0. δ. No 7. The displacement thickness. See Slide 35 of the lecture material for guidance. as a function of x. δ*. with density ρ = 773 kg/m3. and that the flow is two-dimensional (flow conditions are independent of z). The velocity profile in the boundary layer is approximated well by the 1/7-power expression. the boundary-layer thickness is δ = 25.

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