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RUNNING

ABSTRACTS
Table of Contents

101A--Kinetics Of Steeplechase Hurdling Performance--(Tracy)..................................................................................................... 1

117A--Differences in Coordination Between Young and Old Runners--(Harrison).......................................................................... 3

140B--The Examination of Movement Coordination between Barefoot and Minimal Foot Support Boots in Walking--(Wu)........... 5

144B--Kinematic Gait Characteristics of a Heterogeneous Population--(Thurman)......................................................................... 7

146B--Detection of Gait Pattern Differences Using Fast Fourier Transform Analysis--(Vessicchio)................................................ 9

155A--The Effects of Gait Speed on Foot Rockers--(Agnew).......................................................................................................... 11

156B--To Walk or to Run Metabolic Cost is not the Answer--(Summerside)................................................................................... 13

159A--Structural Parameters of the Foot and the Biomechanics of Walking With and Without Wedged Footwear I--(Lewinson)... 15

160B--Lower Extremity Joint Stiffness and Work Performed Across Different Walking and Running Speeds--(Jin)....................... 17

182B--Surface Stiffness and Knee Joint Load Effects while Running--(Price)................................................................................. 19

183A--Patellar Forces And Torsions Resulting From Decreased Activation Of The Vastus Medialis Muscle--(Siegel)................... 21

222B--Top Sprinting Speed is Influenced By Prosthetic Model, but not Stiffness or Height, for Athletes wit--(Taboga).................. 23

231A--Quasi-Passive Two Degree of Freedom Prosthetic Ankle--(Greene).................................................................................... 25

293A--Reliability of a Device to Measure Torsional Stiffness of Running Footwear--(Zifchock)...................................................... 27

297A--Influence of Minimalist, Neutral, and Ultra-Cushioning Shoes on Joint Coordination During Running--(Borgia).................. 29

301A--Foot Strike Index, Running Cadence, and Loading Rate While Running in a Traditionally Cushioned Zero--(Urrutia)......... 31

302B--Effect of Differing Running Shoe Midsole Thickness on Gait Kinetics and Kinematics--(Vollmar)........................................ 33

329A--A Zero-Feedback and Stable Running Model Controlled by a Central Pattern Generator--(Masters).................................. 35

331A--Verbal Feedback During A Single Running Retraining Session- Evidence Of A Positive Outcome--(Sharp)....................... 37

333A--Changes in Limb Symmetry during a 2 Mile Outdoor Run--(Renner).................................................................................... 39

334B--Knees Presenting Varus Thrust do not Increase Knee Adduction when Running with Body Borne Load--(Brown)............. 41

335A--Tibial Shock During Treadmill and Outdoor Running- Are They the Same--(Jamison)......................................................... 43

336B--Does Wasted Impulse Explain Metabolic Power During Downhill Running--(Southern)....................................................... 45

337A--The Effect of Grade on the Biomechanics of Downhill Running in Female Distance Runners--(Wells)................................ 47

338B--Footstrike Pattern Effects on Loading in Runners with Transtibial Amputation--(Djafar)....................................................... 49

339A--Step Frequency in Elite Ultramarathoners During a 100-km Road Race--(Burns)................................................................ 51

340B--Knee Joint Stiffness as a Neuromuscular Component of Preferred Speed--(Morgan).......................................................... 53

341A--Effect of Slope and Speed on Kinetics of Jogging with a Backpack--(Malcolm).................................................................... 55

342B--Relationship Between Running Economy and Kinematics of the Upper Extremity and Trunk--(Rhodehouse)..................... 57

343A--The Effect of Transitioning from a Rearfoot Strike Pattern to a Non-Rearfoot Strike Pattern on Runni--(Reynolds)............ 59

344B--Coordination and Coordinative Variability of the Lower Limbs in Competitive Male Distance Runners--(Franzese)............ 61

345A--Lower Limb Segmental Variability During a 40-Min Prolonged Run--(Freedman Silvernail)................................................. 63

346B--Effect of Running Speed on Foot Strike Index, Spatio-Temporal Parameters and Rearfoot Pronation in R--(Fukuchi)....... 65

347A--The Coupling Of Footstrike And Stride Length In Running--(Thompson).............................................................................. 67

348B--Prediction Equations for Leg Kinematics and Kinetics During Slope Running--(Shkedy Rabani)......................................... 69

349A--Effect of Transitioning Running Style from a Rearfoot to a Non-Rearfoot Strike Pattern on Impulse pe--(Smith)................. 71

350B--A Biomechanical Investigation of Compensation Strategies Used by Runners in Response to Reduced Core--(Raabe).... 73

351A--Trunk Kinematics Changes With Age and Running Speed--(Kakar)..................................................................................... 75
352B--Lower Limb Joint Kinematics In Young and Middle-Aged Runners--(Kakar)......................................................................... 77

353A--Estimation of Trunk Muscle Activation During Overground Running--(McClellan)................................................................ 79

354B--Effects of Prolonged Running and Training on Tibial Acceleration and Movement Quality--(Paquette)............................... 81

355A--Biomechanical Differences between Knee Disarticulation and Transfemoral Amputation while Running- A --(Maun)......... 83

356B--Asymmetric Step Frequencies Increase the Metabolic Cost of Running--(Azua).................................................................. 85

357A--Surface Stiffness Alters Vertical Stiffness without Altering Metabolic Demand--(Goodwin).................................................. 87

358B--Joint Torque Requirements and Capacities During Running--(Derrick)................................................................................ 89

359A--Distance Running Sagittal Plane Hip and Knee Variability During Early and Late Stance and Swing--(Paxton).................. 91

371A--Proof-of-Concept- Accelerometer-Based Metrics Predict Injury in NCAA Runners--(Kiernan)............................................. 93

372B--The Use of a Single Inertial Sensor to Estimate 3-Dimensional Ground Reaction Force during Accelerat--(Gurchiek)....... 95

376B--Influence of Accelerometer Range on Accuracy of Foot-mounted IMU Based Running Velocity Estimation--(Potter)......... 97

381A--Accurate and Robust Gait Event Detection Using Foot-Mounted Inertial Measurement Units--(Cain)................................. 99

382B--Evaluation of Ground Reaction Force Asymmetry in Walking and Running Using Force Plates vs. Accelero--(Karimpour). 101

419A--Sport-Related Loading in Athletes Predicts Bone Mineral Content of the Fifth Metatarsal--(Westbrook)............................. 103

421A--Relationship Between Tibial Bone Stress and Biomechanical Factors Associated With Stress Fracture--(Meardon).......... 105

459A--Effect of Prophylactic Knee Bracing on Lower Extremity Kinematics in Running and Jumping--(Stephenson).................... 107

461A--Effect Of Foot Orthotics On Force Distribution In The Ankle And Subtalar Joint- A Cadaveric Study.--(Lechtig)................. 109

464B--Biomechanical Comparison of Warm-up Procedure for Achilles Tendon--(Shen)................................................................. 111

471A--Metatarsophalangeal Joint Stiffness at Different Running Speeds--(Day)............................................................................ 113

472B--Arch Structure and Loading Pattern Can Predict Running Foot Mechanics--(Henderson)................................................... 115

473A--Effective Average Ankle Moment Arm at Various Speeds--(Steinbach)................................................................................ 117

484B--Tales From the Uninvolved Limb- Motor Control in Unilateral Achilles Tendinopathy--(Fietzer)........................................... 119

P3C_3--3D X-Ray Motion Analysis Indicates Treadmill Exercise Exacerbates Knee Osteoarthritis in MMT Rats--(Cooper).......... 121

P5B_5--Running Strike Pattern, Midtarsal Locking, and the Windlass Mechanism--(Bruening)...................................................... 123

P6B_3--Bone Microarchitecture and Running Biomechanics in First-Time Marathon Runners--(Sattler)........................................ 125

P7B_2--Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis To Assess System Stability During Running--(Agresta)......................................... 127

R2B_7--How Do Prosthetic Stiffness, Height, and Running Speed Affect the Biomechanics of Athletes with Bila--(Beck)............. 129

R2B_8--Power and Work Generated Throughout the Running-Specific Prosthesis Keel during Running after Amputa--(Baum)... 131

R2B_9--Dynamic Balance During Running Using Running-Specific Prostheses--(Sepp)................................................................ 133

R4A_1--Soft Tissue Increases Stability and Propulsion During Human Running--(Masters)........................................................... 135

R4A_2--Differential Leg Joint Function During Human Running--(Jindrich)..................................................................................... 137

R4A_3--The Energetics of the Human Foot Across a Range of Running Speeds--(Kelly).............................................................. 139

R4A_4--Hip Alignment, Position at Foot Strike and Peak Hip Adduction Angle in Female Runners--(Brindle)............................... 141

R4A_5--Influence of Stride Frequency on Knee Joint Stiffness and Anterior Tibial Shear Forces in Female Run--(Thakkar)........ 143

R4A_6--Multiscale Entropy of Center of Mass Acceleration as a Measure for Cumulative Running Fatigue--(Gruber).................. 145

R4A_7--Changes in Mechanics Across a Marathon--(Ruder).......................................................................................................... 147

R4A_8--Influence of Iliotibial Band Syndrome On Pelvis - Thigh Coupling And Coupling Variability During Run--(Foch)............... 149

R4A_9--Coasting to a Sub-2-Hour Marathon using an Optimal Drafting Approach--(Arellano)....................................................... 151
R7A_4--Accuracy of a Shoe-Worn Device to Measure Running Mechanics--(Hunter).................................................................... 153

R7A_5--Using Inertial Sensors for Assessing Performance During Stair Running--(Ojeda)............................................................ 155

R7A_6--An Adaptive Filtering Algorithm to Estimate Sprint Velocity Using a Single Inertial Sensor--(Gurchiek)............................ 157

R7A_7--Energy Expenditure During Exercise Using Novel Piezoelectric Foam Sensors--(Evans)................................................. 159

T6D_3--The Effects of a Carbon Fiber Shoe Insert on Speed and Power in Collegiate Athletes--(Gregory)................................... 161

T6D_4--Lower Extremity Stiffness When Running in Minimalist, Neutral, and Ultra-Cushioning Shoes--(Borgia).......................... 163

T7D_2--Differences in Hamstring Muscle Quality Between Highly Active and Sedentary Older Adults--(Casto)............................ 165
KINETICS OF STEEPLECHASE HURDLING PERFORMANCE
1
James Tracy, 1 Spencer Baker, and 1 Iain Hunter
1
Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA
email: iain_hunter@byu.edu, web: http://biomechanics.byu.edu/

INTRODUCTION ground and the various measures of technique.
Correlations were tested between all combinations of
The 3000m steeplechase event requires athletes with predictor variables individually. Some variables
a unique combination of endurance, strength, and were not used in the final regression model based
athleticism. Studies have been completed in recent upon them being closely correlated with other
years focused on kinematics of the steeplechase potential predictor variables. Separate analyses for
event, but very little exists on the kinetics.1,2 Kipp takeoffs and landings were completed with alpha set
found steeplechase hurdling forces are greater than at 0.05. The separation of takeoff and landing trials
treadmill running.3 were needed since the force plates were not in
positions that allowed for measurements of both
This study aimed to determine a kinematic and ground contacts in a single jump.
kinetic analysis of steeplechase hurdling related to
horizontal velocity gained or lost upon takeoff and
landing.

METHODS

Eight male collegiate steeplechase athletes were
brought to the biomechanics lab. After signing an
informed consent approved through the university’s
institutional review board, they did their typical
warmup routine followed by marker placement
according to the Vicon Plugin Gait model. A hurdle
was placed prior to a 0.6 x 0.9m force platform to Figure 1: Measurements used in analysis are labeled
measure two hurdle landings, one with the left leg in image. Others included peak vertical force and
leading and one with the right. Force data were vertical impulse at takeoff and landing, high point of
collected at 1000 Hz with motion at 250 Hz. A center of mass, trunk lean at takeoff and landing, and
successful trial was determined when the foot landed energy during contact with the ground for the hip,
completely on the force plate and the designated knee, and ankle, at takeoff and landing.
speed of 4.73 m/s was attained within 5%. This is a
little slower than their typical race pace, but RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
constraints of the lab limited us from faster running.
Only takeoff vertical impulse predicted the loss of
Various characteristics of hurdling technique were velocity during takeoff contact. Other measures were
measured or calculated using outputs from the Plugin non-significant. The horizontal distance between the
Gait Model. Measurements are illustrated or listed in landing toe and the person’s center of mass and the
Figure 1. Change in horizontal velocities were horizontal distance between the landing toe and the
calculated through A/P impulse calculations. hurdle predicted the loss of velocity at landing.

A stepwise linear regression tested for correlations Joint energies during time in contact with the ground
between the loss of velocity during contact with the were non-significant in the regression analyses.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Graphs of each subject’s joint moment profiles for impulse was included in the regression. Applying the
descriptive purposes are included in Figure 2. forces correctly may be more important than body
positioning for takeoff, although the one is not
independent of the other. A greater vertical impulse
was also correlated with a greater high point. Greater
takeoff distance was correlated with a center of mass
high point farther back from the hurdle. Since the
lead leg is farther in front of the center of mass than
the trail leg is behind, a high point farther back from
the hurdle is desirable.

Correlations of independent variables at landing
included: landing closer to the hurdle with longer
ground time and a greater forwards lean, a greater
forwards lean on landing with a smaller center of
mass to toe distance, and a smaller peak force at
landing with a smaller toe to hurdle distance. Thus,
methods for landing closer to the hurdle and having
Figure 2: Joint moments for takeoff and landing. No a smaller center of mass to landing toe distance are
significant differences were observed in joint connected with more ground time, a greater forwards
kinetics (specifically joint energy). lean, and a lower peak force.
Some aspects of steeplechase hurdling technique do CONCLUSIONS
not affect the loss or gain of velocity at takeoff and
landing. The final model included takeoff vertical During takeoff, correctly applying forces was more
impulse, takeoff toe to hurdle distance, knee significant than body positioning to successfully
extension of the lead leg, landing peak vertical force, maintain horizontal velocity. During landing, the
landing ground time, landing toe to hurdle distance, body positioning was more significant than the
and landing center of mass to toe distance. forces involved to predict obstacle navigation
success. However, the kinematics and kinetics are
Avoiding large vertical impulses during takeoff interconnected.
allows the athlete to better maintain their horizontal
velocity. A forward lean at takeoff was correlated REFERENCES
with a smaller peak vertical force at takeoff. This
forward lean may be part of the reason vertical 1. Hunter I, et al. J Sports Sci Med 5, 318-322, 2006.
impulses were lower. Since both measures were 2. Hunter I, et. al J Sports Sci Med 7, 218-222, 2008
highly correlated with each other, only vertical 3. Kipp S, et al. J Sports Biomech, 1-14, Sept 2016.

Table 1: Descriptive statistics of selected measurements
Peak
Change Vert Toe to Ankle Knee Hip
Vert Ground CM to
in Vel Impulse Hurdle Energy Energy Energy
Force Time (s) Toe (m)
(m/s) (BWs) (m) (J) (J) (J)
(BW)
-0.71 ± 4.18 ± 0.25 ± 0.18 ± 0.51 ± 1.56 ± 49.3 ± 11.8 ± -10.8 ±
Takeoff
0.20 0.66 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.11 12.8 11.8 24.1
0.12 ± 3.73 ± 0.14 ± 0.16 ± 0.19 ± 1.07 ± -0.25 ± -0.28 ± -0.69 ±
Landing
0.18 0.72 0.03 0.01 0.07 0.27 0.32 0.34 0.33

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
DIFFERENCES IN COORDINATION BETWEEN YOUNG AND OLD RUNNERS

Kathryn Harrison, Jacqueline Morgan, Gregory Crosswell, Yongung Kwon, Bhushan Thakkar, and DS Blaise
Williams III

VCU RUN LAB, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA
email: harrisonk3@vcu.edu, web: khs.vcu.edu/about/vcu-run-lab/

INTRODUCTION loading response (ie showing a unimodal peak at
mid-stance), were selected for analysis. These
Participation in the sport of running declines sharply included rearfoot eversion (EV), tibial internal
after the age of 45 [1]. This may be in part due to rotation (TIR), knee flexion (KF) and hip adduction
increased risk of running-related injury with age [2]. (HAD).

Increase in injury rates amongst older runners may Coordination was assessed using a modified vector
be in part due to altered biomechanics. It has been coding technique[7]. For each frame, joint position
reported that older runners have decreased range of of the distal joint was plotted on the x-axis, and joint
motion, however the literature is equivocal [3,4]. position of the proximal joint was plotted on the y-
More consistently, older runners demonstrate axis. Positive values indicated positions associated
reduced power generation at the ankle, which is with collapse (EV, TIR, KF, HAD). Coordination
compensated for by increasing contributions of the angle was calculated as
hip [5].
Θ = tan-1(Δpproximal/Δpdistal)
The proximal shift in work seen in older runners
suggests a change in coordination strategy. It has Where Δp is the change in joint position. Using this
been hypothesized that disruption in the sequencing scale, positive values indicate in phase motion (eg
of motions associated with loading during running both joints collapsing) while negative values
may contribute to injury [6]. Therefore, the purpose indicate anti-phase motion (eg. One joint collapsing
of this study was to compare coordination using while the other joint has reversed). Greater
vector coding between young and older runners. magnitude of coordination angle indicates more
relative distal motion, while values closer to 0
METHODS indicate greater relative proximal motion.

Twelve young adult males (22(3) yrs, 1.80(.07) m, Coordination angles were averaged during four
78(12) kg) and 12 older males (63(3) yrs, 1.76(.06) phases of stance previously defined, including
m, 73(16) kg) who regularly ran at least 10 miles per impact, loading, propulsion and toe-off. For each
week volunteered for this study. Runners were couple analyzed (EV-TIR, TIR-KF, KF-HAD, EV-
provided with standard neutral footwear (New HAD), a MANOVA was used to compare
Balance, Boston, MA). Gait analysis was conducted coordination between groups at each phase.
on an instrumented treadmill (Treadmetrix, Park
City, UT). A 20 second trial was collected using a 5- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
camera motion analysis system (Qualisys, Goteborg,
Sweden) at 120 Hz as participants ran at 3.35m/s. Coordination through stance phase in younger and
older runners is depicted in Figure 1. No significant
Visual 3D motion analysis software (C-Motion, differences were observed in EV-TIR. Motion was in
Germantown, MD) was used to process data. Hip, phase through the first half of stance, with relative
knee and ankle joint angles were calculated for the TIR increasing until mid-stance. A brief period of
stance phase of gait, which was defined using kinetic anti-phase motion occurred before both motions
data from the force plate. Motions associated with

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
occurred in phase, with relative eversion increasing 60
A
until toe-off. 30

Ɵ
0
Similarly, no significant differences were observed
in TIR-KF coordination. Knee flexion dominated in -30
early stance, but relative proximal motion declined 90
until mid-stance, at which anti-phase coordination B I
60
was observed. Following mid-stance relative knee 30

Ɵ
motion increased, dominating propulsion and toe- 0
-30
off.
60
KF-HAD coordination was significantly different C
30
between young and old runners (p=.033). Younger

Ɵ
runners displayed KF dominated in-phase motion, 0
while older runners had anti-phase motion, as the hip -30
abducted while the knee flexed. Thereafter motion
60
was KF dominated in-phase, until mid-stance when D
30
anti-phase motion occurred. During propulsion KF

Ɵ
0
dominated, with relative KF decreasing until toe-off. -30
% stance
There was a trend towards differing EV-HAD
between younger and older runners (p=.099). Again, old young
the young displayed eversion dominated in-phase
motion, while the older demonstrated anti-phase Figure 1: Coordination angles of younger and
motion. In-phase motion occurred until a period of older runners. A) Eversion-tibial internal
anti-phase motion at mid-stance. Relative eversion rotation. B) Tibial internal rotation-knee flexion.
increased during propulsion, and declined through C) Knee flexion-hip adduction. D) Eversion-hip
toe-off. adduction.

CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
1] Running USA. 2016.
Older runners used different coordination strategies [2] Kluitenberg B, van Middelkoop M, Smits DW,
between the hip and knee and ankle during the impact Verhagen E, Hartgens F, Diercks R, van der Worp
phase of running. It appears that older runners do not H. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2015;25:515-23.
allow the hip to collapse at impact, possibly to [3] Fukuchi RK, Stefanyshyn DJ, Stirling L, Duarte
compensate for reduced ability to control the ankle. M, Ferber R. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
This is supported by previous work showing a 2014;29(3):304-10.
proximal shift in power generation in older runners [4] Silvernail JF, Boyer K, Rohr E, Bruggemann
[5]. GP, Hamill J. Med Sci Sports Exerc
2015;47(10):2175-80.
This study also found that in both groups, anti-phase [5] Devita P, Fellin RE, Seay JF, Ip E, Stavro N,
motion consistently occurred at mid-stance. It has Messier SP. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2016;48(1):98-
previously been hypothesized that the collapse 106.
motions should peak at mid-stance, and disruption of [6] James SL, Bates BT, Osternig LR. Am J Sports
this synchrony may lead to injury. However younger Med 1978;62:40-50.
runners actually appeared to utilize a greater degree [7] Ferber R, Davis IM, Williams DS,3rd. J
of anti-phase motion in the transition from loading to Biomech 2005;38(3):477
propulsion. Thus this strategy may not be injurious,
as previously thought.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
THE EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENT COORDINATION BETWEEN BAREFOOT AND MINIMAL
FOOT SUPPORT BOOTS IN WALKING
1
Tom Wu, 1Seunguk Han, 1Ariana LaFavre, 2David J. Pearsall, 2Pamela J. Russell, and 1Tyler Champagne
1
Bridgewater State University, Bridgewater MA, USA
2
McGill University, Montreal, QC, CANADA
Email: twu@bridgew.edu

INTRODUCTION of the fifth metatarsal. During testing, each
participant walked for one minute at the speed of
Walking is a fundamental form of human 1.3 m/s, a natural walking speed, on a treadmill.
locomotion and is also a basic form of exercise. A Participants walked both barefoot and with the
typical walking gait consists of both stance and minimal foot support (MFS) boots (UGG classic)
swing phases. During the early portion of the stance with three minutes rest in between. The order of the
phase, the foot pronates after the instant of heel MFS footwear and barefoot conditions was
strike. This foot pronation movement helps with randomized to reduce the order effect. Data
shock absorption and ground surface adaptation in collection concluded in one day with a half hour in
walking. The arches under the foot play an duration per participant.
important role in assisting with shock absorption, so
the selection of proper footwear that can provide A standard two-dimensional kinematic analysis was
proper arch support, particularly for the medial conducted with a Casio Camera (Model: EX-FH25)
longitudinal arch, is critical [1]. Recently, footwear operated at 120 Hz in conjunction with a 650W
manufactures have produced boots that have artificial light to assist in joint marker identification.
minimal foot support (MFS) for the foot arches. The Ariel Performance Analysis System (APASTM)
Without proper foot arch support, excessive motion software was used to obtain angular
pronation movements may change the timing and velocities of the hip, knee and ankle of a gait cycle
sequencing of the lower extremity joints. This for each participant. A Butterworth filter function
alternation of the joint coordination and sequencing with a cutoff frequency of 10 Hz was applied to the
may potentially cause detrimental effect on foot data. The movement coordination pattern was
health and lead to lower extremity injury. defined as the timing and sequencing of joint
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine movements, and a shared positive contribution
the movement coordination between barefoot and (SPC) of proximal to distal joint and a reversed
minimal foot support boots in walking. The results shared positive contribution (RSPC) of a distal to
would help health practitioners to have a better proximal joint based on the angular joint velocity
understanding on how minimal foot support profiles were used to assess movement coordination
footwear could affect walking gait. pattern [2-3]. A SPC or a RSPC of 0% indicates a
sequential type of movement, and a SPC or a RSPC
METHODS of 100% indicates a simultaneous type of
movement. Paired sample t-tests were conducted at
Ten college females (age 21.3 ± 1.2 years) were α = 0.05 between barefoot and minimal foot support
recruited for participation in the study. Approval by footwear, and all statistical analyses were conducted
the institutional ethics review board was obtained with SPSS (v. 23) software.
and then prior to the study participants gave written
informed consent. All participants warmed up prior RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
to the testing. Five joint reflective markers were
placed on the right side of the body at the Paired sample dependent t-tests were conducted on
glenohumeral joint, greater trochanter, lateral the movement coordination for the hip and knee
epicondyle of the tibia, lateral malleolus, and base joint angular velocities and for the knee and ankle
joint angular velocities. There was no statistical does not alter the sequencing of the joint
significant difference found in the positive coordination pattern, and this may be because these
contribution of the movement coordination for the participants already have a low pronation foot
hip and knee joint angular velocities (p = 0.868) and profile. Hence, wearing boots with minimal foot
for the knee and ankle angular velocities (p = 0.270) support footwear have minimal effect on their
between barefoot and minimal foot support walking gait.
footwear, Table 1.
CONCLUSIONS
From the results of this walking gait study, the hip
and knee joints showed a slightly more sequential The purpose of this study was to examine the
type of coordination whereas the knee and ankle movement coordination pattern between barefoot
joints showed a more simultaneous type of and minimal foot support footwear. Ten female
coordination. When comparing the results to a participants participated in the study, and each
previous movement coordination study conducted participant walked on a treadmill in barefoot and in
by Wu et al. (2014) on running barefoot and minimal foot support (UGG) boots. The results
minimalist footwear, similarly, the hip and knee showed no significant change in the timing and
joints were more sequential than the knee and ankle sequencing of the walking gait when minimal foot
joints that were more simultaneous [4]. support footwear was worn. This study further
Additionally, both positive contributions of the hip reveals the knee joint initiates the lower extremity
and knee joints and the knee and ankle joints were movement in walking gait, and future studies are
higher in walking than in running. This study warranted to examine the long term effect of
supports the notion that when the speed of wearing minimal foot support footwear and to
movement is increased, the movement coordination evaluate movement coordination in other functional
becomes more sequential [2]. When evaluating the kinetic chain activities.
type of sequencing, all ten runners showed a distal
to proximal sequencing in the hip and knee joints REFERENCES
for both barefoot and minimal foot support footwear
and a proximal to distal sequencing in the knee and 1. Genova JM, et al. J Orthopaedic & Sports
ankle joints for both barefoot and minimal foot Physical Therapy 30(11), 664-675, 2000.
support footwear. These findings are similar as in 2. Hudson, JL Medicine Science of Sports and
the previous movement coordination study Exercise 18(2), 242-251, 1986.
conducted on running [3]. This study indicates that 3. Wu T, et al. XVII
th
Canadian Society of
walking activity, a functional kinetic chain that Biomechanics, 2012.
consists of both open and closed kinetic chains, 4. Wu T, et al. 7 World Congress of Biomechanics,
th

does not follow the proximal to distal body 2014.
segmental sequencing as in the open and closed 5. McLester J, et al. Applied Biomechanics:
kinetic chains [2,5]. The knee joint initiates the Concepts and Connections, 2008.
walking motion first and then follows by the ankle
and hip joints. The minimal foot support footwear

Table 1: Movement coordination analysis between barefoot and MFS on the lower extremity
Coordination Pattern Barefoot MFS p
Hip and Knee 44.6 ± 17.6 46.2 ± 20.2 0.868
Knee and Ankle 69.0 ± 28.1 53.8 ± 29.3 0.270
KINEMATIC GAIT CHARACTERISTICS OF A HETEROGENEOUS POPULATION
1
Brandon Thurman, 1 Abby McWilliams, 1 Lara Pfeiffer, 1 Hanna Slosson, & 1 Michael Bird
1
Truman State University, Kirksville, MO, USA
email: mbird@truman.edu; web: hes.truman.edu

INTRODUCTION classification prior to data collection. FS pattern
was determined by small group consensus and
In running gait, the relationship between kinematic validated using video analysis by well-trained
characteristics that influence running speed are well observers (Dartfish Team Pro).
researched. Step length (SL) and step rate (SR) are
important predictors of run speed [1]. Squadrone & Each participant completed a flying 20 m run at a
Gallozzi [2] found SL and SR may change when self-selected slow, medium, fast, and sprint pace.
adapting to minimalist running shoes. The Time was recorded electronically (FarmTek,
relationship between footstrike (FS) pattern and gait Polaris) and steps were counted. Running speed
kinematics changed when runners changed to (RS), SR, and relative step length (SL/HT) were
minimalist running [3] and has been shown to calculated. A 3x4 ANOVA was run on SPSS to
change during a run [4]. Much of the research evaluate the three FS patterns and the four paces
performed, however, focused on the homogeneous (alpha=0.05). A Bonferroni correction of alpha level
groups of highly experienced or elite runners. While was applied to post hoc tests.
the relationship between SL, SR, and running speed
is not likely to differ for a more heterogeneous RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
population, it is not known how FS pattern may
change with running speed within a more general FS analysis results are displayed in Figure 1. A
population. Additionally, while much of the greater than expected number of midfoot strikers
previous research classifies FS pattern based on were found at submaximal speeds. The general
quantitative data, practitioners such as physical trend of runners adopting midfoot or forefoot FS
therapists often qualitatively classify them. It is patterns as RS increased was expected. Based on
important to evaluate the accuracy of these video analysis, the newly trained observers were
observations in newly trained individuals knowing correct for 90-92% of all FS classifications, which
that self-reported values are not highly accurate [5]. is much better than self-reported FS [5]. Most errors
appeared to be misclassifications when the runner
The purpose of this study was to examine the had FS angles close to a different classification. It is
kinematic gait characteristics of a heterogeneous not known how errors in this real-time, subjective
population and to assess the efficacy of qualitative classification would improve with experience.
FS pattern assessment.
Running speed is the product of step length and step
METHODS rate [1], yet SL/HT tends to level off at faster
speeds. Current results follow the same trends. RS
A heterogeneous group of 258 exercise science significantly increased across the self-selected paces
students (134 males, 124 females; age: 20.7±1.0 (p=0.001), with a moderate effect size (ES=0.64), as
years; height: 1.74±0.11 m; weight: 74.9±8.2 kg) expected. Forefoot runners were significantly faster
participated. Participants had varying levels of than midfoot or heel striking runners at all paces
physical fitness and running experience. This study (p=0.001), yet the ES was minute (0.07). There was
received university IRB approval. also an interaction effect between the FS pattern and
RS (there were several interaction effects, all with
Participants were educated regarding FS pattern miniscule effect sizes).
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
As with the subset analyzed for RS, the main effect
for SR and the interaction between RS and FS
pattern remained across speeds, but the greater SR
in the forefoot group was not present.

CONCLUSIONS

This heterogeneous group seemed to run
predominantly with heel or midfoot FS pattern at
submaximal speeds and increased forefoot FS
pattern as speed increased. Perhaps RS and forefoot
running are influenced by the same variables; more
research is needed to examine this phenomena. A
Figure 1: FS characteristics across running speeds. few runners changed FS patterns across pace in less
uniform ways, which may be due to classification
To evaluate the influence of observation accuracy, a
error or normal variability in FS pattern [4]. We
subset of 48 subjects was statistically analyzed with
also evaluated the efficacy of qualitative
the results of video classification of FS pattern.
assessments made by newly trained individuals to
These results were similar to the larger data set. The determine FS pattern. The accuracy rate reflects a
main effect for running speed was significant degree of potential error in clinical or retail settings
(ES=0.64). There was also a significant interaction where evidence based decisions are determined
between FS and RS, but the small difference for through observational analysis.
forefoot runners no longer remained.
REFERENCES
As expected, SL/HT was significantly greater as RS
increased (ES=0.43). Forefoot strikers had 1. Hunter, Marshall, & McNair. Med & Sci in Sports
significantly greater SL/HT than midfoot or heel & Exercise 36, 261-271, 2004
strikers (p=0.001; ES=0.04). Similar results were 2. Squadrone & Gallozzi. J Sports Med & Phys
found for the subset, where forefoot strikers still had Fitness 49, 6-13, 2009.
greater SL/HT than midfoot or heel strikers. 3. Squadrone, Rodano, Hamill, Preatoni. J Sports
Sciences 33, 1196-1204, 2014.
Step rate also increased significantly with running
4. Hamill, Russell, Gruber, & Miller. Footwear Sci,
speed, as expected (ES=0.51). Forefoot strikers had
3, 2011.
a significantly greater step rate than midfoot and
5. Bade, Aaron, & McPoil. Int J of Sports Phys Ther
heel strikers (p=.001, ES=0.02), and there was a
11, 2016
significant interaction between RS and FS pattern.
Table 1: Footstrike and running pace kinematic characteristics. Running pace data were all significantly different for each variable.
*Significantly different footsrike pattern. †Significant interaction effect between foostrike pattern and pace.
Running Pace (m/s)† SL/HT Step Rate (Hz)†
Footstrike
Pattern Slow Medium Fast Sprint Slow Medium Fast Sprint Slow Medium Fast Sprint

Heel 3.2 ±0.5 4.1 ±0.5 4.9±0.7 6.2±1.2 0.62±1.0 0.74±0.1 0.83±0.1 0.87±0.1 2.7±0.2 2.9±0.2 3.2±0.3 3.8±0.6

Midfoot 3.2±0.6 4.2±0.6 5.1±0.7 6.4±0.9 0.62±0.1 0.75±0.1 0.86±0.1 0.90±0.1 2.8±0.2 3.0±0.2 3.2±0.3 3.8±0.4

Forefoot* 3.4±0.8 4.5±0.7 5.6±0.7 7.2±0.8 0.65±0.1 0.79±0.1 0.90±0.1 0.96±0.1 2.8±0.3 3.0±0.2 3.3±0.3 4.0±0.4

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
DETECTION OF GAIT PATTERN DIFFERENCES USING FAST FOURIER
TRANSFORM ANALYSIS
1
Anthony Vessicchio and 1 Kristin D. Morgan
1
University of Connecticut, CT, USA
email: anthony.vessicchio@uconn.edu

INTRODUCTION m/s) on an instrumented treadmill (Bertec Corp,
Columbus, Ohio). Control participants were injury
In the United States, an estimated 35 out of 100,000
free and ACLR participants were cleared for sports.
people suffer an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
injury each year [1]. Previous studies have analyzed Sagittal plane knee kinematics were extracted from
how gait patterns in individuals post ACL processed marker data. The sagittal knee joint time
reconstruction differ from healthy controls [2-6]. domain data was converted to a frequency domain
However, these studies have focused on discrete, representation using FFT. The FFT converts a time
time domain variables; such as peak knee angle, knee domain signal into the frequency domain by
extension moment, and knee excursion. Despite representing the signal as a series of sinusoids [11].
advancements in research and ACL injury prevention After being converted to the frequency domain,
programs, ACL injury rates have increased [7]. This power and phase spectrums were generated for each
indicates that additional information not apparent in signal using a custom MATLAB code (The
the time domain could provide valuable insight into MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA).
alterations in knee gait patterns in post ACL
The power spectrum revealed that the majority of the
reconstruction individuals.
signal energy was contained in the two dominant
Past studies have shown that frequency domain sinusoids (Fig. 1). Dominant meaning the sinusoids
information can be clinically relevant when with the largest amplitude excluding the peak at 0
analyzing gait patterns [8-10]. Both Giakas et al. Hz. The amplitude, frequency, and phase
(1997) and Stergiou et al. (2002) successfully used components for those two sinusoids for the control
frequency domain analyses to differentiate between left and right limbs and the ACLR individuals injured
healthy controls and individuals with scoliosis and and non-injured limbs were analyzed. A one-way
elderly individuals, respectively, when the time ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc analyses were
domain variables failed to do so. This study used fast used to determine if between limb amplitude,
Fourier Transform (FFT) to compare differences in frequency and phase means were significantly
knee gait pattern between healthy and post ACLR different (α=0.05).
individuals. Unlike past studies that focused on the
frequency component of FFT alone, and this study
focuses on amplitude and phase as well. We
hypothesized that the amplitude, frequency, and
phase components will be able to detect changes in
gait patterns between healthy individuals and
individuals post ACLR.
METHODS
Sixteen control (height 1.7±0.1m; mass
66.7±13.5kg; age 20.88±3.9yrs) and 16 post ACL
Figure 1. Sagittal plane knee kinematics for a (a)
reconstruction (height 1.7±0.1m; mass
control left limb and (b) ACLR injured limb during
68.83±10.5kg; age 19.4±5.1yrs) participants
running. Comparison of power spectrums for the (c)
performed a running protocol and ran at a self-
control left and (d) ACLR injured limb.
selected speed (control 2.7±0.4 m/s; ACLR 2.7±0.3

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION to differentiate between healthy controls and subjects
who have undergone ACL reconstruction.
The amplitude, frequency, and phase components of
the frequency domain all showed significant Future work will be done to investigate the clinical
differences between the control and ACLR limbs. relevance of these variables. Understanding the
There were significant differences in the frequency underlying mechanics associated with each
and phase components between the ACLR injured frequency component may lead to improved ACL
and non-injured limbs (Table 1). The second sinusoid injury prevention and rehabilitation programs.
of the ACL injured limb group showed a lower Although all of the variables did not present
amplitude, higher frequency, and lower phase significant differences between groups, the trends in
component when compared to the other groups. The the data lend the need for further investigation.
first sinusoid of the ACL non-injured limb showed a Additional work will be done to analyze these
significantly lower amplitude than the control limbs. variables in the frontal and transverse planes.
The results presented show that alterations in sagittal REFERENCES
plane knee kinematics post ACL reconstruction can 1. Donnelly CJ, et al. Research in Sports Medicine: An International
be detected from the frequency content of the signal. Journal, 20, 239-262, 2012
2. Di Stasi S, et al. Journal of Orthopedic & Sports Physical Therapy,
The amplitude, frequency, and phase components 45, 207–214, 2015
provide a novel way to detect gait pattern 3. Hall M, et al. Gait & Posture, 36, 56-60, 2015
4. Gribbin TC, et al. Clinical Biomechanics, 32, 64-71, 2016
abnormalities associated with ACLR. These 5. Devita P, et al. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30,
components may lead to a better understanding of the 1481-1488, 1998
6. Noehren, B, et al. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45,
underlying mechanics involved in gait pattern 1340–1347, 2013
changes after ACLR. The significant differences 7. Mall NA, et al. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42,
2363 - 2370
between the ACL injured and non-injured limbs 8. Giakas G, Baltzopoulos V, Gait & Posture, 5, 189-197, 1997
support the expected asymmetry between limbs after 9. Gruber AH, et al. Jounral of Sport and Health Science, 3, 113-121,
2014
ACLR [12]. The changes in frequency components 10. Stergiou et al. Clinical Biomechanics, 17, 615-617, 2002
may be due to a coping mechanism of the healthy 11. Derrick TR. Research Methods in Biomechanics. 279-282, 2014
12. White K, et al. Ortho J Sports Med. 2013
limb present after ACLR.
CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Valuable information can be extracted from sagittal We thank Dr. Brian Noehren and his research
plane knee joint kinematic data by transforming the laboratory for providing the experimental data. And
time domain data into the frequency domain. As the research was partially funded by NSF IIS
hypothesized, variables in the frequency domain 1231545.
such as amplitude, frequency, and phase can be used

Table 1. Comparison of the amplitude, frequency, and phase components for the two most dominant peaks
between ACLR and control groups
ACL ACL Non- Control Control
Injured Injured Left Right P-Value
Amplitude (Deg2/Hz) 1 28.6 ± 5.9 23.5± 3.4a 31.3 ± 6.4b 29.9 ± 6.0b <0.01*
2 20.8 ± 3.2a 20.8 ± 3.3a 26.5 ± 5.2b 26.1 ± 4.9b <0.01*
Frequency (Hz) 1 1.9 ± 1.5 2.6 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7 0.07
2 3.4 ± 3.1a 1.7 ± 0.6b 2.3 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.6 0.04*
Phase (Deg) 1 105.0 ± 45.8 88.8 ± 40.1 116.3 ± 34.4 121.5 ± 22.9 0.06
2 61.9 ± 51.6a 120.3 ± 34.4b 103.7 ± 34.4 b 103.7 ± 34.4 b <0.01*
* denotes significant difference (α<0.05)

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
THE EFFECTS OF GAIT SPEED ON FOOT ROCKERS

Paige Agnew, Francesca Boylan, Kate Emma, Heidi Mickunas, Ayana Phillips, Deborah King

Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, USA
email: dking@ithaca.edu, web: http://www.ithaca.edu/hshp/depts/ess/

INTRODUCTION Ten strides of data for each speed were analyzed.
Visual 3D was used to calculate the start and stop off
Locomotion is a foundational component for daily the heel, ankle, and forefoot rockers based on
living. Legged locomotion can be broken down into guidelines of Bober, et al. [3]. Each rocker was then
two gait patterns, walking and running [1]. The hip, expressed as a percent of the stance phase. Stride rate
knee, and ankle joints have different roles depending and stride length were also calculated. Descriptive
on the phase of walking & running and must work statistics were calculated in SPSS for the foot rocker
together to produce and absorb forces to allow variables. One-way repeated measures ANOVA
efficient movement through the stance phase. In were used to determine significant differences in the
walking, this is accomplished by three rockers: the timing of the foot rockers across the treadmill speeds.
heel rocker, the ankle rocker, and the forefoot rocker. Post hoc comparison were performed on significant
While the role and movement patterns of ankle and main effects. Alpha = 0.05.
foot have been studied extensively in running, little
research has framed foot and ankle motion in running RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
in context of the heel, ankle, and forefoot rockers
even though at slow running speeds, 80 to 90% of To date, data has been analyzed for 10 subjects and
shod runners’ heel strike and exhibit all three rockers preliminary statistical analyzes have been performed
[2]. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine on these 10 subjects.
the effect of gait speed on the presence and timing of
foot rockers across both walking and running speeds. Descriptive characteristics of the 5 variables are
provide din Table 1. As expected, stride rates (and
METHODS correspondingly stride lengths) were significantly
different across speeds (F = 6.86, p = .001).
Twenty-six healthy college aged students (age (y): Specifically stride rates increased over the first 3
20.4, height (cm): 161.2, mass (kg): 70.1), who give walking speeds (1.16 m/s, 1.46 m/s, 1.65 m/s, p <
their written informed consent and volunteered to 0.05 for all). Not all subjects were able to walk at the
participate. Following a warm-up, subjects fastest walking speed, which was near the walk to run
completed one-minute walking and running trials at transition, introducing large variability in the stride
4 walking speeds and 4 running speeds: 1.16 m/s, rate and stride length at that speed. None of the
1.46 m/s, 1.65 m/s, 1.92 m/s, 2.24 m/s, 2.68 m/s, 3.13 running speed stride rates were significantly different
m/s, 3.58 m/s on a treadmill. One minute of rest at from each other.
1.3 m/s was provided between trials.
There was not a main effect for percent of stance in
Nineteen reflective markers placed on key the heel rocker (F = 1.051, p = .475), ankle rocker
anatomical landmarks were used to create an eight- (F = .51, p = .803), or forefoot rocker (F = .857, p =
segment model using a modified Plug-in-Gait marker .605) across speeds. Close examination of the data
set (Vicon, Centennial, CO). Motion capture data shows large standard deviations indicating great
(Vicon Nexus) was collected at 120 Hz for the last variability in the time spent in each rocker within
20 seconds of each trial. each gait speed. Despite this variability, there does
appear to be a consistent non-significant drop of
time in the heel rocker to decrease across speed.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Once the data from the additional subjects are is anticipated that data from this study can be used to
processed, it will be interesting to see if this drop is develop normative values of the timing of the rockers
statistically significant. There does not appear to be during gait and across speeds and to improve our
a consistent pattern in the time spent in the ankle or understanding of the coordinated motion of the foot
forefoot rockers expressed as a percent of stance. and ankle towards efficient walking and running.

The data, however, clearly indicate that regardless of
speed, there is overlap in the rockers during the gait CONCLUSIONS
cycle. Traditionally, the rockers are taught as the
heel rocker occurring from heel strike to foot flat, The heel ankle and forefoot rockers do not occur
followed by the ankle rocker - representing the tibia sequential across the gait speeds tested in this study.
rotating forward over the foot - occurring from foot Speed did not have a statistically significant affect on
flat to heel off, and then the forefoot rocker - the time spent in each rocker as a percent of stance.
representing motion at the metatarsophalangeal joint
- occurring form heel off to toe-off. Our data suggest RFERENCES
that the ankle rocker starts prior to foot flat and can
continue past heel off. Individual subject analysis 1. Saibene, F., & Minetti, A. E. (2003). European
also revealed that for some subjects at some running journal of applied physiology, 88(4), 297-316.
speeds ankle dorsiflexion begins prior to initial 2. Dugan, S. A., & Bhat, K. P. (2005). Physical
contact. medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North
America, 16(3), 603-621.
Since the rockers are thought to be pivotal in gait 3. Bober, T., Dziuba, A., Kobel-Buys, K., & Kulig,
efficiency helping to minimize the motion of the K. (2008). Acta of Bioengineering and
center of mass [4], understanding how they interact Biomechanics, 10(1), 37.
at different speeds is valuable for evaluating and 4. Czerniecki, J. M. (1988). American journal of
planning treatments for gait abnormalities as well as physical medicine & rehabilitation, 67(6), 246-
for prosthetic design. 252.

Currently, with only 10 of the 26 subjects analyzed it
is premature to conclude that gait speed does not ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
affect the timing of the foot rockers. However, the
initial analysis clearly reveals that the foot rockers We acknowledge Rose Paskoff and Eoghan Trihy for
are not purely sequential at the tested gait speeds. It their help with data collection and analysis.

Table 1: Means and SD of the 5 dependent variables across the 8 gait speeds.
Rockers
Gait Speed SR SL Heel Ankle Forefoot
-1
(m s ) (strides/s) (m) (%stance) (% Stance) (% Stance)
1.16 0.89 ± .03 1.31 ± .05 44.6 ± 13.0 55.5 ± 18.9 42.5 ± 13.7
1.46 1.01 ±.22 1.59 ± .26 32.4 ± 13.9 51.1 ± 19.9 41.1 ± 17.9
1.65 1.07 ± .13 1.61 ± .08 33.8 ± 15.2 41.7 ± 20.5 44.6 ± 15.2
1.92 1.35 ±.44 1.62 ± .42 28.8 ± 12.6 42.5 ± 8.6 56.6 ± 14.4
2.24 1.29 ± .14 1.80 ± .30 23.4 ± 13.6 40.0 ± 20.8 38.4 ± 15.6
2.68 1.37 ± .16 1.92 ± .31 17.5 ± 11.6 34.2 ± 13.8 40.9 ± 15.8
3.13 1.34 ± .12 2.17 ± .29 16.9 ± 10.3 38.1 ± 14.3 44.6 ± 13.7
3.58 1.42 ± .07 2.52 ± .13 27.1 ± 11.2 54.6 ± 15.0 55.5 ± 7.1

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
TO WALK OR TO RUN? METABOLIC COST IS NOT THE ANSWER
Erik Summerside, Rodger Kram, & Alaa Ahmed
Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO USA
email: erik.summerside@colorado.edu

INTRODUCTION about choosing the option that minimized metabolic
energy. In other words, they would consider
Minimization of metabolic cost explains several walking 150m equally preferable as running 100m
fundamental observations in locomotion such as (asterisk in Figure 1B). For walk distances above
preferred step width and length [1,2]. These this line they would prefer to run, for walk distances
preferred kinematics during walking seem to below this line, they would prefer to walk.
minimize the metabolic energy required per unit
distance, a metric commonly referred to as cost of
transport (COT). Plotting COT as a function of
walking speed yields a U-shaped curve (Figure 1A).
Interestingly, humans exhibit preferred walking
speeds that correspond to the minimum of the COT
curve [3]. One difficulty with using COT as a model
to explain the preferred walking speed is that it fails
to consider two other important movement
constraints: time and total distance. According to Figure 1: A) Metabolic COT for walking (solid
the COT model, if an individual were given the line) and running (dashed line) across speeds.
opportunity to either walk a distance, ‘x’, or run a Minimization of COT occurs when walking at
distance, ‘y,’ they should always choose the option ~1.3m/s (asterisk). B) Model predictions for
to walk. Alternative models based on optimal indifference points that minimize energy (green),
foraging theory include costs for time and distance (red), and time (blue). An individual that
distance[4, 5]. For example, when starlings (birds) minimizes energy would be indifferent between
are given the choice to either walk or fly to food, walking 150m and running 100m (asterisk).
the preferred mode is best predicted based on
minimizing net metabolic rate (net metabolic energy METHODS
expended divided by time).
Our experiment took place in a large lighted and
We developed a paradigm to probe how metabolic climate controlled indoor track facility. Participants
energy, distance, and time explain why humans (N=20, 12M, 8F) completed a combination of three
choose to walk versus run. If decisions were only different types of trials: walk, run, and choice trials.
based on minimizing COT, a participant should In walk trials, participants walked out to a
always walk (Figure 1A). We hypothesized COT designated distance and back. In run trials, they ran
would not predict choice and that there would be out to a different designated distance and back. For
situations where running was preferred over choice trials, they were given the freedom to repeat
walking. Instead of COT, we considered costs that either the previous walk or run trial. During all
were based solely on total amount of metabolic trials, walking and running occurred at self-selected
energy expended, total time spent, and total speeds. Participants were informed that the
distance. Figure 1B shows the predictions of each of experiment would last two hours and that their
these three costs (green, red and blue line, decisions during choice trials would not affect the
respectively). For example, the green line represents overall duration of the experiment (i.e. always
the pair of walking and running options that a choosing the faster option would not allow them to
person would consider equivalent (here on referred leave early). All trials ranged in distance between
to as an indifference point, IP), if he/she only cared 10-250 meters and took place over 5 blocks. Each
block allowed for the measurement of a single IP
which represents the relative walk and run distances
where preference for one is equal to the other. Each
individual block consisted of four triplets of trials
(Walk/Run/Choice). The first triplet of trials in each
block consisted of equal walk and run distances.
Throughout a block, the run distance did not
change. Walk distances were adjusted based on the
participant’s previous choice. If the choice was run,
the walk distance was shortened for the next triplet.
If the choice was walk, the walk distance was Figure 2: A) Indifference points of a single
lengthened. The walk component of an IP was participant with a slope of 0.51 (black) indicating a
calculated at the end of each block by averaging the tendency to minimize time (blue) rather than energy
walk distances of the last walk choice and last run (green) or distance (red). B) Average slope across
choice. IPs from each participant were calculated all participants. Shaded region represents SEM.
based on titrated walking distances equal to run
distances of 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120m. We expected individuals who minimized time
would move at a faster preferred speed both when
We calculated linear models to predict relative walk walking and running, but found the slope of an
and run distances that would correspond to equal individual’s IP was not predictive of their preferred
metabolic energy, distance and time (Figure 1B). walking speed (R2=0.075, p=0.245). This suggests
Metabolism was not directly measured, but participants with faster walking speeds were not
estimated using fitted equations from previously making their decisions in order to minimize
published sources [6,7]. Predictions for metabolic movement time. Running speed, however, was
energy and time varied based on an individual’s moderately correlated with an individual’s
preferred walking and running speeds. To preference for running (R2=0.359, p=0.005) that is,
investigate which costs best explained gait faster runners were more likely to choose to run
preference, we fit a slope through the measured IPs when compared to slower runners.
of each participant and compared them to the slopes
of each candidate cost. CONCLUSIONS
Cost of transport alone was unsuccessful at
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
predicting whether an individual would walk or run.
Only two participants exhibited behaviors that
All participants made some decisions to run instead
minimized the amount of metabolic energy. Instead,
of walk, suggesting they were not only minimizing
most participants minimized time required to
COT. Figure 2A depicts IPs and fitted slope of a
complete a trial. These results highlight the
single representative participant that minimized
importance of considering other costs when
time. The average fitted slope of IPs across all
explaining locomotion preferences.
participants was 0.73 (0.11) (Figure 2B). This
indicates that within the tested distances, running REFERENCES
was chosen more often than walking. Average
model slopes were 1.72 (0.05) for metabolic cost, 1.Donelan et al. Proc. R. Soc. Lond B 268, 1985-92,
0.47 (0.02) for time, and 1 for distance. The average 2001
fitted slope across all participants was different 2.Danion et al. Gait & Posture 18, 69-77, 2003
from each of the three proposed models (pmet<0.001 3.Ralston Int Z Angew Physiol 17, 277-283, 1958
pdist=0.028 ptime=0.027). Total metabolic energy 4.Shadmehr et al. Curr Biol 26, 1929-1934, 2016
exclusively explained IPs for only two participants, 5.Bautista et al. PNAS 98, 1089-94, 2001
time explained seven, and distance explained four. 6.Zarrugh et al. J. appl Physiol 33, 293-306, 1974
Seven participants could not be explained using just 7.Leger & Mercier Sports Medicine 1, 270-77, 1984
one model prediction.
STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF THE FOOT AND THE BIOMECHANICS OF
WALKING WITH AND WITHOUT WEDGED FOOTWEAR INSOLES
1
Ryan T. Lewinson, 1 Ryan Madden, 1 Anthony Killick, 1 John W. Wannop, 1 J. Preston Wiley,
1
Victor M.Y. Lun, 1 Chirag Patel, 1 Jeremy M. LaMothe, 1 Darren J. Stefanyshyn
1
The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
email: lewinson@ucalgary.ca

INTRODUCTION or hip were excluded. OA severity of the sample was
moderate (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2.8, SD 1.3).
Wedged footwear is often prescribed to patients with
knee osteoarthritis (OA) with the goal of reducing the Patients completed a standing neutral trial as well as
peak knee adduction moment (KAM) during gait; 5 gait analysis trials walking at 1.3 m/s in each of 3
however, these insoles do not reduce loading for all footwear conditions: (1) their own footwear, (2) their
patients [1]. This has prompted the concept of own footwear with a 6 mm lateral wedge, and (3)
personalized footwear, whereby footwear is matched their own footwear with a 6 mm medial wedge.
to each patient to optimize biomechanical and Wedged insoles were made by 3D printer from New
clinical outcomes. While many researchers have Balance Inc. (Boston, MA). An eight camera Motion
attempted to identify factors that may help predict an Analysis system recorded 3D trajectories of
individual’s biomechanical response to wedged retroreflective markers placed over each patient’s
insoles, clinically useful predictors of knee loading most symptomatic limb at a frequency of 240 Hz, and
and response to wedged insoles remain unknown. a Kistler force platform recorded ground reaction
forces at a frequency of 2400 Hz during each trial. A
It is often presumed that static foot structure is related standard inverse dynamics approach, as described
to mechanical loads at proximal joints, making some elsewhere [2], was used to calculate the KAM for
individuals more suited to a particular type of each trial. The mean KAM across the 5 trials in each
footwear than others. While commonly considered footwear type for each patient was used in
in insole design, limited research exists to support an subsequent analysis.
association between foot structure and knee joint
loading or biomechanical response to wedged Whole-body dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was
insoles. In this study, static structural characteristics performed on each patient, and the region distal to
of the foot were identified in individuals with medial the medial and lateral malleoli were identified on the
knee OA and the associations between foot structure, most symptomatic limb to determine foot mass and
knee joint biomechanics and biomechanical response foot fat content. A 3D foot scanner was used to
to wedged insoles were assessed. capture static barefoot foot shape for each patient. A
custom Matlab script was written to analyze scans,
METHODS from which foot length, foot width, arch height and
hind foot angle were determined and then verified by
Thirty patients with medial knee OA participated in an orthopedic surgeon (Figure 1).
this study. The mean (SD) age, mass and height were
60.3 (8.5) years, 83.4 (21.5) kg, and 166.9 (9.5) cm, Multiple linear regressions (α=0.01) were used to
respectively and 23 were female. All patients were assess foot structure characteristics (foot mass, foot
diagnosed clinically by a sport medicine physician fat, foot length, foot width, arch height and hind foot
and confirmed on x-ray by a radiologist. No patient angle) as predictors of KAM during walking, and the
had a history of joint replacement, or recent history change in KAM when wearing a lateral or medial
of treatment for their knee OA, including walking wedge insole.
aids or braces. Patients with concurrent
musculoskeletal pathologies affecting the foot, ankle

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
these relationships were not identified in the present
study. These results question the usefulness of static
foot structure measures when prescribing insoles to
patients with knee OA.

This study only assessed wedged insoles in patients
with knee OA, and thus generalization of the study
findings to other insole types or other populations
should be done with caution. It is possible that
associations between foot structure and baseline knee
loading might be observed with larger sample sizes,
although this would still not account for the majority
of variance in baseline knee joint loading parameters,
or change in knee loading with wedged insoles. Thus,
other factors remain to be identified that have a larger
Figure 1: (A) a 3D foot scan. (B) Reconstructed contribution to knee loading and biomechanical
mesh used for analysis. (C) DXA used for foot mass response to insoles. Finally, this study did not assess
and fat measures (designated by region labelled R1). whether foot structure is associated with clinical
response to wedged insoles.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONCLUSIONS
Foot mass, foot length and foot width were found to
be collinear with other foot structure variables and so Foot structural parameters were not found to be
were excluded from regression analyses. Using foot associated with KAM during gait and were not
fat, arch height and hind foot angle as independent associated with the change in KAM induced by
variables representing foot structure, no association lateral wedge or medial wedge insoles. Taken
was found with KAM magnitude during walking together, these data suggest that foot structure, as
(R2=0.24, p=0.060). When evaluating these defined in this study, is not associated with gait
structural parameters in the context of KAM change mechanics at the knee in patients with knee
in response to wedged insoles, no association was osteoarthritis, and demonstrate that foot structure
found with KAM change in lateral wedges (R2=0.05, alone cannot be used to predict biomechanical
p=0.697) or medial wedges (R2=0.02, p=0.923). response to wedged insoles in these patients.
These results were determined using raw magnitude
changes in KAM, and remained similar when REFERENCES
evaluating changes as percent changes.
1.Lewinson RT, et al. Ann Biomed Eng 44, 3173-
Prospective studies evaluating the relationship 3185, 2016.
between static foot structure and clinical disease 2.Lewinson RT, et al. Gait Posture 50, 60-68, 2016.
have not been performed on patients with knee OA; 3.Lun VMY, et al. Br J Sports Med 38, 576-580,
however, in a population of runners, Lun et al. [3] 2004.
found no relationship between arch height and
running injury. The present study adds to this by ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
suggesting that arch height, hind foot angle and foot
fat content do not appear to be associated with Alberta Innovates, Canadian Institutes of Health
mechanics at the knee in individuals with knee OA. Research, Killam Trusts, Natural Sciences &
In addition, while the foot is often discussed as Engineering Research Council CREATE program,
having an influence on dynamic loading at the knee New Balance Athletic Shoe Inc., Vanier program
and potentially affecting response to wedged insoles,

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
LOWER EXTREMITY JOINT STIFFNESS AND WORK PERFORMED ACROSS DIFFERENT
WALKING AND RUNNING SPEEDS
1,2
Li Jin, 1,2 Michael E. Hahn
1
Neuromechanics Lab, 2Bowerman Sports Science Clinic, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
email: ljin@uoregon.edu, web: http://bssc.uoregon.edu/

INTRODUCTION Segmental kinematic data were collected at 120 Hz
using an 8-camera motion capture system (Motion
Walking and running are primary forms of human Analysis Corp., Santa Rosa, CA). Ground reaction
locomotion in daily life. Both tasks involve force data were collected at 1200 Hz using the
coordination of lower extremity joints, associated force-instrumented treadmill. Kinematic and kinetic
with kinematic and kinetic pattern changes. Joint data were filtered with a low-pass fourth-order
stiffness and stance phase joint work are important Butterworth filter at 6 Hz and 50 Hz, respectively.
for maintaining efficiency when locomotion task or Lower extremity joint angles, moments and powers
speed changes. Previous studies have separately were calculated using the inverse dynamics model
investigated ankle and knee joint stiffness (!"#$%& , in Visual 3D (C-Motion, Inc., Germantown, MD).
!$#&& ) in different movement conditions [1,2], and Joint stiffness (!()*#+ ) was calculated as a change in
stance phase joint work ( '()*#+ ) in walking and joint moment ( ∆1()*#+ ) divided by joint angular
running [3], respectively. Little is known about the displacement ( ∆2()*#+ ) in the braking phase of
combination of !"#$%& , !$#&&, and !.*/ patterns, ground contact [4]. Stance phase joint positive work
and the relationship between !()*#+ and '()*#+ . 4
('()*#+ ) and negative work ('()*#+ 5
) were
calculated as the sum of all positive or negative
For assistive devices, stiffness and work are key joint power integrated over stance phase time [3],
features during locomotion. Currently available respectively. Statistical analysis was performed
assistive devices tend to be task-specific, with fixed using a 2-way ANOVA (joint × speed) in SPSS
stiffness and work parameters. The coordination of (V22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY). Bonferroni procedure
lower extremity joint stiffness and joint work when was used for pairwise comparisons.
locomotion speeds change may be critical to the
design of assistive devices suitable for walking and RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
running over different speeds in patient populations.
We hypothesized that !()*#+ and '()*#+ will To date, six subjects (24 ± 6.7 years, 175 ± 10.9
increase when locomotion speed increased. cm, 76 ± 11.5 kg) have participated in this ongoing
study. Initial analysis indicates that !$#&& was
METHODS

After providing written informed consent for this
IRB-approved study, subjects were first instructed
to walk on a force-instrumented treadmill (Bertec,
Inc., Columbus, OH) across a range of seven speeds
from 0.8 to 2.0 m/s (0.2 m/s intervals), for 90
seconds per stage. Then they were asked to run on
at six speeds ranging from 1.8 to 3.8 m/s (0.4 m/s
intervals), for 75 seconds per stage. Data were
extracted from the middle strides of each stage.
Figure 1: !()*#+ in different walking speeds.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
significantly higher than !.*/ across different the highest of three different joints across running
walking speeds (p = 0.004) (Fig. 1). !"#$%& also speeds (Table 2).
tended to be higher than !.*/ in walking (Fig. 1). In
running conditions, !"#$%& was significantly higher CONCLUSIONS
than !$#&& across speeds (p = 0.008) (Fig. 2). !$#&& The initial hypothesis was partially supported.
was generally lowest in running (Fig. 2). Variation of !()*#+ patterns were different between
walking and running. !.*/ was positively associated
with locomotion speed during walking conditions.
In running conditions, !"#$%& and !$#&& were both
positively associated with speed. As walking speed
4 5
increased, '"#$%& tended to increase, and '"#$%&
4 5
decreased. '$#&& and '$#&& tended to increase
when walking speed increased, indicating that the
knee joint is important to absorb and generate
energy as speed increases. Lastly, the ankle joint is
critical for producing positive work.
Figure 2: !()*#+ in different running speeds.
REFERENCES
4
In walking conditions, '"#$%& tended to be higher
4 4
than '$#&& and '.*/ across walking speeds (Table 1. Farley C.T., et al. J Biomech 32(3), 267-273,
5 5 1999.
1). '"#$%& was significantly lower than '.*/ (p <
5 2. Hobara H., et al. J Biomech 46(14), 2483-2489,
0.0001) at 2.0 m/s (Table 1). '"#$%& at 1.4 m/s was 2013.
significantly greater than at 2.0 m/s (p < 0.0001) 3. Schache A.G., et al. J Exp Bio 218, 2472-2481,
4
(Table 1). In running conditions, '"#$%& was 2015.
4
significantly higher than '.*/ across different 4. Kuitunen S., et al. Med. Sci. Sport. Exerc. 34(1),
4
speeds (p = 0.012) (Table 2). '"#$%& tended to be 166-173, 2002.

Table 1: Joint work in stance phase across different walking speeds. Sample Mean (SD); n = 6.
Joint Work Walking Speeds (m/s)
(J/kg) 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
4
9:;<=> 0.14 (0.09) 0.18 (0.07) 0.19 (0.09) 0.21 (0.10) 0.23 (0.12) 0.27 (0.17) 0.27 (0.14)
94 <;>> 0.07 (0.03) 0.05 (0.03) 0.12 (0.05) 0.13 (0.04) 0.17 (0.08) 0.25 (0.14) 0.18 (0.05)
4
9?@A 0.05 (0.02) 0.09 (0.06) 0.07 (0.04) 0.10 (0.01) 0.09 (0.05) 0.10 (0.07) 0.13 (0.06)
5
9:;<=> 0.22 (0.06) 0.20 (0.10) 0.18 (0.11) 0.19 (0.04) 0.12 (0.06) 0.12 (0.05) 0.08 (0.03)
5
9<;>> 0.04 (0.02) 0.07 (0.08) 0.16 (0.14) 0.15 (0.05) 0.23 (0.26) 0.44 (0.29) 0.22 (0.13)
5
9?@A 0.07 (0.07) 0.09 (0.13) 0.21 (0.18) 0.13 (0.11) 0.30 (0.36) 0.51 (0.52) 0.21 (0.04)

Table 2: Joint work in stance phase across different running speeds. Sample Mean (SD); n = 6.
Joint Work Running Speeds (m/s)
(J/kg) 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8
4
9:;<=> 0.44 (0.23) 0.49 (0.31) 0.38 (0.32) 0.46 (0.31) 0.48 (0.34) 0.75 (0.05)
4
9<;>> 0.16 (0.05) 0.22 (0.04) 0.20 (0.06) 0.23 (0.09) 0.22 (0.13) 0.23 (0.10)
94 ?@A 0.04 (0.02) 0.05 (0.03) 0.17 (0.23) 0.11 (0.10) 0.24 (0.22) 0.14 (0.05)
5
9:;<=> 0.35 (0.12) 0.36 (0.09) 0.31 (0.13) 0.33 (0.14) 0.29 (0.22) 0.47 (0.10)
95 <;>> 0.34 (0.26) 0.42 (0.13) 0.40 (0.25) 0.57 (0.31) 0.44 (0.17) 0.38 (0.06)
5
9?@A 0.13 (0.17) 0.09 (0.08) 0.10 (0.11) 0.11 (0.10) 0.09 (0.10) 0.10 (0.05)

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
SURFACE STIFFNESS AND KNEE JOINT LOAD EFFECTS WHILE RUNNING

Victoria A. Price, Daniel J. Kuhman, Stacey Meardon, J. C. Mizelle, Paul DeVita
Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville NC

Introduction: ground conditions (hard floor with
Running shoes and surfaces have been embedded force plate and 1 and 2 layers of
developed to help enhance running 1.6cm thick Shore00 65 of shock absorbing
efficiency and to alter ground impacts by mat covering the hard surface condition).
changing the total surface stiffness3. Similar The study protocol took place over 2 days.
to a massed spring, an individual contacts On day 1, participants were able to practice
the running surface, flexes their lower limb running over the various ground conditions
joints, and stores strain energy through the at the test speed, on day 2, data were
muscles, tendons, and ligaments. This stored collected. Five successful trials per surface
energy is then released back to the limb and condition were collected using an 8 camera
the limb joints extend and propel the motion capture system (Qualisys Tracking
individual into the next stride4. However to Manager). Kinematic and kinetic data were
maintain global running mechanics, an analyzed through V3D and Quick Basic, and
individual will increase leg stiffness while knee joint tibio-femoral (TF) and patella-
running across a compliant ground surface femoral (PF) forces were estimated through
and conversely decrease stiffness on harder musculoskeletal modeling1. Knee joint
surfaces. Increasing leg stiffness causes angular stiffness was also calculated by
landing impact forces to increase2 and finding the ratio of the peak torque at the
potentially may counteract beneficial effects knee joint, simultaneous to the knee joint
of impact load reduction while running on a angular displacement. Data were statistically
softer surface. The knee is a determinant for compared among surface conditions with a
reducing impact forces and changing leg one way ANOVA, using three levels and
stiffness2. Knowing more about knee joint alpha < 0.05.
forces while running on surfaces with
different stiffnesses has the potential to Results and Discussion:
improve injury prevention strategies. Compressive PF and compressive TF forces
were not significantly different between
It was our objective to determine the effect surface conditions supporting our
of surface stiffness on knee joint contact hypothesis. However, knee joint angular
forces during running. We expected forces stiffness, the rate to the vertical GRF impact
to remain consistent across different surface peak (vGRF), maximum anteroposterior
stiffnesses secondary to leg adjustments. breaking force, and TF shear force for both
Thus, our hypothesis was that knee joint force magnitude and rate to the maximum
loads would not be statistically different force were found to be statistically different
across varying levels of surface stiffness. and decreased as the surface stiffness
decreased (all p < 0.03).
Methods:
We recruited 17 healthy recreational heel Post-hoc testing revealed that knee joint
strike runners. They provided written stiffness was less in the softer surface
informed consent and ran across a 15m track conditions compared to the stiffest
at a consistent pace (3.46m/s + 5%) on 3 condition. Rate to the vGRF impact peak,
maximum anteroposterior breaking force, stiffness. Our data supported the idea that
and the rate to the maximum TF shear force running across differing surface stiffnesses
were statistically different between the does not statistically alter knee joint
softest surface stiffness and the stiffer compressive forces but can reduce knee joint
conditions (all p<0.05). Maximum TF shear shear forces. Future research should
force post-hoc tests indicated that all determine if this strategy is beneficial to a
stiffness conditions were statistically broader range of individuals including those
different from each other (Figure 1). with fore- and mid-foot strike patterns.

Our hypothesis was partially supported for References:
knee joint compressive loads but not for the
shear loads. As the participants ran across 1.DeVita P, Hortobagyi T. J Biomech.
the increasingly dampened surfaces their 2001;17(4):297-311.
knee joint angular stiffness decreased. This 2.DeVita P, Skelly WA. Med Sci Sports
is contrary to existing literature that suggests Exerc. 1992;24(1):108-115.
an inverse effect between surface stiffness 3.Logan, S., Hunter, I., J. Ty Hopkins, J. T.,
and leg stiffness, which is closely related to Feland, J. B., & Parcell, A. C. J Spts Sci &
knee joint stiffness. In addition, the rate to Med. 2010, 9(1), 147–153.
the vGRF impact peak and the breaking 4.McMahon TA, Greene PR.. J Biomech.
force magnitude decreased with the surface 1979;12(12):893-904.

Figure 1: Knee joint angular stiffness, vGRF rate to impact peak, breaking force magnitude, TF
shear force magnitude and TF shear rate to maximum force. Statistical significance (p<0.05) for
No Mat vs One Mat (#), No Mat vs Two Mats (*), and One Mat vs Two Mats (ɤ).
PATELLAR FORCES AND TORSIONS RESULTING FROM DECREASED ACTIVATION OF THE
VASTUS MEDIALIS MUSCLE
1
Sarah E. Siegel, 1 Timothy R. Derrick, 2 Elizabeth R. Boyer
1
Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
2
Gillette Children’s Hospital, St. Paul, MN, USA
email: sesiegel@iastate.edu : web: http:// www.kin.hs.iastate.edu/

INTRODUCTION Running motion data were recorded simultaneous
with ground reaction forces Kinematics at 200 Hz
The quadriceps is a powerful muscle group that using 8 Vicon MX cameras (Vicon, Centennial, CO,
plays a significant role in many activities of daily USA) and force data at 1000 Hz (AMTI,
living and sports. This group of muscles produces Watertown, MA). Participants ran at 3.5 m/s with
movement at both the hip and knee joint. The knee their right foot landing on the force platform.
is a complex joint that must withstand a great deal
of stress. The amount of stress placed on the knee Two models for each participant were constructed
puts the joint at risk of injury, dysfunctional using Matlab. A rigid body model was used to
movement, and pain. estimate the joint moments using inverse dynamics
and a musculoskeletal model was used to estimate
Patellofemoral pain, also known as anterior knee length and velocity adjusted maximal dynamic
pain, is one of the most frequent knee conditions muscles forces and moment arms of 44 muscles in
seen by sports medicine providers [1]. the lower extremity [3]. Muscle forces required to
Dysfunctional tracking of the patella is thought to produce the inverse dynamics joint moments were
be a possible cause of such knee pain. There is estimated using optimization techniques that
controversy related to whether or not weakness in minimized the sum of the muscle stress squared and
the vastus medialis portion of the quadriceps muscle were constrained to equal the moments found using
plays a critical role in patellar tracking. It is thought the rigid body model. The moments used as
that weakness in the vastus medialis will cause the constraints were in the sagittal plane at the ankle,
patella to track laterally. knee and hip, as well as the ankle and hip moments
in the frontal plane. The lower and upper bounds of
It has been shown that asymmetric quadriceps the muscle forces were zero and the maximal
loading leads to an alteration in the mediolateral muscle forces found using the musculoskeletal
forces [2]. The purpose of this project was to model, respectively.
determine if reduced maximal strength of the vastus
medialis will cause optimized muscle forces in a The patellar tendon force was estimated using the
musculoskeletal model to increase laterally directed quadriceps tendon to ligament force ratio [4]. The
patellar forces or patellar torsion. muscle and tendon forces acting on the patella were
then summed and the medio-lateral directed force
METHODS and the torsion were selected for analysis. The
computer model was then altered to reduce the
Seven young adults (3 males, age: 21.3±2.1 yr; maximum force producing capabilities of the vastus
body mass: 68.9±6.7 kg; height: 1.84±0.07 m and 4 medialis muscle. The optimization algorithm was
females, age: 25.3±5.2 yr; body mass: 56.6±11.3 applied to the new model and the resultant patellar
kg; height: 1.64±0.08 m) with no lower limb forces and torsions were recalculated. Reductions
injuries and a heel toe running style volunteered to of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of the normal
participate. vastus medialis force were examined. Peak medio-
lateral forces and torsions were identified as a

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
present of the peak values in the original model. complex model might be necessary to fully
Paired t-tests were utilized to determine the effect of understand the loading of the patella. It should also
decreased vastus medialis force for each participant, be noted that this technique does not allow for
with an alpha criterion of 0.05. alterations in the kinematics or joint moments that
might occur during actual weakening of the vastus
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION medialis muscle.
As expected, the reduced maximum force producing CONCLUSIONS
capabilities of the vastus medialis decreased its
estimated muscle force. In turn, this increased the The musculoskeletal model with optimization of
vastus lateralis muscle force in order to create muscle forces was able to model the effects of
enough extensor torque to produce the movement decreased vastus medialis strength. This resulted in
(Figure 1). small increases in laterally direct patellar forces and
somewhat larger patellar torsions.
Peak patellar mediolateral forces were increased by
2.5% from the 100% condition to the 50% condition REFERENCES
while peak patellar torsion was increased by 10.1%.
Only the 50% and 60% conditions were statistically 1. Glaviano, N.R. Inter J Sports Phys Ther, 10,
significantly different from the 100% condition in 281-290, 2015.
these two variables (Table 1). 2. Lorenz, A., et al. The Knee, 19, 818-822, 2012.
3. Arnold, E. M., et al. Annals of Biomedical
It should be noted that these results are dependent Engineering, 38, 269-279, 2010.
on the orientation of the muscles relative to the 4. Ellis, M. I., et al. Engineering in Medicine, 9,
patella. In the Arnold model, the vastus medialis, 189-194, 1980.
the vastus lateralis and the patellar ligament tend to
pull the patella in a lateral direction. A more
Table 1. Peak running muscle forces and patellar loading during simulated reduced vastus medialis strength.
Reduction in Vastus
Medialis Maximum Peak Vastus Medialis Peak Vastus Lateralis Peak Patellar Lateral Peak Patellar
Force (%) Force (BW) Force ( BW) Force (%) Torsion (%)
100 2.3±1.1 3.0±1.6 100.0±9.0 100.0±5.3
90 2.2±1.2 3.0±1.4 100.6±10.0 103.8±12.9
80 2.1±1.1 3.2±1.6 100.2±10.0 100.0±8.0
70 1.9±.9 3.2±1.6 100.2±10.9 104.1±11.5
60 1.7±.8 3.4±1.7 101.8±9.9 106.2±8.1
50 1.6±.8 3.4±1.7 102.5±8.7 110.1±8.9

Figure 1. Running muscle forces and patellar loading during simulated reduced vastus medialis strength.
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Top sprinting speed is influenced by prosthetic model, but not stiffness or height, for athletes with
bilateral transtibial amputations
1
Paolo Taboga, 2Owen N Beck, & 2,3Alena M Grabowski
1
Kinesiology and Health Science Department, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA
2
Integrative Physiology Department, University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA
2
Eastern Colorado Healthcare System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Denver, CO, USA
email: paolo.taboga@csus.edu

INTRODUCTION different models of RSPs: Freedom Catapult FX6,
Össur Cheetah Xtend and Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter.
Running specific prostheses (RSPs) used by athletes The recommended stiffness category was selected
with leg amputations are made of carbon-fiber and based on each manufacturer’s suggestion and the
intended to replicate the spring-like sagittal plane recommended height was set at the maximum
actions of a biological ankle. However, the passive allowable height (Ht0) for each runner according to
nature and hysteresis [1] of RSPs impairs the rapid IPC rules [6]. If Ht0 could not be set due to RSP
application of vertical [2] and horizontal [3] forces design and residual limb anatomy, the baseline
on the ground. Previous research has shown that use height was set as close to Ht0 as possible.
of RSPs that provide greater elastic energy return
(𝐸"#$ ) improves running economy at speeds ≤3m/s Each sprinter performed three sets of trials at the
[4], but it is unclear how 𝐸"#$ affects top speed recommended, +1, and -1 stiffness categories for
sprinting. At speeds greater than ~6 m/s, non- each RSP model in a randomized order, while
amputee runners progressively increase their maintaining Ht0. Then, the category that allowed the
dimensionless leg stiffness (Kleg) with speed, while top running speed for each model was selected and
sprinters with unilateral and bilateral leg amputations height was changed (+/-2cm with respect to Ht0).
maintain the same Kleg in their unaffected leg and
decrease Kleg in their affected legs, respectively [5]. Each set of sprint trials started at 3 m/s with speed
The increase in Kleg for non-amputee runners at faster incremented by 1 m/s until subjects approached their
speeds results from increased peak vertical ground top speed. Then, smaller speed increments were
reaction forces (vGRFpeak), and constant leg employed until subjects reached top speed, defined
compression (∆𝐿); leading to greater elastic energy when subjects could not maintain their position on
storage and return at progressively faster speeds. We the treadmill for 10 consecutive strides.
hypothesized that stiffer RSPs would allow faster top
sprinting speed compared to softer RSPs due to All trials were performed on a 3D force-measuring
potential increases in Kleg. Since Kleg is influenced by treadmill (Treadmetrix, USA) sampling at 1000Hz.
total leg length, we also hypothesized that increasing We used a custom Matlab program (MathWorks,
RSP height would permit faster top sprinting speed. USA) to condition signals (30Hz low-pass 4th order
Lastly, we hypothesized that RSPs with greater Butterworth filter) and determine contact time (tc),
energy return would allow faster top sprinting aerial time, vGRFpeak and stance average vertical
speeds, compared to RSPs with lower 𝐸"#$ . ground reaction force. We identified when the
horizontal force crossed 0 N to determine braking
METHODS (brake) and propulsive (prop) portions of the stance
phase and calculated peak horizontal forces
Five male sprinters with bilateral transtibial (hGRFbrake, hGRFprop) and impulses (hIMPbrake,
amputations gave written informed consent prior to hIMPprop). We then normalized all forces and
participation according to the COMIRB and impulses to the body weight of each subject
USAMRMC Human Research Protection Office. A including their running gear (both sockets and
certified prosthetist fit each athlete with three prostheses).

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
For each trial we calculated 𝐸"#$ as: We found that among all biomechanical variables, tc,
vGRFpeak and Kleg affected top speed (p<0.001 for all
2
𝑘𝑅𝑆𝑃 ∆𝑑 (1−𝐻𝑠𝑡𝑅𝑆𝑃 /100) 3 variables), where shorter tc, greater vGRFpeak, and
𝐸"#$ (𝐽 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝑚) = (1) lower Kleg resulted in faster speed:
2𝐿𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑝 𝑚

where 𝑘"#$ is RSP stiffness, ∆𝑑 is RSP compression, 𝑇𝑜𝑝𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 (𝑚/𝑠) = −65.33×𝑡M + 1.35× 𝐻𝑠𝑡
"#$ is percent RSP hysteresis, 𝐿?@AB is step length 𝑣𝐺𝑅𝐹BAQR − 0.1476×𝐾TAU (3)
and m is the mass of the subject [4]. We used a linear
mixed model to determine the effects of RSP model, (R2=0.924) where tc is measured in seconds,
stiffness, and height on top speed. We used a second vGRFpeak in BW and Kleg is dimensionless stiffness.
linear mixed model to determine the effects of 𝐸"#$
CONCLUSIONS
on top speed. We then used a third linear mixed
model to predict top speed based on all the measured
We found that top sprinting speed is influenced by
biomechanical parameters.
prosthetic model but not prosthetic stiffness or
height, and greater prosthetic elastic energy return
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
allows faster top speeds in sprinters with bilateral
transtibial amputations.
We found a significant effect of RSP model on top
speed. Use of the Cheetah Xtend and 1E90 Sprinter
Across different RSPs, sprinters with bilateral leg
RSPs allowed 8.0% (p<0.001) and 8.3% (p<0.001)
amputations achieved faster sprinting speeds by
faster top speeds, respectively, compared to use of
shortening contact time, increasing peak vertical
the Catapult RSPs. We found no significant effect of
ground reaction force and reducing normalized leg
stiffness category or height (p = 0.84 and p = 0.76,
stiffness.
respectively) on top speed. Elastic energy return
(𝐸"#$ ) had an effect on top speed (p=0.046), such
REFERENCES
that a higher 𝐸"#$ resulted in faster speed (Fig. 1):
1. Beck, O.N., et al., PLoS One, 2016. 11(12): p.
𝑇𝑜𝑝𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 0.514×𝐸"#$ + 7.712 (2) e0168298.
2. Grabowski, A.M., et al., Biol Lett, 2010. 6(2): p.
11 1E90 201-4.
10.5 Catapult
3. Brüggemann, G.P., et al., Sports Technology,
Xtend
10 2008. 1(4-5): p. 220-227.
Top Speed (m/s)

9.5 4. Beck, O.N., et al., J Appl Physiol , 2017: jap-
9
00587
5. McGowan, C.P., et al., s. J R Soc Interface, 2012.
8.5 9(73): p. 1975-82
8 6. http://www.paralympic.org/athletics/rules-and-
7.5 regulations/rule
7
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Elastic Energy Return (J/kg·m)
We thank Valerie Daniels, Mike Litavish, Angela
Figure 1: Top speed vs. elastic energy return. The Montgomery, Rodger Kram, Freedom Innovations,
black line is the regression line obtained from the Össur, Ottobock, and the BADER Consortium, a
second linear mixed model (Eq. 2). R2=0.397. DoD CDMRP cooperative agreement.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Quasi-Passive Two Degree of Freedom Prosthetic Ankle
1
Michael J. Greene, 2 Peter G. Adamczyk
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin- Madison, WI, USA
email: greene8@wisc.edu,

INTRODUCTION about the longitudinal axes of the upper and lower
halves of the ankle module (effectively the axis of
Humans are known to have less stability in the the tibial pylon and the foot prosthesis’ top surface
lateral direction during gait. This is especially the normal). If the two planes are aligned in
case for amputees. Missing one or more limbs complementary positions, ankle alignment is neutral
reduces the ability to control the body’s motion, (Figure 2). If one plane is rotated relative to the
making overall balance a challenge. With current other, the mating faces push against each other and
technology, amputees have trouble walking on force a change in ankle alignment. Using all
slopes and uneven ground. This is largely due to the combinations of upper and lower rotation angles, the
inability to control the prosthetic ankle. Some active ankle angle can be up to twice the face angle of the
and semi-active prostheses have the ability to adapt wedge (±10°), in arbitrary directions including DP,
their dorsiflexion/plantarflexion (DP) angle to IE or combinations of the two.
match up- and down-slopes. However, studies have
shown that lateral balance is subject to more active The inclined surface between the two plates creates
control compared to fore-aft balance [1]. Prosthesis a twist-out moment on each plate due to the contact
users remain disadvantaged in this lateral direction, force resulting from the ankle moment, which is held
as they lack the ability to control ankle in balance by friction on both the angled face and the
inversion/eversion (IE) in the prosthetic limb as the opposite flat face. Analysis of these balancing
natural ankle does. We are developing a semi-active moments reveals that a friction coefficient as low as
smart prosthetic ankle that can adapt its angle in both 0.05 is sufficient to ensure locking at a face
DP and IE directions. The prosthesis will actively inclination angle up to 5.7°, even in the worst
adjust through angles of ±10° from neutral, in any configuration (Neutral). The actual friction
combination of DP and IE. For the present pilot coefficient is closer to 0.1, ensuring that the current
study, we sought to verify this range of motion and face angle of 5.0° is well within the safe range.
perform a preliminary investigation of its effects on Tensile loads and internal/external rotation moments
ankle moments in the sagittal and frontal planes are supported by a 2-axis universal joint running
during walking. We hypothesized that a axially through the center of the module.
plantarflexed alignment would lead to earlier
increases in the measured plantarflexor moment;
that dorsiflexed alignment would have the opposite
effect, a delayed increase in moment; and that
inversion and eversion alignment would vary the
magnitude of the frontal plane ankle moment.

METHODS

Ankle Design
The angle of the prosthetic ankle can be controlled
±10° about any arbitrary axis orthogonal to the
longitudinal axis of the ankle module. This
effectively makes a 2-axis foot that can be
manipulated in both the plantarflexion/ dorsiflexion
and inversion/eversion directions. The ankle
mechanism is made up of two short cylindrical
spacers with their mating ends cut at complementary
angles of 5° to form two wedge-shaped inclined
planes. These inclined planes rotate independently Figure 1: Prosthetic Ankle Parts (left to right): shims,
u-joint, two inclined planes with friction pads, top flat
plate, and male pyramid
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Figure 2: Prosthetic Ankle fully assembled

Ankle Validation
Three able-bodied subjects wearing ankle-
immobilization boots tested the ankle module in five
Figure 3: Average ankle angle for each subject
target configurations: neutral alignment, and 10°
dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion.
Subjects completed 3 walking trials in each
configuration, while standard motion capture and
force plate data were recorded. The subjects’ gait
patterns were analyzed using custom MATLAB
code implementing standard inverse dynamics
techniques. We measured outcomes of observed
ankle angle and ankle joint moment in the sagittal
and frontal planes for each condition.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Stance phase data are presented in this study (0-60%
of gait cycle), as the mechanics of ankle alignment Figure 4: Example Frontal and Sagittal Ankle Moments
primarily affect this phase of gait. Ankle angles were
observed to vary in increments of roughly 10° in ONGOING AND FUTURE WORK
both sagittal and frontal plane angles, as expected Ongoing work is focused on continuing this
from the 10° setting increments (Figure 3). Despite characterization of mechanical behavior of the
variance in the Neutral angle across subjects (due to prosthesis and automating the ankle movement to
variations in attachment to the ankle immobilization accommodate different slopes. Automation will also
boot), all the different configurations followed the ensure accuracy when changing ankle angle.
expected relationships among the different angle
settings. Additional work in the immediate future will focus
on testing ankle, knee and hip mechanics across
Preliminary observations suggest that plantarflexed variations in alignment in persons with unilateral
posture leads to earlier increases in the ankle lower limb amputation.
plantarflexion moment (Figure 4). The dorsiflexed
posture appeared to delay the increase of ankle REFERENCES
moment a little later in the gait cycle. Thus our
hypothesis appears supported. However, later ankle [1] Bauby et al. J. Biomech., 33:11, 1433-440, 2000.
moment relationships did not show a systematic ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
trend, indicating a need for further study of the
dynamic interaction between alignment and ankle This work was supported by institutional funds from
mechanics. the University of Wisconsin – Madison and the
Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation.
Inversion and Eversion postures did not appear to
shift the ankle moment higher or lower. This could
be a result of kinematic compensation (e.g. changes
in step width or leaning to the sides to cancel the
effect). Further investigation will determine the
adaptations the subjects used in these cases.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RELIABILITY OF A DEVICE TO MEASURE TORSIONAL STIFFNESS
OF RUNNING FOOTWEAR

Rebecca Zifchock, Michaela Sulley, Gary Helton, Gregory Freisinger,
Frank Blackmon, Roderick Wilson, and Donald Goss

United States Military Academy, West Point, NY, USA
email: rebecca.zifchock@usma.edu

INTRODUCTION thickness, for running footwear. Torsional stiffness
was calculated by the following equation:
Load-bearing exercises such as running and ∗ /
marching account for up to 78% of injuries during Where L is the length of the shoe, T is the torque,
Army basic training [1]. Previous literature suggests and φ is the angle of displacement between the toe
that there are intrinsic risk factors associated with box and the heel counter of the shoe. An additional
running, such as high tibial shock values and extreme measure of heel thickness was also of importance for
foot pronation/supination [2, 3]. However, there is shoe structure characterization.
also evidence to show that extrinsic factors, such as
footwear, may influence injury risk. Butler et al. [4] The SySTM device is shown in Figure 1. The entire
showed that a cushioning shoe is particularly device is 44 x 23 x 18cm (approximately 0.02 m3),
effective for attenuating shock, while a motion and has a mass of 6kg. The rotational platform is
control shoe can reduce rearfoot motion. Therefore, attached to the torque watch insert and allowed to
it is important to understand footwear structure, so swivel with low friction through a stationary block,
that its relationship injury susceptibility in runners against which the front toe of the shoe is meant to
may be studied more closely. rest. A “hook and loop” strap is threaded through the
rotational platform to secure the toe box. The rear
Torsional shoe stiffness has been previously platform can slide with low friction along the base to
quantified to assess the shoe’s cushioning and accommodate a shoe ranging from women’s size 4 to
support in a single metric [5]. It measures the men’s size 16. The heel stop can be rotated along the
resistance of the shoe to twisting about its long axis threaded rod to make contact with the insole of the
between the heel and the toe box. Assessment of shoe, as far against the posterior heel counter as
shoe torsional stiffness has previously been possible. Not shown in this illustration are the four
conducted using expensive devices that cannot be commercial items that provide the required
easily transported for use in most laboratories and measurements and standardization: (1) Powered
clinics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to hand drill which imparts approximately 1 N-m of
present and validate the reliability of a novel device torque to rotate the heel stop down into the heel
designed to quantify torsional shoe stiffness, as well counter until the clutch slips. (2) Set of calipers is
as heel thickness. This device was intended to be used to measure the heel thickness by measuring the
portable, lightweight, and inexpensive, without length of threaded rod remaining above the cross bar
sacrificing accuracy and validity. of the rear platform once the heel stop is engaged.
(3) Metric scale used to measure the total length, L,
METHODS of the shoe. (4) Torque watch used to record the peak
torque, T, at the standardized rotation, φ, of 30
The Shoe Stiffness in Torsion Measurement degrees from horizontal.
(SySTM) device was designed specifically to be
portable, inexpensive, and reliable for rapid
measurement of torsional stiffness, as well as heel

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
stiffness deviation was 1.64 N-m2, which is 15% of
the mean of that variable for all devices. The mean
lateral torsional stiffness deviation was 1.33 N-m2,
which is 13% of the mean of that variable for all
devices. The mean heel thickness deviation was 0.65
mm, which is 1% of the mean of that variable for all
devices.

Table 1: ICC Values
Medial Lateral
Heel
Torsional Torsional
Thickness
Stiffness Stiffness
Inter-Rater
0.90 0.86 0.96
ICC (2,1)
Figure 1: The SySTM device as designed Intra-Rater
0.91 0.92 0.99
ICC (2,1)
Six individuals were trained on how to use the
SySTM device. They each measured six different Heel thickness was a particularly reliable measure, as
types and sizes of shoes (right side only). Each rater it is derived from a single measure of the threaded
measured each shoe, in a randomized order, three rod after it is lowered. Conversely, torsional stiffness
times, the first was removed and considered a is derived from measures of shoe length and torque
familiarization trial. For each independent (at a standardized angle). The combination of any
measurement, heel thickness, length of the shoe, and small errors in these three measures likely contribute
torque required to achieve 30 degrees of rotational the variability.
displacement in the medial and lateral directions
were recorded in order to calculate the torsional CONCLUSIONS
stiffness in both directions.
The results of this study suggest that the SySTM
The inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the heel device is a reliable device for the measurement of
thickness, medial torsional stiffness, and lateral shoe torsional stiffness and heel thickness. It is also
torsional stiffness were assessed through the significantly more portable and less expensive than
calculation of interclass correlation coefficients the industry standards which typically use custom jig
(ICCs). A (2,1) model was reported upon such that in an Instron testing machine (Instron; Norwood,
these results could be generalized to any group of MA). This makes it a feasible option for laboratories
raters who would take a single measurement to and clinics that may require a table-top device that
characterize a shoe. In order to assess inter-rater can be stored when not in use.
reliability, only the second trial was entered into the
model to calculate the reliability between testers. In REFERENCES
order to assess intra-rater reliability, the data from the
first and second trials were assessed against each 1. Hauret KG, et al. Am J Prev Med, 38(1 Suppl),
other for each of the raters. S61-70, 2010.
2. Milner CE, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(2), 323-
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 328, 2006.
3. Pohl MB, et al. J Biomech, 41, 1160-1165, 2008.
Table 1 shows the ICC values for inter-rater and 4. Butler RJ, et al. Gait Posture, 26, 219-225, 2007.
intra-rater reliability of the device for quantifying 5. Hillstrom HJ, et al. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc,
medial and lateral torsional stiffness, as well as heel 103(4), 297-305, 2013.
thickness, all of which fell into an excellent range of 6. Cicchetti DV. Psych Assess, 6(4), 284-290, 1994.
clinical reliability [6]. The mean medial torsional

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
INFLUENCE OF MINIMALIST, NEUTRAL, AND ULTRA-CUSHIONING SHOES ON JOINT
COORDINATION DURING RUNNING

Brianne Borgia1 and James Becker2
1
California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA
2
Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA
email: james.becker4@montana.edu

INTRODUCTION free 6-months prior to and at the time of testing.
Subjects were provided 3 pairs of shoes in their self-
Due to the synchronous movements of the lower reported size. (Min shoe: New Balance 1400v3,
extremity during the stance phase of gait, abnormal Neut shoe: Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 32, Ultra shoe:
or excess motion of the foot can cause a disruption Hoka OneOne Bondi 4).
in joint actions [1]. Joints such as the knee may be
especially sensitive to disruptions in timing [2] Running kinematics were recorded using a 12-
which may explain why knee injuries account for up camera motion capture system (Qualisys, Inc.,
25% of all running injuries [3]. Changing the Gotheburg, Sweden) sampling at 200 Hz while
footwear a runner uses is one mechanism which participant ran on an instrumented treadmill (Bertec
might potentially influence both foot function and Corp., Columbus OH) at 3.0 m/s. Participants ran
the relative timing of joint movements. Changing for 10 minutes in each shoe condition, with the first
footwear might also effect coordination and 9 minutes allowing familiarization to the footwear
coordination variability between adjacent segments and data collected during the last minute. Marker
or joints, and thereby impact stresses placed on the trajectories were recorded for thirty seconds during
joint [4]. the last minute of the 10-minute trial, from which
ten consecutive steps were selected for analysis.
In regards to the influence of footwear on joint
coordination, it been previously shown that during Raw marker trajectories were exported to Visual 3D
the stance phase of running, peak eversion occurs (C-Motion, Inc., Rockville MD) where they were
significantly earlier when running in a shoe with a filtered using a 4th order, zero lag, low-pass
softer midsole compared to a harder midsole [3]. Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 6 Hz.
Additionally, when running barefoot verse shod Joint angles for the knee and segment angles
appears to change both the amount and relative describing the orientation of the rearfoot and tibia
timing of knee joint flexion and extension [5]. segments relative to the laboratory coordinate
system were calculated. Angles were normalized to
Maximalist, ultra-cushioning shoes are rapidly 100% of stance phase and exported to a custom
growing in popularity. However, currently there is LabView Program (National Instruments, Austin
no data in the literature regarding how these shoes TX) where the following dependent variables were
impact joint coordination. Therefore, the purpose of calculated: the position at initial contact, peak
the study was to examine differences in inter-joint position during stance phase, and range of motion.
coordination and coordination variability when
running in minimalist (MIN), neutral cushioning A modified vector coding approach [6] was used to
(NEUT) and ultra-cushioning (ULTRA) shoes. determine the segment couplings between rearfoot
and tibia, tibia and knee, and rearfoot and knee.
METHODS Coupling angles were calculated at each point
during stance phase and categorized into one of four
Sixteen recreational runners (age: 23.5 ± 2.2 years; patterns: proximal phase, in-phase, distal phase, or
height: 1.68 ± 0.19 m.; body mass: 76.5 ± 4.5 kg) anti-phase. The frequency of each pattern were
participated in this study. All subjects were injury specifically quantified during early (ES: 0-33%),
st th th
41 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 – 11 , 2017
mid (MS: 34-66%), and late stance phase (LS: 67 – type of motion may increase torsional stress on the
100%). knee joint [7]. While the results of this study
provide insight into the role of footwear on joint
Differences in segment and joint kinematics were coordination, additional studies are necessary to
evaluated using a one way repeated measures determine if these coordination patterns relate to
ANOVA. Differences in average coordination injury incidence when using ultra-cushioning shoes.
patterns were evaluated using a two way (period of
stance x shoe condition) repeated measures
ANOVA. All statistical analyses were performed
with an alpha of p < .05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There was a significant period of stance by shoe
interaction for average tibia-knee coupling angles
(F4,60 = 3.507, p = 0.012, Figure 1). Pairwise Figure 1. Average period of stance x shoe interaction coupling
comparison revealed that during MS average angles of tibia I/R –knee F/E during early stance (ES), mid
stance (MS) and late stance (LS) * indicates significant
coupling angles were larger in the MIN shoe (146.9 difference at p < 0.05 level.
± 94.9) compared to the ULTRA shoe (96.6 ±
78.35) condition (p = .029). During MS in ULTRA REFERENCES
conditions tibia-knee coordination was primarily in 1. DeLeo A.T., et al. Clinical Biomechanics 19(10),
the distal phase, dominated by tibia motion. 983-991.
However, in the MIN condition tibia-knee 2. Hamill J., et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24(7), 807-
coordination during MS was dominated by 813, 1992.
antiphase motion. No differences in coupling 3. van Gent R.N., et al. British Journal of Sports
angles were observed for rearfoot-tibia or rearfoot- Medicine 41(8), 469-480, 2007.
knee coordination at any of the three phases of 4. Silvernail J.F., et al. Med Sci Sports Exer 47(10),
stance. There were no statistically significant 2175-2180, 2015
difference between shoe conditions for any of the 5. De Wit B., et al. Journal of Applied Biomechanics
segment or joint angle variables (Table 1). 16, 169-179, 2000
6. Chang R., et al. Journal of Biomechanics 41(14),
The main finding from this study was higher 3101-3105, 2008.
amount of antiphase motion during MS in the MIN 7. Pohl, M.B., et al. Gait and Posture 25, 295-302,
shoe condition. This coordination pattern means the 2007.
tibia was internally rotating while the knee was
extending. Previous research has suggested that this

Table 1: Mean Values (±standard deviations) for rearfoot frontal plane, tibia transverse plane, and knee sagittal plane
kinematics during the stance phase for Min, Neut, and Ultra shoe conditions. IC: initial contact, Peak: peak motion, ROM:
range of motion.
Minimalist Neutral Ultra
IC 0.88 ± 4.00 1.94 ± 4.54 0.67 ± 5.42 F =.523, p =.604
Rearfoot Peak -10.00 ± 3.45 -9.29 ±4.13 -9.11 ± 5.74 F =.247, p =.785
ROM 10.88 ± 2.49 11.22 ± 2.83 9.78 ± 3.01 F = 1.001, p = .392
IC 5.38 ± 4.27 4.0 ± 7.03 2.09 ± 8.32 F = 1.371, p = .286
Tibia Peak 0.638 ± 4.64 -2.40 ±6.00 -4.29 ± 8.34 F =3.009, p =.082
ROM 4.74 ± 4.12 6.40 ± 2.81 6.38 ± 2.65 F =.982, p =.399
IC 13.92 ± 5.22 13.30 ±5.71 10.73 ± 5.15 F =2.737, p =.099
Knee Peak 36.15 ± 5.41 36.04 ± 6.47 33.55 ± 5.57 F =3.325, p =.066
ROM 22.23 ± 4.01 22.74 ±3.74 22.82 ± 3.22 F =.248, p =.784
st th th
41 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 – 11 , 2017
FOOT STRIKE INDEX, RUNNING CADENCE, AND LOADING RATE WHILE RUNNING IN A
TRADITIONALLY CUSHIONED ZERO-DROP SHOE
1
Macy Urrutia, 1 Travis Ficklin, 2 Robin Lund, and 1 April Ficklin
1
Dixie State University, Saint George, UT, USA
2
University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, USA
email: travis.ficklin@dixie.edu

INTRODUCTION three-minute bout on the treadmill, subjects ran
across a force platform at the same pace.
Lower extremity injuries are common to runners,
including - but not limited to - stress fractures from The right lower extremity was marked with retro-
repeated impact and loading. Though there are reflective markers and the last 30 seconds of
many contributors to such injuries, loading rate treadmill running, as well as the force plate run,
(LR), which is the rate of vertical ground reaction were recorded using a multi-camera 3D system.
force development, has been implicated in particular High speed video (300 Hz) and digitization were
[1]. used to measure SI [4]. Custom software was used
to make subsequent calculations for SI, RC, and LR
Some kinematic parameters of foot strike may be during initial impact. Paired t-tests (α = 0.05) were
tied to helping reduce LR. Among these are made to identify any differences between shoes
potentially foot strike index (SI) and running among these variables.
cadence (RC). SI is a measure of how far forward
on the sole of the foot initial impact with the ground RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
occurs (measured as a percentage of foot length).
Running cadence is measured in steps (foot strikes) Descriptive statistics for all variables are presented
per minute. It is possible that further forward SI and in Table 1. Several differences are noted in response
increased RC may help reduce LR [2,3]. to the study purpose.

Zero-drop (ZD) shoes (Altra Running, Logan, UT) First, SI was further forward for the ZD shoe than
have no difference between forefoot and rearfoot for TR shoes (p=0.002), ST shoes (p<0.001), and
midsole stack heights. The makers of the shoe MX shoes (p=0.004). Next, RC was increased in the
suggest that this encourages less overstriding, ZD shoe over the TR (p<0.001) and MX shoes
leading to increased RC and a more forward SI. (p=0.012), but not the ST shoe. Last, LR was
However, the effect of this footwear on these reduced in the ZD shoe compared to the TR shoe
variables is not fully understood. (p=0.009) and MX shoe (p=0.019), but not the ST
shoe. A secondary analysis did not reveal direct
The purpose of this study was to compare SI, RC, correlations between SI and LR, or between RC and
and LR for runners when running in the ZD shoe to LR.
running in three other shoes: traditional (TR),
stability (ST), and maximalist (MX). Taken together, these findings underscore the
complexity of the leg spring, and the importance of
METHODS considering it as a complete mechanism., rather than
focusing on any one characteristic of impact
All study procedures were reviewed and approved mechanics. In this sample, LR was reduced in the
by the University IRB, and all subjects provided ZD shoe compared to two others. However, even
informed consent. Thirty runners (15 M, 15 F) ran though this was seen concurrently with an increased
for three-minute bouts at a time on a treadmill at cadence and a more forward foot strike overall, the
their preferred, self-selected pace. They ran in each variability in LR was not directly explained by
of the four shoes in counterbalanced order. After the either of these variables. This suggests that it is a
combination of factors that predicts LR (rather than
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
any single one), and that different runners It is evident that runners experienced mechanical
experienced different combinations of factors. changes during impact that taken together likely
contributed to the reduced LR, which they would
However, the current results suggest that the ZD experience as a softer landing. While no one factor
design does have an effect on running mechanics may have done this directly, the combination of
somehow, and that some of these effects occur factors possibly related to the ZD design seems to
immediately. For example, there was an overall have changed the leg spring for many of the
more-forward SI in the ZD shoe. The majority of runners.
this result came from a large effect for a handful of
subjects who dramatically changed their SI in the CONCLUSIONS
ZD shoe but not in the other shoes (see Figure 1). In
previous studies, such a big change typically Overall, there was a reduced loading rate in runners
resulted from instruction and/or the removal of who tried the zero-drop shoe design when compared
shoes altogether [5]. The current subjects received to loading rates in traditional and maximalist shoes.
no instructions other than to run at their preferred A combination of factors probably led to this result,
pace on the treadmill for three minutes. but among them may be increased cadence and a
more forward foot strike, as well as an associated
increase in knee flexion during landing. More
research is needed on the long-term effects that
adapting to these changes may have for the runners
over time, but those who wish to increase cadence
and/or land more forward on the foot when running
should consider the zero-drop design.
REFERENCES
1. Zadpoor, A., Nikooyan, A. Clin Biomech 26, 23-
8, 2011.
2. Hamill, J., et. al. Footwear Sci 3, 33-40, 2011.
3. Lenhart, R., et. al. Med Sci Sport Exc 46(3), 557-
Figure 1: Foot strike index for each subject by shoe. 100% is toe, 0% is heel. 64, 2014.
4. Larson, P. J Appl Biomech 19, 153-68, 2003.
Additionally, increased cadence naturally occurred 5. Squadrone, R., et. al. J Sports Sci 33, 1196-1204,
overall in the ZD shoe. Because speed was held 2015.
constant, this is tied to reduced stride length,
implying a probable overstride reduction. This was ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
likely a contributor to reduced LR as well. Further Funding and shoes for this study were generously
analysis revealed an attendant increase in knee provided by the Altra Running shoe company.
flexion excursion during weight acceptance in the
ZD shoes compared to the TR shoe (p = 0.002).
Table 1: Descriptive statistics and results of paired samples t-tests (n=30).
Zero-drop (ZD) Traditional (TR) Stability (ST) Maximalist (MX)
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
1
Loading Rate (BW/s) 53.9 +/- 18.6 63.1 +/- 23.1 57.2 +/- 21.0 60.1 +/- 19.5
2
Stride frequency (steps/min) 168.9 +/- 10.3 166.2 +/- 10.0 168.0 +/- 8.8 167.2 +/- 9.2
3
Strike Index (% of foot) 32.9 +/- 28.4 21.9 +/- 24.8 20.0 +/- 23.3 23.3 +/- 24.2
4
Knee flexion excursion (degrees) 29.0 +/- 6.9 26.2 +/- 5.9 28.4 +/- 4.8 28.8 +/- 3.9

KEY: 1 = Less than TR & MX; 2 = Greater than TR & MX; 3 = Further forward than all others; 4 = Greater than TR

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
EFFECT OF DIFFERING RUNNING SHOE MIDSOLE THICKNESS ON GAIT KINETICS AND
KINEMATICS
1 Jacob E. Vollmar, 2 Ryan Chang, 2 Jason Leach, 2 Bethany Wilcox, and 1Allison H. Gruber
1 Indiana
University, Bloomington, IN, USA
2 Reebok
International Ltd., Canton, MA, USA
email: ahgruber@indiana.edu, web: http://iubiomechanicslab.weebly.com/

INTRODUCTION METHODS

Running shoes design and construction is ever To date, seven healthy, male rearfoot runners
changing and has resulted in a wide variety of shoes between the ages of 18 and 40 volunteered to
available for commercial purchase including the participate in this study. All participants read and
Hoka One One to Vibram FiveFingers. Arguments agreed to IRB documents before participating.
both for and against the benefits of cushioning in Participants were outfitted with retroreflective
running shoes have been made; in particular, whether markers secured to anatomical points on their right
cushioning has a protective or detrimental effect on foot, right leg, and pelvis. The three models of shoes
running related overuse injuries. Recently, a new were tested which were identical in all aspects except
paradigm has been proposed which argues that the their midsole thickness (18 mm, 21 mm, and 24 mm).
cushioning of the shoe is not as important as the Participants ran in all three shrouded shoe models at
perceived comfort of the shoe and ease of preferred 3.5 m/s ± 5% across a force platform (1200 Hz)
movement path the shoe allows [1]. This hypothesis imbedded in an 18m runway. Nine infrared Qualisys
is possible given that runners tend to normalize joint motion capture cameras recorded the position of the
stiffness and impact force characteristics and tibial retroreflective markers (240 Hz). A triaxial
shock in response to varying shoe and surface accelerometer secured to the anteromedial aspect of
conditions [e.g. 2]. The result that impact forces the distal right tibia was used to measure tibial shock
increase as cushioning increases is counterintuitive. during the stance phase (1200 Hz). Camera, force
It would be expected that greater midsole cushioning platform, and accelerometer data were time
would create a softer landing, similar to the effect of synchronized. Impact-related variables were
bending the knees when landing from a jump. It has assessed from the vertical ground reaction force
yet to be investigated whether the timing between (vGRF) using previously established methods [3]. A
peak vertical impact force and peak tibial repeated measures ANOVA (α=0.05) with Tukey’s
acceleration are changed with varying midsole post hoc comparisons was used to compare the
thicknesses. Although impact forces increase with kinetic and kinematic variables between the three
greater cushioning, a delay in the timing between midsole thickness conditions. Given the small
peak impact force and peak tibial acceleration may sample size, Cohen’s d was also used to determine if
indicate that more shock is attenuated by the shoe the none statistically significant differences
rather than the tissues of the foot and leg. displayed meaningful trends.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
of an increase of 3 mm and 6 mm in shoe midsole
thickness on the timing and magnitude of peak There was a significant decrease in average vertical
vertical impact force and peak tibial acceleration. It loading rate, a significant decrease in instantaneous
was hypothesized that the delay between the timing vertical loading rate, and a significant decrease in
peak impact and peak tibial acceleration would peak tibial acceleration as midsole thickness
increase as midsole thickness increases. increased (Table 1). Time to peak vGRF impact
increased as midsole thickness increased but was not
statistically significant (p>0.05, Table 1). Time to

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
peak tibial acceleration increased with increased CONCLUSIONS
thickness for 18 mm to 21 mm (d = 0.37), did not
differ between 18 mm thickness and 24 mm (d = Increasing the midsole thickness of running shoes
0.09), and decreased with increased thickness from from 18 mm to 21 mm to 24 mm reduced ground
21 mm to 24 mm (d = 0.78). No change in the impact characteristics without changing gait
magnitude of the vGRF impact peak was detected kinematics. The increased delay between peak
between midsole conditions (p>0.05, Table 1). No VGRF impact and peak tibial acceleration may
differences in joint kinematics were observed suggest a greater role of the shoe in modulating the
(p>0.05). tibial shock as midsole thickness increases from 18
mm to 24 mm. Further analysis and more subjects
The decreases in the average and instantaneous may be needed to explain the inconsistent results
vertical loading rates of the vGRF were consistent with the intermediate, 21 mm thickness condition.
with previous studies and may be attributed to an The data may indicate an “optimal” midsole
increase in the time to peak impact rather than a thickness for creating less injurious impact
significant decrease in the impact peak magnitude [4, conditions.
5]. The lack of difference in the kinematic variables
might be explained by the identical heel-toe drop REFERENCES
between the three shoe thickness models tested [6].
Previous research that showed kinematic differences 1. Nigg B.M., et al. Br J Sports Med, 49, 1290-
with differing shoe thicknesses had differences in 1294, 2015.
heel-toe drop between shoe conditions [7]. The lack 2. Ferris D.P. & Farley CT, J Appl Physiol, 82, 15-
of kinematic difference could also be explained by 22, 1997.
the preferred movement path paradigm [1]. 3. Milner C. E., et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(2),
323-328, 2006.
The 24 mm thickness condition resulted in the 4. Addison, B.J., et al. Journal of Biomechanics,
longest delay between the vGRF impact peak and 48, 1318–1324, 2015.
peak tibial acceleration. The smallest difference in 5. Hamill, J., et al. Footwear Science, 3, 33–40,
timing between peaks occurred with the 21 mm 2011.
thickness condition (Table 1). The 21 mm condition 6. Chambon, N., et al. Gait & Posture, 40(1), 58–
also resulted in the greatest vGRF impact peak 63, 2014.
magnitude and longest time to peak tibial 7. Nigg, B.M., et al. Journal of Biomechanics,
acceleration. 20(10), 951–959, 1987.

Table 1: Mean±1SD vertical ground reaction force and tibial acceleration characteristics for three differing
midsole thickness conditions. Statistical difference between conditions is denoted by  (18 mm vs. 21 mm),
✝(18 mm vs. 24 mm), and * (21 mm vs. 24 mm) (p<0.05).
18 mm 21 mm 24 mm p-value
Active Peak (BW) 2.5791 ± 0.1082 2.5800 ± 0.1416 2.6061 ± 0.1612 > 0.05
Impact Peak (BW) 1.7090 ± 0.1459 1.7340 ± 0.1650 1.7166 ± 0.1967 > 0.05
⍺✝ ✝
Vertical Loading Rate (BW/s) 63.8525 ± 9.2255 57.9069 ± 10.0463

55.8325 ± 7.2916 0.0086
Instantaneous Vertical Loading ⍺✝ ✝
98.2785 ± 13.1000 88.9592 ± 14.9163 *

78.7651 ± 11.6935 * 0.0001
Rate (BW/s)
⍺✝ ✝
Tibial Shock (g) 6.0909 ± 0.7533 5.1878 ± 0.9745 *

4.3109 ± 0.7156 * 0.0002
Time to Peak vGRF Impact (s) 0.0360 ± 0.0037 0.0396 ± 0.0057 0.0400 ± 0.0019 > 0.05
Time to Peak Tibial
0.0241 ± 0.0593 0.0392 ± 0.0215 0.0271 ± 0.0093 > 0.05
Acceleration
Time between peaks 0.0119 ± 0.0556 0.0004 ± 0.0158 0.0129 ± 0.0074 > 0.05

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
A Zero-Feedback and Stable Running Model Controlled by a Central Pattern Generator

Samuel Masters, Justin Wager, and John Challis

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
email: sem361@psu.edu

INTRODUCTION started when the COM was past vertical and ended
when the spring connecting the ground to the lower
The trajectory of the whole-body center of mass leg approached its resting length. A tanh function
(COM) during human running is similar to that of a was utilized in order to enforce a zero PF and
spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). Humans external moment before and after the propulsive
passively store and release energy, and actively phase.
produce energy during running. The triceps surae are
the main contributors to propulsion during running
[1]. The gross motion of the center of mass during
the stance phase is mostly due to knee and hip
kinematics. Thus, a simple two-body SLIP model
that represents the lower and upper bodies and has an
active propulsive phase should be sufficient to
capture many aspects of human running.

Stability has been studied in human locomotion. Figure 1: Two-mass SLIP model of running with a
However, the majority of these studies center around stance and flight phase.
human walking and their asymptotically stable
robotic and model counterparts. Human running Stance phase kinematics and vertical ground reaction
does not have an asymptotically stable model forces (GRFs) from 10 college-aged male subjects
counterpart. We will propose and analyze an were used to determine the parameters of the model.
asymptotically stable running model that can be used The COM vertical position and velocity were fitted
to study the stability and energetics of human with a sine wave to enforce smoothness and cyclical
running. kinematics. A particle swarm optimization was
utilized to determine the best set of parameters for
matching the modeled fit for each subject’s
METHODS kinematics and the magnitude and timing of the
impact and active force peaks of the vertical GRF.
The SLIP model contained two masses, a spring Following the optimization, the SLIP model was
connecting the upper body to the lower body, and a simulated until its step cycle converged to a period-
spring-damper connecting the lower body to the one gait cycle.
ground (Fig. 1). The springs had a constant stiffness
and nonlinear dampening. The dampening was a The PF and initial ground-contact angle were tuned
function of the dampening constant, spring such that the horizontal velocity of the model match
compression, and spring compression velocity. that of each subject during stance phase. The flight-
phase kinematics were determined using constant
The SLIP model was powered by an external acceleration equations of motion and the next stance
moment at the spring-ground interface and a cycle proceeded when the COM height was at the
propulsive force (PF) that accelerated the whole experimental COM height during foot-ground
system COM. The moment was directly proportional contact.
to the PF. The propulsive phase of the gait cycle

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
A simple measure of stability was utilized to access (Fig. 2). The vertical COM position of the SLIP
the SLIP model’s performance. The spring attaching model was always within 10% of the experimental
the lower body to the ground was increased in data. The mean horizontal velocity was 2.9 m.s-1 and
stiffness by 100% for a single step cycle to simulate vertical velocity at foot-ground contact was 0.72
a local change in the stiffness in terrain. The number m.s-1. On average, the magnitude of the impact and
of steps that the model took until the COM velocity active peaks of the GRF were within 9.1% and 8.5%
kinematics converged to within 10-3 m.s-1 of the of the experimental vertical GRF.
period-one gait cycle were counted (Fig. 3).
None of the models failed to converge following a
perturbation to the lower body spring stiffness. The
mean number of steps that each model took before
converging to the limit cycle was 31.4 steps (Fig. 3).
Generally, the models with a higher spring stiffness
took longer to converge.

Due to the simplicity of the model and the exclusion
of a feedback controller, it can be used to study many
of the same aspects that we study in simple, bipedal
walkers. Some of those aspects include local, orbital,
and global stability measures (e.g., Lyapunov
Exponents, Floquet multipliers, and the basin of
attraction), the energetics of running (e.g.,
dissipation, storage, and return of energy), and the
Figure 2: The stance phase vertical COM trajectory
whole-body or segmented body COM trajectories
for a typical experimental trial (black, dotted line)
during running (e.g. control strategies for
and the SLIP model (red, solid line).
locomotion).

We have introduced a model of running that expands
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
on the SLIP model of running [2] to include a CPG.
The model is asymptotically stable, requires no
All units containing force were normalized with
control feedback for sufficiently small perturbations,
respect to subject body weight (BW). The mean
and can mimic the kinematics and dynamics of the
spring stiffness for the lower and upper springs were
COM during human running.
309 ± 27 BW.m-1 and 224 BW.m-1, respectively. The
dampening constant was 18.8 ± 5.1 BW.s.m-1. The
mean PF and PM were 7.2 ± 1.5 BW and 2.1 ± 1.0
REFERENCES
BW.m. The weight of the lower and upper bodies
were 0.165 BW and 0.835 BWs.
1. Hamner SR, et al. J Biomech 43, 2709-2716, 2010.
2. Blickhan R. J Biomech 22, 1217-1227, 1989.
The vertical COM position and velocity of the SLIP
model matched that of the fitted experimental data

Figure 3: Center of mass position during a simulated trial. Some of the recovery steps have been removed.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
VERBAL FEEDBACK DURING A SINGLE RUNNING RETRAINING SESSION:
BIOMECHANICAL EVIDENCE OF A POSITIVE OUTCOME

Katherine Sharp, Julianne Stewart, Jenny Anne Maun, Kimberly Rowe, and Marilynn Wyatt
Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, CA USA
email: katherine.sharp5.ctr@mail.mil

INTRODUCTION instructions were given during the data capture
sessions. Upon completion of the PRE session, it
The Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis was apparent that the patient was landing with
(IDEO®) is a carbon fiber ankle-foot orthosis excessive knee extension at initial contact and
designed to return the wounded service member to a maintaining this position throughout the stance
high level of functional activity. When a patient phase (Fig. 1). This information was then used to
receives this custom-made orthosis, participation in structure the brief retraining session.
the Return to Run (RTR) program is mandatory.
This program teaches patients many skills which
include running with a midfoot strike pattern to both
maximize energy return from the brace and protect
the knee from hyperextension [1]. The process of
converting to a midfoot strike pattern can be
challenging and time-consuming, and a majority of
runners are natural heel strikers [2, 3]. Therefore,
the purpose of this case study was to investigate the
immediate impact of a single, brief running
retraining session on foot strike pattern and Figure 1: Patient exhibits excessive knee extension at
kinematics of an IDEO user. initial contact and throughout the stance phase prior to
gait retraining.
METHODS
A verbal retraining session was performed on a
A portable motion capture system was used to standard treadmill without motion capture. This
capture overground running data on a male (age session consisted of the patient warming-up for five
40y/o; height 1.8m; weight 87.54kg) active-duty minutes at his self-selected speed followed by
service member using the IDEO due to a pilon researchers and clinicians providing feedback for an
fracture secondary to a 60ft fall while repelling. additional five minutes. The feedback consisted of
The patient completed the RTR program before this verbal cues to shorten step length (i.e. “take shorter
biomechanical evaluation. A full-body six degrees steps”) and to increase step rate (i.e. “quicker
of freedom marker set was used and 12 motion turnover”). Both modifications were successfully
capture cameras (Motion Analysis Corp., Santa Rosa, accomplished during this period of time.
CA, USA) collected kinematic data at 300 frames
per second while the patient ran down a 50m RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
runway at his self-selected speed. Data were post-
processed using Visual 3D (C-Motion Inc., The patient ran at similar velocities during the PRE
Germantown, MD, USA), and a fourth-order, low- and POST testing sessions indicating differences
pass Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of were not due to a change in velocity (Table 1). He
8Hz was used. successfully increased his step rate by 3.3 steps/min
and decreased his stride length by 0.2m in response
Motion data were captured before (PRE) and after to verbal feedback from PRE to POST.
(POST) a retraining session. No form-related

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Additionally, the patient’s step length symmetry Considering the patient’s reported daily use of the
improved (Table 1). IDEO for work and recreation, maintenance of his
increased knee flexion at initial contact, increased
This patient is similar to most runners in that the step rate, and decreased stride legth should lower
transition from a heel strike to a midfoot strike his risk for injury [3].
pattern while running presented difficulty.
However, initiating a focused, long-term retraining CONCLUSIONS
program was not an option because the patient is
active-duty military and stationed an hour from the The brief patient retraining session used verbal
biomechanics laboratory. The retraining technique feedback that focused on stride length and step rate
used in this study was inspired by Wood & Kipp while the patient ran on a treadmill. Subsequently,
(2014) who successfully reduced tibial peak during overground running, improvements were
positive acceleration in runners after five minutes of found in his foot strike pattern and knee kinematics.
audio biofeedback. Similarly, after the brief The patient was provided feedback on these positive
retraining session using verbal feedback, the patient outcomes and will participate in a future study to
successfully landed with a flexed knee at initial see if improvements have been maintained.
contact (Fig. 2), which drastically improved his Understanding the value of brief retraining sessions
knee kinematics throughout the gait cycle (Fig. 3). compared to longer, more involved retraining
programs is a question for continued research.

REFERENCES

1. Owens JG, et al. J. Trauma 71, S120-S124, 2011.
2. Hasegawa H, et al. J Strenth Cond Res 21, 888-893,
2007.
3. Heidersheit BC, et al. Med Sci Sports Exer 43, 296-
302, 2011.
4. Wood CM, & Kipp K. J Biomech 47, 1739-1741,
Figure 2: Patient exhibits improved knee flexion at
2014.
initial contact following a brief retraining session.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank Tatiana Djafar, Trevor
Kingsbury, and Noel Guerrero for their technical
support. Project was supported by Navy Bureau of
Medicine and Surgery, Wounded, Ill, and Injured
Program (W239) and DoD-VA Extremity Trauma and
Amputation Center of Excellence (EACE).
DISCLOSURE STATEMENT: There are no conflicts of
interest to disclose by any of the authors. The views expressed
Figure 3: Average knee flexion/extension on the right in the abstract do not necessarily reflect those of the
(IDEO) side over 100% of the gait cycle during pre- Department of the Navy, Department of Defense or U.S.
training (red solid line) and post-training (blue dashed Government.
line). Vertical lines represent toe-off.

Table 1: Time-distance parameters of both the pre- and post-training conditions.
Step Length (m)
Velocity (m/sec) Step rate (steps/min) Stride Length (m)
R L
Pre-Training 4.48 183.6 2.94 1.41 1.53
Post-Training 4.23 186.9 2.74 1.39 1.36

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Changes in Limb Symmetry during a 2 Mile Outdoor Run
1
Kristen Renner, 1Robin Queen
1
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Kevin Granata Biomechanics Lab, Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA
Email: hulbertk@vt.edu, web: http://www.beam.vt.edu/granatalab/index.html

INTRODUCTION throughout the run. Using a custom Matlab script
(Mathworks, Natick, MA), the overall peak and
The presence of side-to-side asymmetry is known to
impact peak (when present) was identified for each
increase injury risk during running and other
step. For each subject, a limb symmetry index (LSI)
dynamic activities. Additionally, fatigue has been
was calculated for each step for both the impact peak
shown to affect the body’s loading patterns over of
and the overall peak using the equation below. The
the course of a high-endurance run1. Previous
LSI values were then averaged at each time point
research has focused on the use of instrumented
(25%, 50%, and 75% of the run) for each subject.
treadmills to collect running data during long
distance runs with no previous work examining these |𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝑒𝑎𝑘 − 𝑅𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑃𝑒𝑎𝑘|
changes during prolonged overground running2. 𝐿𝑆𝐼 =
0.5 ∗ (𝐿𝑒𝑓𝑡 𝑃𝑒𝑎𝑘 + 𝑅𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑃𝑒𝑎𝑘)
Reports have proven that joint mechanics, loading,
and temporal variables differ on a treadmill To analyze the results, the LSI values were first
compared to an overground environment3, including tested for normality using the Shapiro-Wilks test.
the peak value of the ground reaction foces4. Then either a 1x3 repeated measures ANOVA or a
non-parametric Wilcoxon test was conducted to
Despite the various studies pertaining to asymmetry determine differences in symmetry across time
in runners, the impact that fatigue has on side-to-side (JMP, SAS, Cary, NC). Finally, a non-parametric
asymmetry has never been assessed in an overground Wilcoxon signed rank test was completed to
running study. Therefore, this study investigated the determine differences between the LSI impact peak
impact of fatigue on loading symmetry during a 2 and the LSI overall peak at each time point
mile run on an outdoor course. We hypothesize that individually For all statistical tests, a type I error rate
the LSI will increase during the run as the subject of α=0.05 was used to determine statistical
begins to fatigue. significance. A gender comparison was not
METHODS completed on this data as we would like to have a
greater number of subjects, 20 males and 20 females,
27 subjects (Table 1) completed a 2 mile overground before analyzing the potential differences between
run wearing single-sensor, load monitoring insoles male and female runners.
(pedoped, Novel Electronics, St. Paul, MN). These
measured the subjects’ normal in-shoe ground Table 1: Subject Demographics
reaction forces sampled at 100 Hz throughout the Male Females
duration of the run. An iPod Touch (5th generation, (n=16: 59.2%) (n=11: 40.7%)
Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA) was used to collect the Age (years) 22.93 ± 2.93 21.92 ± 3.04
vGRF data via Bluetooth connection while being Height (m) 1.81 ± 0.07 1.66 ± 0.05
secured to the runner in a running pouch worn on the Weight (kg) 77.78 ± 9.54 59.73 ± 4.34
waist in a position that was comfortable for each Weekly Mileage
subject. Each subject ran the same 2 mile course. (miles) 10 ± 6 16 ± 9
Subjects were allowed to run in their own training
shoes to decrease the influence of a novel shoe RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
condition. The forces from twenty-step intervals The mean time taken to complete the 2 mile run was
were pulled for each limb at 25%, 50%, and 75% of 14:52 ± 1:51 minutes for men and 15:38 ± 1:26
the run to determine how limb symmetry changed
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
minutes. Our limb symmetry indexes are reported in
The lack of change in LSI across time does not
Figure 1. Previously reported symmetry indexes are
support the study hypothesis. At the end of each run,
3.1% for the peak vertical GRF and 12.6% for the
we spoke to the participants about the difficulty of
vertical impact peak for a short (25m) indoor run
the run and their level of fatigue. During these
over force platforms5. While our LSI values are
discussions it was clear that most of the participants
higher than what has been reported, the previous
were experienced runners who were currently
articles all considered indoor or treadmill running
training for 10K, half marathons and full marathons
which provides a consistent and predictable running
races. Therefore, it is likely that the 2 mile course that
environment compared to outdoor overground
was being completed was not challenging enough to
running.
result in changes in loading symmetry due to fatigue.
In future studies that are designed to assess the
The LSI values calculated from the overall peak load
impact of fatigue on loading symmetry might need to
were not normally distributed while the LSI values
be completed on a more challenging course, require
from the impact peak were normally distributed.
that the subjects complete the course in a pace that is
Therefore, overall peak LSI analyses will be
similar to their race speed or have the subjects
completed with non-parametric tests and the impact
complete a longer run in order to increase the level
peak LSI analyses will use parametric tests. There
of fatigue. In addition, future work could include the
was no difference in overall peak load LSI across
assessment of a rate of perceived excursion at the end
time (p>0.229) as determined through non-
of the run to be able to include this measure as a
parametric statistics. In addition, no differences in
covariate in the statistical analysis.
impact load LSI existed across time (p=0.207)
(Figure 1).
CONCLUSION
When the LSI values calculated from the impact load
We did not see any difference in LSI across time
were compared to the values calculated by the overall
using either the impact peak or the overall peak
peak load, we found a significant difference between
values. There was a difference between the LSI
groups, with the impact peak LSI begin greater
collected at the impact peak and the LSI determined
(p<0.001). While the impact peak LSI values are
from the overall peak value. These results indicate
higher than those previously reported, the results of
that the subjects use a portion of the stance phase
the current study are similar to previous work that
after the impact peak to alter the loading pattern in
indicated that the LSI was greater for the impact peak
order to improve their limb asymmetry by the time
LSI than for the overall peak LSI5.
they reach the peak overall load during running.
*
* REFERENCES
*
1. Pappas, E. Journal of Science and Medicine in
Sport, 15, 87-92, 2012.
2. Giandolini, M. PLoS ONE. 11, 2016.
3. Alton, F. Clinical Biomechanics. 13, 434-440.
1998.
4. Riley, P. Medicine & Science in Sports and
Exercise. 40(6), 1093, 2008.
5. Zifchock, R. J of Biomechanics. 39(15), 2792-
2797, 2005.

Figure 1: The mean LSI value and standard deviation for each time
point (25%, 50% and 75%) of the run is shown above. The * indicates
a difference between the impact LSI and overall LSI values.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Knees Presenting Varus Thrust do not Increase Knee Adduction when Running with Body Borne Load
1
Tyler N. Brown, 2Jon T. Kaplan, 2Sarah Cameron, 1Kayla D. Seymore, 2John W. Ramsay
1
Dept. of Kinesiology, Boise State University, Boise, ID, USA
2
Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) Natick, MA, USA
email: tynbrown@boisestate.edu

INTRODUCTION BW. With each load, participants performed three
successful runs. Each run required participants run at
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common occupational 4.0 m/s down a 10-m walkway and contact a force
hazard for members of the armed services. In fact, plate (Optima, AMTI, Watertown, MA, USA) with
the incidence of knee OA in service members has their dominant limb.
recently increased [1]. Knee OA develops by
repeatedly placing abnormal loads on the joint during During each run, knee biomechanics were quantified
weight-bearing activity, such as locomotion. from 3D trajectories of 36 reflective markers
Specifically, knee OA is associated with greater recorded with twelve high-speed (240 fps) optical
lateral knee motion (i.e., varus thrust) and subsequent cameras (Opus, Qualysis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden).
loading of the medial knee joint compartment during After securing each marker on the participant, a
weight-bearing activities [2, 3]. During weight- stationary recording was taken to create a kinematic
bearing, varus thrust (i.e., an abrupt increase in the model with seven skeletal segments (bilateral foot,
knee adduction angle of 3° or more) increases the shank and thigh, and pelvis segments) and 24 DoF.
incidence, progression and severity of OA [2, 3]. During each run, synchronous GRF data and marker
During military activities, service members routinely trajectories were low pass filtered with a fourth-order
run with body borne loads that exceed 30% of their Butterworth filter (12 Hz). The filtered marker
body weight. These body borne loads produce trajectories were processed to solve joint rotations at
significant adaptations in lower limb biomechanical each time frame, and filtered kinematic and GRF data
profile, elevating the loads placed on the knee joint were processed to obtain knee joint moments using
during locomotion [4]. The elevated loads may Visual 3D (C-Motion, Rockville, MD).
contribute to the increased incidence of OA by
exaggerating lateral motion and medial compartment Each participant had varus thrust quantified as the
loading for service members that present varus range of knee adduction motion exhibited from heel
thrust. With that in mind, the purpose of this study strike to mid-stance (0% - 51%) during the NL run.
was to quantify how body borne load impacts knee Varus participants (VAR, N = 9) exhibited knee
biomechanics for participants who present varus adduction equal to or greater than 3° [2, 4]; whereas,
thrust during running. control participants (CON, N = 9) exhibited less than
3° of knee adduction motion.
METHODS
Eighteen male military personnel (age: 20.2 ± 3.3 For analysis, dominant limb peak knee adduction
yrs, height: 1.8 ± 0.6 m, weight 19.0 ± 10.8 kg) had joint angle and moment exhibited during weight-
3D knee joint biomechanical data recorded during an bearing (0% - 51%) were quantified. Subject-based
over-ground run task. Each participant performed the means for each measure were calculated and
run task with three load conditions: light (NL), submitted to a RM ANOVA to test the main effects
medium (ML) and heavy (HL). For the NL, of and possible interactions between load (NL, ML
participants wore equipment (helmet, boots and and HL) and group (VAR vs CON). Where
mock weapon) that weighs ~ 6 kg. For ML (15% of statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were
BW) and HL (30% of BW), participants wore a observed, a modified Bonferroni procedure was
weighted vest (WeightVest.com Inc. Rexburg, ID, used. Significant interactions were submitted to 1-
USA) that was adjusted to have the total load (vest way ANOVA stratified by group and followed by t-
plus NL equipment) equal either 15% or 30% of their tests to test main effects.
significant increase in knee adduction moment with
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION HL compared to NL (p = 0.006) and ML (p = 0.031),
but no significant difference was evident between the
The ANOVA revealed a significant 2-way ML and NL (p = 0.079) conditions. The VAR
interaction for peak knee adduction angle (p = 0.001) participants, however, exhibited no significant
(Fig. 1). Specifically, VAR participants exhibited difference in knee adduction moment between any
greater knee adduction compared to the CON load condition (p = 0.174). Further work is need to
participants with the NL (p = 0.001) condition, but a determine why the CON, but not VAR participants
significant difference in knee adduction was not exhibited significant increase in peak knee adduction
evident between groups with either ML (p = 0.741) moment with the addition of a heavy borne load.
or HL (p = 0.142) conditions. Although VAR
participants exhibited excessive knee adduction
motion during the NL runs, the addition of body
borne load did not further increase their use of knee
biomechanics linked to OA. The VAR participants,
in fact, exhibited a significant reduction in peak knee
adduction with the addition of the HL (p = 0.023).
Conversely, the CON participants exhibited a
significant increase in peak knee adduction during
the HL runs (p = 0.037). For the CON participants,
the addition of a heavy borne load may increase their
risk of developing knee OA during military service
by causing them to rely upon greater knee adduction
motion during locomotion.

Figure 2: Peak (mean ± SE) knee adduction joint
moment exhibited by the VAR and CON participants
with each load condition.

CONCLUSIONS
Participants that exhibit varus thrust when running
with the lightest body borne load did not increase
knee biomechanical patterns related to the incidence
of knee OA with the addition of a heavy body borne
load. Control participants, however, increased peak
knee adduction joint angle and moment,
biomechanical patterns related to the development of
knee OA, with the addition of a heavy borne load.
Figure 1: Peak (mean ± SE) knee adduction joint Further research is warranted to understand why
angle exhibited by the VAR and CON participants certain individuals exhibit frontal plane knee
with each load condition. instability with the addition of body borne load.
A significant 2-way interaction was also evident for
peak knee adduction moment (p < 0.001) (Fig. 2). REFERENCES
For CON participants, running with the heavy borne 1. Showery JE, et al. J Arthroplasty 31, 2108 – 14, 2016.
load increased the knee adduction moment and load 2. Chang AH, et al. OA & Cartilage 21, 1668 – 73, 2013
placed on the medial knee joint compartment. 3. Kuroyanagi Y, et al. Knee 19, 130 – 4, 2012.
Specifically, the CON participants exhibited a 4. Brown TN, et al. Gait & Posture 40 , 237 - 42 2014.
TIBIAL SHOCK DURING TREADMILL AND OUTDOOR RUNNING: ARE THEY THE SAME?

1,2
Steve T. Jamison, 1,2 Matthew C. Ruder, 1,2 Adam S. Tenforde, 3 Marian T Hannan and 1,2 Irene S. Davis
1
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2
Spaulding National Running Center, Cambridge, MA, USA
3
TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
email: stevetjamison@gmail.com, web: http://runsnrc.org/

INTRODUCTION lower treadmill speed was chosen to avoid
Studies relating running mechanics to running compromising race readiness. Subjects were given 3
injuries are most often conducted in the laboratory minutes to warm up on the treadmill in their own
environment. Further, due to space constraints and way. Once the target speed was reached, 30 seconds
ease of analysis, many of these studies are of data were used for analysis.
performed on a treadmill. However, most distance Subjects also completed the same race wearing the
and recreational runners complete the majority of accelerometer. Marks were placed on the
their miles outdoors, not on a treadmill. participants’ leg and accelerometer strap during the
There has been a proliferation of wearable devices, treadmill testing to assist participants in consistent
such as inertial measurement units (IMUs) available location and attachment pressure on race morning.
to the running and research community. These Data for approximately the entire seventh kilometer
IMUs allow the measurement of tibial shock (TS; of the marathon were used as this was the earliest
also known as tibial acceleration) while running flat kilometer of the race. We chose this as the
outdoors, TS has been linked to overuse running point of comparison as the runners were fresh and
injuries in the laboratory setting [1]. However, it is the terrain similar to that of the treadmill.
unknown if TS is similar between laboratory Subjects who reported pain >3/10 on a numeric
treadmill running and running outside where the rating scale prior to the seventh kilometer of the
majority of runners complete their training. Stride race or who were wearing different shoes between
length has been reported to be shorter, and cadence the treadmill and the race conditions were excluded.
higher, during treadmill compared to over-ground Additionally, we excluded subjects without
running [2]. These differences in mechanics may complete race and treadmill data. The resulting 192
result in higher tibial shock while running outdoors. subjects were used in our analysis [105 males, 87
The purpose of this study was to determine if tibial females; age=44.9±10.8yrs]. Foot strike patterns
shock is different between treadmill and outdoor (determined during the treadmill running) and
running. We hypothesized that TS would be lower footwear varied widely within the population. 142
for treadmill running than for outdoor running. subjects were rearfoot strikers, 30 midfoot strikers
and 20 forefoot strikers. Footwear was categorized
METHODS based upon stack height. 19 wore maximally
cushioned, 92 traditional and 54 wore partially
254 runners participating in a marathon were
minimal shoes, with 8 barefoot or in minimal shoes.
recruited. Each subject wore a 3-axis accelerometer
19 runners wore shoes that fell into categories in-
attached to their distal medial, right tibia collecting
between these.
data at 1kHz while they ran on a treadmill and while
running an outdoor road marathon (race). Resultant acceleration was calculated as the root
sum of squares of the acceleration from the three
Subjects ran on a treadmill one to three days prior to
axes. Tibial shock (TS) was determined as the peak
the marathon at 90% of target marathon speed. The
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
resultant acceleration for each right foot fall, differences. Differences may also be a function of
averaged for reach subject over the time periods altered running mechanics (i.e. decreased cadence,
described (Treadmill: 30 seconds after warmup; increased stride length), device placement and
Race: entire 7th km of a marathon). Acceleration attachment pressure, or surface compliance. We
due to gravity [g=9.81m/s2], was subtracted from attempted to minimize device fixation variance by
the resultant accelerations, and then used to developing a method to verify correct placement
normalize TS to units of gravity, g. and tension as described above. Still, strap tightness
may have been altered for comfort before the race
Correlation analyses and paired t-tests were used to and the location could have differed slightly. The
evaluate differences in TS recorded during treadmill treadmill used is more compliant than asphalt,
(TSTM) and race (TSR) running. which could also contribute to TS differences.
However, previous work has shown that stiffer foot-
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
ground interfaces tend to reduce leg stiffness [4]
Treadmill TS (TSTM) was significantly correlated and impact forces [5] rather than increase them.
with race TS (TSR; r2=0.35, p<0.001, Fig1 left) but
significantly lower than TSR (p<0.001; Fig1 right). CONCLUSIONS
Tibial shocks appear to be significantly lower when
These results are not surprising, given that TS is
running on a treadmill than when running in an
strongly correlated with speed [3], and treadmill
outdoor race. Future studies should incorporate the
speeds were significantly lower than race speeds
measures of cadence and stride length in order to
(p<0.001; Fig1 middle & right). Using a previously
further understand the source of the higher impacts
determined association between speed and TS
𝑔 when running outdoors.
(5.26 𝑚/𝑠), TSTM were adjusted to account for their
slower speeds. Speed-adjusted treadmill TS (TSSA- REFERENCES
2
TM) were more strongly correlated to TSR (r =0.40, 1. Milner CE, et al. MSSE 38(2), 323-328, 2006.
p<0.001; Fig1 left) but were still significantly lower 2. Riley PO, et al. MSSE 40(6), 1093-1100, 2008.
than TSR (p<0.001; Fig1 right). 3. Jamison ST, et al. Proceedings of ACSM 2017,
Denver, CO, USA, 2017.
Tibial shocks may be inherently different while 4. Ferris DP, et al. J Biomech 32(8), 787-794, 1999.
running an outdoor race than while running on a 5. Baltich J, et al. PLoS One 10(4), e0125196, 2015.
treadmill, even when accounting for speed

Figure 1: LEFT: Correlation between treadmill (TM) and race running tibial shocks (TS). MIDDLE: Correlation between TM and
race running speeds. RIGHT: Mean TS (left) and speed (right). NOTES: Dashed lines denote x=y. Error bars represent standard
deviations. Brackets with * indicate significant differences (p<0.001). Blue designate speed-adjusted treadmill TS (TSSA-TM).

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
DOES WASTED IMPULSE EXPLAIN METABOLIC POWER DURING DOWNHILL RUNNING?
1
Emily K. Southern, 1Jana R. Jeffers, and 1,2Alena M. Grabowski
1
University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA
2
VA Eastern Colorado Healthcare System, Denver, CO, USA
email: emily.southern@colorado.edu

INTRODUCTION propelling body mass while running [9]. During
level-ground running at a constant speed, the
Previous studies have related the biomechanics and magnitudes of parallel braking and propulsive
metabolic costs of running over level ground [1,2], impulses are equal and opposite, resulting in a net
but the link between biomechanics and metabolic zero parallel impulse [7]. Parallel impulses incur a
costs for non-level running is less clear [3]. The metabolic cost but do not have a net effect of
metabolic cost of running has been explained by the propelling the runner forward. Thus, the sum of the
mechanical work involved; rates of positive absolute values of the braking and propulsive
mechanical work and metabolic energy both impulses has been termed wasted impulse [3].
increase linearly with speed [4]. However, this During non-level running, a component of the total
approach produces muscular efficiencies of 40- parallel impulse is due to gravity; therefore, a
50%, which are much higher than physiologically portion of the parallel impulse is no longer
possible (25%) [4]. Even greater efficiencies are considered “wasted” because it compensates for this
obtained when including negative mechanical work. gravitational impulse. [3] found that wasted impulse
Applying the mechanical work model to non-level decreased exponentially (R2=0.89) when running
running would generate even more unreasonable uphill due to decreases in negative external work
efficiencies, as external work must be done to raise (braking), and that wasted impulse explains a
or lower the center of mass. The spring-mass model portion of the metabolic cost of running. Here, we
was created in part to explain the high efficiency predict that wasted impulse will also decrease when
values observed during running. It models the leg as running downhill, due to decreases in positive
a massless linear spring that stores and returns external work (propulsion). We hypothesize that
elastic energy, and thus performs mechanical work. changes in wasted impulse will be strongly
However, elastic energy utilization of the leg spring correlated (r>0.70) to changes in metabolic cost
is jeopardized during non-level running [5]. during downhill running at different speeds.

The metabolic cost of running on level ground is METHODS
primarily due to generating force to support body
weight [6]. The cost of generating force hypothesis 20 healthy runners (12 M, 8 F; mean±S.D. age:
posits that metabolic cost is inversely proportional 26.6±6.2 yrs, mass: 68.7±8.4 kg, and height:
to contact time during running [1]. [7] showed that 175.8±8.9 cm) participated and provided written
active peak ground reaction forces (GRFs) applied informed consent according to a VAECHCS Human
perpendicular to the surface and contact times were Subjects IRB approved protocol. Subjects reported
not significantly different between level and no cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological
downhill running at one speed. This suggests that disease or disorder, and no musculoskeletal injuries.
metabolic cost remains constant regardless of slope
when running at the same speed. However, Subjects performed 12, 5-min trials on a 3D force-
metabolic cost decreases to a minimum on downhill instrumented treadmill (Treadmetrix, USA) over
slopes between -6° and -9° [8]. two visits. Subjects ran at three speeds (2.25, 2.50,
3.00 m/s) on four slopes (0°, -2°, -4°, -6°). Each
In addition to the metabolic cost of generating force visit began with a 5-min standing trial, followed by
to support body weight, there is a metabolic cost of 6 running trials in randomized order with at least 2

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
min rest between trials. We measured rates of
oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production
throughout each trial using indirect calorimetry
(ParvoMedics TrueOne2400, Sandy, UT, USA) and
averaged these rates over the last 2 min of each trial.
We ensured subjects utilized primarily oxidative
metabolism from respiratory exchange ratios <1.0.
We calculated metabolic power using a standard
equation [10] and determined net metabolic power
(Pmet) by subtracting the metabolic power during
standing from each trial’s metabolic power.
Figure 1. The relationship between Iwasted and Pmet
During a third visit, subjects performed all 12
(R2=0.52).
running trials on the force treadmill (1000 Hz) for
30-sec each. We digitally filtered GRFs using a 4th-
There was a significant correlation between Iwasted
order low-pass Butterworth filter with a 30 Hz
and Pmet (r(231)=0.72; p<0.0001) (Fig. 1). Iwasted
cutoff and analyzed 15 consecutive strides per trial.
alone explained 52% of the variance in Pmet. [9]
We used a 20N perpendicular GRF threshold to
found that the metabolic cost of generating parallel
determine foot-ground contact.
propulsive forces accounts for about one-third of the
total metabolic cost of running on level-ground, and
Parallel impulses were computed by integrating all
when pulling forward on the runner, metabolic cost
negative (braking) or positive (propelling) GRFs
decreased despite an increase in braking forces. The
during each ground contact period. Wasted impulse
greater proportion of metabolic energy consumption
per step (Iwasted) was calculated from the sum of the
explained by Iwasted in the present study suggests that
absolute values of the parallel braking (Ibrake) and
all three parallel impulses (Ibrake, Iprop, and Igravity)
propulsive impulses (Iprop) minus the parallel
are important when evaluating the cost of braking
component of the gravitational impulse (Igravity):
and propelling body mass parallel to the surface
!!"#$%& = !!"#$% + !!"#! − !!"#$%&' during downhill running.
We calculated Igravity using mass (m), gravity (g), CONCLUSIONS
treadmill slope (θ), and time between two
consecutive foot strikes (tstep): Iwasted is an important factor for predicting metabolic
!!"#$%&' = ! ∗ ! ∗ sin ! ∗ !!"#$ energy consumption during downhill running.
Additionally, the cost of braking and propelling
We divided Iwasted by body mass and calculated a body mass parallel to the running surface may
mean value for each condition. We used Pearson’s contribute more to total metabolic energy cost
product-moment correlation (r) to determine the during downhill running than level-ground running.
relationship between Iwasted and Pmet with a
significance level of 0.05. REFERENCES

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. Kram R & Taylor CR. Nature 346, 265-267, 1990.
2. Roberts TJ, et al. J Exp Biol 201, 2745-2751, 1998.
3. Hoogkamer W, et al. PeerJ 2, e482, 2014.
Iwasted decreased when running downhill compared 4. Cavagna GA, et al. J Appl Physiol 19, 249-256, 1964.
to level-ground. For 2.25, 2.50, and 3.00 m/s, 5. DeWolf AH, et al. J Exp Biol 219, 2276-2288, 2016.
respectively, at -2° Iwasted was 26%, 27%, and 25% 6. Teunissen LPJ, et al. J Exp Biol 210, 4418-4427, 2007.
lower, at -4° Iwasted was 82%, 78%, and 72% lower, 7. Gottschall JS & Kram R. J Biomech 38, 445-452, 2005.
and at -6° Iwasted was 271%, 223%, and 182% lower 8. Minetti AE, et al. J Exp Biol 195, 211-225, 1994.
9. Chang YH & Kram R. J Appl Physiol 86, 1657-1662, 1999.
compared to level-ground running. 10. Brockway JM. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 41C, 463-471, 1987.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
THE EFFECT OF GRADE ON THE BIOMECHANICS OF DOWNHILL RUNNING IN FEMALE
DISTANCE RUNNERS
1
Meredith Wells, 1 D. Clark Dickin, 1 Jennifer Popp, and 1 Henry Wang
1
Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA
email: mdwells@bsu.edu

INTRODUCTION study. All participants signed an informed consent,
and IRB approval was received. Participants were
Vast numbers of people run because it provides a provided compression clothing and standardized
variety of health benefits and can be done athletic shoes. Anthropometric measurements were
anywhere. Long distance runners have an increased taken, and reflective markers were placed on
likelihood of running up and down hills during long anatomical landmarks following a modified plug-in-
runs, and hill training is a key technique used to gait model.
build strength and speed. Despite the health benefits
of long distance running, anywhere from 27 to 79 Participants warmed up for 5-10 minutes on a level
percent of distance runners will sustain an overuse surface before being fit with a harness attached to
injury over the course of a year [1]. the ceiling as a safety precaution. Each participant
ran on an AMTI force-instrumented treadmill
Kinetic variables such as high vertical ground (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc.,
reaction forces (GRF), and high impact loading Watertown, MA, USA) at 0%, -5%, -10%, -15%,
rates have been linked to overuse injuries in runners and -20% grades for 1-2 minutes at 4.0 m/s in a
[2]. Some of the most common overuse running randomized order. Participants were given 3-5
injuries are patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) minutes of rest between each condition.
and stress fractures [3]. The most likely cause of
stress fractures and PFPS are high GRFs [4,5]. Kinematic data were collected using 15 VICON
infrared cameras (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK),
Although numerous studies have been conducted on sampling at 200 Hz. Kinetic data was sampled at
level running, there is limited research available 2000 Hz. Vicon Nexus 2.5, Visual 3D, and Matlab
regarding downhill running. No downhill running were used to process the data and calibrate the
studies have been conducted looking at specifically treadmill. Statistical significance was determined
females, yet females are at an increased risk of using a repeated measure MANOVA in SPSS with
injury due to anatomical differences [6]. Therefore, an alpha level of .05.
the purpose of this study was to analyze the
biomechanics of female distance runners at four RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
different downhill grades compared to level with
regards to the risk of injury. It was hypothesized The GRF at -15% and -20% were both significantly
that the steeper declines would show greater vertical greater compared to each of the other grades
GRFs, higher loading rates, and increased knee and (p<.001). There was also a dose-response
hip extension at initial contact, leading to an relationship in 10% increments. The -15% grade
increased risk for injury. was greater than -5%, and -20% was greater than
-10%. The average and peak loading rates were
METHODS significantly greater in each of the downhill grades
compared to the level condition, and there was a
Fifteen healthy, female distance runners (Age: 23.5 dose-response relationship seen (p<.001). However,
± 4.9 years, Ht: 1.7 ± .06m, Wt: 57.8 ± 6.8kg, 0% and -5% were not significantly different from
weekly mileage: 35 ± 13 miles) participated in this each other (Table 1).

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Knee and hip flexion at initial contact decreased of injury. Additionally, the steeper the grade is, the
significantly in each of the downhill grades greater the risk of injury becomes.
compared to the level condition (p<.001) (Fig. 1).
CONCLUSIONS
Hip  Flexion  
Knee  Flexion   There is a chance that running downhill at steep
45  
grades for an extended period of time may increase
40  
the risk of sustaining a running related injury. It is
Joint  Angle  (degrees)  

35  
30   important for runners and coaches to be aware of
25   these potential risks when running downhill so that
20   training may be modified to avoid injury.
15  
10   REFERENCES
5  
0   1. Lun V, et al. Br J Sports Med 38, 576–580,
0   -­‐5   -­‐10   -­‐15   -­‐20  
Grade  (%)   2004.
2. Hreljac A, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32,
Figure 1: Hip and knee joint angles at initial 1635–1641, 2000.
contact. 3. Taunton JE, et al. Br J Sports Med 36, 95–
101, 2002.
Musculoskeletal injuries occur due to forces being 4. Ferber R, et al. Clin Biomech 18, 350-357,
applied to a structure beyond the capabilities of that 2003.
structure. Repetitive forces that are small in 5. Lorimer A, et al. Sports Med 44, 1459–1472,
magnitude and high in number are likely to cause an 2014.
overuse injury [7]. Distance runners are highly 6. van Gent R, et al. Br J Sports Med 41, 469–
prone to stress fractures due to the repetitive loading 480, 2007.
of the lower extremity [8]. The risk of sustaining a 7. Hreljac A, et al. Int J Sports Med 7, 98–108,
stress fracture increases when the magnitude of the 2006.
load being applied increases, as was seen in our 8. Edwards W, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41,
results. Running down steep hills involves landing 2177–2184, 2009.
from a greater vertical height, which can lead to a 9. Ali N, et al. J Hum Kinet 37, 27–38, 2013.
greater vertical GRF, and decreased knee and hip 10. Rolf C. Scand J Med Sci Sports 5, 181–190,
flexion [9], as was illustrated in our results. 1995.

High GRFs and landing in greater knee extension ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
have been found to increase the likelihood of
sustaining PFPS [4,10]. Increased GRFs and a high Ball State University Graduate Student ASPIRE
rate of loading may also increase the risk of stress Grant.
fractures. Therefore, the results from our study
indicate that running downhill may increase the risk

Table 1: Vertical GRF and loading rate normalized to body weight (mean ± standard deviation)
Grade
0% -5% -10% -15% -20%
Peak vertical GRF (BW) 2.48 ± 0.16 2.47 ± 0.16 2.53 ± 0.20 2.76 ± 0.24 3.01 ± 0.31
Average loading rate (BW/s) 2.45 ± 0.37 3.00 ± 1.15 5.65 ± 2.46 7.69 ± 2.20 8.74 ± 2.17
Peak loading rate (BW/s) 10.52 ± 2.53 12.11 ± 2.64 13.04 ± 3.63 14.51 ± 5.16 15.95 ± 5.21

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
FOOTSTRIKE PATTERN EFFECTS ON LOADING IN RUNNERS WITH TRANSTIBIAL
AMPUTATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Tatiana Djafar, Katherine Sharp, Julianne Stewart, Jenny Anne Maun, Kimberly Rowe, and Marilynn Wyatt
Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
email: tatiana.e.djafar.ctr@mail.mil

INTRODUCTION walkway, and frontal and sagittal high-speed videos
(Nikon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) were taken for
Runners with amputation have higher reported rates reference purposes. Analog data were sampled at
of injury than their able-bodied counterparts, with 1800Hz, and a fourth-order, low-pass Butterworth
the most common injuries documented as overuse filter with a cut-off frequency of 50Hz was
injuries in the intact limb [1]. Research has shown a subsequently applied.
positive relationship between greater vertical
average loading rates (vALR), defined as how fast Subjects ran through the capture volume at 3.5m·s-1
vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) rises to its ± 5% during data collection, which concluded after
first peak, and lower extremity injury rates in a minimum of three clean force plate strikes per leg
running [2]. Additionally, footstrike pattern has were recorded within the specified velocity range.
been reported to affect the magnitude of vALR, Strike index calculation of the intact limb
with a forefoot strike pattern (FFS) resulting in a determined group designation for four subjects (FFS
lower vALR than a rearfoot strike pattern (RFS) [3]. > 33%, RFS ≤ 33%). Initial contact with the
However, there has been limited research examining forefoot or midfoot was considered FFS while
these effects on persons with amputation. Therefore, initial contact with the heel or hindfoot was
the purpose of this pilot study was to compare the considered RFS. Sagittal reference videos
vertical loading of runners with amputation using confirmed calculated footstrike patterns and were
FFS to those using RFS with their intact, unaffected also used to solely determine the footstrike pattern
limb. It was hypothesized that the vALR of the of one subject for whom strike index was
affected limb would show no differences between unavailable. Kinetic data were processed using
the groups due to the consistency of footstrike Visual 3D software (C-Motion Inc., Germantown,
pattern in a running specific prosthesis while the MD, USA), and vALR was calculated as the first
vALR of the unaffected limb would be greater in derivative of vGRF between 20% and 80% of the
the RFS group. Consequently, it was expected that impact peak, defined as the first peak of vGRF.
the difference of vALR between the affected and
unaffected limbs within groups would be greater in RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
the RFS group as well.
Two subjects were identified as using FFS, while
METHODS the remaining three were found to be using RFS on
their unaffected side. As expected, the vALR of the
Five subjects (age 30 ± 8years; height 1.7 ± 0.1m; affected limbs were nearly identical between
weight 79.3 ± 13.9kg) with unilateral, transtibial groups, while the unaffected limbs showed large
amputation were studied using a mobile, differences compared to each other (Fig. 1, Table
overground motion capture system. All subjects had 1). When comparing the affected and unaffected
been cleared for high-level activity by their limbs within groups, differences in vALR were
providers and were prescribed the same running found for both groups. However, differences with
specific prosthesis (Össur® Flex-Run™). RFS were more than five times greater than
differences with FFS (Fig. 1, Table 1). It is evident
Data were collected with a set-up that included four that loading in this subject group is asymmetric
portable force plates (Kistler Instrument Corp., regardless of footstrike pattern, but limb-to-limb
Amherst, NY, USA) embedded within a portable vALR differences within a runner are greatly
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
DISCLOSURE STATEMENT: All authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. The views expressed in the abstract do not necessarily reflect those of the
Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or U.S. Government. All data collection and analysis were performed under IRB protocol NMCSD.2013.0109.
decreased when using FFS with the intact limb (Fig. subjects with unilateral amputation by footstrike
1, Fig. 2, Table 1). pattern depending on their variables of interest due
to the inherent differences in loading observed here.
As previously mentioned, vALR has been suggested
as an important indicator of injury risk, with greater Despite a large effect size of the vALR differences
rates considered a possible cause of overuse running between limbs (2.47), the main limitation of this
injuries [2]. While the results of this pilot study are study is the sample size. The wide range of running
preliminary in nature, there is evidence to consider experience among this small group may account for
footstrike pattern conversion as a clinical the variable vALR and, thus, the larger standard
intervention to reduce vALR in the intact limb of deviations. A post-hoc power analysis calculation
runners with amputation. The injury risk may not be determined that a sample size of eight, with four
eliminated as vALR asymmetry was still observed subjects in each group, would be necessary to
with FFS, but it could potentially be reduced. achieve 80% power. In addition to increasing the
sample size, future work will aim to determine
Vertical Average Loading Rate where footstrike patterns may further influence
150 asymmetries within kinematics and other kinetic
parameters. It would be beneficial to incorporate
vALR (BW/s)

100 able-bodied runners with both footstrike patterns for
50
FFS group
comparison as well.
RFS group

0 CONCLUSIONS
Aff vALR Unaff vALR vALR
Difference
The limited research on the effects of footstrike
Figure 1: Mean ± 1 standard deviation vALR of the affected pattern on loading in runners with amputation
(Aff) limb, unaffected (Unaff) limb, and difference between limbs warrant the need for further study of the running
mechanics of this population, and though
Vertical Ground Reaction Force preliminary, the results presented here support this
3.5
FFS group Aff need. Decreasing the loading rate of the intact limb
3 FFS group Unaff
RFS group Aff
can potentially reduce the risk of overuse injury,
2.5 RFS group Unaff and clinicians and coaches may facilitate this goal
Force (BW)

2
by training these runners to adopt a FFS pattern.
1.5
REFERENCES
1

0.5 1. Hobara H, et al. Jpn J Biomech in Sports Exerc 17, 53-61, 2013.
2. Zadpoor A, Nikooyan AA. J Clin Biomech 26, 23-28, 2011.
0 3. Almeida MO, et al. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 45, 738-51, 2015.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% Stance ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Figure 2: Mean vGRF normalized to stance for the affected (Aff) The authors thank Trevor Kingsbury, Noel Guerrero, and John David
and unaffected (Unaff) limbs between groups Collins for their assistance with data collection and overall technical
support. Project was supported by Navy Bureau of Medicine and
Additionally, these preliminary results have Surgery, Wounded, Ill, and Injured Program (W239) and in part with
implications for other studies investigating running resources provided by Extremity Trauma & Amputation Center of
mechanics of persons with amputation. Future Excellence.

research efforts may want to consider categorizing
Table 1: Descriptive statistics for the affected and unaffected limbs of the FFS and RFS groups
FFS Group RFS Group
Affected Unaffected Affected Unaffected
vALR (BW/s) 27.10 ± 9.96 41.54 ± 17.76 28.57 ± 4.01 108.25 ± 27.68
vALR Difference (BW/s) 15.73 ± 0.01 81.89 ± 37.94
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
DISCLOSURE STATEMENT: All authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. The views expressed in the abstract do not necessarily reflect those of the
Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or U.S. Government. All data collection and analysis were performed under IRB protocol NMCSD.2013.0109.
STEP FREQUENCY IN ELITE ULTRA-MARATHONERS DURING A 100-KM ROAD RACE
1 Geoffrey T. Burns, 1 Jessica Deneweth Zendler, and 1 Ronald F. Zernicke
1
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
email: gtburns@umich.edu

INTRODUCTION gain and loss. Nineteen individuals (12 males and 7
females), all finishing in the top 25 places of the
The step frequency, or cadence, of a runner has race, provided the researchers with the file recorded
been the subject of great interest in the context of from his or her accelerometer-embedded wrist-
both injury prevention and performance based GPS device for the step frequency analysis.
optimization [1-5]. While humans have been shown Speed and pace were recorded at 10-km intervals
to self-optimize their step frequency to that which is from the race’s official lap reports, and the average
the most energetically efficient [3,4], manipulating step frequency for each lap was calculated.
step frequency has been explored as a method to
reduce peak impact forces [5-7]. Furthermore, To analyze changes throughout the race in the
experienced runners have been found to self-select runners’ step frequencies and paces and to explore
higher step frequencies than novice runners [8], but the relations between the two variables, mixed-
varied results have been reported regarding the model linear regressions were performed on each
effect, if any, that fatigue has on self-selected step variable. Distance into the race and sex were used
frequency [2,9]. as fixed predictors, and within-subject changes
across distance were modeled treating subjects as
Given the fundamental nature of this kinematic random effects. Coefficients of the model were
variable, there is a need for normative, field-based assessed for significance using t-tests at a p-value <
data on the characteristics of step frequency across 0.05. All data processing and statistical analysis
individuals, ranges of paces, and levels of fatigue. were performed in R 3.2.2 (R Foundation for
The ultra-marathon has been proposed as model to Statistical Computing, Austria).
study the consequences of muscular fatigue and
prolonged stress in running [10], and studies on RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
healthy, elite runners can provide insights into
highly experienced individuals who have “self- The mean step frequency of all competitors during
optimized” their biomechanics. Therefore, the race was 182.0 ± 12.4 steps per minute (spm),
examining step frequency during an elite road ultra- corresponding to a stride frequency of 1.52 Hz.
marathon over repeated, level-terrain could provide Female competitors had a significantly higher step
insight into the step frequencies of experienced frequency than male competitors: 189.5 spm vs.
runners across a range of speeds and levels of 177.6 spm (p < 0.001). Within all competitors, step
fatigue in a relatively controlled, yet field-based frequency did not significantly change over the
environment. course the 100-km race (Beta = -0.016 spm per km;
p = 0.19) (Fig. 1). However, pace significantly
METHODS slowed over the course of the race (Beta = 0.01
min/km per km; p < 0.001) (Fig. 2). Finally, there
To characterize the step frequency in elite was no significant relation between step frequency
ultramarathon runners, wrist-based accelerometry and pace after controlling for the sex difference (-
data were collected from competitors in the 2016 2.2 spm per min/km; p = 0.47).
IAU 100-kilometer World Championship in Los
Alcazeres, Spain. The race consisted of 10 loops of
a 10-km circuit on city roads with 5 m of elevation

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Figure 2: Paces of individual runners over the
course of a 100-km race with the regression line of
pace across distance.

CONCLUSIONS

In elite ultra-marathoners, step frequency did not
change over the course of a 100-km race despite a
significant slowing of pace. Significant gender
differences existed, with women running 12 spm
more than men. Furthermore, step frequency did not
significantly change with pace. This study provides
field-based evidence that step frequency is
relatively independent of pace across varied levels
of fatigue in highly experienced long-distance
runners.

REFERENCES
Figure 1: Step frequencies of individual runners
1. Schubert AG, et al. Sports Health 6(3), 210-217.
over the course of a 100-km race with the regression
line of step frequency across distance. Note that the 2014.
2. Lieberman DE, et al. J Exp Biology, 218(21),
slope of the line is not significantly different from
zero. 3406-3414. 2015.
3. Cavanagh PR. et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 14(1),
30-35, 1982.
4. Cavanagh PR, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 21(4),
467-79. 1989.
5. Hamill J, et al. Human Movement Sci 14(1), 45-
60. 1995.
6. Heiderscheit BC, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc
43(2), 296-302. 2011.
7. Edwards WB, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(12),
2177-2184. 2009.
8. Nelson RC, et al. Research Quarterly. AAHPER
47(3), 417-428. 1976
9. Morin JB, et al. J Biomech 44(6), 1104-1107.
2011.
10. Millet GP, et al. BMC Med 10(1), 77. 2012.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The investigators thank all participants of the 2016
IAU 100-km World Championship who responded
to requests for data to support this research.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
KNEE JOINT STIFFNESS AS A NEUROMUSCULAR COMPONENT OF PREFERRED SPEED

Jacqueline Morgan, Bhushan Thakkar, Kathryn Harrison, Gregory Crosswell, Robert Tickes, D.S. Blaise
Williams III

VCU RUN LAB, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
email: morganj3@mymail.vcu.edu web: https://khs.vcu.edu/about/vcu-run-lab

INTRODUCTION METHODS

Preferred running speed is commonly utilized in Thirty-three healthy female runners between 18 and
clinical practice and research to best represent a 50 years old [mean age 29.8 (7.5) years, height 1.64
runner’s normal gait mechanics. A physiological (0.06) m, weight 61.8 (9.6) kg] volunteered. Passive
reason for choosing a preferred speed is to create an retroreflective markers were affixed to bilateral
energy-efficient stride (6). Preferred stride lower extremities using a modified Cleveland Clinic
frequencies have been found to be economically marker set.
similar to optimal stride frequencies during non-
fatiguing running (3). Another important contributor Gait analysis was performed on an instrumented
to running performance is lower extremity stiffness. treadmill (Treadmetrix, Park City, UT) using a 5-
Torsional joint stiffness at the knee (KS) and ankle camera motion analysis system (Qualisys, Goteborg,
(AS) are associated with improved performance Sweden). Static calibration was performed with the
through the elastic energy storage and return theory subject in a dual support, upright standing posture.
(7). Following calibration, joint markers were removed
and each participant ran at a preferred speed [mean
Traditionally, KS and AS are calculated as the slope velocity 2.83 (0.287) m/s]. Analysis was collected
of the moment–angle plot during force absorption for 30seconds and the data analysis was performed.
(2). Typically, changes in joint moments and angles
are expressed as differences between peak values and Visual3D software (C-Motion, Germantown, MD)
initial contact. Peak values of the knee and ankle, was used to compute kinematic and kinetic variables
however, do not occur simultaneously or during of joint angles and moments. KS and AS were
similar phases of stance. Hence, calculating joint calculated as a simple-spring model, during the linear
stiffness from the linear component of the moment- component of the moment-angle curve. KIS and AIS
angle curve may better estimate the forces absorbed were calculated as peak joint stiffness between 20%
by the lower extremity joints. Throughout the of stance and peak joint moment. %K and %A were
absorption phase, torsional stiffness changes relative assessed at the percent of stance associated with peak
to changes in force and displacement and thus this is instantaneous stiffness.
not a strictly linear measurement.
A forward step-wise multiple linear regression
Calculating torsional stiffness during the stance analysis was employed to examine the association
phase (instantaneous stiffness) may provide a unique between preferred running speed and six potential
method for examining the motor control parameters independent variable gait measures. Variables of KS,
of preferred running and its relationship to joint AS, KIS, AIS, %K, %A were fit into a best-fit model
stiffness. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to utilizing the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC)
examine the relationship between preferred running selection criteria. Analysis was performed using
speed and joint stiffness (KS, AS), along with the JMP® Pro 12.2.0, SAS Institute Inc, 2015.
timing and magnitude of peak instantaneous stiffness Significance was set at α< 0.05.
at the knee (%K, KIS) and ankle (%A, AIS).

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RESULTS speed. Previous research has found increases in
speed to be significantly associated with increases in
Six covariates of gait stiffness variables were fit into knee stiffness (1,4), when stiffness was assessed
a best-fit forward step-wise linear regression model. across previously determined speed. KIS was found
The AIC selection criteria resulted in a best fit model to be inversely associated with faster self-selected
using covariates of KS, KIS, and %K. The results of speeds, suggesting that torsional stiffness parameters
the regression model found a significant positive that are more consistent across stance with damped
association between preferred speed and both knee peaks may allow for greater control of movement
stiffness variables (Adj R2 =0.304, p=0.004), with during running and a faster more efficient gait.
KS and KIS explaining 30.4% of the variance in
preferred speed. Post hoc analysis showed KS was The results of our finding are novel and suggest that
positively associated with preferred speed (slope = knee stiffness may be a motor control parameter used
9.26), while KIS was negatively associated with to generate a neuromuscularly efficient gait.
speed (slope = -1.77) (Figure 1a-b). Implications from our findings suggest runners may
have an optimal knee stiffness during preferred
running to provide the runner with a “comfortable”
gait (5). The runners recruited in our study were
recreational runners. Therefore, improving
neuromuscular performance through the generation
of preferred stiffness may help to temper any
reductions in maximal predictors of performance
(VO2max).

Physiological measures were not collected for this
study, however, futures studies would benefit from
examining the relationship between joint stiffness,
running economy, and motor control to better
understand the recreational runner. Investigations
into the optimal joint stiffness may aid future
researchers and clinicians when examining
deficiencies in stiffness, injury risk, and potential
intervention to address those impairments.

REFERENCES
1. Arampatzis, A., et al. Journal of Biomechanics,
32, 1349-1353, 1999.
2. Butler, R., et al. Clinical Biomechanics, 18:511-
517, 2003.
3. Hunter, I., et al. European Journal of Applied
Physiology, 100:653, 2007.
4. Kuitunen, S., et al. Medicine & Science in Sports
Figure 1: The correlation between preferred speed and
& Exercise,34(1):166-173, 2002.
KIS (1a), and KS (1b).
5. Lussiana, T., et al. Biology Open, 5:45-48, 2016.
6. Rathkey, J., et al. American Journal of Physical
DISCUSSION
Anthroplogy, 1-9, 2017.
7. Stefanyshyn, D., et al. Journal of Applied
Stiffness variables of the knee and ankle were
examined for their relationship to preferred running Biomechanics,14(3):292-299, 1998
speed. Only knee stiffness variables (KS, KIS) were
found to be significantly correlated to preferred
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
EFFECT OF SLOPE AND SPEED ON KINETICS OF JOGGING WITH A BACKPACK

Philippe Malcolm3, Fausto A. Panizzolo1,2, Jozefien Speeckaert1,2,4, Jinsoo Kim1,2, Hao Su1,2,
Giuk Lee1,2, Ignacio Galiana1,2, Kenneth G. Holt5, Conor J. Walsh1,2
1
John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and
2
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3
Department of Biomechanics and Center for Research in Human Movement Variability,
University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE, 68182, USA
4
Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, B9000, Belgium
5
Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Science, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
email: walsh@seas.harvard.edu, web: http://biodesign.seas.harvard.edu/, http://coe.unomaha.edu/brb

INTRODUCTION power portions and dividing by stride time. Next,
Running while carrying a load under different we evaluated the linear, second order and
conditions such as slopes and speeds is a part of interaction effects of slope and speed on each metric
military training [1], trail running [2], commuting using mixed-model ANOVA with stepwise
and conditioning exercises [3]. There have been elimination.
different studies on effects of slope [4–6], speed
[7,8] and load [3,9,10] on biomechanics of running. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
However, only a limited number of studies analyzed As hypothesized, we found that an increase in slope
the effects of multiple parameters in interaction (e.g. leads to an increase in positive work rate at the hip
[3]) and, to the best of our knowledge, there has and ankle joint (similar to [5] and [6]) and to a
been no study on the effects of slope and speed decrease in negative work rate mostly at the knee
during jogging with a relevant military load at slow joint and for the sum of all joints (Figure 1).
speeds that are likely to occur at such slope and load Furthermore, we found that an increase in speed led
combinations. Knowledge about the effects of slope to an increase in positive work rate at all joints, but
and speed on the joint kinetics can be useful for at the knee this effect is very small. We also found
understanding the performance requirements of that an increase in speed led to an increase in
different types of terrain and for preparing negative work rate for all joints. We found
accordingly. Our aim is to study the effects of slope significant interactions for the effect of slope and
and speed on joint kinetics during slow jogging with speed in all joints for positive work rate but only in
a military relevant backpack load. We hypothesize the knee for negative work rate (Table 1).
that uphill jogging will increase positive work
(mostly at the hip and ankle) [5, 6] and reduce
negative work and that faster jogging will increase
both positive and negative work (mostly at the hip
and ankle) [3,7,8].

METHODS
We tested 10 healthy male participants (29 ± 2 yrs;
76 ± 3 kg; 1.79 ± 0.02m; mean ± s.e.m.) during
jogging on a treadmill (Bertec) at 15 combinations
of slope (–8, -4, 0, +4 and +8°) and speed (2, 2.5
and 3 m s-1) with a 15kg backpack. We measured
joint kinetics using motion capture (Vicon). We
calculated rates of positive and negative work for Figure 1: Effects of speed (a,c) and slope (b,d) on total positive (a,b)
and negative (c,d) work from the hip knee and ankle. Dots and error
each joint by integrating positive and negative bars are mean ± s.e.m. Lines show curve fits from ANOVA.
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
These results quantitatively show that fast uphill 1. Knapik J, et al. Mil. Med. 2004;
loaded jogging is strenuous, not only because 2. Knoth C, et al. Extrem. Physiol. Med. 2012;
positive joint work rate increases with slope and 1:13.
speed, but also because the interaction between 3. Liew BXW, et al. J. Biomech. 2016;8–13.
slope and speed further magnifies these effects. 4. Buczek FL, et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1990.
Results also show that the combination of fast 669–77.
downhill jogging leads to high negative work at the 5. Swanson SC, et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.
knee because of the effect of slope, the effect of 2000; 32:1146–55.
speed and that this is further magnified by 6. Roberts TJ, Belliveau R. J. Exp. Biol. 2005;
interaction of slope and speed. Knowledge of these 208:1963–70.
effects can be useful for choosing pacing strategies, 7. Schache AG, et al. Med. Sci. Sport. Exerc.
course selection, estimating injury risk, optimizing 2011; 43:1260.
training and rehabilitation and for selecting and 8. Dorn TW et al. J. Exp. Biol. 2012; 215: 1944 –
developing orthotic or assistive devices. For 56.
example, an assistive exoskeleton for running [11] 9. Brown TN, et al. Gait Posture. 2014; 40: 237 –
could be programmed to change its assistance 42.
magnitude based on the equations in table 1 to 10. Silder A, et al. J. Biomech.; 2015;1–6.
mimic human responses to changes in slope and 11. Elliott G, et al. Int Conf Rehabil Robot. Seattle:
speed. IEEE; 2013. 6650418.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was funded by Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Warrior Web
Program (Contract No. W911NF-14-C-0051), NSF
(Grant No. CNS-1446464), Wyss Institute, John A.
Paulson School of Engineering and Applied
Sciences at Harvard University. We thank Adham
Meguid, Andrew Long, Asa Eckert-Erdheim and
Lauren Baker for their help.
Table 1: Coefficients of mixed-model ANOVA for each outcome metric. Only significant terms were retained (p-values < 0.05).
Outcome metric = intercept + a · slope + b · slope2 + c · speed + d · speed2 + e · (speed · slope) with slope in ° and speed in m s-1.
a b c d e
Intercept (slope) (slope2) (speed) (speed2) (speed · slope) R2
Positive hip work rate (W kg-1) 0.518 0.004 -0.409 0.237 0.034 0.946
Positive knee work rate (W kg-1) -0.684 0.001 0.891 -0.163 0.007 0.689
Positive ankle work rate (W kg-1) -2.195 2.248 -0.330 0.026 0.913
Negative hip work rate (W kg-1) -0.022 0.005 -0.001 -0.022 0.587
Negative knee work rate (W kg-1) 0.333 0.029 -0.003 -0.572 0.009 0.901
Negative ankle work rate (W kg-1) 1.293 0.014 -0.001 -1.273 0.178 0.883
Total positive work rate (W kg-1) -2.341 0.005 2.731 -0.256 0.066 0.953
Total negative work rate (W kg-1) 1.700 0.070 -0.005 -1.938 0.177 0.929

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUNNING ECONOMY AND KINEMATICS OF THE UPPER
EXTREMITY AND TRUNK

Grace Rhodehouse, Shane P. Murphy, Barbara J. Schornstein, Abbie E. Ferris,
Gary D. Heise, and Jeremy D. Smith

School of Sport & Exercise Science, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA
email: grace.rhodehouse@unco.edu web: www.unco.edu/biomechanics

INTRODUCTION (AMTI, Watertown, MA) while expired gases were
collected using a metabolic cart (Parvo Medics,
Variability in running economy has been reported in Sandy, UT). A ramped protocol was used for the
homogenous groups (based on maximal aerobic VO2max test, with participants running at 3.1 m·s-1
capacity or race performance) of trained distance for the entire test. Treadmill grade was increased by
runners. Lower extremity kinematics such as 2° every two minutes, until voluntary exhaustion
increased shank angle and increased knee flexion [3]. During Visit 2, steady state VO2 was measured
have been shown to improve steady state economy during a six-minute run at 3.5 m·s-1. Whole body
(i.e., lower VO2 consumption), but have not fully and segmental anthropometrics were measured
explained the variations seen in the homogenous following guidelines of VICON’s Plug-In-Gait
groups [1]. Model. Retroreflective markers were positioned
bilaterally on anatomical landmarks according to
Previous research has also suggested that upper this model. Marker coordinate data (100 Hz) were
extremity motions such as decreased trunk angle captured during each running trial (VICON,
and decreased wrist excursion path lead to improved Englewood, CO).
running economy [2], but it is unclear whether
variability in upper extremity mechanics can Metabolic data were averaged over the last 60 s of
provide further insights into the differences in the six minute treadmill bout. Kinematic data were
running economy among similarly trained runners. also identified during this last 60 s of the trial. Left
arm kinematics of 10 strides during steady state
The purpose of this present study was to determine running were analyzed. (Visual 3D, C-Motion,
whether upper extremity and trunk kinematics were Germantown, MD). Resultant wrist excursion
related to running economy. It was hypothesized length, and range of motion (ROM) and angular
that greater motion of the upper extremity and velocities for the shoulder, elbow, and trunk were
trunk, as well as increased variability of these calculated in all three planes. Stride-to-stride
measures within a participant would lead to variability during the 10 strides for each participant
increased steady state VO2 during running. was also determined for each measure. A Pearson
Product Moment Correlation analysis was used to
METHODS determine relationships between steady state VO2
and upper body kinematics. Significant
Eleven healthy, highly trained female runners (21 ± relationships were those with r > 0.602.
3 years, 1.69 ± 0.05 m, 58.5 ± 3.6 kg) with 5k or
10k times between 19-24 or 40-45 minutes, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
respectively, and training at least 15 miles per week
participated in the study. Participants visited the The VO2max test was designed to have participants
Biomechanics Lab on two separate occasions, reach maximum effort, however the majority of
completing a VO2max test (Visit 1) and a steady state subjects reached voluntary exhaustion before
running protocol (Visit 2). During both visits, exceeding an RER value of 1.1. Therefore, we will
participants ran on an instrumented treadmill refer to the max value from these tests as VO2peak.
VO2peak ranged between 49.9 - 71.6 mL·kg-1·min-1,
with a group mean of 60.9 ± 6.6 mL·kg-1·min-1 Increased rotational trunk velocity and increased
(time to exhaustion 9.6 ± 1.9 minutes). The steady vertical wrist velocity may contribute to increased
state protocol in Visit 2 was performed at a high muscle actions of the trunk and elbow to slow down
intensity in comparison to measured VO2peak for and speed up the segment’s motion. This increased
each participant (79 ± 9% of VO2peak). This muscle action likely leads to increased metabolic
relatively high intensity level reflects an effort energy expenditure during running.
expected of a highly trained runner in an intense
workout or race setting. Trunk flexibility has previously been shown to be
related to running economy [4]. Greater trunk
No significant relationships were observed between rotation flexibility is related to higher steady state
any measures of stride-to-stride variability and VO2. VO2 during running. In the current study, trunk
A significant correlation was observed between ROM, about the vertical axis, approached the
trunk rotational angular velocity and VO2 (r = 0.713 critical value (r = 0.578). Thus, during dynamic
and r = 0.756 for rotation to the right and left, activity, increased rotational motion of the trunk
respectively). During the steady state run, less also appears to increase VO2. It is likely that the
economical runners (i.e., higher VO2) had increased motion of the trunk is controlled significantly by
rotational trunk velocity (Fig. 1A). A significant active muscle rather than more passive mechanisms
correlation was also observed between wrist that might arise with each contact with the ground.
velocity in the vertical direction and VO2 (r =
0.660). As downward wrist velocity increased, VO2 Left wrist excursion path length also approached the
increased (Fig. 1B). critical value (r2 = 0.2965). Runners displaying
longer path lengths were less economical during
350
A Trunk Rotational Velocity
50
steady state running. Although we were unable to
300
0 determine a significant relationship between wrist
Right Trunk Velocity (deg·s-1)

excursion and VO2, previous research has found
Left Trunk Velocity (deg·s-1)

r = 0.713 -50
250 longer wrist excursion path lengths among less
-100
economical runners, during steady state running [1],
200 -150 which is consistent with the trend we observed.
-200
150
CONCLUSIONS
r = 0.756 -250
100
-300
Stride-to-stride variability of the upper extremity
50 -350 and trunk kinematics was not related to running
-1.5
40 45 50 55 60
economy. However, more economical runners
B Vertical Wrist Velocity (lower VO2) had lower rotational trunk velocities
-1.75 and slower vertical velocities of the wrist. Limiting
trunk and wrist motions may lead to lower energy
Vertical Velocity (m·s-1)

expenditures during steady state running.
-2

-2.25
REFERENCES
-2.5 r = 0.660
1. Williams KR, & Cavanagh, PR. J Appl Physiol¸63(3), 1236-1245, 1987
-2.75 2. Arellano CJ, & Kram, R. J Exp Biol, 217, 2456-2461, 2014.
3. Maksud MG & Coutts, KD. Med Sci Sports, 3(2), 63-65, 1971.
-3 4. Gleim GW, et al. J Ortho Res, 8, 814-823, 1990.
40 45 50 55 60
Steady State VO2 (mL·kg-1·min-1)
Figure 1: Relationships between steady VO2 and rotational trunk
velocity (A) and vertical wrist velocity (B). Right trunk rotation (red)
is plotted using the right vertical axis and left trunk rotation (black) is
plotted using the left vertical axis of panel A.
THE EFFECT OF TRANSITIONING FROM A REARFOOT STRIKE PATTERN TO A
NON-REARFOOT STRIKE PATTERN ON RUNNING IMPULSES

Adam Reynolds, Erin Florkiewicz, Donald Goss, Gregory Freisinger

United States Military Academy, West Point, NY, USA
email: gregory.freisinger@usma.edu, web: http://www.usma.edu/cme/SitePages/Home.aspx

INTRODUCTION injury; 3) able to walk pain free for 2 miles; 4)
Annual running injury incidence has been reported dorsiflexion range of motion of at least 80%
between 19-79% with approximately 40% of all symmetry; 5) capable of performing 20 unassisted
running-related injuries occurring at the knee [1]. single leg heel raises; 6) able to perform a single leg
Several popular strategies have been proposed to hop for distance with at least 80% symmetry. These
reduce lower extremity injury risk while running, to participants were clinically diagnosed and
include minimalist footwear and alterations in recovering from one of the following lower
running form [2]. extremity injuries: patellofemoral pain syndrome (3),
lower leg stress injury (2), lower leg fracture (1),
Previous studies have shown a rearfoot strike pattern plantar fasciitis (1), and anterior cruciate ligament
to be associated with a greater incidence of repetitive reconstruction (2).
stress injuries when compared to a forefoot strike
pattern [3]. Much of this research has focused on Table 1. Patient Demographics
vertical loading rate and peak vertical load, but less Sex 5 Male : 4 Female
has focused on the effects on the impulse, or time Age, years 20.3 ± 2.2
integral of applied force, which the individual Height, cm 170.7 ± 13.8
experiences. The purpose of this study was to further Mass, kg 71.7 ± 14.9
investigate the changes in impulse when *All values are means ± standard deviations
transitioning from a rearfoot strike (RFS) to a non-
rearfoot strike (NRFS) running style. The running transition program began with a private
30 minute training session to encourage transition
Acceleration in running results from an imbalance of from a RFS to a NRFS running pattern. Training
posterior and anterior impulses [4]. This study focused on soft landing off of the heel, a cadence of
investigated running at a constant pace in which a approximately 180 steps/minute, forward trunk lean
balance must exist between these two impulses. We and strict adherence to a gradual walk to run
hypothesized that following the transition from RFS progression. Participants met with their study
to NRFS, a decrease in the magnitude of the posterior assigned medical provider once a week post-training
and anterior impulses will be observed. We also for the first 4 weeks, then again at weeks 6, 8, and 10
hypothesized that vertical impulse will decrease, upon which the training focuses were reinforced.
while medial and lateral impulses remain unchanged,
following running style transition. Prior to the training program and at week 10 post-
training, each participant’s running ground reaction
METHODS force were assessed. Participants ran at a self-
Nine patients were recruited from the Arvin Cadet selected speed for 5 minutes on an instrumented
Physical Therapy Clinic at West Point, NY for the treadmill [Bertec; Columbus, OH]. Speed was kept
10-week transition program and provided IRB constant throughout the study. Foot-strike pattern
approved informed consent. Participants were cadets was assessed utilizing a high speed digital camera
with previous running experience and their [Casio EX-ZR200; Tokyo, Japan] recording at 240
demographics are shown in Table 1. All participants frames per second. Ground reaction forces were
met each of the 6 inclusion criteria: 1) previously a sampled at 1000Hz, low-pass Butterworth filtered at
RFS runner; 2) recovering from a lower extremity 35Hz, and normalized as a percentage of each
participant’s bodyweight (BW). This data was used approximately 10% bodyweight-seconds (BW-s) for
to calculate impulse in the vertical (vImp), anterior each pImp and aImp. This suggests there is overall
(aImp), posterior (pImp), medial (mImp) and lateral greater total impulse in the anterior-posterior
(lImp) directions for each step. Ensemble averages dimension when patients transition from a RFS to
were calculated from five left and right stance NRFS per step. We also found no change in the
phases, then the left and right foot data were also vImp, contrary to our original hypothesis. No
averaged. Cadence was determined based on the statistically significant changes were found in the
vertical ground reaction force data. Subjective mImp or lImp. The impulse values for the initial and
measures of running ability were assessed using the 10 week assessment are shown in Table 2.
Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) and Single
Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) averaged CONCLUSIONS
scores. PSFS measures functional running ability on We have observed approximately a 10% increase in
a scale from 0 (unable to perform running) to 10 (able the magnitudes of the anterior and posterior
to perform running at the same level as before impulses, in the short-term, after transitioning
injury), whereas SANE assesses how normal their habitual RFS runners to a NRFS pattern. This is
injured body part feels from 0% to 100%. accompanied by a strong increase in PSFS and
SANE scores, showing an increase in subjective
Paired t-tests were used to identify differences functional running ability. No significant changes in
between the initial and 10 week assessments for the impulse were observed in the medial, vertical, or
impulse calculations, cadence, and PSFS measures. lateral directions. Additional work is necessary to
A significance level of alpha = 0.05 was used. identify the long-term effects of increased impulse
when transitioning to a NRFS following injury.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All 9 subjects successfully transitioned to a NRFS REFERENCES
running style as verified by high speed camera. 1. Van Gent RN, et al. Br J Sports Med 41, 469-480,
Cadence increased from an average of 170.2 ± 10.1 2007.
to 179.8 ± 6.4 steps per minute (p < 0.05). Average 2. McDougall, Born to Run, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009.
PSFS and SANE scores also increased by 3. Daoud, et al. Medicine & Science in Sports &
approximately 50% (p <0.01) and 25% (p < 0.01) Exercise 44.7: 1325-334. 2012.
respectively, suggesting increased running ability 4. Van Caekenberghe et al. J R Soc Interface 10:
and decreased discomfort (Table 1). 20130222 2013.

Contrary to our hypothesis, our results demonstrated ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
a significant increase in the average pImp (p<0.01) Funding for this study was provided by United States
and a matching increase in aImp (p<0.01). The Military Academy Center for Innovation and
average magnitude of change increased Engineering.

Table 2: Impulses, cadence, PSFS, and SANE data for the 9 participants at initial test and at week 10.
Anterior Posterior Medial Lateral Vertical
Cadence PSFS SANE
Impulse Impulse Impulse Impulse Impulse
(steps/min) (0-10) (0-100)
(BW-s) (BW-s) (BW-s) (BW-s) (BW-s)
Initial -0.019 ± 0.018 ± -0.007 ± 0.007 ± 0.350 ± 170.2 ± 6.1 ± 75.0 ±
Test 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.304 10.1 1.0 13.5
Week 10 -0.022 ± 0.020 ± -0.007 ± 0.005 ± 0.343 ± 179.8 ± 9.3 ± 95.9 ±
0.002 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.293 6.4 0.9 6.8
p-value <0.01* <0.01* 0.67 0.14 0.51 <0.01* <0.01* <0.01*
*indicates a statistically significant difference. All values are mean ± standard deviation. Patient Specific
Functional Scale (PSFS); Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE)
COORDINATION AND COORDINATIVE VARIABILITY OF THE LOWER LIMBS
IN COMPETITIVE MALE DISTANCE RUNNERS
1 Richard C. Franzese, 2 Julie A. Stebbins, 1 Amy B. Zavatsky
1 University
of Oxford, UK
2 OxfordGait Laboratory, UK
email: richard.c.franzese@gmail.com
INTRODUCTION 12.9 km h-1, 14.3 km h-1, and 16.0 km h-1 in a
randomized order for BF and SD conditions. Twelve
This work quantifies coordination and coordinative
MX cameras (Vicon, Oxford, UK) captured lower-
variability in lower-limb motion, using continuous
limb kinematics data at 200 Hz. Pelvis and thigh
relative phase (CRP) [1] and CRP variability
segments were defined according to the Plug in Gait
(vCRP), for a population of uninjured, competitive
model, whilst tibia, rearfoot, and forefoot segments
male distance runners. The effects of velocity and
were defined using the Oxford Foot Model. Based
footwear are considered, with stride-specific foot-
on available data, between 15 and 31 consecutive
strike angle (FSA) as a covariate. Barefoot (BF) and
strides per trial were analyzed.
shod (SD) conditions are studied because they mark
mechanical boundary conditions for affecting The discrete Hilbert transform, implemented in
running biomechanics. MATLAB, was applied to the entire time series
(O(103) points) of consecutive gait cycles as part of
Segmental coordination is different to joint
CRP calculation. Heel and toe marker trajectories
kinematics; joint kinematics may change whilst
were used to determine foot-strike [4] and toe-off
coordination patterns for the segments involved do
[5] events. Swing and stance phase CRP time series
not. vCRP decreases with higher competitive
were time normalized to 51 points, with impact
standards [2] and may also decrease with injury [3].
phase defined as 0-16% of stance phase. Omitting
Therefore quantifying CRP and vCRP for a trained
the first and last gait cycles was sufficient to
population, under conditions which reflect training,
eliminate edge effects, and any remaining
may inform on future studies in untrained or
waveforms were omitted if they exhibited limit
recreational populations.
cycle oscillations upon visual inspection. Trials
We hypothesize that CRP and vCRP vary with which contained 5 or more gait cycles were used for
velocity and footwear use, and that FSA is a statistical analysis.
significant covariate during impact phase.
CRP was calculated per stride for the three periods
METHODS as the circular mean. Given all time normalized gait
cycles per trial, vCRP was calculated as the point-
Segmental sagittal plane coupling, rather than joint wise circular standard deviation across all valid gait
angle coupling, was studied for pelvis-thigh, thigh- cycles, thus generating a single waveform per trial.
tibia (ThiTib), tibia-rearfoot, and rearfoot-forefoot. From this, the circular mean was calculated for each
Hindfoot segment frontal-tibia segment transverse time period. The median FSA for which vCRP data
plane coupling (EVTIR) was also measured. was valid was used as the summary FSA.
Nineteen habitually SD male distance runners (1500
Statistical analysis was performed using MATLAB
m personal record: mean (st. dev.) = 3.59.8 (10.0);
and R. Hierarchical linear mixed-effects models
age: median = 21, min = 19, max = 31) were
(LMM) with saturated fixed effects were used. The
recruited from a College cross country club.
inclusion of velocity, footwear, or an intercept as
Participants ran BF, then SD, on a treadmill (Ultim8
subject-level random effects was determined using
Fitness Ltd, UK) for at least 3 minutes per trial at
likelihood ratio tests with p < 0.05. LMM are more
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
flexible than ANOVA analyses because they allow functional demand of pronation, or arises from a
correlations between random effects to be modeled, signal processing artifact.
may account for missing data, and quantify
between-subject variability (BSV). A Bonferroni
correction, owing to three comparisons per coupling
relationship, was applied in tests for statistical

CRP / degrees
-1800
significance such that p < 0.017 was significant.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Footwear was a random effect for all six applicable -3600
statistical tests. This may reflect subject-specific
responses to footwear as compared to BF running.
Footwear was a significant fixed effect for ThiTib 2 4 6
Time / seconds
CRP during impact phase, such that CRP was more
360
in-phase for SD running. However, when
accounting for BSV in the effect of footwear, 13%

CRP / degrees
of subjects were more out-of-phase for slow SD 0
versus slow BF running. Generally, the magnitude
of BSV was comparable to the size of the associated
significant fixed effect. Therefore, whilst -360

statistically significant, changes may be of limited
biomechanical significance. However, CRP was 2 4 6
more robust to changes in velocity and differences Time / seconds

in FSA for SD running, possibly from habituation to
the SD condition. Also, FSA was a significant Figure 1: EVTIR CRP for a single subject running
covariate for all CRP couplings during impact. BF at 12.9 km h-1 (top) and 14.3 km h-1 (bottom),
with stance phases as solid lines.
vCRP magnitudes were smaller than for previous
CONCLUSIONS
studies. This may reflect skill development, or arise
from different phase space construction methods. Future studies of CRP should account for
vCRP for ThiTib reduced as velocity increased, but differences in velocity, footwear and FSA. Where
velocity, condition, and FSA were not significant for studies use a variety of footwear, LMM for
other vCRP coupling relationships. hypothesis testing is recommended, such that
footwear may be modeled as a random effect.
Transient phase locking between segments for
Further study of EVTIR with a larger population is
EVTIR CRP appears to emerge at higher velocities
encouraged, to ascertain whether a coordinative
for BF running (Figure 1). This coincides with
adaption occurs with changes in velocity.
higher vCRP around mid-stance. This may arise
from changes in rearfoot segment motion. However, REFERENCES
EVTIR data from several trials were omitted 1.Lamb PF and Stöckl M. Clin Biomech 29 484-93,
because limit cycle oscillations were present in the 2014
CRP signal. The Hilbert transform is susceptible to 2.Cazzola D et al. JSHS 5 35-43, 2016
oscillations due to feedback because it is an infinite 3.Hamill J et al. Clin Biomech 14 297-308, 1999
impulse response filter. Therefore it is unclear 4.O'Connor CM et al. Gait Posture 25 469-74, 2007
whether this observation reflects a mechanism 5.Maiwald C et al. Proc 22nd Conf ISB Cape Town,
utilized by the foot to address an increased South Africa, 2009
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Lower Limb Segmental Variability During a 40-Min Prolonged Run
1
Julia Freedman Silvernail, 1Kristyne Wiegand, 2 Max R. Paquette
1
UNLV, Department of Kinesiology, Las Vegas, NV, USA
2
University of Memphis, School of Health Studies, Memphis, TN, USA
email: jfs@unlv.edu

INTRODUCTION study. Written consent approved by the IRB was
obtained for all participants before testing begun.
The high frequency of knee injuries in runners has
inspired scientists to study a number of running Before testing, neoprene wraps were secured on
biomechanical variables. Discrete variables relative both thighs and shanks and around the waist.
to joint motion and loading have been identified as Runners then ran at an easy effort on the treadmill
possible risk factors for running knee injuries [1,2]. for 5 minutes to allow the wraps to set into place. A
More sensitive metrics have been developed to 9-camera motion capture system (240Hz, Qualisys
assess the underlying organization of movement. AB, Sweden) was used to collect kinematic data
Coordination variability, one such metric, has the during running. Anatomical markers and tracking
ability to assess how an individual alters their marker clusters were placed on both lower
movement organization throughout an entire extremities to define segment coordinate systems.
movement each time they repeat a cyclical task. Following a standing calibration trial, only
This provides insight to the adaptability and perhaps anatomical markers were removed and runners
health of the individual’s movement. completed a 40-minute treadmill run. The run speed
was set to 75% of the runners’ best 10 km race time
To date, the majority of biomechanical studies have in the past 5 years to ensure a moderate run effort
assessed injury-related variables during either a based on running ability (6.7±1.2 miles/hour). Four
one-time non-fatigued or exhaustive laboratory test. 6-second motion capture trials were collected after
However, runners often complete submaximal runs 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes to obtain 3D lower limb
during their regular training. Thus, the clinical kinematics during the run.
implications of injury-related variables may be
better understood if studied following a typical Visual3D biomechanical software (C-Motion,
training run. Germantown, MD, USA) was used to process and
analyze all data. Kinematic data were interpolated
The purpose of this work was to compare lower using a least-squares fit of a 3rd order polynomial
limb segmental couples throughout a 40min with a three data point fitting and a maximum gap
submaximal run in runners of all levels. We of 10 frames. Data were then filtered using a fourth-
expected that as the run progressed, runners would order Butterworth low-pass filter at 8 Hz. The start
have a less flexible system resulting in a freezing of and end of stance phase were identified using the
degrees of freedom as indicated by a decrease in minimal vertical pelvis velocity with a 15ms offset
coordination variability. [3] and peak knee extension [4], respectively. Using
a modified vector coding technique [5] coordination
METHODS variability was assessed for early, mid and late
stance of segment coordination at the knee. This
Fourty-four runners (24 men; 30±8 yrs; 68.1±11.4 was assessed for thigh-shank sagittal plane coupled
kg; 1.74±0.1 m; 34.3±13.9 miles/week; 9.9±5.2 motion and the thigh sagittal and shank transverse
years of running experience) participated in the plane coupled rotation. The average variability for
each phase of stance of five steps was taken at each
of the four collection times. These participant
averages were used for analysis.

Fig 1. Sample Angle-Angle plot utilized for vector coding
analysis.

Repeated measures ANOVAs with Time as the
within-subject factor were used to evaluate all
couples (23.0 SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA).
Significance was set at an alpha level of 0.05.

Fig 2. Average Thigh Shank Coordination Variability during
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION the Stance Phase of Running. (a) Sagittal plane motion of both
segments. (b) Sagittal plane motion of the thigh coupled with
There were no differences in coordination transverse plane motion of the shank.
variability over time in any of the measured couples
(Figure 2). CONCLUSIONS

Although fatigue has previously been connected to These findings suggest that in well trained male and
changes in movement, these occurred during an female runners, the completion of a submaximal
exhaustive run [6]. We observed no effect of run prolonged run does not affect the adaptability of
time on coordination variability during this their system as evidenced by the unchanged
submaximal 40min run. There are a few factors that coordination variability throughout the run. Future
likely relate to this discrepancy between the current studies are needed as the current findings may be
study and previous research. The runners in this different in novice runners with less running
study were well trained (i.e., ~35 miles/week) and a experience or when completing a longer fatiguing
40 minute run at a sub-maximal pace was in line run.
with their normal training regimen. Furthermore,
while this run was prolonged, it was not an REFERENCES
1. Ott B, et al. J Electr Kinesiol, 21, 631-637, 2011.
exhaustive run. In these individuals performing a
2. Dierks TA, et al. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 38, 448-
typical training run, they were able to maintain 456, 2008.
flexibility and adaptability in their movement. 3. Milner et al. J Biomech, 18, 3502-3505, 2015.
Perhaps if this were a novel task to the runners we 4. Fellin et al. J Sc Med Sp, 13, 646-650, 2010.
would may have observed a decrease in variability 5. Freedman Silvernail et al. MSSE, 10, 2175-2180, 2015.
over the course of the run. 6. Derrick et al. MSSE, 34, 998-1002, 2002.
EFFECT OF RUNNING SPEED ON FOOT STRIKE INDEX, SPATIO-TEMPORAL PARAMETERS
AND REARFOOT PRONATION IN RUNNERS
1
Reginaldo K. Fukuchi, 2 Claudiane A. Fukuchi and 1,2 Marcos Duarte
1
Biomedical Engineering Program, Federal University of ABC
2
Neuroscience and Cognition, Federal University of ABC, Brazil
email: reginaldo.fukuchi@ufabc.edu.br, web: http://demotu.org/

INTRODUCTION dimensional kinematics and kinetics data were
obtained by a 12-camera motion capture system
Improving the knowledge related to gait (Motion Analysis) and an instrumented treadmill
biomechanics across a range of running speeds may (FIT, Bertec), while the subjects ran at 2.5 m/s, 3.5
help to understand the contributing factors related to m/s, and 4.5 m/s. The sampling frequency was 150
both running performance and running injuries. In Hz for the kinematics and 300 Hz for the kinetics
fact, excessive running pace has been considered to data. The FSI was calculated according to [4]. The
be a risk factor for running injuries [1] but its data processing and data analysis were performed in
influence on gait biomechanical variables remains Visual 3D software (C-motion). Either one-way
poorly understood. For instance, rearfoot pronation ANOVAs or Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed
and foot strike patterns have been associated to to examine the effect of running speed considering
running injuries [2, 3] despite the fact that few the homogeneity of variances assumption. Post hoc
studies have attempted to examine their behavior pairwise comparisons were performed with
under different running speeds. Bonferroni adjustments whenever a main effect was
observed. The level of significance was 0.05.
Regarding the spatiotemporal parameters, to our
knowledge, no studies have examined the effect of RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
increased running pace on stride width despite the
fact that a narrow stride width has been associated A main effect of running speed on stride length
with increased loading of the tibia during running. (Χ2=71.33; p<0.001) and cadence (F=26.72;
Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate p<0.001) were observed. The post hoc analysis
the effect of different running speed on foot strike revealed that both stride length and cadence were
index (FSI), spatio-temporal parameters and significantly higher as the gait speed increased
rearfoot pronation in competitive runners. We (Figure 1). It is possible to observe in Figure 1 that
hypothesized that an increase in stride length, stride length increased at a greater extent compared
cadence and rearfoot pronation would be observed to cadence, suggesting that runners may choose to
with increased running speed. In addition, we rely more on larger strides than on more steps to
hypothesized that a shift towards forefoot strike as cope with higher running speeds, particularly,
well as a narrower stride width would be present at within this range of gait speed (2.5 to 4.5 m/s). The
higher speeds. peak eversion angle was also affected by gait speed
(F=6.28; p=0.003), however, only when the extreme
METHODS speed values were compared (2.5 m/s vs. 4.5 m/s) as
displayed in Figure 1. Similar results have been
The data used in the present study were obtained reported in recreational runners during treadmill
from a public repository available at Figshare (DOI: running at comfortable speeds [5]. Despite the fact
10.6084/m9.figshare.4543435). Briefly, twenty- that both rearfoot pronation and increased pace have
eight competitive runners (27 males and 1 female) been linked with running injuries, this relationship
were analyzed. The information about remains poorly understood and needs to be
demographics, anthropometrics and running habits addressed in future studies.
can be accessed in the public repository. Three-

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Contrary to our hypothesis, no difference was cadence and rearfoot pronation. In contrast, stride
observed for stride width (F=2.60; p=0.08) and FSI width and FSI were not affected by running speed.
(F=0.217; p=0.81) which indicates that gait speed
did not influence these variables. The lack of studies REFERENCES
investigating similar question prevented any
comparison. In regards to the effect of running 1. Nielsen RO, et al. Int J Sports Phys Ther 8:172-
speed on FSI, previous studies have produced 179, 2013.
contrasting results with some evidence suggesting 2. Nigg BM, et al. Br J Sports Med 49:1290-4, 2015.
the existence of an anterior shift of the center of 3. Hamill J, et al. J Sport Health Sci. In Press, 2017.
pressure (as a result of increased speed); and others 4. Cavanagh PR, et al. J Biomech 13: 397-406, 1980.
revealing lack of changes in foot strike patterns. The 5. Munoz-Jimenez M, et al. J Sports Sci 33:2035-
lack of agreement across studies may be explained 2042, 2015.
by the differences related to the range of selected
gait speeds, the method to calculate strike index and ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
the controlled laboratory conditions (treadmill vs.
overground). Future studies need to further address To Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de
these issues. São Paulo (FAPESP) (#13/26829-1, #14/13502-7
and #14/13247-7) e Conselho Nacional de
CONCLUSIONS Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
(#487490/2013-4).
The results demonstrated that increased running
pace was related to an increase in stride length,

Figure 1. Distribution of stride length, cadence, stride width, rearfoot eversion and FSI across gait speeds. The
o
symbols *, , , comprises 2.5 vs. 3.5 m/s; 2.5 vs. 4.5 m/s; 3.5 vs. 4.5 m/s, respectively, for the post hoc
comparisons.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
THE COUPLING OF FOOTSTRIKE AND STRIDE LENGTH IN RUNNING
1
Melissa Thompson, and 2,3 Kristine Hoffman
1
Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO, USA
2
Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA
3
University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA
email: mathompson@fortlewis.edu

INTRODUCTION METHODS

Running is one of the most popular recreational 11 healthy active subjects (5 female, 6 male); mass:
activities worldwide, yet runners exhibit some of 65.9+9.8 kg; age: 24+1.65 years participated in this
the greatest rates of overuse injuries. The gait study. Participants completed two testing sessions
parameters footstrike and stride length have that were separated by at least 24 h. Session 1 was
received considerable attention in the scientific used to determine the participant’s preferred stride
literature due to implications for running related length and velocity. In Session 2, participants ran
overuse injuries. with their stride length manipulated to +5% and
+10% of their preferred stride length. Participants
Increased stride length has been associated with completed these manipulated stride length trials
greater ground reaction forces, joint moments, with their self-selected footstrike (SSFS), as well as
impact accelerations, and energy absorption, factors attempting to both RFS and F/MFS. 10 trials were
that have been associated with an increased risk of completed for each stride length/footstrike
running-related overuse injuries. Research has condition.
indicated that reducing stride length may decrease
the risk of tibial stress fracture [1]. In terms of To control running velocity to that of the preferred
footstrike, running with a rear footstrike (RFS) condition, subjects matched their speed to a marker
pattern requires the tibialis anterior to decelerate on a motor driven pulley system located parallel to
plantar flexion as the foot contacts the ground. the runway. Stride length was controlled by having
Correspondingly, running with a RFS has been participants match foot falls to strips of tape placed
associated with increased pressures in the anterior along the runway.
compartment of the lower leg. Alternatively, the
triceps surae muscles are active to slow dorsiflexion 3-dimensional motion analysis (Vicon, Oxford
when runners adopt a fore/mid footstrike (F/MFS) Metrics Ltd., UK) was captured as subjects ran
pattern. Hence, F/MFS running has been associated across a 20m runway. Footstrike was determined
with higher Achilles tendon strain and plantar flexor from footstrike angle (FSA) based on the following:
moments [2]. FSA > 0o was defined as RFS, and FSA < 0o was
defined as F/MFS [4]. Participants also completed a
While mechanical alterations and corresponding brief questionnaire indicating the level of difficulty
clinical implications are evident with alterations in with adopting the RFS and F/MFS foot strike
both stride length and footstrike, these variables conditions.
have been treated as independent factors in the
literature. However, studies have reported data A Pearson product moment correlation was
indicating flatter foot placement as stride length is conducted to examine the relationship between FSA
decreased [3], which indicates that the variables of and stride length. Repeated measures ANOVA tests
footstrike and stride length may be coupled. were performed to examine the differences in FSA
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine between the preferred condition and manipulated
the relationship between footstrike and stride length footstrike (SSFS, RFS, F/MFS) / stride length (-
in running, and to determine if these variables could 10%, -5%, +5%, +10%) conditions. Statistical
be independently manipulated. significance was defined as p < 0.05.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.5
-10%

Stride Length (m)
3

All but two participants were natural RFS runners
-5%
as indicated by positive FSAs in the preferred 2.5
Preferred
condition. In the longer (+5% and +10%) stride
length conditions nearly all participants continued 2 +5%
to RFS. The two natural F/MFS strike runners were 1.5 +10%
the only runners who did not adopt a RFS pattern
with the longer stride length conditions. Thus, there 1
-20 -10 0 10 20 30
was no significant difference in FSA between the
Foot Strike Angle (deg)
+5%, +10% and preferred conditions (p > 0.05). In
the shorter stride length conditions all participants Figure 1: Foot strike angle (FSA) as a function of
adopted a F/MFS position (Fig 1). FSAs for the -5% stride length for the preferred and SSFS altered
and -10% conditions differed significantly from the stride length conditions. FSAs for the -5% and -
preferred condition (both p << 0.001). 10% differed significantly from the preferred
condition (p < 0.05).
The correlation for the relationship between foot
strike and stride length was low (r = 0.16) and non- CONCLUSIONS
significant (p = 0.41). This is likely due to the fact The results presented here indicate that footstrike
FSA did not continue to increase as stride length and stride length are coupled, i.e. changing stride
increased. At longer stride lengths runners adopted length leads to a corresponding change in footstrike.
a RFS position and remained in a similar RFS It is possible for individuals to uncouple these
position as stride length continued to increase. parameters, however it is done with difficulty and
results in greater gait variability. When suggesting
Participants were able to adopt the imposed foot alterations in stride length or foot strike, clinicians
strike positions (F/MFS & RFS) at both longer and should be aware of the associated changes in the
shorter stride lengths (Table 1). FSA was coupled variable.
significantly different for the F/MFS condition at
the longer stride lengths (p = 0.01) and for the RFS REFERENCES
condition at the shorter stride lengths (p = 0.02).
1. Edwards BW, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41,
However, there was considerably more variability in
FSA for the imposed foot strike conditions (Table 2177-2184, 2009.
2. Perl DP, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 44, 1335-
1). Additionally, participants reported greater
difficulty with the reduced stride length RFS 1343, 2012.
3. Heiderscheit BC, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43,
conditions.
296–302, 2011.
4. Altman AR & Davis IS. Gait Posture 35, 298-
300, 2012

Table 1: Footstrike angle for the stride length (+ 5% and 10%) and footstrike conditions (SSFS, RFS, F/MFS).
FSA > 0o is RFS, and FSA<0o is F/MFS. * Indicates a significant difference in FSA from the preferred
condition, ^ indicates a significant difference in FSA from the other footstrike conditions (SSFS, RFS, F/MFS)
at a given stride length.
Stride Length Condition
Footstrike -10% -5% Preferred +5% +10%
* *
Footstrike SSFS -11.3 ± 4.1 -11.1 ± 3.9 7.2 ± 7.0 6.8 ± 9.3 8.6 ± 9.0
^ ^
Angle (deg) RFS 3.1 ± 7.7 3.2 ± 8.3 6.1 ± 6.6 6.9 ± 7.1
^
F/MFS -10.9 ± 6.8 -8.5 ± 7.2 -3.8 ± 7.3 -4.5± 6.3 ^

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
PREDICTION EQUATIONS FOR LEG KINEMATICS AND KINETICS DURING SLOPE RUNNING
1
Anat Shkedy Rabani, 2Gregory S. Sawicki, 1Raziel Riemer
1
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
2
North Carolina State University and University of North Carolina, NC, USA
Email: rriemer@bgu.ac.il,

INTRODUCTION In two separate experiments, at two different labs
(BGU and NCSU), sixteen healthy adults (6
Kinematic and kinetic data describing the dynamics females; 10 males; age = 24.56±3.16 years; height =
of lower-limb joints are critical for understanding 1.73±0.09 m; mass = 68.01±13.98 kg) ran on an
the neuromechanics and energetics of human instrumented split belt treadmill (FIT, Bertec,
locomotion, and for guiding the design of assistive Columbus, OH, USA) at 2.25 m/s at nine grades (-
devices (e.g. lower-limb exoskeletons). From a 10%, -7.5% -5%, -2.5%, 0%, +2.5% +5%, +7.5%,
basic science perspective, studies have provided +10%). In each of the experimental conditions,
insight into the sources of metabolic energy force and motion data of at least 7 gait cycles
consumption by relating joint kinetics to whole- (average = 20) were collected (MX40+, VICON,
body oxygen consumption [1]. From an applied Oxford, UK or Oqus, Qualisys Medical AB®,
science perspective, kinematic and kinetic data are Gothenburg, Sweden). Then the kinematics and
important for the geometric and material properties kinetics of the leg joints were calculated using
of lower-limb orthoses [2] and of motors sizing for Visual3D software (C-motion Inc., Germantown,
powered exoskeletons and prostheses [3], as well as MD, USA). All kinematics and kinetics were
for guiding control software in both powered normalized in time as percentages of one gait cycle.
exoskeletons [4] and prostheses [5]. In addition, torque and power were normalized by
Combining experimental approaches like motion the subject’s height and weight.
capture and force measurements with rigid body
models (i.e. inverse dynamics) provides a means for Then based on a method by Mizrachi et al. [7] we
obtaining lower-limb joint kinematics and kinetics developed the prediction equations for running in
data. Many studies have addressed walking or different slopes using data from randomly selected
running at typical speeds on level ground [1,6]. Yet 14 subjects (7 from each group). Each of the above
data acquisition is expensive and time-consuming, equations was developed in two phases: First, an
and therefore available joint-level data is limited to equation was fitted for each of the five training
only a small subset of speeds. The same holds for slopes (-10%, -5%, 0%, 5%, 10%) separately (45
data from locomotion uphill and downhill. equations = 3 joint*5 slope*[angle, torque, power]),
Additionally, relationships describing how lower- where for each joint and given slope the equation's
limb joint kinematics and kinetics depend on the input was the percentage of the gait cycle. Since
phase of gait have not been documented using gait exhibits periodic behavior, we used a Fourier
parametric-equations, which if developed could series in the form of sine and cosine with ω=2π
help fill in data gaps in the literature without 1/100 to model these equations. Then, in the second
requiring exhaustive data acquisition. phase, we modeled the change in value of each of
Using an experimental data set, our aim was thus to the Fourier series coefficients as a function of the
develop a comprehensive parametric model of slope, using a polynomial. For both phases we
lower-extremity joint kinematics and kinetics during developed an algorithm that found the best fit
human running up and down slopes. (Adjusted R2), using the lowest order of
series/polynomial. To test the prediction equations,
METHODS we examined the two subjects who were not used in
developing the equations. Also, we tested several
slopes that were not included in the training set (-

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
7.5%, -2.5%, 2.5%, 7.5%). If the results of the test
data fell within 3 standard deviations (SD) from the
fit, we considered it as a successful fit. The 3SDs
were calculated using the training data.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The prediction equations had an Adjusted R2 for the
leg joint kinematics and kinetics ranging from 0.943
to 0.997. We also show that newly presented data
(either for new subjects or new slopes), which were
not used for the equations fitting, in most cases fell
within 3 standard deviations from the prediction.
Figure 1 is an example for the knee, at 5% slope of
new subjects' data, and Figure 2 is an example for
prediction on untrained subjects and slopes. Figure 2: Test of the predictions using new slopes
In addition, from our analysis we did not see of -7.5% slope. The red curve represents the fit, and
differences between the male’s and female’s data. the grey area ±3 SD. The dashed lines represent test
Furthermore, since the equations were developed data.
based on data that were collected in two different
sites, with different motion capture systems and CONCLUSIONS
with similar but not identical marker placements,
we believe prediction equations are a good The prediction equations enable predicting the leg
representation of the general healthy adult joint angle, torque, and power during running as
population. functions of the slope and percentage in the gait
cycle. This set of equations could be used to gain a
better understanding of locomotion, and may be
helpful in the development of assistive devices such
as prostheses and wearable robots.

REFERENCES

1. Farris DJ, et al. J R Soc Interface 9, 110-118, 2012.
2. Faustini MC, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 55, 784-
790, 2008.
3. Hitt J, et al. Ind Robot 36, 441-447, 2009.
4. Zoss AB, et al. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatronics 11,
128-138, 2006.
5. Markowitz J, et al. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
366, 1621-1631, 2011.
6. Devita P. J Biomech 27, 501-508, 1994.
Figure 1: Test of the predictions using new 7. Mizrachi S, et al. World Congress of
subjects at a 5% slope. The red curve represents the Biomechanics, Boston, MA, USA, 2014.
prediction equation, and the grey area ±3 SD of the
training set. The dashed lines represent the test ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
subjects. This study was partially supported by the Helmsley
Charitable Trust through the Agricultural, Biological and
Cognitive Robotics Initiative of Ben-Gurion University
of the Negev.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
EFFECT OF TRANSITIONING RUNNING STYLE FROM A REARFOOT TO A NON-REARFOOT
STRIKE PATTERN ON IMPULSE PER UNIT DISTANCE
Alec J. Smith, Erin M. Florkiewicz, Donald L. Goss, Gregory M. Freisinger
United States Military Academy, West Point, NY, USA
Email: gregory.freisinger@usma.edu

INTRODUCTION least 80% symmetry; 5) capable of performing 20
unassisted single leg heel raises; 6) able to perform a
Running is a primary form of physical conditioning single leg hop for distance with at least 80%
and point of evaluation for military personnel. Lower symmetry. These participants were clinically
extremity injuries are common in military training diagnosed and recovering from one of the following
due to the frequency and dynamic nature of the lower extremity injuries: patellofemoral pain
associated loads [1]. Several approaches have been syndrome (3), lower leg stress injury (2), lower leg
taken to mitigate running injuries among athletes and fracture (1), plantar fasciitis (1), and anterior cruciate
military personnel alike. One approach is the ligament reconstruction (2).
modification of a runner’s foot strike pattern (FSP).
To encourage a transition to a RFS pattern subjects
Transitioning runners from a rearfoot strike (RFS) to underwent an initial 30 minute training session.
a non-rearfoot strike (NRFS) pattern has been shown Training focused on soft landings, an increase in
to influence several factors related to running cadence, forward trunk lean and their strict
injuries, to include a reduction in average vertical adherence to a gradual walk-to-run progression.
loading rate (AVLR) [2]. This idea is well They then met with an assigned medical provider
established, but there are likely other factors once a week for the first 4 weeks, then again at weeks
influencing running related injuries including 6, 8, and 10 upon which the training focuses were
cadence and the influence of total impulse. reinforced and PSFS (Patient Specific Functional
Scale) data were collected. Initial and 10 week
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of assessments were conducted before and after the 10-
a NRFS running program on overall impulses per week training program. Assessments consisted of
unit distance. We hypothesized that impulse per unit subjects running at a self-selected pace for five
distance will remain constant in the vertical, anterior, minutes. Speed was kept constant for both the initial
posterior, medial, and lateral directions following a and follow up assessment. Two-dimensional video
running transition programs. was collected at 240 Hz [Casio, EX-ZR200; Tokyo,
Japan] in the sagittal plane to confirm FSP. Ground
METHODS reaction force data were collected on an instrumented
treadmill [Bertec; Columbus, OH] at 1000 Hz, low-
Nine runners recovering from lower extremity pass Butterworth filtered at 35 Hz, and normalized to
injuries at the United States Military Academy were bodyweight.
recruited to participate in this study after providing
IRB approved consent. All participants were cadets Impulse was calculated in the vertical, anterior,
with previous running experience (5 males:4 posterior, medial and lateral directions for five
females; mean age: 20.3 ± 2.2 yrs; mean height: stance phases on each foot. The ensemble average of
170.7 ± 13.8 cm; mean weight 71.7 ± 14.9 kg). five stance phases for the left and right were used in
further analyses. Average impulses were multiplied
Participants met each of the following six inclusion by the respective runner’s cadence (in right foot steps
criteria: 1) previously a RFS runner; 2) recovering per minute) and divided by their treadmill speed (in
from a lower extremity injury; 3) able to walk pain meters per second). Unit conversions yielded
free for 2 miles; 4) dorsiflexion range of motion of at impulses per unit distance which was multiplied by
1000 meters to find impulse measured in Percent Change in Impulse per km
bodyweight*seconds per kilometer. 100

75
A paired t-test was used to test for statistical
difference between the initial and follow-up 50

assessments for the impulse variables and subjective

Percent (%)
25
measures. A significance level alpha = 0.05 was
0
used.
-25

RESULTS/DISCUSSION -50

The transition from RFS to NRFS was verified by the Vertical Medial Lateral Anterior Posterior

high speed video for all subjects. Initial, follow up
Figure 1: Box plot of average percent change in
and change data are shown in Table 1 for the
impulse per kilometer.
variables of interest. PSFS and running cadence
significantly increased as expected following the
CONCLUSION
running transition protocol.
Anterior, posterior and lateral impulses per unit
Contrary to our hypotheses, significant differences
distance increased following a running transition
were found in anterior, posterior and lateral impulses
program. Transitioning from a RFS to a NRFS
per km (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05 respectively).
improved subjective functional scores, however it is
However no differences were found in the vertical or
unknown how increased total impulse per unit
medial directions. Boxplots for the percent changes
distance may impact running injury risk. Additional
in impulse per km are displayed in Figure 1.
research is necessary to further identify the long-term
effects of kinetic changes induced from modifying
Average individual anterior and posterior impulse
running foot strike pattern.
per km increased by 26.3% and 14.3%, respectively,
while vertical impulse did not increase. Our NRFS
REFERENCES
transition program emphasized increased running
cadence, therefore resulting in a larger number of
1) van Gent RN, et al. Br J Sports Med 41, 469-480, 2007.
foot strikes per unit distance. While NRFS has shown 2) Crowell et al. Clinical biomechanics 26.1: 78-83, 2011.
a significant reduction in vertical loading rate
compared to RFS, our results indicate an increase in ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
total braking and propulsive impulse per unit
distance. This increase in total impulse may Funding for this study was provided by the United
influence running injury risk over the long-term. States Military Academy Center for Innovation and
Engineering.

Table 1: Average impulse per unit distance, PSFS, and cadence before and after running transition.
Impulse Type per km (BW-s/km)
PSFS Cadence
Vertical Anterior Posterior Medial Lateral
Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std. Mean Std.
Initial 349.9 16.5 18.4 2.8 18.0 3.5 7.4 1.1 7.0 1.3 6.1 1.0 170.2 10.1
Follow Up 343.4 23.8 22.7 2.0 20.2 2.2 7.3 1.4 5.3 1.4 9.3 0.9 179.8 6.4
Change -6.4 25.4 4.3 3.6 2.2 2.1 -0.2 1.7 -1.8 2.0 3.1 1.1 9.6 8.1
p-Value 0.469 0.007* 0.013* 0.777 0.027* p<0.001* p<0.001*
Bold and (*) indicate a significant p-value<0.05. PSFS: Patient-Specific Funcitonl Scale.
A BIOMECHANICAL INVESTIGATION OF COMPENSATION STRATEGIES USED BY RUNNERS
IN RESPONSE TO REDUCED CORE STABILITY

Margaret E Raabe and Ajit MW Chaudhari
The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
email: margaret.e.raabe@gmail.com, web: http://u.osu.edu/osusportsbiomechanics/

INTRODUCTION following the CSKP (NCS group). Subject-specific
kinematically-driven jogging simulations (Fig. 1)
Insufficient core stability is believed to lead to less were developed in OpenSim [4] for each participant
efficient movements and ultimately musculoskeletal in four different conditions (pre-CSKP kinematics,
injury, despite minimal scientific evidence no core fatigue; pre-CSKP kinematics, core fatigue;
supporting this theory. Additionally, compensation post-CSKP kinematics, no core fatigue; post-CSKP
strategies that may be utilized by runners lacking kinematics, core fatigue) in order to isolate and fully
sufficient core stability have yet to be investigated. characterize the effect of utilizing either the KIN or
NM strategy on lower extremity (LE) variables
Altering movement patterns may be one strategy to previously associated with running injuries.
compensate for poor core stability (kinematic
compensation strategy, KIN). Another possibility
would be to alter only muscular activation strategies
(neuromuscular compensation strategy, NM). The
compensation strategy chosen by a runner lacking
sufficient core stability may be driven by a number
of factors including energy cost, as the
minimization of energy expenditure is believed to
play a large part in locomotion [1]. Understanding
the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies
could ultimately provide insight into the influence
of core stability on injury risk.

The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify
Figure 1. Schematic describing the four subject-specific
the biomechanical consequences associated with simulations developed for each participant.
possible compensation strategies for reduced core
stability during running using subject-specific Linear mixed-models were used to test for a
musculoskeletal simulations. significant effect of a KIN or NM strategy in
response to core muscle fatigue on the primary
METHODS variables. The kinematic state (pre-CSKP, post-
CSKP), the core fatigue state (none, fatigue), and
Eight novice runners jogged overground in a motion their interaction were treated as fixed effects and
capture laboratory before and after performing a participant was treated as a random effect (α=0.05).
fatiguing core stability knockdown protocol (CSKP) Results trending toward significance (0.05≤p≤0.1)
[2]. All runners in this subset of a previously- were also reported. These analyses were conducted
reported in vivo study [3] had a significant separately for the CS and NCS groups to provide
difference in at least one hip or knee kinematic insight into which biomechanical changes may be
variable post-CSKP. Four runners experienced driven by reduced core stability vs. core muscle
experimentally reduced core stability and increased fatigue. Loading variables presented are internal.
core muscle fatigue following the CSKP (CS group)
and the remaining four experienced only core RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
muscle fatigue and no change in core stability

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Kinematic Compensation Strategy p=0.21; NDom PS, p=0.18) (Figure 3). NM was not
Runners with experimentally reduced core stability associated with significant changes in estimated
following the CSKP adopted a KIN associated with energy consumption or LE loading during the stance
reduced energy consumption estimated as total phase of running, suggesting NM may be preferable
cubed muscle stress (3249.3±1317.5 MPa3 vs to a KIN strategy that potentially results in
3009.9±1259.1 MPa3, p=0.059), cumulative lumbar increased LE loading and injury risk.
spinal compression (p≤0.06), and peak core muscle
force production (non-dominant psoas (NDom PS),
p=0.06; NDom internal oblique (IO), p=0.027).
However, these changes were accompanied by an
increased peak patellofemoral joint reaction force
(6.2±1.0 BW vs 6.6±0.7 BW, p=0.029), peak knee
abduction moment (4.3±0.9 %BW*h vs 5.1±0.8
%BW*h, p=0.01), knee abduction impulse (0.6±0.2
%BW*h*s vs 0.7±0.3 %BW*h*s, p=0.02), and
peak knee extension moment (16.4±1.5 %BW*h vs
17.2±2.4 %BW*h, p=0.09) during the stance phase
of running (Figure 2). These LE loading changes
have previously been associated with increased Figure 3. Biomechanical variables affected by a
running injury risk. neuromuscular (NM) compensation strategy adopted in
response to simulated core muscle fatigue. Arrows indicate
changes in parameters with changes in core muscle fatigue.

CONCLUSIONS

Results from this study suggest that novice runners
with insufficient core stability may adopt altered
movement patterns associated with increased lower
extremity loading and ultimately a higher risk of
sustaining a running-related injury. Since the only
apparent adjustment required to utilize an NM
strategy was an increase in force production of the
deep core musculature, proper training of these
Figure 2. Biomechanical variables affected by a kinematic muscles may give runners the ability to utilize
(KIN) compensation strategy in response to an experimental
core muscle fatiguing protocol. The arrows indicate changes in lower-risk compensation strategies in the presence
parameters with a change in kinematics. of core muscle fatigue and/or poor core stability.
Future work may consider developing a
Neuromuscular Compensation Strategy neuromuscular training program specifically for
An NM strategy adopted in response to simulated runners and determining if this program can reduce
core muscle fatigue was associated with decreased LE loading during running and thereby reduce
compressive lumbar spinal loading (CS group: peak running injury incidence.
compression, p≤0.04; compression force impulse,
p≤0.06; NCS group: compression force impulse, REFERENCES
p≤0.08), decreased superficial peak core muscle 1. Alexander RM. American Scientist, 72(4): 348-
force production (CS and NCS group: Dom and 354, 1984.
NDom rectus abdominis (RA) and IO and Dom 2. Raabe ME, et al. Proceedings of 2015 ASB
external oblique (EO), p≤0.033) and increased peak 39(452), 2015.
deep core muscle force production (CS group: 3. Raabe ME, et al. Proceedings of 2016 ASB
NDom multifidus (MF), p=0.18; NDom quadratus 40(XXX), 2016.
lumborum (QL), p=0.18; NCS group: Dom QL, 4. Raabe ME, et al. J Biomech 49(7):1238-43, 2016.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Trunk Kinematics Changes With Age and Running Speed
1
Rumit Singh Kakar, 1 Joshua M. Tome, 1 Zach Finer, 1Natalie Knight, 2Kathy J. Simpson
1
Department of Physical Therapy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY
3
Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA
email: rkakar@ithaca.edu, web: http://www.ithaca.edu/hshp/clinics/movementlab/

INTRODUCTION treadmill running speeds for 10 minutes at JOG
Our limited understanding of the trunk’s role in speed and about 15 sec at MAX. Data was collected
producing running locomotion is partly due to lack for 10 sec during the runs. At the completion of
of knowledge of the intra-trunk motions and how running trials for each speed, participants rated their
these motions change with running speed. [1, 2] perceived exertion (RPE) using the Borg scale (6-
Most studies have concentrated on lower lumbar 20). Relative angles between adjacent trunk
and pelvic mechanics or represented the trunk as a segments (upper [UP]: C7 to T8; middle [MID]: T9
single rigid unit which potentially dilutes the effect to T12; lower [LOW]: L1 to L5; and pelvis [PEL]
of individual trunk segments. [3] were calculated; maximum angular displacements
Also, we have very little understanding of were averaged across 10 strides. Displacements in
movement pattern changes in the trunk, if any, the 3 planes of motion were compared between
observed among middle-age runners even though groups using a mixed-design ANOVA with speed
changes in certain gait parameters and lower limb (JOG and MAX) as the within-subject factor and
mechanics in walking and running have been age (YA and MA) as the between-subject factor
reported in elderly runners. [4] Multiple studies (p<0.05). Post-hoc comparisons with Bonferroni
have reported relationships between various corrections were used to compare means when main
musculoskeletal injuries and age, with more effects were observed.
complex or multiple running related injuries
documented especially for middle age runners [4], RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
but their relation to altered trunk mechanics is not Speed (p = <0.001) and age (p =0.009) main effects
clear. were observed for running speed as MA ran slower
Thus, the purpose of the study was to determine if than YA runners at JOG and MAX paces (Table 1).
intra-trunk displacements change with increase in This finding is consistent with those previously
running speed and how these differ in middle age reported in the literature [6].
runners compared to younger runners. It was
hypothesized that intra-trunk motions will increase A speed main effect was also observed for Borg
with age and at faster running speeds, particularly RPE (p=<0.001; Table 1). This effect is due to
for segments with lower anatomical constraints like higher RPE at the JOG and MAX speeds in MA
the lumbar spine [5]. compared to YA. These RPE results suggest both
groups were able to reach their maximal efforts on a
METHODS treadmill making the kinematic comparisons more
Sixteen young adult (YA) runners under the age of meaningful and consistent.
40 (age: 32.7±4.9 yrs, mass:71.6±15.8 kg,
height:1.70±0.09 m, 21.1±6.1 miles/week) and 14 The only interaction effect observed from the joint
middle age (MA) runners over 40 (54.6±7.9 yrs, kinematic variables was observed for angular
69.3±13.1 kg, 1.72±0.10 m, 20.2±9.5 miles/week) displacements of LOW-PEL joint in the transverse
participated in this study. Locations of 24 reflective plane (p=0.015; Table 1). No other interaction
markers placed on the trunk and the pelvis were effects were observed. Age main effects were
captured by a 7-camera system (120 Hz; Vicon) and observed for all comparisons except for UP-MID
was used to collect kinematic data during treadmill angular displacements in the sagittal and frontal
(PreCor C954) running. Participants ran at their planes (Table 1). Generally, displacements were
self-selected jogging (JOG) and maximal (MAX) greater for MA compared to YA groups for both
running speeds. Speed main effects were observed joint potentially due to existing anatomical
mainly in the frontal plane for all 3 relative angles contrains restricting contributions to total body/
and in transverse plane for Low-Pel (lumbo-pelvic) trunk angular momentum [4]. Also, the observed
angle (Table 1). Displacements decreased in the differences in most comparisons were of small
proximal 2 angles (UP-MID and MID-LOW) in the magnitude and should be interpreted with caution,
frontal plane, while it increased in the LOW-PEL giving full consideration to inter-participant
for both frontal and transverse plane. This suggests variabilities in running speed ranges, skills and
that lumbo-pelvic (LOW-PEL) segmental habituation towards running on a treadmill.
arrangement potentially contributes the most
towards net trunk angular, as the individuals CONCLUSIONS
increase their pace regardless of the age. These findings suggest that runners adapt to
changes in speed and advancing age by modifying
Overall, both MA and YA groups display greater their trunk kinematics to be able to successfully
angular displacements at slower speeds (MA > YA) achieve the performance goals. Future studies
especially in the transverse plane. Possible warrant including older adult runners (>60 years) to
explanations include increase in trunk momenta to understand if the trend for change in mechanics
help cancel some of the greater total body angular continues and how it effects running performance.
momenta[1,7]; appropriately position the pelvis to
allow increased leg rotations and longer step REFERENCES
lengths[8]; transfer or generate mechanical energy 1. Hinrichs RN, et al. Int J Sport Biomech., 3: 242-263,
to/from extremities[9]; and/or minimize 1987.
2. Ford KR, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 45: 1125-1130,
nonessential center of mass (COM) motion via 2013.
compensatory shifting of intra-trunk mass [10]. 3. Schache AG, et al.. Hum Mov Sci 21( 2):73-293, 2002
As the running speed increases, trunk mechanics is 4. Nielsen RO. Orthop J Sports Med, 1(1):1–7, 2013.
shifted to minimizing the nonessential COM motion th
5. Parke et al. Rothman-Simeone The Spine, 6 , Saunders
at superior trunk segments (UP-MID and MID- & Elsevier, 2006.
LOW) and limiting the angular momentum and 6. Kuhman et al. Eur J Sp Sci, 16(4):433-440, 2015.
torque production at the lumbar spine (LOW-PEL). 7. Bennett et al. Hum. Mov. Sci., 29:114-124, 2010.
8. Saunders et al..Clin Biomech., 20:784-793, 2005.
This could potentially be a compensatory strategy to 9. Gracovetsky. Spine in Ssports, CV Mosby, 1990.
increase efficiency of mechanical energy transfers 10. Simpson KJ, et al. 25th ISB Proceedings, 2015.
between trunk-pelvis-lower extremity segments.[11] 11. Novacheck TF. Gait Posture, 7(1):77-95, 1998.
Minmal differences were observed in the UP-MID

Table 1. Trunk kinematics for young (YA) and middle age (MA) runners at JOG and MAX speeds (mean ± SD)
JOG MAX p-values
Variables YA MA YA MA Age Speed Inter
Borg (unitless) b 10.8 ± 1.4 11.8 ± 0.9 16.6 ± 1.4 16.6 ± 1.2 0.173 0.000* 0.059
Running speed (m/s) a,b 2.8 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.3 4.0 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.5 0.009* 0.000* 0.192
Sagittal 8.8 ± 6.1 8.4 ± 6.1 5.5 ± 1.8 5.9 ± 2.4 0.090 0.887 0.148
UP-MID (º) Frontal b
8.8 ± 4.7 9.3 ± 5.8 6.2 ± 2.3 7.6 ± 2.9 0.173 0.007* 0.153
a
Transverse 13.0 ± 8.7 13.7 ± 6.7 8.4 ± 2.4 8.9 ± 3.3 0.034* 0.422 0.899
a
Sagittal 16.6 ± 8.2 17.1 ± 6.8 8.3 ± 3.8 9.2 ± 3.5 0.001* 0.325 0.735
MID-LOW (º) Frontal a,b
12.1 ± 4.9 13.3 ± 4.9 8.4 ± 1.7 10.4 ± 2.8 0.025* 0.001* 0.355
a
Transverse 19.9 ± 8.2 20.6 ± 5.8 12.3 ± 5.6 14.1 ± 5.9 0.004* 0.104 0.469
a
Sagittal 16.0 ± 5.7 15.4 ± 4.9 8.9 ± 3.8 9.1 ± 3.2 0.000* 0.777 0.555
LOW-PEL (º) Frontal a,b,c
7.7 ± 2.6 7.7 ± 2.5 9.6 ± 4.1 10.8 ± 4.1 0.047* 0.027* 0.015*
a,b
Transverse 9.9 ± 3.3 10.4 ± 3.3 13.9 ± 6.1 15.7 ± 6.9 0.015* 0.005* 0.111
Notes: a: Group main effect; b: Speed main effect; c: Group x Speed interaction; *: Speed difference within Group.
Lower Limb Joint Kinematics In Young and Middle-Aged Runners
1
Rumit Singh Kakar, 2 Rachael A Arnwine, 1 Joshua M Tome, 2 Max R Paquette
1
Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY
2
School of Health Studies, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN
email: rkakar@ithaca.edu, web: http://www.ithaca.edu/hshp/clinics/movementlab/

INTRODUCTION age (MA) runners over 40 (7 women; 54.6±8.3 yrs,
68.0±13.8 kg, 1.68±0.08 m, 20.2±9.5 miles/week)
The high injury incidences associated with running participated in this study. A 7-camera motion
are well reported. Research suggests that more capture system (120Hz, Vicon) was used to collect
complex or multiple running-related injuries are kinematic data during treadmill (PreCor C954)
observed in middle age runners [1]. Changes in running. Participants ran at their self-selected
certain running gait parameters have been reported jogging (JOG) and maximal (MAX) treadmill
in older (i.e., 60+ years) compared to younger running speeds for 10 minutes at JOG speed and
runners (i.e., 20s) [1,2] and may play a role in injury about 15 sec at MAX. Data was collected for 10 sec
development. However, little is known regarding during the runs. At the completion of running trials
movement patterns observed among middle-age for each speed, participants rated their perceived
runners (i.e., 40-59years). Predictive regression exertion (RPE) using the Borg scale (6-20). Sagittal
equation suggests decreased stride length, running plane joint angular kinematics (peaks and ranges of
velocity and peak knee flexion angles with age, motion (ROM)) of the hip, knee and ankle were
while peak hip and ankle sagittal angles in the calculated for the right side only. The average of
stance phase were not considered significant each angular kinematic variable for 7 consecutive
predictors [3]. To date, few running biomechanics strides were included in statistical analyses.
studies in aging runners have tested more than one
running speed. A mixed-design ANOVA was used with speed
(JOG and MAX) as the within-subject factor and
Increases in running speed can alter running age (YA and MA) as the between-subject factor
biomechanics. Specifically, increases in peak knee (p<0.05). Paired t-tests with least significant
and ankle sagittal plane angles and ranges of motion difference were used to compare means when speed
(ROM) have been reported with increase in running main effects were observed. Independent t-tests
speed. [4] Comparing running biomechanics were used to compare means when age main effects
between young and middle age runners at different were observed.
speeds will help improve our understanding of age-
related running gait patterns. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The objective of this study was to compare lower A speed main effect was observed for running speed
limb joint kinematics between young and middle as MA (5.4±2.1 m/s) ran slower than YA runners
age runners during treadmill running at self-selected (7.2±2.1 m/s; p=0.019). This finding is consistent
jogging and maximal speeds. It was hypothesized, with those previously reported in the literature [4].
that peak knee and ankle angles will increase with Cadence was not different between YA and MA
increase in speed but minimal change in mechanics (Table 1). This finding suggests that higher cadence
was expected between age groups. in older runners [2,3] is not a kinematic strategy
used by middle age runners. An interaction effect
METHODS was observed for Borg RPE (p=0.022; Table 1).
The lower RPE at MAX speed in MA compared to
Twelve young adult (YA) runners under the age of YA may suggest that MA runners were unable to
40 (10 women; 32.8±4.9 yrs, 69.8±16.3 kg, achieve a maximal effort perhaps because they were
1.68±0.08 m, 21.1±6.1 miles/week) and 12 middle
afraid to reach their true maximal speed on the compensatory mechanism to unchanged peak knee
treadmill. flexion between groups to maintain cadence while
speed is increased.
The only interaction effect observed from the joint
kinematic variables was for peak dorsiflexion CONCLUSIONS
(p=0.021). YA generally had greater peak
dorsiflexion than MA and, peak dorsiflexion was These findings suggest that lower limb joint
only reduced for YA for MAX compared to JOG kinematics are generally not different between
speed (Figure 1). This findings suggests that young and middle age runners. Only peak
increased running speed does not affect peak dorsiflexion and hip extension ROM were smaller
dorsiflexion in MA runners. This may be related to in middle compared to young runners. The age by
limited sagittal plane ankle mobility in MA. Smaller speed interaction for peak dorsiflexion suggests that
peak dorsiflexion would suggest a shorter lever arm middle age runners respond differently to an
for the ground reaction force which would explain increase in running speed compared to young
the lower peak internal plantarflexion moment runners. We hope to add to these preliminary
observed in runners in their 50s compared to findings by including running biomechanics data
runners in their 20s [3]. Contrary to that reported in from older runners (i.e., over 60 years).
the literature [3,6,7], knee ROM was similar 25
YA
between YA and MA (Table 1). These findings 20 MA
suggest that although older runners run with less
knee flexion than young runners, MA runners still Dorsiflexion Angle
15 *
retain similar knee flexion during stance as YA (deg)
runners. Since less knee flexion is generally 10

paralleled by higher knee joint stiffness [7], the 5
unchanged knee flexion in MA runners may suggest
similar joint stiffness compared to YA runners. A 0
group main effect was observed for hip extension JOG MAX

ROM from foot strike to toe-off (Table 1). MA Fig 1: Peak dorsiflexion for both age groups at both running
speeds (mean ± SD). *: speed different within YA group.
runners ran on average with less hip extension
ROM compared YA. Lesser hip extension despite REFERENCES
comparatively high cadence explains the slower 1. Nielsen RO. Orthop J Sports Med, 1(1):1–7, 2013.
speeds observed in MA compared to YA. 2. Fukuchi, et al. J Sport Sci, 26(13), 1447-54, 2008.
3. DeVita, et al. MSSE, 48(1), 98-106, 2016.
Finally, speed effects were observed for 4. Kuhman et al. Eur J Sp Sci, 16(4):433-440, 2015.
dorsiflexion excursion and hip extension at toe-off 5. Fukuchi, et al. Clin Biomech, 29(3):304–10, 2014.
(Table 1). Greater dorsiflexion excursion, hip 6. Bus SA. MSSE, 35(7):1167–75, 2003.
extension ROM and hip extension at toe-off were 7. Powell DW, et al. JSCR, Ahead of Press, 2017
observed at MAX vs JOG speeds. This may be a
Table 1. Kinematics for young (YA) and middle age (MA) runners at JOG and MAX speeds (mean ± SD)
JOG MAX p-values
Variables YA MA YA MA Group Speed Inter.
Borg (unitless) a,b,c 10.8±1.5* 11.8±1.0* 17.0±1.0 16.5±1.2 0.60 <0.001 0.022
Cadence (steps/min) 164.8±10.3 163.1±13.9 186.7±11.7 185.2±15.9 0.90 <0.001 0.93
Dorsiflexion ROM (°) b 15.6±4.2 14.7±2.6 17.0±4.8 16.7±2.5 0.69 0.002 0.55
Knee Flex. ROM (°) 14.6±5.1 14.4±5.7 15.1±4.6 15.5±7.0 0.96 0.22 0.66
Peak Knee Flex. (°) 37.8±5.2 34.0±6.3 37.5±6.1 34.9±5.8 0.19 0.57 0.25
a,b
Hip Ext. ROM (°) 39.4±4.7 35.2±4.8 47.4±5.8 41.3±6.1 0.011 <0.001 0.44
b
Hip Ext. Toe-Off (°) 7.2±7.1 0.7±9.6 10.9±7.2 4.2±10.9 0.075 <0.001 0.90
Notes: a: Group main effect; b: Speed main effect; c: Group x Speed interaction; *: Speed difference within Group.
ESTIMATION OF TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING OVERGROUND RUNNING
1
Jeffrey McClellan, 1 Tim Derrick
1
Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
email: jeffmc@iastate.edu

INTRODUCTION pass filtered at 20 Hz [3]. A rigid body model was
used with inverse dynamics to estimate 3D joint
The low back is a commonly studied area of the moments, and reaction forces at the L5-S1 joint.
body due to injury risk during tasks involving Cylindrical ellipsoids were used to estimate trunk
bending and/or lifting. Modeling research has been and pelvis volumes, while segment densities,
performed which estimates the compressive load on centers of mass, and moments of inertia were
the lumbar spine during bending and lifting tasks, as calculated according to Pearsall [4]. A musculo-
well as during walking [1]. skeletal model was used to estimate muscle
insertion, origin, fiber length, tendon slack length,
During running, research has been performed which and maximum contractile force, for the right and
estimates the joint reaction force at the L5-S1 joint left erector spinae, internal obliques, and external
[2], however there is no current research which obliques [5], while an approximation of the L5-S1
examines the muscular contribution to lumbar joint center was calculated as a point lying 5%
compressive forces during running. along a line between the external location of L5-S1,
and the midpoint between the right and left Anterior
Thus, the purpose of this study was to 1) develop a Superior Iliac Spine.
musculoskeletal model which can estimate, via
optimization, the magnitude and timing of lumbar Muscle forces were calculated by first estimating
muscle contractions during running, and 2) compare dynamic muscle moment arms based upon 3D L5-
the timing of the modeled muscle activation to S1 joint kinematics, and the pre-defined muscle
EMG recordings of trunk musculature. origins and insertions. An optimization routine was
then run using the muscle parameters, dynamic
METHODS moment arms, and 3D L5-S1 joint moments in order
to calculate the minimum muscle force needed to
Five runners (27.8±8.9 y, 81.2±16.8 kg, 1.79±0.06 recreate the 3D joint moment.
m, 25.4±10.3 km/w) were recruited to participate in
this study. Informed consent was obtained from all Muscle forces calculated via optimization were
participants, after which they were instrumented compared to the recorded EMG signal, which was
with electromyography (EMG) electrodes (2000 Hz, used as an estimation of muscle activation, with the
Delsys, Natick, MA) on the erector spinae, and internal and external oblique forces being
obliques. 26 retro-reflective markers were then combined. The EMG was processed by removing
placed on the right shoe, leg, pelvis, trunk and left the DC offset, rectifying the signal, and applying a
shoe. Participants completed 8 successful running low-pass filter at 10 Hz. Since signal amplitude
trials over a force platform (2000 Hz, AMTI, was not being considered, resultant EMG signals
Watertown, MA) at 4.25 m/s while wearing lab and muscle forces were expressed as a percent of
provided test shoes. Kinematic, Force, and EMG the max recorded force/amplitude during the first 50
data were collected concurrently using a three percent of stance. Group ensemble averages for
dimensional motion analysis system (200 Hz, Vicon muscle forces and the filtered EMG signal were
MX, Vicon, Centennial, CO). created (Fig. 1), while average correlations between
the conditions were calculated for each subject, and
All analyses were performed using custom matlab on the ensemble averages.
programs. Kinematic and kinetic data were low-

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
role, as some individuals displayed EMG patterns
that more closely resembled those derived via
optimization.

High levels of EMG activation at ground contact
and toe off not seen during optimization highlight
the potential that some co-contraction is
unaccounted for when performing optimization
routines, which would lead to an underestimation of
the muscular force produced.

Table 1: R-values comparing EMG activation and
activation derived via optimization
Left Right Left Right
Subject ES ES Obl Obl
1 0.43 0.33 -0.27 0.12
Figure 1: Group ensemble averages derived via 2 0.75 0.33 0.36 0.58
EMG (blue) and optimization (red).
3 0.18 0.46 -0.41 -0.29
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4 0.21 0.31 -0.18 0.16
5 0.77 0.24 0.19 0.52
R-values for each individual subject/muscle group Ensemble 0.85 0.64 -0.17 0.39
were quite variable, with correlations ranging from
being moderate and negative, to strong and positive. CONCLUSIONS
Group ensemble averages tended to have stronger
correlations between the conditions although R- The optimization method applied appears to do a
values for the left obliques were negative (Table 1). reasonable job of approximating the timing of
muscle activation during the first half of stance at
It should be noted that the muscle activation derived the group level, but may not accurately depict the
via optimization accounts for all flexor and extensor timing for individual subjects/trials. Additional
activation crossing L5-S1, while the muscle muscle groups could be added to the optimization
activation derived via EMG is location specific. routine in order to more accurately depict muscle
This can lead to activation from additional muscles, activation at the end of stance, although it is
which were not accounted for in our model, being unknown if this addition would result in a marked
attributed to either the erector spinae or the difference in the extensor or flexor forces produced.
obliques. It is likely that this occurred among the
obliques, as a flexor torque at the end of stance REFERENCES
resulted in optimization generating large amounts of
muscle activation that is not evident when viewing 1. Callaghan JP, et al. Clin Biomech 14, 203-216,
the EMG. It is possible that the rectus abdominis or 1999.
the psoas muscles could have been active at this 2. Seay J, et al. J Sports Sci 26, 1519-1529, 2008.
same point in time, producing the associated flexor 3. Bisseling RW, Hof AL. J Biomech 39, 2438-2444,
torque. 2006.
4. Pearsall DJ, et al. Ann Biomed Eng 24, 198-210,
The right erector spinae may have been similarly 1996.
affected, as deeper multifidus activation could 5. Delp S L, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 54,
account for torque production not recorded by the 1940-1950,2007.
EMG. Individual subject variability may also play a

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Effects of Prolonged Running and Training on Tibial Acceleration and Movement Quality
1
Max R. Paquette, 1Kris Camelio, 2Allison Gruber, 1Rachael Arnwine, 1Douglas W. Powell
1
Musculoskeletal Analysis Laboratory, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA
2
Biomechanics Laboratory, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
email: mrpqette@memphis.edu; web: http://www.memphis.edu/shs/research/mal.php

INTRODUCTION METHODS

Stress fractures account for the greatest loss of Sixteen novice runners were recruited for this study.
training days among military recruits [1]. Among However, only 9 were able to complete the entire
tibial stress fractures (TSF) risk factors, peak study protocol (5 women; 26±7yrs; 73.0±16.3kg;
positive tibial axial acceleration (PTA) during 1.70±0.12m; 11.2±2.7 miles/week; 13.6±7.2 months
running has been found to be higher in runners with of running experience). All participants read and
a history of TSF [2,3]. PTA can be measured in the agreed to IRB documents before participating.
field using inexpensive accelerometers. For
clinicians, assessing movement strategy can also Participants were instructed to reduce their training
offer insight into injury risks in runners. The volume by at least 80% the week prior to the first
Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an testing session. During the first testing session,
assessment of several fundamental actions of the overall and lower limb fatigue was recorded using a
human locomotor system [4]. FMS has identified visual analog scale (VAS; 0-10). Participants then
higher risk for injury in male runners who score performed two FMS exercises: deep squat (DS) and
lower on both the deep squat and active straight leg bilateral active straight leg raise (ASLR). The
raise tests versus those who score higher [5]. ASLR of each leg was scored out of a possible 6
points, while the DS was scored out of a possible 18
In novice runners, PTA increases after a single points. Following the FMS, a 3D accelerometer
prolonged run to fatigue as measured by gas (480Hz, PCB Piezotronics, USA) was attached to
exchange [6]. In highly trained runners, PTA does the distal anteromedial aspect of the right tibia and
not increase over the course of 20min runs at lactate aligned with its longitudinal (Z) axis [7] to collect
threshold pace (i.e., submaximal) [7]. Training and PTA during running. Participants then completed a
training-induced muscle damage may alter joint 30-min run at a preferred running pace (10.0±1.5
properties associated with shock attenuation [8]. min/mile) on a treadmill (C962i, Precor,
Given that prolonged running alters motor control Woodinville, WA, USA). Tibial acceleration data
[6] and training can alter FMS scores [9], FMS test were gathered after 4 min (Pre-Run), 15 min (Mid-
scores may be altered by a single bout of prolonged Run), and 30 min (Post-Run) using motion capture
running and after cumulative training exposure. software (QTM, Qualisys AB, Sweden).
Immediately following the run, overall and lower
Understanding the effects of prolonged running and limb fatigue and the FMS tests were performed
cumulative training on PTA and FMS scores will once again.
provide important information on the appropriate
timing of screening tests for injury risk. This may For the next three weeks, participants followed a
allow for more sensitive results when screening for progressive training program. The program
injury risks to ultimately help reduce injury consisted of aggressive weekly mileage increases of
development. The purpose of this study is to assess 25% based on 3–6 runs per week. Participants were
the effects of prolonged running and cumulative encouraged to run at their preferred training pace as
running training on PTA and FMS deep squat and long as the prescribed weekly running volume was
active straight leg raise in novice runners. We met. Participants returned to the lab the week
expected an increase in PTA and a decrease in FMS following the conclusion of the training program for
scores following both a prolonged run and a 3-week the post-training testing session. Overall and lower
running training program in novice runners.
limb fatigue using the VAS and PTA were in running volume. Novice runners may be able to
measured after a 5-min treadmill running. reduce their risk of injury development related to
PTA by only performing easy, submaximal runs
Visual 3D software (C-Motion, Germantown, MD) during training. A longer training period may be
was used to process and analyze PTA. needed to induce a cumulative effect on training
Accelerometer data were filtered using a fourth- that alters PTA in an unfatigued state.
order Butterworth low-pass filter with a cutoff
frequency of 60 Hz. The peak positive acceleration CONCLUSIONS
immediately following foot strike was extracted.
The average of PTA from five consecutive foot These preliminary findings suggest that a
strikes were included in the analysis. Repeated submaximal run and a 3-week training program
measures ANOVA with time as the within-subject with large mileage increase did not alter PTA or
factor were used to compare means (p<0.05). movement quality in novice runners. Further study
is needed to determine how quickly novice runners
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION can progress to more exhausting runs, which may
be able to help guide ‘couch to race’ training
Contrary to our hypotheses, PTA and FMS scores in programs for beginners. We will add a group of
novice runners were unchanged following the experienced runners and a control population as we
baseline run and the 3-week training program continue this line of research.
(p>0.05; Table 1). These results suggest that fatigue
is required to cause a change in PTA over a 30-min REFERENCES
acute run or prolonged running training. Cadence
was also unaffected by the run and the training 1. Zadpoor A.A. and Nikooyan A.A. Clin Biomech,
program and may explain the unchanged PTA. The 26: 23-28, 2011
findings suggest that submaximal running and an 2. Milner C.E. et al. MSSE, 38: 323, 2006.
aggressive increase in running volume over a 3- 3. Meardon S.A. et al. Clin Biomech, 30: 895-902,
week period did not alter PTA. Thus, some novice 2015.
runners may not be at a higher risk of TSF because 4. Cook G. et al. Int J Sports Phys Ther, 9: 396-409,
of rapid increases in mileage. However, risk of 2014a.
developing other injuries may be increased 5. Hotta T. et al. JSCR, 29: 2808-2815, 2015.
considering that some participants sustained an 6. Mizrahi J. et al. Hmn Mvmnt Sci, 19: 139-151,
injury (n=2) or became ill (n=3) during the 3-week 2000.
training period. The findings suggests that some 7. Clansey A.C. et al. J App Biomech, 32, 2016.
novice runners are likely more resilient against 8. de Paula Simola RI et al. Sports Tech, 1-9, 2016.
injury risk factors when it comes to large increases 9. Bodden J.G. et al. JSCR, 29: 219-225, 2015.

Table 1. Peak tibial acceleration (PTA), cadence and, FMS scores at each time point (mean ± SD).
Variables Pre-Run Mid-Run Post-Run Post-Training p-values
PTA (g) 3.4±1.6 3.4±1.7 3.9±1.4 3.1±1.1 0.73
Cadence (steps/min) 159±8 157±9 159±8 160±10 0.31
FMS
Deep Squat 6.4±1.7 - 6.0±1.7 6.4±1.7 0.49
ASLR Right 4.4±1.7 - 4.7±1.0 4.4±0.9 0.57
ASLR Left 4.2±1.2 - 3.8±1.6 4.7±1.0 0.24
Aggregate Score 15.1±3.5 - 14.4±3.3 15.6±3.1 0.36
Notes: a: Time main effect. FMS: functional movement screen; ASLR: active straight leg raise; Aggregate score: sum of Deep Squat
and, average of ASLR right and left.
BIOMECHANICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN KNEE DISARTICULATION AND
TRANSFEMORAL AMPUTATION WHILE RUNNING: A CASE STUDY
1
Jenny Anne Maun, 1Katherine Sharp, 1Julianne Stewart, 1Kimberly Rowe,
1,2
John-David Collins, and 1Marilynn Wyatt
1
Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
2
BADER Consortium, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
email: jennyanne.c.maun.ctr@mail.mil

INTRODUCTION on an Ottobock® RS640 knee with an Össur® Flex-
RunTM foot. Before both studies, the patient had
Running biomechanics are widely studied in adult been moderately active utilizing his running leg.
subjects with unilateral transtibial amputation.
While a few studies investigate the running Equipment, set-up, and routine were the same
mechanics of subjects with unilateral transfemoral across conditions: 50m straightaway on a track with
amputation (TFA), even fewer investigate knee 12 Raptor-E cameras (Motion Analysis Corp., Santa
disarticulation (KD). KD differs from TFA in that Rosa, CA, USA) used for marker tracking.
the amputation is at the level of the knee joint, Kinematic data were collected at 300Hz. A full-
preserving most of the thigh muscles and the distal body, six degrees-of-freedom marker set was used
femur [1]. Previous literature found gait differences with 32 markers. A successful session required a
between KD and TFA: subjects with KD showed to minimum of five strides for each leg. Target data
have fewer running gait deviations over those with were processed in Visual 3D (C-Motion Inc.,
TFA due to the advantages of a longer lever arm Germantown, MD, USA) using a fourth-order,
such as better balance and more natural hip joint Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency at 6Hz.
range-of-motion, notably in hip flexion [1]. Typical RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
running deviations with TFA include minimal trunk
flexion, decreased trunk rotation, and hip hiking [2]. The patient ran at a slightly faster velocity with
Previous running research has lacked a comparison TFA than with KD (Table 1). The patient’s step
between KD and TFA, especially within the same width increased by 0.137m with TFA (Table 1). The
patient. The purpose of this study was to describe kinematic measures (Fig. 1A-D) did not surpass a
the differences in overground running in a patient clinically meaningful difference, however in trunk
who transitioned from a unilateral KD to a flexion (Fig. 1A) there is a large difference in peak
unilateral TFA by comparing velocity, step width, flexion in mid-swing (3.8°), marked with a dot.
trunk forward flexion and rotation, pelvic obliquity,
and hip flexion/extension. The velocity increase from KD to TFA conditions
was small enough that it should not cause
METHODS significant biomechanical changes. A possible
explanation for TFA wider base of support could be
Overground running data at self-selected jogging due to poor balance and stability [1] or a discomfort
speeds were collected at two different amputation caused by the proximal socket which extends
levels from a 26-year old retired U.S. Marine Corps further toward the pelvis with a TFA. Peak trunk
service member who sustained a right traumatic flexion in mid-swing occurred at the same time as
unilateral amputation. The first running study contralateral limb weight acceptance in the TFA
occurred 28 months after undergoing KD (height: condition. This will require further investigation.
1.77m; weight: 82.2kg). The patient ran on an
Ottobock® Modular SportsTM knee with an Össur® Despite not finding any clinically meaningful
Flex-RunTM foot. The second study occurred 16 differences, one limitation in this case study was the
months after elective TFA following 44 months as duration of time from surgery to the data collection
KD (height: 1.75m; weight: 79kg). The patient ran and the amount of completed physical therapy
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
sessions. The patient had KD for 28 months prior to given the different amputation levels. Future work
data collection and the most recent running data was will expand on these results and consider kinetics of
collected 16 months after elective TFA. The this patient between KD and TFA.
addition of physical therapy sessions completed
from his TFA surgery to his current running study REFERENCES
collection may contribute to why differences were 1. Baumgartner RF. Prosthet Orthot Int, 3 15-19, 1979.
not seen between the two amputation levels. 2. Gailey RS & Clark CR. O&P Virtual Library, 2002.
Additionally, the kinematics of the contralateral
limb was excluded from analysis. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to thank Tatiana Djafar, Trevor
CONCLUSIONS Kingsbury, and Noel Guerrero for guidance and technical
support. Project was supported by Navy Bureau of Medicine
This case study aimed to identify the temporal- and Surgery, Wounded, Ill, and Injured Program (W239) and
spatial and kinematic differences in overground in part with resources provided by Extremity Trauma and
running from a patient who transitioned from a Amputation Center of Excellence.
unilateral KD to a unilateral TFA. Literature has
implied a preference for KD over TFA, however DISCLOSURE STATEMENT: All authors have no conflicts
of interest to disclose. The views expressed in the abstract do
these findings suggest that differences might be not necessarily reflect those of the Department of the Navy,
minimal in terms of functional performance. It is Department of Defense or U.S. Government.
interesting how similar the two conditions were,
(A) (B)

(C) (D)

Figures 1A-D: Trunk and hip kinematic graphs of the affected side (right) over 100% of the running gait cycle of KD (blue-dashed
line) and TFA (red solid line) conditions. The following graphs going clockwise from top-left are: (A) trunk flexion, (B) trunk
rotation, (c) pelvic obliquity, and (d) hip flexion/extension. Dots in (A) are max flexion peaks.

Table 1: Temporal-spatial measures of KD and TFA conditions
Amputation Type Residual Limb Length (m) Velocity (m/s) Step Width (m)
KD 0.57 4.56 0.109
TFA 0.46 4.74 0.246

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Asymmetric Step Frequencies Increase the Metabolic Cost of Running
1
Eric N. Azua, 1Owen N. Beck, and 1, 2Alena M. Grabowski
1
University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA
2
Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Healthcare System, Denver, CO, USA
Email: eric.azua@colorado.edu

INTRODUCTION
We measured GRFs at 1000 Hz for 30 seconds
While considering other factors, reducing the during minutes 3 and 5 of each running trial, filtered
metabolic cost of running improves distance running the GRFs, and used a 10 N vertical GRF threshold to
performance [1]. Altered biomechanics, such as calculate stride kinematics (step frequency, ground
contact time, vertical and horizontal ground reaction contact time), kinetics (stance average vertical GRF,
force (GRF), stride frequency, and leg stiffness peak vertical GRF, peak horizontal GRFs), and leg
change the muscular demands and consequentially stiffness. We measured rates of oxygen consumption
influence the metabolic cost of running [2]. and carbon dioxide production using indirect
calorimetry, and averaged these rates over the last
Many individuals such as athletes with a leg injury, two minutes of each trial. We used a standard
people with a leg amputation, and people with equation [3] to calculate metabolic power for each
pathological gait, exhibit asymmetrical trial, and then subtracted this metabolic power from
biomechanics during running. Yet, despite the standing to yield net metabolic power.
prevalence of biomechanical asymmetries, it is
unknown how asymmetries affect running Biomechanical variable (BV) asymmetries were
performance. Thus, we sought to address whether calculated using the absolute value of the SI and were
asymmetric step frequency affects the metabolic cost expressed as a percentage (Eq. 1).
of running. We hypothesized that greater
biomechanical asymmetries between legs would SI = |
"# $%&' ("#($%&*)
| 𝑥 100% Eq. 1
,.. ("# $%&' 0"# $%&* )
increase the metabolic cost of running.
We only analyzed asymmetric running trials where
METHODS
runners achieved a step frequency asymmetry steady
Ten healthy runners completed two testing sessions -state, which we defined as a change in step
on two separate days. Subjects began each session by frequency asymmetry between minutes 3 and 5 that
standing in place while we measured their metabolic was within ± two standard deviations of the average
rates and then completed seven running trials. First, difference elicited during the PSF trial. We used
subjects performed a 12-minute habituation trial at independent linear mixed models to test the influence
their preferred step frequency (PSF). PSF was then of each BV on the increase in the percentage of net
used for subsequent trials. For the remaining trials, metabolic power compared to the PSF trial.
subjects were instructed to run for 6 minutes while Significance was set at p<0.05.
initiating ground contact with each beat of an audible
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
metronome. Subjects ran two additional habituation
trials, with symmetric PSF and 21% step frequency The main goal of this study was to examine the
asymmetries, respectively. Subjects then ran 4 effects of step frequency asymmetries on the
additional trials at different randomly selected metabolic cost of running. We found that for every
asymmetric step frequencies, which were 0, 7, 14, 10% increase in step frequency asymmetry, net
and 21% of the absolute value of the symmetry index metabolic power increased 3.5% (p<0.001) (Fig. 1).
(SI) (Eq. 1) compared to their PSF (symmetric). For A previous study of walking also associated similar
all trials, stride frequency (one stride = two steps) increases in metabolic cost to asymmetric
remained constant, and running speed was 2.8 m/s. biomechanics. Specifically, they found that step
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
frequency asymmetries of 12% in walkers increased leg amputations require further investigation into
the metabolic cost of walking by 6% compared to how GRF asymmetries influence metabolic cost. In
symmetric step times [4]. our study, the changes in biomechanical variables
may be associated with increased muscular demands
Our results show that increases in metabolic cost due in one leg that compensated for the other.
to step frequency asymmetry were varied across Specifically, changes in asymmetric horizontal peak
subjects. While some subjects had large changes in braking and propulsive GRFs could require increased
net metabolic power at low step frequency muscular demand from one leg to maintain a constant
asymmetries, others had the opposite result (Fig. 1). velocity, and increased stance average vertical GRF
The metabolic cost of running did not change asymmetry may increase metabolic cost by recruiting
between testing sessions (p≥0.05), thus, results for a greater volume of active muscle to support
each day were included in our analyses. bodyweight.
18 CONCLUSIONS
16
Change in NMP (%)

14 Our data supports the hypothesis that net metabolic
12
power increases due to an increase in biomechanical
asymmetries.
10
8 Table 1. Percent change in net metabolic power
6 (NMP) and associated p-values due to a 10% change
4 in stance average vertical GRF (Favg), peak vertical
2 GRF (Fpeak), peak horizontal propulsive (Fprop) and
0 braking GRF (Fbrake), step time (tc), and leg stiffness
0 10 20 30 40 (kleg).
Step Frequency Asymmetry (SI%)
Biomechanical
% D in NMP Significance
Figure 1: Change in net metabolic power (NMP) due Variable
to an implemented step frequency asymmetry in 10 Freqstep 3.5 p<0.001
runners during the last minute of each experimental Favg 3.5 p<0.001
running trial. Each color represents a different Fpeak --- p=0.422
individual. Change in NMP (%) = 3.5 x step Fprop 2.0 p<0.001
frequency asymmetry (%) + 0.006. Fbrake 1.3 p<0.001
tc 7.5 p=0.038
Asymmetric stance average vertical GRF, horizontal
peak propulsive and braking GRF, and contact time kleg --- p=0.054
all influenced net metabolic power (p≤0.038) (Table
1). However, net metabolic power was independent REFERENCES
of leg stiffness and peak vertical GRF (p≥0.054). 1. Hoogkamer W, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 48, 2175–
Previous research on runners with unilateral 2180, 2016.
transtibial amputations found that varying prosthetic 2. Arellano CJ, et al. Integr Comp Biol, 54, 1084–9, 2014.
stiffness, and thus varying peak vertical GRF 3. Brockway JM, Hum Nutr Clin Nutr, 41, 463-471, 1987.
asymmetry and peak horizontal GRFs (braking and 4. Ellis RG, et al. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 280, 1756,
propulsive) between the two legs, does not affect the 2013.
metabolic cost of running [5]. These contradictory 5. Beck ON, et al. Proceedings of ASB ’15, Columbus,
results between athletes with and without unilateral OH, USA, 2015.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
CHANGES IN SURFACE STIFFNESS ELICIT VERTICAL STIFFNESS CHANGES WITHOUT
CHANGES IN METABOLIC DEMAND DURING BILATERAL HOPPING
1
Jonathan S. Goodwin, PT, DPT; 2Michael D. Lewek, PT, PhD; 3J. Troy Blackburn, PhD, ATC;
1
Program in Human Movement Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA;
2
Division of Physical Therapy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 3Exercise
and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA;
email: fjgoodwin@unc.edu

INTRODUCTION 5 minute seated rest to ensure metabolic demand
Running is an increasingly popular physical activity returned to baseline between conditions. 3D lower
that is associated with reduced disability and extremity kinematics and kinetics were sampled
mortality [1]. However, as with any physical activity, throughout along with metabolic demand. Metabolic
there is injury risk. Lower extremity injuries occur in demand was averaged over the final 30 seconds of
19%-79% runners whose training or race distance each four minute hopping trial. Vertical stiffness was
exceeds 5 kilometers [2]. Lower extremity stiffness calculated as the maximum vertical force divided by
and loading rate are positively correlated and play a the change in center of mass depression during
role in injury development. Greater loading rate is ground contact (Fmax/Δy) and averaged over 10
associated with bony injuries, while lesser loading successive hops within the last 30 seconds of each 4
rates may contribute to soft tissue injuries [3-5]. minute hopping trial [9]. Vertical stiffness was
Additionally, lower extremity stiffness is modified further normalized to subject’s body weight and
automatically during each ground contact during standing center of mass position [(Fmax/BW)/(Δy/y)]
running and hopping [6, 7]. Greater lower extremity [10]. Repeated measures ANOVAs were evaluated
stiffness has been shown to be associated with lesser for the effect of surface stiffness on both metabolic
metabolic demand during running [8]. However, it is demand and vertical stiffness during bilateral
unknown if changes in lower extremity stiffness hopping. A priori alpha level set at 0.05.
affect metabolic demand. Therefore, the purpose of
this study is to induce lower extremity stiffness RESULTS
changes and analyze any resultant metabolic demand Metabolic demand was not statistically different
changes during bilateral hopping. across three different surface conditions (p =0.265,
Table 1)
METHODS
12 runners (8 females, 4 males, 22.91 ± 5.99 y.o, 1.70 Table 1: Metabolic demand and surface stiffness.
± 0.12 m, 66.5 ± 10.83 kg, 25 ± 7.46 miles run/week Values expressed as mean ± SD.
) volunteered for participation in the study. Subjects Surface Condition Metabolic Demand
were required to be injury free for 6 months and run (O2 ml/kg/min)
a minimum of 15 miles per week. Subjects were fit
Hard 32.207 ± 4.25
with a portable metabolic analyzer (K4b2, Cosmed)
Medium 32.778 ± 4.28
and whole body retroreflective markers (Vicon).
Soft 32.877 ± 3.74
Subjects completed bilateral hopping at 2 Hz on 3
different surfaces with unique stiffness
Normalized vertical stiffness was statistically
characteristics. These included a “soft” (Airex foam
significantly different between surface conditions (p
pad), “medium” (Medium density foam), “hard”
< 0.015, F=6.804). Bonferroni post-hoc test revealed
(Bertec force plate) condition. The order of the
that normalized stiffness differed significantly
conditions was controlled via a balanced Latin
between soft and hard surface condition with greater
square design to remove potential order effect.
vertical stiffness observed with the soft surface
Subjects were required to hop for 4 minutes on each
surface to achieve metabolic steady state and given a condition (p < 0.049, Table 2).

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
metabolic tissues (i.e. increased elastic energy return
from tendons) while maintaining previous level of
Table 2: Stiffness and surface condition. Values metabolic demand. Maintaining lower extremity
expressed as mean ± SD. ‘*’ = statistically stiffness while minimizing increases in metabolic
significantly different (p< 0.05). demand is important given athletes display poorer
Surface Vertical Stiffness Normalized lower extremity biomechanics that may expose them
Condition (KN/m) Stiffness to a greater injury risk when fatigued [12]. This
Hard 50.61 ± 26.89 .0402 ± .01* information can be applied practically by intervening
Medium 50.74 ± 26.52 .0408 ± .01 with shoe modification (i.e. greater cushioning) to
potentially increase or maintain lower extremity
Soft 59.00 ± 37.22 .0479 ± .02*
stiffness during running without a significant amount
of metabolic compensation. Further analysis is
needed to examine the non-metabolic methods and
DISCUSSION
behaviors through which subjects are able to alter
Normalized vertical stiffness was significantly lower
their stiffness values. This could lead to individual
during the hard compared to the soft condition during
training programs to find the ideal lower extremity
bilateral hopping. This decrease in vertical stiffness
stiffness value while minimizing injury risk.
was achieved without a significant metabolic
compensation. This compensation in vertical
REFERENCES
stiffness is expected given the subjects were required
to overcome the soft surface deformation to maintain 1. Lee, D.-c., et al. Journal of the American College of Cardiology,
2014. 64(5): p. 472-481.
the 2 Hz hopping frequency [11]. We did not see a 2. van Gent, R.N., et al., British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2007.
significant difference in vertical stiffness between 41(8): p. 469-480.
3. Williams, D.S., 3rd, et al. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 2001.
the medium and hard surface conditions. We also did 16(4): p. 341-7.
not see any change with metabolic demand across all 4. Williams, D.S., et al., Gait & posture, 2004. 19(3): p. 263-269.
5. Radin, E.L., et al., Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 1984. 2(3): p.
surface conditions. 221-234.
6. Ferris, D.P., et al, Journal of biomechanics, 1999. 32: p. 787-794.
7. Morin, J.B., et al., Journal of Biomechanics, 2011. 44(6): p. 1104-
CONCLUSION 1107.
Inadequate and/or excessive lower extremity 8. Dalleau, G., et al., European Journal of Applied Physiology, 1998.
77(3): p. 257-263.
stiffness is linked with musculoskeletal injury and it 9. McMahon, T.A. and G.C. Cheng, Journal of Biomechanics, 1990.
is modified automatically to accommodate different 23: p. 65-78.
10. Blickhan, R. and R.J. Full, Journal of Comparative Physiology A,
surface conditions. Our subjects displayed greater 1993. 173: p. 509-517.
stiffness to overcome the soft surface condition 11. Ferris, D.P. and C.T. Farley,. Journal of applied physiology, 1997.
82: p. 15-22
without significant metabolic compensation. This 12. Liederbach, M., et al., The American Journal of Sports Medicine,
accommodation could have been completed by 2014. 42(5): p. 1089-1095.
altering landing posture or increased reliance on non-

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
JOINT TORQUE REQUIREMENTS AND CAPACITIES DURING RUNNING
1
Timothy R. Derrick, 2Elizabeth R. Boyer
1
Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
2
Gillette Children’s Hospital, St. Paul, MN,USA
email: tderrick@iastate.edu, web: http://www.kin.hs.iastate.edu/

INTRODUCTION reaction forces where estimated using rigid body
assumptions and standard inverse dynamics
Any situation that reduces the maximal dynamic procedures. A 44-muscle, scaled musculoskeletal
muscle force capability – ageing, fatigue, lack of model [3] implemented in Matlab used the segment
training, fiber damage etc. – might reduce maximum rotation matrices as input to derive length and
torque production below the requirements of the velocity adjusted maximal dynamic muscle forces
activity. This forces runner’s muscles to approach and moment arms for each frame of data. Multiplying
their physiological capacity and may result in an these muscle forces by their moment arms allowed
altered running style. It is, therefore, useful to know the estimation of maximal dynamic torque producing
which torques are closest to their dynamic capacity capacity at a joint. Actual dynamic muscle forces
so that specific steps can be taken to insure an were estimated using static optimization by
adequate reserve and enable the runner to maintain constraining the muscle forces to be less than the
optimal running form. It is the purpose of this maximum dynamic muscle forces, and equal to the
research to identify joint torques that approach their joint moments (3D hip joint moments, knee sagittal
maximum dynamic limits during running and to plane joint moment, and ankle sagittal plane joint
determine when in the stance phase of the running moment). The solution that met these constraints and
cycle these relative weaknesses occur. We will also minimized the sum of the squared muscle stresses
examine if the limitations are due to length or was selected as the actual dynamic muscle forces.
velocity constraints. Multiplying the actual muscle forces by their
respective moment arms gave an estimate of the joint
METHODS torque requirements of the task.

Seven young adults recreational runners (3 males,
age: 21.3±2.1 yr; body mass: 68.9±6.7 kg; height: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1.84±0.07 m and 4 females, age: 25.3±5.2 yr; body
mass: 56.6±11.3 kg; height: 1.64±0.08 m) Regions in which the joint torque requirements were
participated in this study. All runners were healthy within .06BW of capacity for more than 5% of stance
and currently free of injury. Reflective markers were were identified by a shaded region (Figure 1). The
placed on the right foot, leg, thigh and the pelvis in sagittal plane hip moment is the only one in which
order to track the motion while runners ran at 3.5 m/s the inverse dynamics estimate muscle torques did not
on a 30 m runway. They landed on a force platform approach the limitations of the joint muscles.
(AMTI, 1000 Hz) with their right foot making However, the frontal and transverse plane hip
contact with their preferred strike pattern while 8 moments did approach these limits.
cameras (Vicon, 200 Hz) recorded the location of the
reflective markers. It should be noted that the maximum positive and
negative limitations identified in figure 1 were
Segment rotation matrices were calculated relative to modelled and not measure directly. Direct
a static trial using a least squares fit [1]. measurement would allow a subject specific
Anthropometrics where derived using geometric comparison but the major advantage of the current
solids [2]. Three dimensional joint moments and method is that the estimates of the limitations are

41stAnnual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
length and velocity dependent. This can be seen in limits at the joint, compensations take place that may
the sagittal plane ankle moment when the plantar put the runner in jeopardy of injury. This analysis is
flexor (maximum negative moment) limitation also useful at identifying which muscle groups
approaches zero toward the end of the stance period. should be strengthened or maintained to run
At this time the length and velocity of the plantar effectively.
flexors drastically reduce their ability to produce
torque. REFERENCES

CONCLUSIONS 1. Soderkvist, I, et al. J of Biomech, 26, 1473-1477,
1993.
This technique of comparing moments created by the 2. Hanavan, E. Tech. Rep. Wright-Patterson, 1964.
joints during running to the maximum capabilities of 3. Arnold, EM, et al. Ann Biomed Eng, 38, 269-279,
the joint holds promise for identifying weak links in 2010.
the lower extremity. As the torques approach their

Transverse Hip Moment (BW)
0.4 0.4 0.2
Sagittal Hip Moment (BW)

Frontal Hip Moment (BW)

0.2
0.2 0.1
0
0 0
-0.2
-0.2 -0.1
-0.4

-0.6 -0.4 -0.2
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
%Stance %Stance %Stance
Sagittal Ankle Moment (BW)
Sagittal Knee Moment (BW)

1 0.2

0
0.5
-0.2
0
-0.4

-0.5 -0.6
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
%Stance %Stance

41stAnnual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Distance Running Sagittal Plane Hip and Knee Variability During
Early and Late Stance and Swing
1
Brady DeCouto, 1 Robert A. Paxton, 1 Christopher Robertson, 2 Reed Ferber and 1 Jeff
T. Wight
1
Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, FL, USA
2
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
email: bdecout@ju.edu

METHODS
INTRODUCTION Participants were 24 highly trained runners (8
The consistency of a distance runner’s females, 16 males; 36.1±10.8 years; 30-80 miles
biomechanical gait pattern may be relevant to per week). Six posterior-mounted Vicon Bonita
injury and performance as variability measures cameras were used to assess treadmill running
may serve as important indicators. For example, using a standard marker set-up [3]. Runners
Ferber [1] studied stride-to-stride variability in completed their preferred warmup and then ran
runners with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 3-minutes at their “long run pace” (slow) and
reported decreased stride-to-stride variability “half-marathon pace” (fast). Data were collected
after three weeks of hip abductor strengthening. for 25 seconds during the final minute of each
pace. Stance and swing data were normalized to
For variability, it is important to determine 100 data points, and sagittal plane hip and knee
which joints, phases, and critical instants are the joint angles were assessed.
most important to focus on for cohorts of
interest. For both the stance and swing phases of The early swing phase was defined from toe-off to
running gait, the biomechanical patterns are maximum hip flexion and late swing from
very different. During early stance, the weight is maximum hip flexion to foot contact. Early stance
accepted until the knee is maximally flexed, and phase was defined as foot contact to maximum knee
the muscles are eccentrically loaded. During late flexion and late stance from maximum knee flexion
stance, propulsion occurs (knee and hip to toe-off. Variability was assessed for each
extension), and the muscles are concentrically condition using two steps. First, the standard
loaded. During early swing, the hip is flexed deviation was calculated on a point-by-point basis
until the knee reaches its maximum height. across the 10 strides. Second, the overall standard
Then, during late swing, the leg lowers with deviation for each individual phase was averaged.
gravity. These drastically different
biomechanics may cause significant differences A 4x2x2 ANOVA was used to test for
in variability. significant main effects and interaction. The
factors were the phase (early swing, late swing,
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to early stance, late stance), joint (hip, knee), and
determine if there are significant differences in speed (slow, fast). Secondary t-test comparisons
sagittal knee and hip joint variability between were completed with Bonferoni corrections for
the early and late stance and swing phases for multiple comparisons.
slow and fast running.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Overall, the runners in this study appeared to have
consistent hip and knee kinematics for all phases as
evidenced by the overall low standard deviations significant differences in knee variability across
(ranging from 1.33°-5.65°). speed.

Interestingly, for running speed, there was no For the hip, there were no significant differences
significant effect (p=0.40) on joint variability between the early and late stance phase. During
(Figure 1) and for both the knee and hip, results swing, the hip exhibited increased variability
appear to be very similar for both speeds (Figure 1). (p<0.01) during the late phase for both speeds;
Running speed appears to have minimal impact on however, the differences were minimal
joint variability. Similar findings have been reported (approximately 0.4°).
for running reliability. For example, Queen [4]
analyzed 35 kinematic and kinetic variables at self-
CONCLUSIONS
selected and standardized running speeds and found
Running speed had few effects on joint variability
only two to have significant differences.
across four different phases of stance and swing and
between a fast and slow running speed. Overall, the
Figure 1: Hip and knee variability in early and late
hip showed small changes in variability for the early
swing and stance phase.
and late phases and the knee had notable increases in
variability for early stance and late swing. These
findings are consistent with the literature on running
reliability measures.

This study also revealed that variability can be phase
dependent, which is similar to previous studies
showing that continuous relative phase variability
measures varied throughout the stance phase [2].
Future prospective research is necessary to
determine the relevance of variability measures to
injury.
.

REFERENCES

1. Ferber R, et al. Journal of Athletic Training,
46(2), 142-149.
2. Hein, T, et al. Human Movement Science 31,
683-694, 2012.
For the knee, increased variability (p<0.001) was 3. Pohl et al., Gait Posture, 32, , 559-563, 2010
observed during the early stance and late swing 4. Queen RM, et al. Gait & Posture, 23, 282-287,
(Table 1) and knee variability more than doubled 2006.
between early and late phases for both stance and
swing with late swing and early stance exhibiting

Table 1: Overall standard deviations (°).
Early Swing Late Swing Early Stance Late Stance
Hip (slow) 1.76 ± 1.02 2.11 ± 1.23 1.35 ± 0.58 1.48 ± 0.86
Hip (fast) 1.86 ± 0.93 *2.26 ± 1.31 1.39 ± 0.47 1.58 ± 0.83
Knee (slow) 2.45 ± 1.24 *5.65 ± 4.18 3.08 ± 2.06 *1.33 ± 0.53
Knee (fast) 2.60 ± 1.12 *5.25 ± 3.79 3.06 ± 1.82 *1.36 ± 0.48
* indicates significant difference between early and late phases

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
PROOF-OF-CONCEPT:
ACCELEROMETER-BASED METRICS PREDICT INJURY IN NCAA RUNNERS
1
Dovin Kiernan, 1 Laura Oelsner, 1 Martin Manoukian, 1 Madeline McKallip, 1 Crystal Coolbaugh,
1
Charles Caskey, and 1 David Hawkins
1
University of California Davis, CA, USA
email: dahawkins@ucdavis.edu, web: http://hpl.ucdavis.edu/

INTRODUCTION METHODS

Running is associated with high rates of injury: up Nine male NCAA Division I middle and long
to 92.4% of runners sustain a musculoskeletal injury distance track runners were followed for 60 days
each year [1]. Thus, developing metrics to predict (18.7 ± 1.0 years old, 64.2 ± 7.3 kg, 178.4 ± 4.6 cm;
and prevent running injury is integral to preserving mean ± SD). Coaches provided prescribed daily
the musculoskeletal health of the ~55 million running distances/times for each participant.
Americans who run regularly [2]. Participants completed daily questionnaires
describing overall post-training pain/fatigue on a
Theory posits that combinations of high magnitudes scale from 1 (none) to 9 (extreme) and reported the
and numbers of vertical ground reaction forces location and severity of any injuries.
(vGRFs) contribute to injury; however, in spite of
much research, the relationship between vGRF and During training runs each participant wore a tri-
injury remains unclear [e.g., 3]. This lack of clarity axial linear accelerometer (ADXL345, Analog
may be due, in part, to the fact that measuring Devices, Norwood, MA; ± 8 g, 48.4 – 52.4 Hz,) on
vGRFs typically requires costly equipment and their right hip. Custom MATLAB scripts (R2016a,
expertise and is largely restricted to laboratory and The MathWorks, Natick, MA) were used to filter
clinical settings. These constraints limit the amount the gravity component from the acceleration signal.
of data that can be collected and the ecological Steady-state portions (>10 strides) were isolated,
validity of that data, requiring inferences about and the number and magnitude of right-side
overall loading profiles to be made based on limited acceleration peaks were calculated. Magnitudes
and potentially biased samples. Extrapolation of were then converted to peak vGRF estimates [4].
these laboratory-based results may not realistically
represent the number or magnitude of loads 19.3% of accelerometer and 29.2% of pain/injury
experienced by runners. data were missing due to item non-response (e.g.,
participant removed accelerometer during run).
To overcome these constraints, our lab previously Missing data were multiply imputed using
developed a model that estimates peak vGRFs from prescribed training, anthropometrics, and all
hip acceleration data, participant mass, and the type analysis variables and assuming that values were
of locomotion (walk or run) [4]. The mean absolute missing at random. Fifty imputed data sets were
difference between model-predicted and force plate- generated with SPSS (v24.0, IBM Corp., Armonk,
observed vGRFs was 8.3%, supporting this NY) and pooled for analysis using Rubin’s rules [5].
technique’s potential to quantify the peak
magnitude of vGRFs during running. Injured and uninjured participant mean pain/fatigue,
mean estimated peak vGRF, mean strides per run,
Building on this model, the current study quantifies mean cumulative loading per run (strides*vGRF),
the magnitude and number of loads experienced by and rate of load accumulation (cumulative load
competitive runners and compares those measures across two-weeks) were entered into independent
with reported pain/fatigue and injury. Runners with samples t-tests. Significance was set at p < 0.05 and
high magnitudes and numbers of loads were corrected with a False Discovery Rate to mitigate
predicted to report higher pain/fatigue and injury. chance of Type I error.
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Across the 60-day study, three participants (33%)
lost training time due to injury (self-reported foot,
adductor, and hamstring injuries with 7, 10, and 33
days lost). Injured and uninjured participants did not
report significantly different pain/fatigue (p =
0.346) suggesting that our pain/fatigue
questionnaire, and/or runners themselves, were
insensitive to impending injury; thus, underscoring Figure 1: Mean (black bar) and 95% CI (shaded
the need for additional objective metrics. area) of (a) Mean number of strides per run, and (b)
Mean estimated peak vGRF. Gray dots represent
In contrast, while the mean number of strides per participant means.
run did not differ between injured and uninjured
participants (p = 0.828; Fig 1a), injured participants
had significantly greater peak vGRFs (p < 0.001;
Fig 1b) and cumulative loading per run (p = 0.006;
Fig 2a). Injured runners also demonstrated a trend
toward faster rates of load accumulation (p = 0.079;
Fig 2b) and outlying peak vGRF vs. mean strides
per run values, suggesting greater injury risk at high
load magnitude-number combinations (Fig 3).

CONCLUSIONS Figure 2: Mean (black bar) and 95% CI (shaded
area) of (a) Mean cumulative loading per run, and
Although limited by a small sample size, the present (b) Rate of load accumulation two-weeks prior to
results suggest that the accelerometer-based model injury (or matched temporal period for uninjured
used here is capable of capturing inter-participant participants). Gray dots represent participant means.
differences in loading profiles that may be
predictive of running injury.

REFERENCES

1. Lopes AD, et al. Sports Med 42(10), 891-905,
2012.
2. Outdoor Foundation. Outdoor Participation
Report, 2014.
3. Zadpoor AA & Nikooyan AA. Clinical Biomech
26, 23-28, 2011.
4. Neugebauer JM, et al. PLoS ONE 9(6), 1-8, 2014.
5. Rubin DB. Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse
in Surveys, John Wiley & Sons, 1987
Figure 3: (a) Each participant’s vGRF vs. strides
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS per run. Color represents mean reported
pain/fatigue. Thickness of encircling red line
Thanks to Coach Drew Wartenburg and the UC represents time lost due to injury (if any). (b)
Davis men’s NCAA track and field team for their Chance of injury over two-months. Empirical data
participation, and to Henry Luk, Amar Dholakia, interpolated to conceptualize injury risk across a
and Shonit Sharma for contributions to earlier work. generalizable range.
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
THE USE OF A SINGLE INERTIAL SENSOR TO ESTIMATE 3-DIMENSIONAL GROUND
REACTION FORCE DURING ACCELERATIVE RUNNING TASKS

1
Reed D. Gurchiek, 2 Ryan S. McGinnis, 1Alan R. Needle, 1 Jeffrey M. McBride, 1 Herman van Werkhoven
1
Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA
2
University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
email: gurchiekrd@appstate.edu

INTRODUCTION
1. A linear standing sprint start (SS), and
The magnitude and orientation of the ground reaction 2. A 45° change of direction task (COD)
force vector (𝑭) are often used as an index to assess Subjects performed six trials of the SS task (three to
performance in linear acceleration and change of
assess 𝑭 during the initial push from stance and three
direction tasks [1, 2]. In-ground force plates (FP) are
to assess 𝑭 during the first foot contact after the
considered the gold standard for measuring 𝑭, initial push). Subjects also performed six trials of the
however, their use in the field is limited by their cost COD task (three to the left and three to the right) to
and the constraints they place on movement.
assess 𝑭 during the first foot contact after the initial
push (i.e. the plant foot).
To overcome these limitations, previous studies have
investigated the use of a single wearable
The IMU was attached to the sacral region of the
accelerometer for estimating kinetic parameters
subjects using an elastic strap and double-sided tape
during accelerative tasks [3, 4]. The sensor is
(Fig 1). Subjects were positioned with their hips
typically placed close to the body’s center of mass
pointed straight forward in order to align the forward
(COM) thus enabling estimation of 𝑭 via Newton’s axes of the IMU and FP. This allowed the
2nd Law with knowledge of the subject’s mass.
determination of the FP heading (angular deviation
These studies suggest that misalignment of the of horizontal plane axes) relative to the local
accelerometer measurement axes relative to the FP
may underlie some of the observed error. Inertial
measurement units (IMUs) are equipped with on-
board sensors that allow them to determine the
orientation of the IMU relative to an inertial
reference frame (and thus also the FP frame
assuming the FP vertical axis is aligned with the
gravity vector) and compensate for the
aforementioned frame misalignment.

Previous studies have not attempted to compensate
for this potential error source using IMUs. Thus, the
purpose of this study was to assess the validity of 3-
D 𝑭 estimates from a single IMU during accelerative
running tasks by comparison to a force plate.
A B
. .
METHODS Figure 1: Subject on force plate with IMU attached to
sacral region. A. Static orientation trial - hips aligned
Fifteen subjects (12 male, 3 female, age: 23.20 ± 2.11 with forward axis of the force plate. B. Subject
yrs) volunteered to participate in this study. The assumed standing sprint start stance.
movement tasks assessed were:
magnetic field vector. Subjects then assumed their and 𝑅𝐹 during SS and 𝐹̅𝑧 and 𝐹̅𝑟𝑒𝑠 during COD
stance for three seconds before performing the task. suggested by significant correlations, low relative
Average accelerometer and magnetometer output error, and low RMSE (Table 1). Despite large
during stance was used to determine IMU attitude absolute errors in the IMU estimate of the other
and heading relative to the FP. The attitude and components, correlations with FP estimates were
heading allowed the construction of the composite significant for all components of 𝑭
̅ except 𝐹̅𝑦 during
quaternion representing the orientation of the IMU SS suggesting the IMU estimate may be able to
relative to FP. The angular rate signal measured by detect similar changes in measured values compared
the gyroscope was then used to time-integrate the to FP over time. The IMU did not provide accurate
quaternion orientation at each instant during the estimates of instantaneous 𝑭 for any components for
movement. The acceleration vector measured by the the SS task (RMSE: 376.64 N to 476.57 N) nor for
IMU was then resolved in the FP frame and scaled the COD task (RMSE: 436.44 N to 632.54 N). The
by the subject’s mass to provide an estimate of 𝑭. average angular error of the IMU estimate of 𝑭 ̅
during both SS and COD was less than 10°
Step average 𝑭 (𝑭̅ ) was determined for the IMU and suggesting the IMU can provide valid estimates of
FP by averaging the 𝑭 estimates measured during the orientation of 𝑭̅.
foot contact (when FP measured 𝐹𝑧 > 10 N). IMU
estimates of 𝑭̅ and instantaneous 𝑭 were compared The ability to accurately estimate directional step-
to the same measured by FP. The ratio of the forward averaged 𝑭 during athletic tasks is useful when
component of 𝑭 (𝐹𝑥 ) relative to 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠 expressed as a evaluating performance [1, 2]. The results of this
percentage (𝑅𝐹) was also compared between IMU study broaden the scope of IMU applications to
and FP to consider the potential application of the perform field-based human movement analyses.
IMU method to assess linear acceleration
performance [1]. Error in the IMU estimates of 𝑭 REFERENCES
was quantified using root mean square error
(RMSE), relative error (absolute percent difference), 1. Rabita G, et al. Scand J Med Sci Sports 25, 583-
and Pearson’s product moment correlation 594, 2015.
coefficient (r). 2. Dos’Santos T, et al. J Strength Cond Res 31, 696-
705, 2017.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3. Howard R, et al. Proceedings of ISSC ’14 and
CIICT ’14, Limerick, Ireland, 2014.
The IMU method gave valid estimates of 𝐹̅𝑥 , 𝐹̅𝑧 , 𝐹̅𝑟𝑒𝑠 , 4. Wundersitz DWT, et al. Sports Biomechanics 12,
403-412, 2013.

Table 1: Comparing IMU and FP estimates of 𝑭
̅ and 𝑅𝐹 during SS (top) and COD (bottom).
IMU Force Plate
Mean ± SD [N] Mean ± SD [N] RMSE [N] Relative Error [%] r (p value)
SS 𝐹̅𝑥 219.00 ± 83.50 220.82 ± 68.83 45.17 12.88 0.84 (<0.01)
𝐹̅𝑦 -11.22 ± 44.23 6.54 ± 35.07 66.15 341.20 -0.33 (0.08)
𝐹̅𝑧 785.84 ± 152.02 821.34 ± 156.89 77.32 6.82 0.90 (<0.01)
𝐹̅𝑟𝑒𝑠 821.16 ± 156.43 853.41 ± 162.07 75.71 6.51 0.91 (<0.01)
𝑅𝐹 26.75 ± 8.44 25.87 ± 6.44 4.53 12.28 0.85 (<0.01)

COD 𝐹̅𝑥 152.45 ± 90.98 70.88 ± 52.58 100.93 218.02 0.77 (<0.01)
𝐹̅𝑦 (Right) -289.70 ± 96.58 -388.73 ± 89.99 132.18 28.42 0.53 (0.04)
𝐹̅𝑦 (Left) 229.11 ± 121.54 368.02 ± 92.45 169.91 38.90 0.58 (0.02)
𝐹̅𝑧 945.76 ± 165.99 964.27 ± 145.10 60.01 5.20 0.94 (<0.01)
𝐹̅𝑟𝑒𝑠 1002.27 ± 177.51 1041.72 ± 159.88 77.12 6.49 0.91 (<0.01)
INFLUENCE OF ACCELEROMETER RANGE ON ACCURACY OF FOOT-MOUNTED IMU BASED
RUNNING VELOCITY ESTIMATION

Michael V. Potter, Lauro Ojeda, Noel C. Perkins, and Stephen M. Cain

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
email: mvpotter@umich.edu

INTRODUCTION Each subject was equipped with two IMUs (Opal,
APDM, 128 Hz, ±200g, ±2000 deg·s-1). One IMU
Miniature inertial measurement units (IMUs) are an was placed on each shoe on top of the lower laces
attractive option for analyzing human performance and secured with athletic tape to prevent shifting. An
due to their low cost, light weight, and relatively instrumented treadmill (Quasar, h/p/cosmos) capable
simple setup. Unlike optical-based motion capture, of speeds above 8 m·s-1 was used to establish a
IMUs allow researchers to collect data in the field, ground truth measurement of gait speed.
where measurements are not restricted by limited
capture volumes. After familiarization with the treadmill, each subject
completed the following trials, each 20 seconds in
One application of this technology is to use foot- duration: walking at speeds of 0.89, 1.79, and 2.24
mounted IMUs to estimate a subject’s running m·s-1 and running at speeds of 1.79, 2.24, 3.13, 4.02,
velocity in over ground running. Foot-mounted 4.92, 5.81, 6.71, and 7.60 m·s-1. The subject rested as
IMUs are an attractive option for this application needed between trials. Neither subject was able to
because the foot is essentially stationary during run the full 20 seconds at 7.60 m·s-1 (stopped at 10
specific times in the stance phase, which allows the and 15 seconds) but they completed all other trials
application of zero velocity updates (ZUPTs) [2]. successfully.
Commercially available IMUs offer a wide variety of
sensor specifications (e.g. sampling rate and Foot trajectory estimates for each foot and each trial
accelerometer and gyro ranges) that can greatly were obtained by integrating a single IMU’s sensor
affect the quality of IMU-derived estimates for gait data and applying a ZUPT algorithm similar to that
parameters. Bailey, et al. [1], examined the effect of used in [2]. Zero velocity points were selected as the
sampling frequency and accelerometer ranges on time of minimum angular rate magnitude during foot
estimations of average stride velocity and foot contact. Strides were then segmented by these zero
clearance. However, their evaluation was limited to velocity points. Each stride’s length was calculated
a small range of speeds (2.3 - 3.4 m·s-1, much slower as the total calculated planar displacement of the foot
than competitive running) and two accelerometer between the beginning and end of the stride. We
ranges (16g and 100g). selected only strides in which the subject was fully
on the treadmill (not holding the side rails) for
In this pilot study, we investigate the effect of sensor analysis. For each trial the average velocity of each
accelerometer range (100, 75, 50, 24, 16, 10, and 6g) foot, 𝑣𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑐 , was calculated by summing the selected
on estimates of average running velocity (up to 7.6 stride lengths of that foot and dividing this by the
m·s-1). Doing so provides researchers information time elapsed during these strides. Velocity error, 𝑉𝐸,
necessary to knowledgably select IMUs with the was calculated as:
appropriate sensor specifications to meet study goals.
𝑣𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑐 − 𝑣𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙
𝑉𝐸 = × 100
METHODS 𝑣𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙 (1)

Two healthy male subjects were recruited for this where 𝑣𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙 is the speed of the treadmill. This
University of Michigan IRB approved pilot study. calculation was then repeated (without changing

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
selection of steady state speed period) but by are necessary to determine whether this difference is
artificially modifying the accelerometer’s range to significant.
typical commercial ranges of 100, 75, 50, 24, 16, 10,
and 6g. This mimics the effect that using a sensor
with these ranges would have on velocity estimation
using this technique. This was accomplished by
truncating the acceleration to that limit (e.g. any
reading >50g or <-50 g set to +50g or -50g
respectively). The average error of the four
calculated velocities at each speed (two subjects with
two feet each) was then compared with respect to
change in speed and change in accelerometer range.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 1: Effect of accelerometer range on error in
The maximum acceleration measured along any calculated mean velocity at various running speeds.
sensor axis in this study was less than 75g, therefore Note that for almost all speeds, results of 100g, 75g,
the velocity error in all 100g and 75g calculations and 50g accelerometer are identical.
was identical. Figure 1 shows mean velocity error vs.
treadmill speed for each artificially enforced CONCLUSIONS
accelerometer range. It can be readily observed that
in general, the IMU-estimated velocity using the Our pilot study demonstrates that velocity estimation
aforementioned technique degrades with increasing using the ZUPT technique presented degrades with
running speed regardless of accelerometer range. A increased running speed and with lower
linear fit to the data for a 100g accelerometer accelerometer ranges (especially below 16g). Future
(velocity error vs. treadmill speed) yields a slope of work will require an expanded subject population to
-1.27 %·s·m-1. This may be attributed to limitations more fully describe the relationship between velocity
in sampling frequency of the IMUs used in this study estimation, speed, and accelerometer range. This
that could have a greater influence at higher speeds. expanded subject pool will also allow us to more
Additionally, the zero velocity assumption may be fully determine whether walking vs. running has a
invalid at these speeds or the zero velocity point may significant impact on velocity estimation at the same
be misidentified during foot contact. Even at the speeds using the described techniques. Additionally,
highest speed tested, the difference in velocity error IMUs with higher sampling rates will be used to test
between a 100g accelerometer and a 16g the impact of sampling rate on velocity estimation at
accelerometer is only 5.2%, suggesting that for many high speeds.
running studies, where speeds are significantly lower
than this, there may not be a significant benefit to REFERENCES
having an accelerometer over 16g. However, the
velocity estimation severely degrades for an 1. Bailey GP, et al. icSPORTS, 154-161, 2014.
accelerometer range lower than 16g. For example, at 2. Ojeda L, et al. J of Navigation 60, 391-407, 2007.
6g a linear fit to the velocity error vs. treadmill speed
has a slope of -6.89 %·s·m-1. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
In comparing the walking vs. running trials at 1.79 This material is based upon work supported by the
and 2.24 m·s-1, in six of the eight cases (2 subjects, 2 US Army Contracting Command-APG, Natick
feet, 2 speeds) the average velocity estimated during Contracting Division, Natick, MA, under contract
walking had slightly lower error than that calculated W911QY-15-C-0053.
during running. On average, walking trials produced
a velocity error that was 0.94% better. More subjects

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
ACCURATE AND ROBUST GAIT EVENT DETECTION USING FOOT-MOUNTED INERTIAL
MEASUREMENT UNITS

Stephen M. Cain, Michael V. Potter, Lauro Ojeda, and Noel C. Perkins

The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
email: smcain@umich.edu

INTRODUCTION Hz, ±200g, ±2000deg/s) and 2) Yost Labs 3-Space
(400Hz, ±24g, ±2000deg/s). Both subjects
Detection of foot contact with the ground is critical completed the following trials twice (once with each
for determining temporal gait characteristics and for type of IMU): walking at speeds of 0.89, 1.79, and
the analysis of kinematic, kinetic, and physiologic 2.24m/s and running at speeds of 1.79, 2.24, 3.13,
signals during stride cycles. In addition, detecting 4.02, 4.92, 5.81, 6.71, and 7.60m/s. Trials were 20
when the feet are in contact with the ground can aid seconds in duration and subjects rested as needed
the identification of appropriate zero velocity update between trials. An instrumented treadmill (quasar,
(ZUPT) locations (when the foot is close to or at zero h/p/cosmos, 100Hz) recorded the vertical ground
velocity during its contact with the ground). ZUPTs reaction force (VGRF) for each foot during each trial.
are used for calculating drift-corrected estimates of VGRFs were used to determine foot contact with
foot trajectories, which enable calculation of ground (VGRF > 0) and therefore ground truth times
spatiotemporal gait metrics [1, 2]. for initial contacts (ICs) and terminal contacts (TCs).
The systems (IMU and treadmill) were synchronized
Typically, accurate detection of ground contact using data from synchronization events (foot stomps)
requires foot-switches, insole pressure sensors, at the beginning and end of each data collection
motion capture, or an instrumented treadmill. period; we used decimation to match the sampling
However, researchers have demonstrated that gait rate of the IMUs to that of the treadmill.
events can be detected reliably with inertial
measurement units (IMUs) [3-5]. IMUs do not Data from a given IMU was used to identify ICs and
confine data collection to a capture volume or TCs by locating times in which the acceleration and
treadmill and are not subject size specific. However, angular velocity measured by the IMU contained
many methods require known orientation of IMUs on significant high frequency content; this is based on
body segments, are limited to specific types of gaits the idea that there are sudden changes in the force
or gait speeds, and expect certain kinematic features acting on the foot when the foot hits/leaves the
to be present in the measurements. ground, and that the sudden changes will cause rapid
(high frequency) changes in the acceleration and
The goal of this study was to demonstrate that our angular velocity signals. We identified times with
gait event detection algorithm is accurate relative to high frequency content by first performing a separate
an instrumented treadmill and is robust to changes in continuous wavelet transform (CWT) using FFT
gait type, gait speed, sensor type, and subject. (cwtft, MATLAB, MathWorks) on each measured
signal of acceleration and angular velocity (six total).
METHODS For each signal, we summed the CWT coefficients
for frequencies above 20Hz and divided this result by
We recruited two healthy male subjects for this the total sum of the CWT coefficients, yielding a
University of Michigan IRB approved pilot study. measure of the frequency content above 20Hz for
For each trial, we secured an IMU to the instep of each signal. By summing the measures of frequency
each foot on top of the subject’s chosen footwear, content for the six signals, we obtained a single
using athletic tape to prevent shifting. Two types of resulting output signal suitable for detecting ICs and
IMUs were used for this study: 1) APDM Opal (128 TCs (Fig. 1).

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
existing gait event detection algorithms. In
particular, our approach will enable accurate
detection of ZUPTs (and therefore calculation of
spatiotemporal gait parameters) during sprinting,
irregular gaits, or other highly dynamic gaits in real-
world environments. Data from additional subjects
will allow us to more fully characterize our gait event
detection approach.

Figure 1: Normalized frequency content above 20Hz
versus time for three sample gaits.

As illustrated in Fig. 1, we used the peaks of the
resulting output signal from our CWT algorithm to
identify ICs and TCs. Note that our methodology
uses no information about IMU orientation and does
not expect certain gait patterns to help identify
candidate ICs and TCs.

To evaluate the accuracy of our gait event detection
algorithm relative to the instrumented treadmill, we Figure 2: Differences (in milliseconds) between
chose to compare stride times, stance times, and instrumented treadmill and IMU-derived stride,
swing times; this allowed us to exclude differences stance, and swing times versus gait speed. Symbols
due to imperfect synchronization of the IMUs with are used as follows: circle/square (subject 1/subject
the treadmill. Significant differences in these 2), open/filled (walk/run), blue/red (APDM/Yost).
parameters were detected using t-tests. For this pilot
study, we used 95% confidence intervals to explore REFERENCES
effects of gait type, speed, sensor type, and subject.
1. Ojeda L and Borenstein J, J of Navigation 60, 391-
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 407, 2007.
2. Rebula JR, et al. Gait Posture 38, 974-980, 2013.
Results are illustrated in Fig. 2. There were no 3. Sabatini AM, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52,
significant differences between IMU and treadmill- 486-494, 2005.
derived stride times (t = 0.51, p = 0.61). IMU-derived 4. Lee JB, et al. J Sci Med Sport 13, 270-273, 2010.
stance times were significantly less than (t = -11.49, 5. Rueterbories J, et al. Med Eng Phys 32, 545-552,
p < 0.001) and swing times were significantly greater 2010.
than (t = 11.29, p < 0.001) those calculated using the
treadmill. Gait speed had no effect on the accuracy ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
of any of the gait parameters. Our pilot data suggests
that gait type, sensor type, and subject have no effect This material is based upon work supported by the
on stride time estimates, but may have small effects US Army Contracting Command-APG, Natick
on stance and swing times. Despite these differences, Contracting Division, Natick, MA, under contract
we believe our approach is accurate and robust W911QY-15-C-0053.
enough to be used to study gait that may challenge
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
EVALUATION OF GROUND REACTION FORCE ASYMMETRY IN WALKING AND RUNNING
USING FORCE PLATES VS. ACCELEROMETER

Rana Karimpour, Rebecca L. Krupenevich, Kyung Koh, Ross H. Miller, and Jae Kun Shim

University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
email: ranakp@umd.edu, https://sph.umd.edu/neuromechanics

INTRODUCTION (Trigno; Delsys, Boston, MA, USA) placed on the
skin near the L3 vertebrae. Ground reaction forces
Evaluation of gait asymmetry is of interest in both were measured at 1000 Hz using eight force plates
human movement research and clinical settings. (Kistler, Switzerland) embedded in a 12-m long
Specifically, force asymmetry is frequently platform. Locomotion speed was determined using
attributed to the risk or presence of pathologies and electronic timing gates located on either side of the
injuries [1]. Evaluation of gait asymmetry with a force plates.
wearable device, such as an accelerometer, will
provide a tool for the objective assessment of The 3D resultant magnitudes of the acceleration and
rehabilitation progress, and diagnosis of pathologies GRF signals were calculated in Matlab. Peak
associated with force asymmetries during values were used in the calculation of the left/right
locomotion under free-living conditions, without the asymmetry index (AI), using Eq. 1 which was
requirement of laboratory settings. developed by Robinson et al. [3] and has been
widely used to quantify gait asymmetry:
Considering the previously reported effect of the
speed and mode of locomotion on the accelerometer (R − L)
AI = (1)
readings [2], the purpose of this study was to 0.5*(R + L)
investigate and compare the relationship between
asymmetries measured from ground reaction forces where R and L are the peak 3D magnitudes of the
(GRF) and accelerometer data during walking and signals in the right or left stance leg, respectively.
running.
To account for the differences in the number of
METHODS trials with complete GRF per participant (e.g. range:
9-22, mean±SD: 18.7±2.9 in walking), from the
A total of 25 young healthy adults (5 male and 20 correlation coefficients between accelerometer and
female, 20.8±0.76yrs, 1.64±0.13m, 67.18±8.96kg) GRF AIs in individual participants a weighted
volunteered to participate in the study after giving average was calculated. To test the statistical
written informed consent. Participants performed significance of the overall correlation coefficient,
three trials under each of six conditions: normal gait we conducted Student’s t-test on its corresponding
at their preferred speed of walking and running Fisher-transformed z-score.
(average: 1.53±0.17m/s, 2.7±0.17m/s respectively),
and five conditions of simulated asymmetry. During In addition, to assess the disparity between
simulated asymmetry trials, participants walked/ran accelerometer AI and the gold standard (GRF AI)
at ±5% of the preferred speed established during root identity squared deviation (RISD) was
normal trials. To simulate asymmetry, the subjects calculated using Eq. 2.
were told to move their dominant leg differently
(e.g. swinging it more strongly) compared to their n

non-dominant leg. ∑d 2
i
RSID = i
(2)
n
Linear acceleration was measured at 1000 Hz with a
lightweight tri-axial wireless accelerometer sensor
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
where n is the number of trials, and di is the distance

Acceleration AI
between the measured accelerometer AI from the 2
identity function (GRF AI = accelerometer AI).
1.5

1
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
0.5

In both walking and running there was a significant Force AI
positive correlation between accelerometer AI and -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2

GRF AI (r = 0.70 and 0.91 in walking and running -0.5

respectively). The 99% confidence interval was r = -1
0.63-0.76 for walking, and r = 0.88-0.93 for
running. -1.5

-2
Acceleration AI

0.8

0.6 Figure 2: The relationship between the asymmetry
indices calculated from GRF and accelerometer data
in all conditions for all the participants during
0.4

0.2 running. Each point represents one trial. Colors and
Force AI markers do not signify any particular condition.
-0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

-0.2 CONCLUSIONS

-0.4
There is a strong positive relationship between the
-0.6
AI calculated from an accelerometer and the AI
calculated from GRF during both walking and
-0.8 running. This preliminary finding suggests that an
accelerometer may be a feasible tool for measuring
force asymmetry in clinical settings. Further
Figure 1: The relationship between the asymmetry investigation of the factors contributing to this
indices calculated from GRF and accelerometer data relationship may have practical implications
in all conditions for all the participants during regarding the clinical evaluation of gait asymmetry
walking. Each point represents one trial. Colors and during walking and the assessment of asymmetry
markers do not signify any particular condition. during gait in daily living. Investigating the sources
of between and within subject variations in future
Although running exhibited a stronger positive studies may help provide a more accurate predictive
correlation compared to walking (r = 0.91 vs. r = relationship.
0.70, respectively), the one-to-one identical
mapping between the two AI measures -assessed by
the RISD- was weaker. A greater RISD in running REFERENCES
(average across participants = 0.27±0.1) compared 1. Kramers-de Quervain IA, et al. Eur Spine J
to walking (average = 0.11±0.0.4) indicates that the 13:449–56, 2004.
accelerometer AI may not be an immediate measure 2. Neugebauer JM,et al. PLOS ONE 7(10):
of force asymmetry during gait particularly in e48182.
running. 3. Robinson RO, et al. J Manipulative Physiol
Ther 10:172–6, 1987.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
SPORT-RELATED LOADING IN ATHLETES PREDICTS BONE MINERAL CONTENT OF THE
FIFTH METATARSAL
1
Audrey E. Westbrook, 1 Anh-Dung Nguyen, 1 James M. Smoliga, 1 Jeffrey B. Taylor,
2
David R. Sinacore, 1 Kevin R. Ford
1
High Point University, High Point, NC, USA
2
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
email: awestbro@highpoint.edu

INTRODUCTION METHODS

Exercise is widely known to play an important role Fifty-two athletes (26M, 30F, age: 18.7 ± 2.5 yrs,
in improving bone health to prevent injury, while height: 173.3 ± 12.3 cm, weight: 70.1 ± 13.5 kg)
more sedentary lifestyles are often associated with were included in this study and divided into
bone loss. Regular physical activity, especially subcategory by sport: basketball (n=18), soccer
weight-bearing exercise, provides a positive (n=19), and running (n=15). BMC of met5 was
influence on bone health [1]. Wolff’s law helps calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
explain this, stating that bone formation and (DXA) on a Hologic Discovery System (Figure 1).
remodeling occurs as a result of the stress or Dynamic plantar pressure distribution was obtained
mechanical load applied to the body, and therefore as each participant walked barefoot at a self-
bone adapts to meet its mechanical demands [2]. selected pace over a platform emed-x system
Athletes that participate in sports involving weight- (novel). Three separate trials of barefoot walking
bearing exercise such as basketball, soccer or were collected for the left foot and averaged.
running tend to have higher bone mineral content
(BMC) than those who do not (i.e. swimmers or
cyclists) [3]. This is likely due to various types of
loading patterns observed amongst different sports
and leads to the conclusion that activities such as
jumping, cutting, and running provide the
mechanical stimuli necessary to increase BMC [4].

Previous studies have reported how loading can
affect site specific BMC, though few have measured
that of the metatarsals. While foot, ankle, and knee
injuries during sports are common, an increasingly
serious injury with significant participation time Figure 1: DXA scan of the left foot. Regions of
loss involves acute and overuse fracture to the interest were masked to the size of the pedar insole
proximal 5th metatarsal (met5). In-shoe and barefoot and to the size of each participant’s foot.
plantar loading are methodologies that may help
identify risk factors that predispose an athlete to this A flexible in-shoe pressure distribution measuring
type of devastating injury. Our long-term goal is to insole was inserted into the left shoe (pedar-x,
reduce foot injuries in athletes. The objective of this novel) to calculate in-shoe loading during sport-
study was to determine the relationship of both in- related tasks for each type of athlete. These tasks
shoe loading during sport-related tasks and barefoot included a single leg side drop jump, an
plantar loading during walking on proximal met5 unanticipated cutting task, and running at a self-
BMC in basketball players, soccer players, and selected speed for basketball players, soccer
recreational runners. players, and runners, respectively. A regional
analysis of the foot was performed utilizing separate

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
“masks,” or areas, of the foot consisting of the 5 related task compared to the soccer sport-related
metatarsal regions using predefined areas in task (p=0.002) and running compared to soccer
barefoot and in-shoe data (Figure 1). Force time (p<0.001) (basketball: 12.2±3.9%, soccer:
integral for each region was calculated and divided 6.0±2.3%, runners: 10.2±1.8%; Figure 4).
by the force time integral for the total foot surface 20% * Basketball
to determine the relative load in each region. * Running

Relative Load (%)
15% Soccer
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 10%

5%
A stepwise linear regression was performed (SPSS)
to determine the predictors of proximal BMC of 0%
In-Shoe Barefoot
met5. Relative loading during stance phase from all
5 metatarsal regions of the sport-related tasks and Figure 4: Relative load of the met5 region during
barefoot walking were included as independent sport-related tasks and barefoot walking. *p<0.05
predictor variables as well as sport type. The
relative loading of the met5 region during sport- Plantar loading of met5 during sport-related tasks
related tasks was significantly predictive of was a better independent predictor (R=0.653) of
proximal met5 BMC (R2=0.426, p<0.001); with a met5 BMC than plantar loading during barefoot
secondary predictor of met5 loading during barefoot walking (R=0.360). Furthermore, tasks more
walking (R2change=0.055, p=0.027; R2Total=0.482, specific to basketball players resulted in higher
Adjusted R2=0.460, SEE=0.434; Figure 3). loading of met5 than those specific to soccer players
or runners, possibly relating to higher BMC in that
region. The results of this study imply not only does
loading of the foot help explain BMC, but the type
and location of loading may be important.

CONCLUSIONS

The results should be cautiously interpreted due to
the cross-sectional nature of the study design.
However, bone appears to adapt to site specific in-
Figure 3: Proximal met5 BMC and relative in-shoe shoe loading during sport-related tasks.
loading during sport-related tasks. Furthermore, this is highlighted in basketball
players that appear to load the met5 region more
Differences in proximal met5 BMC and in-shoe which may increase the risk of proximal met5
plantar loading of met5 were determined among the fracture if the loading exceeds the threshold
three different sport groups using an analysis of dependent strength of the bone which may occur
variance (ANOVA) with a Bonferroni correction. A with extreme changes in training.
main effect for sport group was found in the
proximal met5 BMC (p<0.001) (basketball: REFERENCES
2.10±0.70g, soccer: 1.38±0.32g, runners:
1. Wallace BA, et al. Calcif Tissue Int, 67, 10-18,
1.73±0.40g). However, when controlling for
potential covariates (ANCOVA: age, height, mass) 2000.
2. Chen JH, et al. J Biomech, 43(1), 108-118, 2010.
the main effect of sport in met5 BMC was not
3. Etherington J, et al. J Bone Min Research, 11(9),
significantly different (p=0.14). A main effect was
found for relative in-shoe loading of met5 during 1333-1338, 1996.
4. Nordstrom P, et al. J Bone Min Research, 13(7),
sport-related tasks when controlling for age, height
and mass (p<0.001). Specifically, higher met5 in- 1141-1148, 1998.
shoe loading was found in the basketball sport-
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIBIAL BONE STRESS AND BIOMECHANICAL FACTORS
ASSOCIATED WITH STRESS FRACTURE
1
Stacey Meardon, 1Zach Blank, 2Timothy Derrick, 1John Willson, 1Michael Baggaley and 1Richard Willy

East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
1
2
Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
email: meardons@ecu.edu http://blog.ecu.edu/sites/hmal/

INTRODUCTION SWE) and force plate data were sampled at 200 Hz
and 1000 Hz, respectively, using a real-time data
Tibial stress fracture (TSF) is common in both acquisition system (Innovative Sports, Inc., Chicago,
running and military populations [1, 2]. Elevated Ill). Marker trajectory and ground reaction force data
levels of tibial bone stress, which is influenced by were filtered with a 4th order, zero lag low-pass
both bone geometry and bone loads, has been Butterworth filter with a 15 Hz cutoff and exported
observed during running in individuals with a history for analyses. 10 stance phases were extracted for
of TSF [3]. Regardless of sex, TSF is more common analysis. To develop subject-specific bone models,
in individuals with smaller bone geometries [2, 4]. participants then underwent MR imaging of their
Specific gait dynamics have also been linked with right tibia (Philips Achieva 1.5T, Best, NLD). The
TSF [5, 6]. Together, smaller bone geometry and MRI axial slice corresponding to the distal 1/3
greater dynamic loads may explain reports of location, a common site of TSF [1] was extracted for
elevated bone stress in runners with a history of TSF analysis. A cross-sectional finite element mesh,
[3]. However, the relationship between TSF-related represented by 600 elements, was created using VA-
bone structure, running dynamics and tibial stress has Batts software [7].
not been explicitly examined. Understanding factors
that directly contribute to stress applied to the tibia For 10 stance phases, 3D kinematics and kinematics
during running may better guide interventions. As a were input to a musculoskeletal model that estimated
first step to this, we evaluated the relationship 3D internal tibia forces and moments at a level
between both structural and dynamic biomechanical corresponding to the distal 1/3 tibia. Internal bone
factors associated with TSF and distal tibial bone forces and moments at this site were estimated at
stress during running. each 1% of stance and served as inputs to a cross-
sectional finite element model. VA-Batts software
METHODS was used to obtain normal and shear stresses across
the stance phase in each element of the bone mesh
20 female runners (25.2±3.3 yrs; 168.1±6.2 cm; [8]. Peak normal and shear stresses during the stance
57±9.3 kg; 32.8±18.5 km/wk; 2.82 m/s preferred phase of running of each trial were extracted and
pace) and 20 male runners (24.9±4.4 yrs; 181.3±6.1 averaged for statistical analysis.
cm; 80.1±8.4 kg; 14.6±7.6 mi/wk; 2.97 m/s preferred
pace) participated in this study. All participants were Tibial cross sectional area (CSA), maximum and
currently free of injury. During an 8-minute minimum moment of inertia (I max and Imin), and polar
progressive warm up and accommodation period on moment of inertia (J) have been associated with TSF
an instrumented treadmill (Bertec, Worthington, [2, 4]. These bone geometries were obtained via the
OH), each participant’s self-selected running speed VA-Batts software and served as structural inputs for
was determined. Self-selected running speed was regression analyses. Based on the TSF literature [5,
operationally defined as the pace utilized during a 6], the following running related factors were
standard, endurance-paced training run. Once extracted for analysis to serve as dynamic inputs to
determined, biomechanical data were collected for the regression analyses: peak hip adduction
15 sec. Kinematic data (Qualysis, Gothenburg, (HADD), knee adduction (KADD and internal

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
rotation (KIR), rearfoot eversion (RFEV), tibia combined with knee adduction resulted in
instantaneous loading rate of the vertical ground increased shear stress.
reaction force (VLR), and tibial frontal plane angle
at peak vertical ground reaction force (TFA). Bone stress appeared to be consistently related to
frontal plane motion of the lower extremity and
For each directional component of bone stress, linear loading. Frontal plane motion of the lower extremity
regression analyses were performed to identify key during running has been linked to the free moment
structural and dynamic indicators of peak bone stress [8] potentially influencing tibial bending and
(IBM SPSS Statistics 22, Armonk, NY). Co-linearity torsional angles [9]. The free moment has been
among predictors was assessed during each iteration associated with TSF [5] but was not examined here
of analysis. When the variance inflation factor due to methodological constraints with use of an
exceeded 5, one or more of the violating predictors instrumented force treadmill. Other limitations
was removed from the regression model. The include assumptions inherent to musculoskeletal
proportion of the variation in dependent variables modeling and lack of stratification by sex. Future
explained by independent variables was then work will examine sex-specific associations as well
adjusted based on the number of independent as associations runners with recent TSF.
variables in the model (Adjusted R2).
CONCLUSIONS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Overall, this analysis suggests a combination of bone
Peak compression (-201.0±98.3 MPa) occurred structure and running dynamics contribute to
posterior-medially, tension (145.9±84.5 MPa) elevated bone stress. Individuals with small bone
anterior-laterally and shear (21.7±7.8 MPa) medially geometry, excessive frontal plane running mechanics
during mid stance. The most meaningful and high loading rates were more likely to experience
combination of factors acting together to increase elevated tibial stress during running. Interventions to
posterior-medial tibial compression were CSA, address frontal plane running mechanics and loading
KADD, VLR, and REV (R2=.47, p<.001). For rates as well as to increase bone size through targeted
tension, KADD, REV, HADD and VLR were most exercise programs may be beneficial in reducing risk
strongly associated with bone stress (R2=.55, of TSF.
p<.001). A combination of bone structure (I min) and
dynamics (KADD; R 2=.40, p <.001) best predicted REFERENCES
shear stress. 1. Nattiv A, et al. Am J Sports Med 41, 1930-1941,
2013
Bone structural characteristics and dynamic 2. Cosman F, et al. Bone 55, 359-366, 2013.
biomechanical factors associated with TSF in 3. Meardon SA, et al., Clin Biomech 30, 895-902,
previous studies of injured populations appear to act 2015.
in concert to increase distal tibial bone stress during 4. Franklyn M, et al. Am J Sports Med 36, 1179-1189,
running. Although, a fair portion of bone stress 2008.
variance remains unexplained. Smaller CSA 5. Pohl MB, et al. J Biomech, 41, 1160-1165, 2008.
combined with higher vertical loading rates, knee 6. Creaby MW., et al. (2008). Med Sci Sports Exerc,
adduction and reduced rearfoot eversion appear to 40(9), 1669-1674.
contribute to higher compressive stress. Tension 7. Kourtis LC, et al. Comp Meth Biomech and Biomed
increased with hip and knee adduction and reduced Eng, 11, 463-476, 2008
rearfoot eversion. Like compression, shear was 8. Yang P, et al. PloS one, 9, e94525, 2014.
influenced by bone geometry and dynamics. Low 9. Willawacher S, et al. Footwear Sci, 8, 1-11, 2016.
bending strength along the narrowest aspect of the

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
EFFECT OF PROPHYLACTIC KNEE BRACING ON LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS IN
RUNNING AND JUMPING

Mitchell L Stephenson and Jason C Gillette

Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
email: mitch.stephenson@gmail.com, web: www.kin.hs.iastate.edu

INTRODUCTION right leg. The first movement consisted of jumping
forward from a 30cm tall block, landing bilaterally
Knee braces have been become increasingly popular with the right foot on an AMTI force platform
in recreational and professional sport. While many sampling at 1600Hz, and then fluidly performing a
braces are suggested or prescribed as part of left jump at 60o from anterior for maximum distance.
rehabilitation post-injury [1], prophylactic use has The second movement was identical to the first, but
also become more common [2]. Many recent braces jumped 60o to the right.
from different manufacturers claim certain levels of
effectiveness in preventing non-contact knee 20
(particularly anterior cruciate ligament; ACL) 15
injuries, but do not provide a biomechanical basis for 10
this claim. 5
0
The current analysis compares landing biomechanics -5
of a cross-section of recent and popular knee brace -10
designs in two movements chosen to exacerbate non- -15
contact ACL load. It was expected that more 0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
structurally-rigid brace designs would limit peak No Brace Soft Support Soft Hinge
knee angles during ground contact [3]. Rigid Hinge Hybrid Hinge

METHODS Figure 1: Mean knee valgus angle across percentage
time in contact with the force platform for each knee
Nine physically-active, uninjured recreational brace while jumping left. Gray area represents
athletes (6 females and 3 males; 21.4±1.2 years; standard deviation of measures.
1.68±0.06 m tall; 71.4±8.1 kg) have volunteered for
the ongoing study. Participants provided informed The third movement consisted of participants
consent, executed a warm-up protocol, and then running at a consistent self-selected pace along a
performed a series of successful practice trials before 10m path, whereas at the end of the 10m, they placed
the series of block-counterbalanced recorded trials. their right foot on the force platform and sidestepped
to the left at 30o. Starting position was manipulated
Kinematics of 28 retroreflective markers placed on to assure the right foot’s strike on the force platform
the lower extremity, pelvis, and torso were recorded was within normal gait patterns.
via 8 Vicon cameras at 160Hz through Vicon Nexus
1.8.2 (Vicon Corp, Oxford, UK). Four brace designs Peak knee valgus, varus, and flexion angles during
were tested: a soft support, a soft hinged, a rigid foot contact with the landing force platform were
hinged, and a new hybrid semi-rigid hinged design. calculated. A repeated-measures analysis of variance
was performed to compare the effect of the braces on
Participants performed a total of three recorded trials the knee kinematics for each movement.
for three separate movements in an unbraced and
four braced conditions. The brace was worn on the

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION apparent and may be clinically-relevant. In addition,
a more challenging testing protocol might elicit
No significant main effects were indicated by the larger differences between the knee braces and no
analysis of variance (p > 0.15). As demonstrated in brace.
Table 1, mean peak knee angles were illustratively
different, but moderately variable amongst CONCLUSIONS
participants. While some previous research did
identify successful reduction in knee valgus angles Superficially, it appears that prophylactic bracing,
while wearing prophylactic braces, this change was independent of design, may not significantly
relatively minor, and the authors concluded little influence cutting and sidestep kinematics in healthy,
overall prophylactic effect from bracing [4]. active participants. This provides a dichotomy in
implications: The preserved peak knee flexion and
120 varus angles may not decrease performance or hinder
100
ACL protective mechanisms, but the braces also did
not limit peak valgus angles associated with ACL
80
injury [5]. Further investigation is ongoing to
60
determine effects with a larger sample size.
40

20 REFERENCES
0
0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 1. Brandsson S, et al. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 11,
No Brace Soft Support Soft Hinge
110-114, 2001
Rigid Hinge Hybrid Hinge
2. Rishiraj, JN, et al. Sports Med, 39, 937-960, 2009
Figure 2: Mean knee flexion angle across 3. Vailas J & Pink M. Sports Med, 15, 210-218,1993
percentage time in contact with the force platform for 4. Teng P, et al. Procedia Eng, 60, 300-306, 2013
each knee brace while jumping left. Gray area 5. Krosshaug T, et al. Am J Sports Med, 35, 359-367,
represents standard deviation of measures. 2007

It is possible that the analyzed sample was not large ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
enough to demonstrate significant differences that
may indeed exist. As seen in Figures 1 and 2, a The authors would like to thank United Sports
systemic offset in knee angles between the braces is Brands for providing the braces for testing.

Table 1: Peak knee angles (Mean ± SE) for each brace condition during foot contact with the
ground in the three movement tasks. No significant differences identified between any brace.
No Brace Soft Support Soft Hinge Rigid Hinge Hybrid Hinge
o
Valgus ( ) 11.5 ± 3.7 8.3 ± 2.3 1.7 ± 1.3 5.9 ± 3.1 10.4 ± 3.4
Jump
Left

o
Varus ( ) 0.4 ± 3.0 2.2 ± 1.3 4.2 ± 1.3 5.5 ± 1.7 0.1 ± 1.2
o
Flexion ( ) 87.8 ± 4.3 85.2 ± 3.9 92.5 ± 3.6 74.8 ± 3.3 74.2 ± 3.1
o
Valgus ( ) 16.4 ± 3.8 9.1 ± 2.8 5.3 ± 2.0 11.5 ± 3.7 12.8 ± 4.2
Right
Jump

o
Varus ( ) 5.8 ± 2.2 5.3 ± 1.2 7.0 ± 1.0 6.8 ± 1.7 5.9 ± 1.2
o
Flexion ( ) 99.5 ± 3.5 91.5 ± 3.2 98.5 ± 3.5 93.4 ± 3.9 89.8 ± 3.9
Valgus (o) 5.5 ± 2.4 5.9 ± 1.4 5.4 ± 1.6 0.0 ± 1.5 4.6± 0.8
Sidestep
Left

o
Varus ( ) 4.2 ± 1.6 2.2 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.3 7.0 ± 1.5 2.3 ± 0.8
o
Flexion ( ) 59.8 ± 2.0 61.1 ± 1.9 64.8 ± 3.3 53.8 ± 2.2 54.6 ± 1.4

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Effect Of Foot Orthotics On Force Distribution In The Ankle And Subtalar Joint: A Cadaveric Study.
1
Aron Lechtig, 1, 2 Patrick Williamson, 1 Philip Hanna, 1 Stephen Okajima, 1Peter Biggane, 1Michael Nasr,
3
Naven Duggal, 1 Ara Nazarian
1
Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School. Boston,
MA, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
3
Syracuse Orthopaedic Specialists, Department of General Orthopedics and Trauma, Foot and Ankle Division

INTRODUCTION

Foot orthotics are used to treat a variety of disorders loading of the leg; 75lb load (half-body-weight)3
that affect the lower limb and can be purchased as applied at the femoral head while the foot was
generic over the counter (OTC) or patient-specific supported against a fixed-plate keeping the ankle in
products after proper evaluation. The popularity of neutral position.
orthotics has increased over time, and is estimated
to reach a market size of $3.5 Billion by 2020 from Testing was conducted by placing orthotics
$2.5 Billion in 20141. This allows patients to buy underneath the medial half of the sole at the level of
orthotics empirically as a means to alleviate lower the Talo-navicular joint. Mean pressure (MP), peak
limb pain and discomfort. Given the number of pressure (PP), contact area (CA), and center of force
orthotic options and anatomical variances, it is (COF) were measured in the previously mentioned
unlikely that the patient chooses the correct orthotic. 2 joints under three conditions; barefoot (BASE),
with 1.5cm (ORT1) and 3cm (ORT2) height
The foot habitus is the foundation of the lower limb, orthotics.
which depends on its mechanics, orientation and
force distribution to maintain a balanced and Each condition was tested three times per specimen;
correlated system. Incorrect modification of the foot the results were averaged per specimen and used for
habitus can trigger a chain reaction of mechanical final analysis. Displacement of the COF was
events which can cause negative impact on articular calculated relative to its location at baseline. The
cartilage2. This study aims to compare the pressure absolute vector displacement, medial/lateral and
distribution in the ankle and subtalar joint with and anterior/posterior displacement values were also
without orthotics. calculated.

METHODS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Five fresh-frozen lower limb cadaveric specimens With ORT1 and ORT2, the COF was significantly
without known skeletal conditions were used. The displaced from its location at BASE as can be seen
femoral head was potted with poly (methyl in Table 1 at the ankle by 0.38 ± 0.24cm and 0.30 ±
methacrylate) (PMMA) for positioning it against the 0.12cm (Mean ± SD) respectively (p < 0.05) and at
loading apparatus. Two TekScan pressure sensors the subtalar joint by 0.23 ± 0.18cm and 0.76 ±
(model 6900; TekScan, South Boston, MA, USA) 0.48cm (Mean ± SD) respectively (p < 0.05), shown
were inserted into the ankle and subtalar joint. in Figure 1 below.
Specimens were placed on a custom jig composed
of a steel scissor jack equipped with a load cell There was no significant difference among BASE,
(model LTH400 rated for 1000 lb, Futek, Irvine, ORT1 and ORT2 regarding the MP, PP and CA
CA, USA) mounted on the in-house made metal box (p > 0.05).
frame to apply Craneo-caudal force on the femoral
head of a supine leg. This allowed for modulated

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
We encourage further investigation of the effect of
foot orthotics in a larger sample size as well as their
potential adverse effect on joints within the lower
limb.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on our findings, previous studies and the
accepted mechanism of articular degenerative
conditions development, we believe that the
unsupervised use of orthotics can lead to negative
Figure 1. Mean and SD of the absolute displacement articular consequences with prolonged use. We
values from baseline (0) of the center of force in the recommend the use of foot orthotics under
Ankle and Subtalar joint under ORT1 and ORT2 supervision after a rigorous evaluation of the
conditions. patient.

REFERENCES
The mechanical impact of orthotics depends on the 1.IndustryARC. Foot Orthotic Insoles Market to
shape, material and height; which are highly Reach 3.5 USD Billion By 2020. 2016.
variable parameters among the commercially 2.Steffensmeier S, Berbaum K, Brown T. Effects of
available orthotics. medial and lateral displacement calcaneal
osteotomies on tibiotalar joint contact stresses. J
Based on our findings, the placement of a solid Orthop Res. 1996;14(6):980-985.
material between the foot and the ground could 3.Krause FG, Sutter D, Waehnert D, Windolf M,
modify the location of the COF within the lower Schwieger K, Weber M. Ankle joint pressure
limb joints. We believe that this is the result of the changes in a pes cavovarus model after lateralizing
alteration on the foot habitus and joint orientation. calcaneal osteotomies. Foot Ankle Int.
2010;31(9):741-746.
Further, Krause et al. shows that changes in joint 4.Krause F, Windolf M, Schwieger K, Weber M.
orientation and non-physiological location of the Ankle joint pressure in pes cavovarus. Bone Joint J.
COF are related to the development of articular 2007;89(12):1660-1665.
degenerative changes4. We argue that improper use 5.Marks R, Penton L. Are foot orthotics efficacious
of orthotics has the potential to lead to similar for treating painful medial compartment knee
adverse effects, due to their ability to change COF. osteoarthritis? A review of the literature.
International journal of clinical practice. Jan
Many studies have shown the improvement on 2004;58(1):49-57.
biomechanics and quality of life after the proper use 6.Nigg BM, Stergiou P, Cole G, Stefanyshyn D,
of orthotics, nonetheless the high variability Mundermann A, Humble N. Effect of shoe inserts
between subjects, conditions and available orthotics on kinematics, center of pressure, and leg joint
require a careful evaluation for each patient to moments during running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Feb
achieve positive results with orthotics5,6. 2003;35(2):314-319.

Table 1. Statistically significant p values for the comparison of COF displacement between
orthotics conditions and baseline in the ankle and subtalar joint.
Joint Ankle Subtalar Joint
Condition ORT1 ORT2 ORT1 ORT2
BASE 0.012 0.003 0.024 0.012
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON OF WARM-UP PROCEDURES FOR ACHILLES TENDON
1
Ya Hsun Shen, 2 Shuo Ju Chiang, 3 Chih Hwa Chen, 1 Hsiang Ho Chen
1
Taipei Medical University, TAIPEI, TAIWAN
2
Taipei City Hospital, TAIPEI, TAIWAN
3
Taipei Medical University Hospital, TAIPEI, TAIWAN
email: hchen@tmu.edu.tw

INTRODUCTION tendon junction (Gastrocnemius MTJ) as point B. A
mechanical properties test and ultrasound scan were
With the development of the society, leisure performed immediately. On the fourth day, we set the
activities and exercises, especially jogging, are treadmills in Taipei Medical University’s
becoming more popular. More and more females recreational center to 11.3-14.5 kilometers per hour
participate in sports, virtually evolving into a trend. (adjusted in accordance with each participant’s
However, many people are busy and warm up height). After participants ran for 15 minutes, we
exercises can be ignored easily, which may result in immediately performed a mechanical properties test
sports injuries. Achilles tendon (AT), commonly and ultrasound scan. On the eleventh day, we used
known as the calcaneus tendon, is located in the back heat padding on the participants. We set electric
of the calf. At the end of the gastrocnemius, it tapers blankets (iLove, New Taipei City, Taiwan) to 45
off and becomes tendon tissue connecting to the degrees Celsius and covered participants’ legs from
calcaneus, serving as the connection between muscle the knees down until the calcaneus. Then we let
and bone. AT is the body’s thickest, largest, and participants ran for 15 minutes, after that the same
strongest tendon, with an average length of 15 tests were performed.
centimeters. Its flexibility is critical during exercise,
as it can withstand 8 times the body’s weight while We built spring pedals to perform the mechanical
running and jumping. Repeated stretching causes the properties tests. The ankle torque was set at 27N-m
AT to become fatigued, leading to rupture [1]. This (50% MVC, maximal voluntary contraction), and the
study focuses on the effects of two different warm up spring pedal board was placed flat on the ground.
routines on the AT of females who exercise regularly. Participants sat with their knees bent at 90 degrees
We utilize jogging and hot compresses as the two and used their dominant foot to step on the board,
warm up methods and then analyze the risk of injury affixed with a girdle, at 50% MVC in the plantar
posed to the AT. flexion position. To ensure accuracy, the two points
underwent three isometric contractions and
METHODS simultaneous ultrasound scans. Throughout the
process, the probe remained at the same position for
Ten untrained female amateurs, who regularly two seconds at a time.
participated in recreational running and were able to
comfortably run 2 kilometers, volunteered to We used the GE Vivid I ultrasonography machine,
participate in this study. Candidates with any history coupled with the GE linear probe 12L-RS to perform
of AT injuries or other major injuries to the lower 2D ultrasonography manually, followed by tissue
limbs that impeded normal gait were excluded from speckle tracking using the Echopac software in order
the study. to determine movement of the MTJ, strain rate,
mechanical parameters, etc. A two-way ANOVA and
During the two-week period of the experiment, we post hoc analyses were conducted by SPSS at p =0.05.
conducted trials on the first, the fourth, and the
eleventh day. The baseline test was performed on the RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
first day. We marked Soles muscle-tendon junction
(Soles MTJ) as point A and Gastrocnemius muscle-

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
The displacement of two points (A and B) were
measured and represented lengthening of three The present study found that Achilles tendon tissues
tissues (free tendon, soleus tendon and after treatment with hot-compress were similar to
Gastrocnemius tendon) in three warm-up conditions tendon tissues without any warmup. However,
(Table 1). The strain rate of three tissues were jogging caused no difference between tendon tissues.
measured and compared among three warm-up The contribution of warming up towards
conditions (Table 2). The two-way ANOVA test performance is still controversy. Numerous authors
revealed that there were differences in lengthening have attributed the protective benefits of warming up
and strain rate of tendon tissues for different tissue in increasing range of motion or body temperature to
types. The post hoc test showed there were causing a decrease in AT flexibility [2]. However,
differences between lengthening of Gastrocnemius there is no literature which can specify that muscle
tendon and Soleus tendon in the control group and the hot- and tendon contractions lead AT to Stretch-
compress treatment group. It was also found that the Shortening-Cycle (SSC) during warmup exercises. If
strain rate of the single tendon and the Gastrocnemius athletes could know more about this phenomenon,
tendon were significantly different in the control they will be able to better protect their AT and
group and the hot-compress group. The strain rates improve their performances.
of the single tendon and the Soleus tendon were
significantly different in the control group and the
hot-compress group. REFERENCES

The results indicate that elasticities of tissues were 1. Lichtwark et al. Journal of Experimental Biology,
significantly different in the situations without 216: 4388-4394, 2013.
warm-up and with hot-compress treatment. There 2. Peltonen et al. Journal of Experimental Biology,
was no significant difference between tissues after 215: 3665-3671, 2012.
warm-up by jogging. Different mechanical behavior
between tissues might induce injury during being ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
stretched.
This study is supported by a ROC research grant of
CONCLUSIONS MOST 105-2221-E-038-016.

Table 1. The displacement (mm) of three tendon tissues were compared among three warm-up conditions
Free tendon Gastrocnemius tendon Soleus tendon (between two MTJs)
Control Warm Jogging Control Warm Jogging Control Warm Jogging
Mean(±SD) 0.27±0.31 0.22±0.18 0.33±0.28 0.37±0.21 0.37±0.21 0.49±0.45 0.16±0.29 0.15±0.31 0.21±0.51

Table 2. The strain rate (1/sec) of three tendon tissues were compared among three warm-up conditions
Free tendon Gastrocnemius tendon Soleus tendon (between two MTJs)
Control Warm Jogging Control Warm Jogging Control Warm Jogging
Mean(±SD) 0.02±0.01 0.03±0.04 0.10±0.21 0.11±0.07 0.07±0.05 0.11±0.11 0.08±0.07 0.04±0.07 0.00±0.26

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT STIFFNESS AT DIFFERENT RUNNING SPEEDS
1,2
Evan M. Day, 1,2 Michael E. Hahn
1
Bowerman Sports Science Clinic, 2Neuromechanics Lab, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
email: eday5@uoregon.edu, web: http://bssc.uoregon.edu

INTRODUCTION they are representative of relevant training and
racing paces for competitive distance runners. Rest
The metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) has been between conditions was self-selected, with subjects
reported to absorb large amounts of energy while instructed to start the next condition when they felt
generating very little during running [1]. Multiple no effects of fatigue. Subjects all wore the same
studies have assessed the effects of the longitudinal footwear (Brooks Launch 4) to control for the
bending stiffness of footwear on MTP mechanics effects of varied longitudinal bending stiffness
and energetics [1,2]. However, these studies among shoe types. Windows were cut in the shoes
reported only the material bending stiffness of the at the hallux, first and fifth metatarsals, and the
shoe, and did not report MTP joint stiffness during medial, lateral and posterior calcaneus, to allow for
running. direct application of retro-reflective markers to the
skin. Marker coordinate data were collected at
Joint stiffness affects the neuromuscular control of 200Hz using an 8-camera motion capture system
movement, injury risk, and performance. During (Motion Analysis Corp., Santa Rosa, CA). Ground
gait it is commonly calculated as the change in reaction force data were collected at 2000Hz using
moment divided by the change in angle during the the force-instrumented treadmill and then imported
energy absorption phase of stance [3]. The MTP from Cortex to Visual3D for kinematic and kinetic
joint does not follow a similar energy absorption analysis. A two-segment foot model was defined,
and generation pattern as the ankle and knee that are with an MTP pin joint defined by a vector between
commonly modeled as a spring-mass system. The the 1st and 5th metatarsal markers.
MTP dorsiflexes throughout most of stance phase
peaking during late stance, instead of mid-stance Two separate measures of MTP joint stiffness were
[4]. Despite eliciting a phase dependent stiffness defined by plotting the change in angle against the
curve, only one portion of the angular load- change in moment of the MTP joint. Active
displacement relationship has been quantified for stiffness (Kactive), was calculated as the change in
the MTP joint [5]. There is not currently a common moment divided by the change in angle within a
methodology for reporting MTP stiffness. This phase defined from initial dorsiflexion to peak
study investigates MTP stiffness properties during plantar flexor moment. Critical stiffness (Kcr) was
running, and presents initial interpretation of what calculated as the change in moment over the change
function each portion of the MTP load-displacement in angle within the prolonged phase from initial
curve represents. dorsiflexion to peak dorsiflexion, similar to [5].

METHODS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

To date, three male runners (average 20yr, 175cm, Data presented from three of the five running
58.5kg, 15:20min 5000m best, 67mi/wk) have been speeds are preliminary and part of an ongoing study.
enrolled in this ongoing study. Written informed Joint stiffness values represent the combined effects
consent was given by the subjects prior to the IRB- of the foot-shoe complex. The defined stiffness
approved protocol. Running trials were conducted at quantities from two portions of the MTP load-
3.89, 4.44, 5.00, 5.56, and 6.11 m/s on an displacement curve are discussed with respect to
instrumented split-belt treadmill (Bertec, Inc., functions related to injury or performance.
Columbus, OH). These velocities were chosen as

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
The active stiffness (Kactive) was much higher at the during plantar flexion at terminal stance to assist in
fastest running speed, but did not consistently trend forward propulsion. Thus, critical stiffness may be
upward (Table 1). The active stiffness is an important performance metric to consider.
representative of when the musculotendinous
structures crossing the plantar surface of the MTP The ratio between Kactive and Kcr could be used as an
joint are storing elastic energy from initial indicator of the effectiveness of the stretch
dorsiflexion to the time of peak plantar flexor shortening cycle of the toe-flexor muscles. Effective
moment and is the portion of stance when the stretch-shortening response requires quick loading
maximum elastic energy is stored. From an injury and release. In a standard spring-mass model, a
perspective, Kactive indicates how the MTP joint is stiffer joint effectively stores and returns more
attenuating the ground reaction force. elastic energy than a compliant joint. Though the
toe-flexor muscles continue to experience strain
while dorsiflexing, the moment value is decreasing,
effectively dissipating the stored energy during the
active stiffness phase.

CONCLUSIONS
Initial examination of these preliminary findings
indicates that MTP joint stiffness may be analyzed
by two separate functions; active attenuation and
utilization of stored energy. Continued analysis of
the results from this ongoing study may help to
identify injury mechanisms and performance
enhancement.
Figure 1: Representation of joint stiffness
calculations. SD: initial dorsiflexion, PM: peak REFERENCES
plantar flexor moment, MD: max dorsiflexion.
1. Roy J, Stefanyshyn D. Med & Sci in Sports & Ex
The critical stiffness (Kcr) showed a decreasing 38, 562-569, 2006
2. Willwacher S, et al. JoAB 29, 583-592, 2013
trend as running speed increases (Table 1). Previous
research defines Kcr as representing the threshold of 3. Hamill J. et al. Eur. J. Sport Sci 14, 130-136,
the elastic benefit of shoe stiffness [5]. We propose 2014
that Kcr is also an indicator of the ability of the MTP 4. Oleson M. et al. J Biomech 38, 1886-1894, 2005
5. Oh K, Park S. J Biomech 53, 127-135, 2017
joint to utilize stored elastic energy. The large
hysteresis response suggests that while the initial
energy storage (Kactive) is substantial, the hysteresis ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
portion of the curve (PM to MD) indicates
dissipation of a large amount of that energy while Thank you to Brooks Sports for donating footwear
the MTP joint continues to dorsiflex, reducing the for this study.
amount of elastic energy for the MTP to utilize

Table 1: Stiffness profiles across running velocities (n=3)
Stiffness Parameter (N-m/degree) Running Speed (m/s)
3.89 5.00 6.11
Critical Stiffness (Kcr) 2.15 ± 0.08 0.75 ± 0.56 0.07 ± 0.29
Active Stiffness (Kactive) 7.13 ± 3.05 5.40 ± 1.56 11.70 ± 13.99

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
ARCH STRUCTURE AND LOADING PATTERN MAY PREDICT RUNNING FOOT MECHANICS
1
Adrienne D. Henderson, 2 Joaquin A. Barrios, 1 Dustin A. Bruening,
1
Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA
2
University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, USA
email: adriennedhenderson@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION function, hypothesizing that midfoot stiffness and
midfoot power absorption would be correlated with
Foot structure has long been implicated as a factor in measures of foot structure.
running related injuries and used as a predictor in
functional interventions, such as footwear and METHODS
orthotic prescriptions. While arch height has been
associated with passive foot mobility (i.e. higher arch Eighteen female runners (25±4 yrs., 1.65±0.06 m,
corresponding to higher passive midfoot stiffness) 61±7 kg) were tested. Static structure was assessed
[1], a relationship between foot structure and using the Foot Posture Index (FPI) [4] as well as
dynamic foot function has proved elusive. Studies standing arch height and arch stiffness from the Arch
exploring static to dynamic relationships have Height Index Measurement System (AHI) [5].
focused almost exclusively on ankle and midfoot Dynamic function was assessed as subjects ran over
joint kinematics. Positive findings, such as low ground at 3.7 m/s with both rearfoot (RFS) and
arched runners landing in a more everted ankle forefoot (FFS) strike patterns. Subjects wore
position [2] reflect a relationship between structure minimalist shoes with cut-outs and reflective
and posture as opposed to structure and function. On markers were placed directly on the skin according
the other hand, functional range of motion (ROM) to a modified kinetic multi-segment foot model [6].
measures appear to be similar between foot types [2]. Marker trajectories and force plate data were
collected at 150 and 1,500 Hz respectively.
One reason that a true static/dynamic relationship has
been so elusive is that foot kinematics may be greatly The ankle and midtarsal joints were modeled in
influenced by variations in foot loading. For Visual 3D software [6]. Joint angles were extracted
example, passive mobility is generally assessed by using a typical Euler sequence. Joint moments and
comparing foot posture between sitting and standing. powers were calculated by first partitioning the
However, in standing, the center of pressure is ground reaction force to each segment sequentially
generally posterior to the midfoot, while during using the center of pressure [7]. Analysis focused on
running, the center of mass travels the length of the loading phase only, which was defined from initial
foot, creating a much larger torque on the midfoot contact to peak midtarsal dorsiflexion. Extracted
joints. Additionally, the combination of frontal plane metrics consisted of: ankle eversion ROM, tri-planar
hindfoot position and midfoot torque can affect midtarsal ROM, peak midtarsal angular velocity
midfoot motion via the midtarsal locking theory, magnitude, midtarsal negative work (integral of
which postulates that hindfoot inversion reduces power), and midtarsal stiffness (slope of the linear
flexibility across the joints of the midfoot. portion of the sagittal plane moment / angle graph).
Each of these seven functional metrics was then
The purposes of this study were to explore correlated (α = 0.05) to the three structure metrics
relationships between static foot structure and foot (FPI, standing AHI, and AHI stiffness).
mechanics in running by incorporating loading
variables into the analysis. We first controlled foot RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
strike pattern, evaluating both rearfoot strike (RFS)
Of the 42 tested relationships, only 5 were
and forefoot strike (FFS) patterns. In a FFS, the
significantly correlated, with four of these five
hindfoot is less everted throughout stance, and
confined to the FFS pattern. It is possible that a FFS
midtarsal loading occurs much earlier [3]. We also
increases the ability to detect a static/dynamic
included several novel kinetic measures of foot
relationship for several possible reasons. First,
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Barnes et al. [1] hypothesized that low arched feet do FPI was negatively correlated to both ankle eversion
not show increased ROMs because they are naturally ROM and midtarsal inversion/ eversion ROM. These
already approaching an end-range. A FFS position, two variables are coupled (i.e. with the forefoot on
where the hindfoot is not on the ground, may the ground, ankle eversion should result in midtarsal
influence this end-range effect. In addition, the inversion). The only RFS correlation, that of
reduced hindfoot eversion accompanying FFS [3] midtarsal ab/adduction ROM, was also found with
may stiffen the midfoot, potentially also reducing FPI. The differences between FPI and AHI
this end-range effect, or reducing the inter-subject correlations demonstrate that these measurements
variability in midtarsal mechanics. reflect different aspects of foot structure.

Arch height index was negatively correlated with Our subject sample was fairly homogenous. Sixteen
midtarsal dorsiflexion ROM in FFS. This supports of 18 subjects had normal arches, the other 2
findings relating arch structure to passive arch qualifying as low arches according to Zifchock et al’s
stiffness [1], but has not been shown before. AHI criteria [8]. Future study should investigate
Encouragingly, RFS may have also been significant these same variables in a larger sample that includes
if a larger sample size had been used (p=0.0683). A both high and low arch subjects.
correlation was found with FPI and the traditionally
assumed frontal plane ankle motion (e.g. increased CONCLUSIONS
eversion in flatfeet), however, our results suggest
Despite the homogenous sample, several variables
that midfoot dorsiflexion may be a more sensitive
show promise in connecting static and dynamic foot
measure, regardless of loading pattern.
stiffness. These variables showed up primarily in
AHI was also negatively correlated with sagittal FFS suggesting that loading pattern affects this
plane midtarsal stiffness. Previous studies have used relationship. Future studies should expand the
ROM as a surrogate for stiffness, assuming that a sample size and scope to better asses these
more compliant joint would result in more motion. relationships.
However, this ignores the effects of loading. The
REFERENCES
stiffness calculated in this study comprises both
motion and loading into one variable, and results 1. Barnes et al. Foot Ank Int, 2011. 32(7): 710-716.
suggest that this variable should be employed in 2. Powell et al. Hum Move Sc, 2011. 30(1): 105-114.
future studies. 3. Pohl et al. Clin Biomech, 2008. 23(3): 334-341.
4. Barton, et al. J Foot Ankle Res, 2011. 4(1): 1-8.
There were no significant correlations found with the 5. Butler et al. J Am Pod Med Ass, 2008. 98(2): 102-06.
6. Bruening et al. Gait Posture, 2012. 35(4): 529-534.
AHI stiffness measurement. AHI stiffness measures 7. Stefanyshyn et al. J Biomech, 1997. 30(11): 1081-1085.
the statically loaded foot, but may not replicate 8. Zifchock et al. Foot Ank Int, 2006. 27(5): 367-372.
dynamic loading conditions.
Table 1:
AHI FPI
Measure: r p r p
Ankle Eversion ROM FFS 0.08931 0.7245 -0.51104 0.0302*
RFS 0.06776 0.7894 -0.38181 0.1179
Midfoot Dorsiflexion ROM FFS -0.5225 0.0261* 0.12026 0.6345
RFS -0.43915 0.0683 0.07916 0.7549
Midfoot Inversion/ Eversion ROM FFS 0.3846 0.115 -0.69169 0.0015*
RFS 0.36068 0.1415 0.07665 0.7624
Midfoot Ab/ Adduction ROM FFS -0.1565 0.5352 -0.29452 0.2355
RFS 0.13661 0.5888 -0.50789 0.0314*
Midfoot Sagittal Plane Stiffness FFS -0.46854 0.0499* 0.05418 0.8309
RFS -0.35425 0.1492 0.08505 0.7372

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
EFFECTIVE AVERAGE ANKLE MOMENT ARM AT VARIOUS SPEEDS
1
Luke Steinbach, 2 Peter G. Adamczyk
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Email: lsteinbach@wisc.edu

INTRODUCTION also compare and contrast this metric to a simple
initial-contact COP measurement. We hypothesize
Control of the ankle-foot complex in walking is that as locomotive speed increases, both EAAMA
dominated by a heel-to-toe rolling motion, whereas and initial COP will translate anteriorly. The results
in running at high speeds, the ankle and foot are part of this study may influence biomimetic design and
of the spring like behavior of the leg. These control of lower limb assistive devices.
differences represent a shift toward more forefoot-
dominated ground interaction at the higher speeds.
This shift has been shown through changes in the METHODS
center of pressure (COP) at initial ground contact [1].
Pressure insoles (Novel Gmbh) were placed in the
However, instantaneous COP location at a specific
shoes of 8 subjects. Each insole has 99 transducers to
time may not capture the full effect of changes in
measure localized pressure data across the foot. Data
overall ankle control. An understanding of such
were recorded at 4, 6, 8, and 10 mph for each subject
changes is important for efforts to design and analyze
on a treadmill, for 20 seconds at each speed. Data
biomimetic assistive devices such as foot-ankle
processing to find the EAAMA used following steps:
prostheses, which may not adapt appropriately to
different speeds. • Assign ankle position to 30% of total in-sole
length from the rear of the in-sole.
This study investigates ankle control across a range • Calculate instantaneous COP and total
of speeds including both walking and running. We normal ground reaction force at each sample
hypothesize that ground reaction forces will show an time.
overall forward shift as speed increases, representing • Integrate the total force impulse and total
a more forefoot-dominated strategy. We use a new ankle moment impulse within each trial.
metric to evaluate this overall shift, which • Calculate EAAMA, defined as moment
incorporates a weighted average of center of pressure impulse divided by force impulse.
throughout the stance phase. We term this metric the Take the average of both feet if acceptable cycles
“effective average ankle moment arm” (EAAMA). were present.
This parameter estimates the average sagittal
moment arm of ground reaction forces about the RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
ankle joint, across an entire stance phase of walking
The EAAMA for each subject resulted in an anterior
or running. EAAMA is designed to identify
translation in the sagittal plane on the plantar surface,
kinematic aspects of ankle control related to
with an average translation across all subjects of 38%
dorsiflexion/plantarflexion posture and hindfoot vs.
(Fig. 1). All subjects had a walking speed moment
forefoot-dominated ground interaction. Results
arm of 10% to 20% of the in-sole size forward of the
across different speeds are intended to identify the
ankle. This corresponds to the mean plantar moment
average change in pressure distribution over the
found by Winter (reported in [2]) thus offering
plantar surface as locomotive speed changes. We
validation of our results for walking speeds.
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
EAAMA Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 share different ordinate ranges
35% because the COP in Fig. 2 is only at initial ground
contact at the beginning of the stance phase. The
30% negative ordinate represents ground reaction forces
% of Total In-sole from Ankle

behind the ankle (heel contact). There is not a direct
25% correlation between Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 as a few of the
subjects show a posterior, or insignificant, translation
20% of the COP at IGC, yet a definitive anterior
translation for the EAAMA. This could mean that
15% those subjects are exerting much more force on toe-
off at running speeds in order to bias the EAAMA
10% anteriorly, while still maintaining, or translating
2 4 6 8 10 12
posteriorly, the initial ground contact. These results
MPH
support the hypothesis that ground interaction forces
FIG. 1: The EAAMA of 8 subjects (different color dots).
The ordinate represents how far forward of the ankle the move forward to become more forefoot-dominated
EAAMA is, normalized by in-sole size. as speed increases, even if initial ground contact
location does not change. Future testing with stricter
Instantaneous COP at initial ground contact (IGC) protocols will discern the details of the discrepancy
was also examined for comparison against results between these measures.
from the EAAMA. If the COP at IGC shows anterior
translation, then the EAAMA at the same speed CONCLUSIONS
cannot show a posterior, or no, translation since more
force is being applied away from the heel. The effective average ankle moment arm across
different speeds appears to capture a new aspect of
ankle-foot control across changes in speed. The
slight discrepancy between the EAAMA and the
COP at IGC
0% COP at IGC may yield interesting information after
further testing. Technical improvements in future
% of Total In-sole from Ankle

-5%
testing will be focused on improving robustness to
-10% sensor noise in the pressure insoles, which was a
significant challenge in this pilot study. Future work
-15% will include a higher number of subjects, the same
type of running shoe for all subjects, and an
-20%
instrumented split-belt treadmill to verify in-sole
-25% data.

-30%
2 4 6 8 10 12 REFERENCES
MPH
FIG. 2: The COP at IGC for 8 subjects (different color 1. Breine et al, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 46. 1595-
dots). The ordinate represents how far behind the ankle the 1603, 2014.
COP is, normalized by in-sole size.
2. Rodgers, Phys Ther. 68. 1822-1830.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
TALES FROM THE UNINVOLVED LIMB: MOTOR CONTROL IN UNILATERAL ACHILLES
TENDINOPATHY

Abbigail L Fietzer and Kornelia Kulig

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
email: fietzer@usc.edu, web: http://pt.usc.edu/labs/mbrl/

INTRODUCTION had been fully participating in their recreational
activity of choice symptom-free for ≥1mo at the
Variability is not simply noise or the failure of an time of testing, and remained symptom-free during
imperfect human movement system; it is present testing. Motion capture was conducted for ≥25
even in elite athletes [1]. The magnitude of unipedal hops per leg, with arms constrained by
movement variability shifts with changing skill holding a dowel across the shoulders. Testing was
level, and a certain degree of variability is required performed at 1.7Hz, which is slower than typical
in order to be adaptable to small changes in the task self-selected hopping rate (2.0-2.3Hz). Hopping at
or within the performer [1-2]. Movement variability this rate remains an ankle-driven task but highlights
is altered in cases of pathology; some studies supraspinal control [7].
indicate greater variability is associated with
pathology while others indicate a decrement [3-6]. We sought to discover if differences in the control
of elemental variables (individual foot, shank and
Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis divides thigh positions) to stabilize the task level variable of
variability into destabilizing (VORT) and stabilizing overall vertical leg length were apparent between
(VUCM) subspaces, testing contributions of variance the different limb types (tendinopathic, uninvolved
in elemental variables to variance in a task level and control). UCM analysis was performed for
variable [2]. Where VUCM > VORT, the elemental every 1% of time-normalized stance phase. Stance
variables are controlled to inter-compensate and was divided into 7 equal bins, with bins 1-3
stabilize the task level variable. representing early, mid-, and late impact absorption,
bin 4 the most crouched position, and bins 5-7 early,
Unipedal hopping is a tightly-controlled ankle-drive mid-, and late propulsion toward flight. Control
task useful in modeling aspects of other ecologically limbs were pooled bilaterally. Due to the small
relevant bouncing gaits such as running, which is an sample size of tendinopathic subjects, T-tests were
activity commonly associated with Achilles run between control and tendinopathic limbs at each
tendinopathy. While numerous studies have been bin, and between control and uninvolved limbs at
conducted seeking risk factors for Achilles each bin (α=0.05).
tendinopathy development, the motor control
aspects of this pathology have been grossly ignored RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
in the literature. The purpose of this study was to
investigate potential differences in hopping control Tendinopathic limbs demonstrated a trend toward
strategy between the involved and uninvolved limb lesser VUCM than control limbs during mid- (p=0.13)
in persons with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy and and late (p=0.15) impact absorption (Fig. 1). There
healthy controls. was no difference between tendinopathic and
control limbs in VORT throughout stance.
METHODS
Uninvolved limbs demonstrated lesser or lesser-
Twenty-five healthy adults (age 23-55, 15 female) trending VUCM than control limbs during mid-
and nine otherwise healthy adults (age 24-60, 4 (p<0.01) and late- (p=0.04) impact absorption, the
female) with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy most crouched position (p=0.02), and early-
participated. Participants with Achilles tendinopathy (p=0.06) and mid- (p=0.11) propulsion (Fig. 2).

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Uninvolved limbs also demonstrated lesser or strategy than healthy controls during slow-paced
lesser-trending VORT than control limbs during single-legged hopping. Future studies to test
early- (p=0.03), mid- (p<0.01) and late- (p=0.02) whether these control strategies are mutable within
impact absorption, the most crouched position this population are warranted with an eye toward
(p=0.02), and early- (p=0.14) propulsion. the development of interventions directed at the
prevention of Achilles tendinopathy development or
progression.

Figure 1: Average stabilizing variability (VUCM)
for the control (green circles), tendinopathic (red
squares) & uninvolved (blue triangles) limbs across Figure 2: Average destabilizing variability (VORT)
7 stance bins. Whiskers represent standard error. for the control (green circles), tendinopathic (red
squares) & uninvolved (blue triangles) limbs across
Uninvolved limbs express less of both types of 7 stance bins. Whiskers represent standard error.
variability (stabilizing VUCM and destabilizing
VORT), thereby likely maintaining a similar VUCM to REFERENCES
VORT ratio and thus a similar overall degree of
vertical leg length stabilization during single-legged 1. BartlettRM. Int J Sports Sci Coach 3, 113-124,
hopping as healthy controls. Tendinopathic limbs 2008.
express less stabilizing (VUCM) variability, but 2. Latash ML, et al. Mot Contr 11, 276-308, 2007.
similar levels of destabilizing (VORT) variability as 3. Brown C, et al. Clin Biomech 27, 52-63, 2012.
control limbs. This likely corresponds to a lesser 4. Cote JN, et al. Clin Biomech 20, 581-590, 2005.
VUCM to VORT ratio and thus a decreased overall 5. James CR, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, 1833-
degree of vertical leg length stabilization during 1844, 2000.
single-legged hopping compared to healthy 6. Seay JF, et al. Clin Biomech 26, 572-578, 2011.
controls. 7. Zuur AT, et al. J Physiol 588, 799-807, 2010.

CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Results of this study indicate that both the Funding provided by the Foundation for Physical
tendinopathic and uninvolved limbs of participants Therapy’s Promotion of Doctoral Studies
with currently-asymptomatic unilateral Achilles Scholarship.
tendinopathy demonstrate a different control

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
3D X-RAY MOTION ANALYSIS INDICATES TREADMILL EXERCISE
EXACERBATES KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS IN MMT RATS
1,3
Elana Cooper , 1 Kevin Hetzendorfer, 2 Liang-Ching Tsai, 1,3 Nick Willett, and 1Young-Hui Chang
1
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
2
Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
3
Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Email: yh.chang@ap.gatech.edu

INTRODUCTION were randomly assigned to 1) a non-exercise (NON,
N=7) or 2) an exercise (RUN, N=7) group. Rat
Following traumatic knee injury, biomechanical exercise training consisted of treadmill running 30
changes in joint loading and chondrocyte minutes per day, 4 days per week at 0.2 m/s. A
metabolism lead to deterioration of articular sham surgery was performed on 6 additional control
cartilage and symptomatic presentation of rats where the MMT was not performed.
osteoarthritis (OA, [1]). Exercise after traumatic
knee injury could alter magnitude and distribution Rats were evaluated 8 weeks post-surgery for hind-
of knee loading necessary to maintain joint health limb joint kinematics during treadmill locomotion
and exacerbate post-traumatic OA. A medial (0.5 m/s) using a high-speed 3D X-ray motion
meniscal transection (MMT) rat injury model is analysis system (100 Hz). Rats were euthanized
often used to evaluate therapeutic interventions on following testing and 3D bone surface models were
the development of OA following injury [2]. This generated from whole bone CT scans and aligned
model allows us to experimentally test OA causes with high-speed radiographic images to quantify in
and potential interventions, however, the ability to vivo kinematics (XROMM Autoscoper, Providence
accurately measure kinematics has been a barrier to RI; Maya, Autodesk). 3D microstructure and
relating disease progression to behavioral assays in composition of the tibial plateau cartilage and
rats [3]. 3D X-ray Motion Analysis (XMA) using subchondral bone were quantified using contrast
dual-plane, high-speed digital radiography allows enhanced microcomputed tomography, EPIC-uCT
accurate measurement of joint kinematics in rats (50um resolution).
and circumvents skin movement artifact errors
common to external marker-based systems [3]. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Assessing accurate kinematics with 3D cartilage Hip abduction at midstance is shown to be
microstructure and composition allows for a more significantly greater in the RUN rats relative to the
comprehensive understanding of disease markers sham group (p=0.005), whereas NON rats
and their behavioral presentation in OA demonstrate increased abduction only at midstance
pathogenesis. This study tests the effect of an (p=0.036) (Fig 1B). RUN rats also demonstrated
exercise intervention on joint kinematics and greater knee varus alignment compared to the sham
cartilage health in a rat knee MMT model of OA. group at toe-off (p=0.036) (Fig 1C). RUN rats
We hypothesized exercise intervention would showed increased contralateral limb stance support
amplify markers for knee OA disease and cause relative to NON and sham groups. Reduced stance
greater changes in compensatory gait kinematics. time on the injured hindlimb in RUN rats compared
to the other groups also revealed a compensatory
METHODS gait pattern of favoring the injured limb. Increased
hip abduction, knee varus alignment, and
14 male Lewis rats (weight: 304 ± 57 gm) contralateral limb support time are reflective of gait
underwent MMT surgery in their left hindlimbs and in persons with mediotibial OA [1], which is also

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
indicated by an increased exposed bone surface area osteophyte formation demonstrated in RUN rats are
to the medial tibial plateau in the RUN rats (Fig 2). consistent with end-stage OA. Gait compensations
through decreased single limb support time by the
Destabilizing the knee joint via meniscal transection injured hindlimb to account for this accelerated OA
alters mechanical stresses to the underlying articular progression present kinematic gait deviations in
cartilage. Increased degeneration indicated by RUN rats through varus knee alignment and hip
decreased thickness to the proximal cartilage abduction. In contrast, less cartilage degeneration
surface (Fig 2) and higher exposed bone values to and increased cartilage thickness and volume in
medial 1/3 of the mediotibial plateau (Table 1) NON rats, would suggest a slower progression of
reflect concentrated force distribution to the area [3] OA. Kinematics evaluation at earlier measured time
and disrupted joint homeostasis. Attenuation points to assess gait modifications is forthcoming.
measurements obtained from EPIC-uCT, which are Quantifying animal behavior with joint structural
indicators of cartilage health, further support this changes across these time points will be critical for
finding. Increased cartilage attenuation in exercise revealing the causal relationship between tissue-
rats inversely correlates to decreased proteogylcan level OA markers and changes in gait kinematics.
content and thus an inability to provide sufficient The MMT rat appears to be an effective OA model
hydrostatic pressurization to resist the mechanical for evaluating behavioral interventions in
forces that lead to OA progression. combination with cellular therapeutics offering new
opportunities to improve current treatment options
CONCLUSIONS and disease prevention.

The cascading effects of disrupted homeostasis on REFERENCES
the cellular level in OA is supported by our
measurement of tissue level degradation and 1. Favre, et
al. EFORT Open Rev, 1:368-374, 2016
changes in gait kinematics. Increased cartilage 2. Willett, et al. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
degeneration, subchondral bone thickening, and 24:1604-1612, 2016.
3. Bauman, et al. J Neurosci Meth, 186: 18-24, 2010.

* indicates significance
of p<0.05
** indicates significance
of p=0.057

Figure 1. A 3D Bone surface model of rat hindlimb used to measure kinematics data (A). Mean + SD Hip
abduction (B), knee varus alignment (C), and ankle plantar flexion (D) angles at mid-stance and toe-off.
Table 1. Cartilage microstructure and composition (mean+ SD)

Figure 2. Representative proximal views of left medial tibial plateaus showing cartilage thickness maps of
sham (A), NON (B), and RUN (C) rats at 8 weeks post-surgery. Accelerated medial cartilage degeneration in
rats undergoing elevated exercise treadmill training indicated by areas of thinnest cartilage (dark green).
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RUNNING STRIKE PATTERN, MIDTARSAL LOCKING, AND THE WINDLASS MECHANISM
1
Dustin A. Bruening, 2 Michael B. Pohl, 3 Kota Z. Takahashi, 4 Joaquin A. Barrios
1
Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA
2
Puget Sound University, Tacoma, WA, USA
3
University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA
4
University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, USA
email: dabruening@byu.edu

INTRODUCTION METHODS

A forefoot strike pattern (FFS) has received Eighteen female runners (25±4 yrs., 1.65±0.06 m,
considerable attention in running literature due to its 61±7 kg) ran overground at 3.7 m/s using both RFS
theorized benefit in attenuating loading rates, and FFS patterns. Subjects wore minimalist shoes
shifting loads distally, and storing/ returning more with cut-outs and reflective markers were placed
energy in the foot (compared to rearfoot strike, RFS). directly on the skin according to a modified kinetic
While the effects of strike pattern on sagittal plane multi-segment foot model [5]. Marker trajectories
knee and ankle mechanics have received and force plate data were collected at 150 and 1,500
considerable attention in the literature, less is known Hz respectively.
about the mechanics of the joints distal to the ankle.
Differences in the manner in which the foot is loaded Midtarsal (MT) and metatarsophalangeal (MP) joints
when changing strike pattern [1] may provide an were modeled in Visual 3D software [5]. Joint angles
interesting model to test the validity of two were extracted using a typical Euler sequence. Joint
traditional clinical models of the foot: midtarsal moments and powers were calculated by first
locking and the windlass mechanism. Research using partitioning the ground reaction force to each
a multi-segment foot model [2] shows that a FFS is segment sequentially using the center of pressure [6].
accompanied by a more inverted hindfoot. This could Stance was divided into two phases: 1- loading, from
affect midtarsal mechanics via the midtarsal locking initial contact until peak midfoot dorsiflexion, and 2-
mechanism, where hindfoot inversion is purported to propulsion, constituting the rest of stance. Metrics
reduce flexibility across the joints of the midfoot [3]. differed slightly between the two phases, targeted
In addition, a more anterior center of pressure towards the most dominant foot theory (midtarsal
throughout stance in FFS [1] has the potential to locking in loading and windlass mechanism in
increase the role of the windlass mechanism during propulsion). Range of motion (RoM) and MT joint
push-off, wherein toe extension results in work (integral of power) were calculated for both
concomitant arch rise [4]. phases. MT angular impulse and rotational stiffness
(slope of the linear portion of the sagittal plane
Both the midtarsal locking theory and the windlass moment / angle graph) were added to loading, while
mechanism have the potential to alter kinetics across MP and combined MT/MP joint work were added to
the foot joints. The purpose of this study, therefore, propulsion. Strike pattern was compared using paired
was to explore the effects of running strike pattern on t-tests (α = 0.05).
foot kinetics within the context of these clinical
theories. We hypothesized that midtarsal locking RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
would result in a less compliant midfoot during
loading in FFS, while the windlass mechanism would LOADING (Table 1): FFS resulted in greater MT
increase power absorption at the metatarso- dorsiflexion RoM (p=0.005), but reduced abduction
phalangeal joints and concurrent power generation at RoM (p=0.003). No differences were observed in
the midtarsal joint during push off in FFS. frontal plane RoM (p=0.122), but the motion

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
directions were reversed (see [2]), with FFS inverting suggesting that the foot’s contribution to active
and RFS everting. MT angular impulse was also propulsion may be limited.
greater in FFS (p<0.001), as was MT stiffness
(p=0.024). No differences were seen in MT negative Table 2: MT and MP joint metrics during
work (p=0.912). These results suggest, first, that total propulsion.
MT motion, or deformation, is likely similar between RFS FFS p
strike patterns, but that MT axes of rotation differ due MT RoM (°)
to changes in postural configuration. The similar Plantarflexion 7.1 ± 1.7 8.5 ± 2.2 0.000
deformation occurs despite much greater loading in Inversion (-) 2.1 ± 1.4 2.5 ± 1.8 0.313
FFS, suggesting that the altered rotation axes are Adduction 4.8 ± 1.5 5.2 ± 1.9 0.118
MP Extension (°) 30.0 ± 3.2 34.8 ± 2.9 0.000
causing a greater stiffness across the MT joint (i.e.
MT Work (J/kg) .09 ± .04 .15 ± .04 0.000
“locking”). This perspective helps explain why MP Work (J/kg) -.16 ± .04 -.23 ± .05 0.000
energetics conclusions based solely on sagittal plane Combined Work -.15 ± .04 -.17 ± .06 0.244
kinematics [7] differ from tri-planar modeling
studies [8, 9] and provides further evidence against 5
MT RFS MT FFS
any FFS energy storage advantage within the MT MP RFS MP FFS
joint [8, 9]. 3

Power (W/kg)
1
Table 1: MT joint metrics during loading.
RFS FFS p -1
ROM (°)
-3
Dorsiflexion 5.4 ± 1.5 6.4 ± 2.2 0.005
Inversion (-)3.0 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.6 0.122 -5
Abduction 4.5 ± 1.2 3.7 ± 1.2 0.003 0 20 40 60 80 100
Impulse (Nm∙s/kg) .11 ± .02 .16 ± .02 0.000 % Stance
Stiffness (Nm/°kg) 2.4 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 1.0 0.024 Figure 1: MT and MP joint powers across stance
Work (J/kg) -.11 ± .03 -.11 ± .05 0.912
CONCLUSIONS
PROPULSION (Table 2): During propulsion, there
was greater MT plantarflexion RoM in FFS The midtarsal locking theory explains why the
(p<0.001), but no differences in the other planes greater MT joint loading that occurs in a FFS pattern
(p=0.313, 0.118). By toe off, MT kinematics curves does not result in more negative MT joint work, as
had converged so that there were no distinguishable altered MT axes stiffen the joint. During propulsion,
differences between strike patterns (see [2]). This the windlass mechanism similarly explains why
convergence in MT kinematics suggests that greater MT plantarflexion and positive work do not
midtarsal locking would affect both strike patterns result in differences in total work done by the
similarly. However, MP extension RoM was greater integrated MT and MP joints.
in FFS (p<0.001), which appears to engage the
windlass mechanism earlier and to a greater extent. REFERENCES
This mechanism is evident in the joint work values
and illustrated by the power profiles (Figure 1). 1. Cavanagh et al. J Biomech, 1980. 13(5): 397-406.
Although there is greater MT positive work done in 2. Pohl et al. Clin Biomech, 2008. 23(3): 334-341.
FFS (p<0.001), there is also greater concurrent MP 3. Elftman. Clin Orth, 1960. 16: 41.
negative work (p<0.001), as power is transferred 4. Hicks. J Anatomy, 1954. 88(Pt 1): 25.
from the MP joint to the MT joint. The integrated 5. Bruening et al. Gait Posture, 2012. 35(4): 529-534.
manner in which these joints act needs to be 6. Stefanyshyn et al. J Biomech, 1997. 30(11): 1081-85.
7. Perl et al. Med Sci Sports Ex, 2012. 44(7): 1335-43.
considered when evaluating midfoot mechanics (see
8. McDonald et al. PloS one, 2016. 11(4): e0152602.
also [8, 9]). Furthermore, the combined MP and MT 9. Wager et al. J Biomech, 2016. 49(5): 704-709.
work across stance shows no difference between
strike patterns (p= 0.244), and is a net negative,
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Bone Microarchitecture and Running Biomechanics in First-Time Marathon Runners
Hannah E. Sattler1, Jessica D. Ventura3, Rebecca E. Fellin4, Karen L. Troy2
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering Worcester Polytechnic
Institute, Worcester, MA, 3Department of Kinesiology, Gordon College, Wenham, MA,
4
Military Performance Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA
email: Jessica.Ventura@gordon.edu, Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Lab: mbl@wpi.edu
INTRODUCTION of the right distal tibia (TIB) and first metatarsal
Military recruits commonly sustain stress fractures, (1MT) (Figure 1). Scans were acquired prior to
an injury common to distance runners, during Basic beginning a marathon training regimen for runners
Combat Training (BCT). Interestingly, the recruits and again 5-7 months later, within a month of
at lowest risk of musculoskeletal injury are those completing their marathon. Non-runners received
with the fastest 2 mile run time at the start of BCT scans at a similar time interval.
[1]. It is possible that they participated in more
running prior to BCT, which may be protective
against injury for the large increase in training
volume that occurs during BCT. Studies have
shown that bone can adapt its structure to best resist
habitual loading, potentially reducing fracture risk.
While we have shown that high strain regions in
bone experience greater bone apposition than low
strain regions [2], the degree to which loading
experienced during endurance running changes
Figure 1 HRpQCT (XtremeCT, Scanco, Switzerland) image of
skeletal miscrostructure is still not well understood. distal-1M (left) and TIB (right) of a runner. Green line shows
segmentation of bone from soft tissue.
Our objective was to quantify changes in running
mechanics and bone microstructure in novice Scans were analyzed for a battery of
marathoners participating in a structured training microarchitectural measures including: cortical
program. We hypothesized that (1) peak ankle and bone thickness (Ct.Th; mm) and area (Ct.Ar; mm2),
toe moments would be positively correlated with trabecular number (Tb.N, 1/mm), trabecular spacing
cortical and trabecular bone microstructure at the (Tb.Sp; mm), volumetric density (BV/TV;
distal tibia and first metatarsal, respectively, and (2) mm3/mm3), trabecular area (Tb.Ar, mm2), cortical
change in bone post-marathon training would be bone mineral density (Ct.BMD, mg/cm3), total area
positively related to ankle and toe moments. (Tt.Ar, cm2), mean slice area (MSA, mm2), total
bone mineral density (Tt.BMD, mg/cm3) and bone
METHODS
mineral content (BMC; g).
Fifteen healthy adults training for a first marathon
(7 males, age: 36.5±12.9 years, height: 171.4.9 Running biomechanics were collected on runners at
±11.9 cm, mass: 77.0±12.9 kg) were recruited. the beginning of their training and again after their
These subjects had never run more than 13.5 miles marathon. Three dimensional kinematic and kinetic
in a single bout, and had fewer than four weeks of data were collected while participants jogged
>20 miles/week training over the last five years. around a 50-meter track at their average training
Thirteen age and sex-matched physically-active speed. Trials were considered valid when the right
non-runners (6 males, 36.6±12.7 years, 174.2±11.2 leg fully hit one of the force plates. For the purpose
cm, 72.8±16.1 kg) were recruited as controls. All of this analysis, a simplified two-linkage inverse
subjects provided written informed consent for this dynamics model of the right foot and lower leg was
ongoing institutionally approved study. used to calculate the forces and moments acting at
the ankle and metatarsal joints in the sagittal plane.
Subjects received high resolution computed
tomography (HRpQCT) scans of a 9.02 mm portion
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Currently, pre- and post- data are available for 7
runners, and complete pre-data are available for 13 r=-­‐0.86   r=-­‐0.70  
runners and 13 non-runners. Baseline bone p=0.01   p=0.12  

microstructural data were compared in runners
versus non-runners using a t-test. To test whether
joint moments were related to bone microstructure,
Pearson correlations were calculated for these
parameters versus runner pre-data. To examine the
Figure 2 Change in microstructure was consistently negatively
dependence of bone adaptation on running correlated with GRF magnitude. This correlation was weakened by
biomechanics, percent change in bone normalizing to body mass. 1MT data were incomplete for one subject.
microstructure was correlated with baseline running percent change in both TIB and 1MT bone (Figure
biomechanics parameters. 2). Heavier individuals generally generate larger
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION peak GRF and have stronger bone, so it is possible
At baseline, runners exhibited enhanced cortical and that those with initially weaker bone experience the
trabecular parameters, indicating increased bone greatest changes to bone structure. On average TIB
strength compared to nonrunners (Table 1). bone parameters indicated increased strength (e.g.
Although this group was marathon-naïve, these BMC increased by 1.2±2.4% from pre to post), and
differences suggest that low-volume running in 1MT indicated decreased strength and mineral
adulthood is beneficial to bone. Self-selection into a (BMC decreased by 2.4±4.5%), although our
marathon training program is likely associated with sample was small.
a life-long commitment to physical activity that may The 1MT is loaded primarily in bending in the
not be as present in the non-runner group. A larger simplified two-linkage running model. In contrast,
prospective cohort should clarify this point. the distal tibia is loaded primarily in compression.
Table 1 Baseline CT measures for TIB in controls vs runners. P- Whether loading mode, strain rate, or other factors
values test for between-group differences. 1MT data were similar. are responsible for the differential effects is yet to
Measure Control Mean(SD) Runner Mean(SD) P-val
Tb.BMD 172.4(28.1) 211.6(33.7) 0.014 be determined. In the future, models will include
BV/TV 0.144(0.023) 0.176(0.028) 0.013 muscle forces that also contribute to bone loading.
Tb.Th 0.071(0.011) 0.080(0.010) 0.030
D100 291.8(44.3) 315.0(47.6) 0.012 CONCLUSIONS
Ct.Ar 117.5(23.6) 143.3(30.7) 0.035 Preliminarily, marathon trainees had enhanced bone
Ct.Th 1.07(0.24) 1.31(0.26) 0.014
Units: Tb.BMD, mg/cm3; BV/TV, mm3/mm3; Tb.Th, mm; D100 structure compared to non-runner controls, which
(total bone mineral density), mg/cm3; Ct.Ar, mm2; Ct.Th, mm. may be related to running biomechanics. Improved
tibia parameters may indicate a positive effect of
In runners, bone parameters were closely related to
marathon training on strength. In the future, an
ground reaction forces (GRF) and ankle/toe
inclusion of musculoskeletal modeling and imaging
moments. After normalizing for body mass, several
techniques may better inform stress fracture risk
TIB parameters remained correlated with kinetics
assessment. We expect these trends to be reinforced
measures (e.g. Ct.Ar vs. ankle moment r=0.58,
in the forthcoming full study population.
p=0.048; BMC vs. moment r=0.64, p=0.025). In
general, bone mass scales with body mass, but our REFERENCES
data suggest that running biomechanics provide an [1] Jones BH, et al. MSSE 25, 197–203, 1993.
additional important input for bone mass and [2] Bhatia VA, et al. J Biomech Eng 137(1), 2015.
structure. It is unclear whether this relationship is
present in non-runners and whether it is also a ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
reflection of walking moments – a more common The views expressed in this abstract are those of the authors and do
not reflect the official policy of the Department of Army, Department
daily activity. of Defense, or the U.S. Government. The investigators have adhered
to the policies for protection of human subjects as prescribed in DOD
Preliminary analysis indicates a trend towards Instruction 3216.02 and the research was conducted in adherence
negative relationships between peak GRF and with the provisions of 32 CFR Part 219.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
USING DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS
TO ASSESS SYSTEM STABILITY DURING RUNNING
1
Cristine Agresta,1Jillian Peacock, 1Jeffrey Housner, 1Ronald Zernicke, and 1Jessica Deneweth Zendler
1
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
email: cagresta@umich.edu, web: http://www.mipr.kines.umich.edu

INTRODUCTION speed, fatigue, or footwear [2,3,4]. However, unlike
walking, there is not a clear direction that delineates
Despite extensive research efforts, global risk factors healthy versus at-risk (injured) runners. Likewise,
for running-related injury remain largely
interpretation of a to indicate positive or negative
unidentified. This gap may be due to the traditional
gait adaptation remains unclear.
linear methods of analysis that comprise the majority
of running investigation. These analyses rely on An important first step in applying these methods to
discrete mechanical variables and examination of running injury research is to clarify the interpretation
time-invariant means and variances rather than of a. Our primary purpose was to explore changes in
acknowledging the non-linear dynamics of running long-range correlations in response to an enforced
in which numerous system components interact to gait perturbation. We sought to determine the extent
achieve healthy gait. Thus, an alternative dynamical to which values were predictive of adaptive
systems approach has been proposed to better performance and whether experience (skill mastery)
elucidate the relation among running mechanics, influenced adaptive performance or global system
motor behavior, and injury [1]. This analysis stability.
involves studying the adaptability of the motor
system during running via concepts related to METHODS
stability, complexity, and variability. Forty distance runners (26 M; 35.6 ± 10.3 years old)
Stride-to-stride fluctuations in gait patterns have participated in this study. Runners were free of
been used to indicate system complexity and musculoskeletal injury and had not attempted gait
adaptability. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is retraining in the last 12 months preceding data
a common method for examining these deviations in collection. Runners were categorized into three
gait and characterizes the statistical persistence groups based on years of distance running
(long-range correlation) of a time-series through a experience: 1) novice (0-3 years) 2) intermediate (4
single value a: a = 0.5 indicates no persistence (i.e., – 10 years) 3) experienced (10+ years).
white noise); a < 0.5 indicates anti-persistent Participants ran on an instrumented treadmill
correlation, in which deviation in one direction is (h/p/cosmos, Zebris Medical, Germany) at a self-
statistically more likely to be followed by deviation selected speed. Five different step frequencies [150,
in the opposite direction, and a > 0.5 indicates 160, 170, 180, 190 beats per minute (bpm)] were
persistence, with deviation in one direction enforced via an audible metronome and participants
statistically more likely to be followed by deviation were asked to match their footfalls to the beat.
in the same direction. A change in a in response to a Pressure data (120 Hz) were collected from the
perturbation or a biological stressor may lend insight treadmill using commercial software (Noraxon
into motor system flexibility to environmental or task MyoResearch 3.8) and used to calculate
demands. The breakdown of long-range correlations spatiotemporal measures. Metronome onset began
(decreased a) in walking gait has typically been after 1 min of free running and lasted for 3 min. The
viewed as a loss of system complexity and global audible beat was washed out with 2 min of white
stability that contributes to functional deterioration noise and 1 min of silence, for a total trial duration of
often seen with aging and disease. Recently, long- 7 min. Enforced step frequency order was
range correlations have been examined in healthy randomized. Adaptation and de-adaptation were
and injured runners in response to changes in running

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
measured as the time to reach a plateau after onset were better able to match the desired step frequency,
and cessation of the metronome, respectively. were less perturbed (lower step frequency drift), and
were able to successfully match enforced frequencies
Generalized linear mixed models were used to further away from their preferred step frequency.
determine the extent to which the strength of long- Experienced runners displayed weaker long-range
range correlations changed from baseline measures correlations post-perturbation while correlations in
during and following cessation of enforced step the novice group became stronger.
frequency perturbations. Additionally, the influence
of running experience on a was examined. There is debate about the interpretation of a in
relation to optimal function. Some suggest a higher
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
correlated signal (a = 1) is optimal [5] while others
Baseline a values did not predict adaptive suggest an increased correlation represents decreased
performance (p = 0.30-0.88). However, stride time a dynamical degrees of freedom and less flexibility to
was significantly different between the perturbation adapt to perturbations [4]. Given that novice runners
and post-perturbation periods (p = 0.001, Figure 1). have a much higher rate of injury [6] and years of
All runners had lower a values during the experience usually implies advanced motor skill, it
perturbation period compared to baseline levels. would appear that weaker correlations (lower a) are
These changes are in line with previous work more advantageous for injury resiliency in runners.
suggesting the metronome induces a less complex This is supported by our findings that more running
pattern or requires corrective action to maintain experience corresponded to better adaptive
stability. Interestingly, values post-perturbation did performance. However, the large variability during
not return to baseline for any group and were highly the post-perturbation period suggests that there is a
variable. subject-specific response that warrants further
investigation.
2.5
* CONCLUSIONS
2
*
* Nonlinear analysis of long-range correlations during
continuous running gait detected changes in response
1.5
to an external perturbation. This method has the
potential to facilitate identification of injury-prone
1

behavior patterns. More research is needed to
0.5
confirm the appropriate a interpretation, determine
subject-specific responses, and assess sensitivity to
0 specific perturbations.
REFERENCES
-0.5
baseline perturbation post-perturbation 1. Jordan K, et al. Gait Posture, 24, 120-125, 2006.
2. Meardon SA, et al. Gait Posture, 33, 36-40, 2011.
Figure 1: Strength of long-range correlations (a) for
3. Mann R, et al. Gait Posture, 42, 91-95, 2015.
stride time across periods. Green circles: novice; blue 4. van Emmerik REA, et al. JSHS, 5, 3-13, 2016.
squares: intermediate; red diamonds: experienced. 5. Hausdorff JM, et al. J Appl Physiol, 80, 1448-1457, 1996.
6. Videbaek S, et al. Sports Med, 45, 1017-1026, 2015.
Experience appeared to positively influence
adaptability. Baseline a values were significantly ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
influenced by experience (p < 0.05). Likewise, more This study was funded, in part, by the Michigan Institute
experienced runners had shorter adaptation times, for Clinical Health Research, grant UL1TR000433.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
How do prosthetic stiffness, height, and running speed affect the biomechanics of athletes with bilateral
transtibial amputations?
1
Owen N. Beck, 2Paolo Taboga, and 1,3Alena M. Grabowski
1
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
2
Sacramento State University, Sacramento, CA, USA
3
Eastern Colorado Healthcare System, Denver, CO, USA
email: owen.beck@colorado.edu

INTRODUCTION Prosthetic height conditions were the International
Paralympic Committee’s maximum competition
Athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations height [4] and ±2 cm.
compete in events that span a broad range of
running speeds. However, to date the biomechanics We measured ground reaction forces (GRFs) (1000
of only two such athletes have been reported across Hz) throughout each trial and filtered them using a
running speeds [1-3]. Furthermore, it is uncertain if 4th order low-pass Butterworth filter (30 Hz). We
the exhibited biomechanical changes with altered used the filtered data to calculate the biomechanical
running speed are inherent to athletes with bilateral variables that influence leg stiffness [2, 5] and
transtibial amputations, or if they are due to the running speed [6] from each trial. We determined
characteristics of their running-specific prostheses prosthetic stiffness (kN/m) (𝑘𝑅𝑆𝑃 ) [5], then used it
(RSPs) (i.e. stiffness and height). Therefore, the and calculated overall leg stiffness (𝑘𝑙𝑒𝑔 ) to
purpose of our study was to quantify how prosthetic compute residual limb stiffness (𝑘𝑟𝑒𝑠 ) (Equation 1).
stiffness, height, and running speed affect the
biomechanics of athletes with bilateral transtibial 1
=
1
+𝑘
1
(Eq. 1)
amputations. We hypothesized that prosthetic 𝑘𝑙𝑒𝑔 𝑘𝑟𝑒𝑠 𝑅𝑆𝑃

stiffness, but not height, would affect biomechanics
across running speeds, and that faster running We used linear mixed models to assess the
speeds would mitigate the influence of prosthetic influence of prosthetic stiffness, height, and running
stiffness on all tested biomechanical parameters. speed on each biomechanical variable. We set
significance at p=0.05.
METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Five male athletes with bilateral transtibial
amputations gave informed written consent Prosthetic stiffness (kN/m) increased with faster
according to the COMIRB and USAMRMC Human running speeds (p<0.001) (Fig. 1). Prosthetic
Research Protection Office prior to participation. stiffness, height, and running speed all affected
Each athlete performed fifteen sets of running trials biomechanics. Specifically, with stiffer prostheses
lasting 10 strides each on a 3D force measuring athletes exhibited greater peak and stance average
treadmill (Treadmetrix, Park City, UT). Each set of vertical GRFs (p<0.001), increased overall leg
trials began at 3 m/s and each successive trial was stiffness (p<0.001), decreased residual limb
incremented 1 m/s until the athlete reached top stiffness (p<0.001), decreased ground contact times
speed. For each set of trials, athletes used a different (p<0.001), and increased step frequency (p<0.001)
prosthetic model, stiffness, and height combination. (Fig. 2). Increased prosthetic height resulted in
Prosthetic models included the Freedom lower peak and stance average vertical GRFs
Innovations Catapult FX6, Össur Cheetah Xtend, (p<0.001), as well as longer contact times and step
and Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter. Prosthetic stiffness lengths (p<0.001). Running speed was inversely
conditions were that of the manufacturer associated with overall leg stiffness and residual
recommended and ±1 stiffness categories. limb stiffness (p<0.001) (Fig. 1).

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
In contrast to our previous study [5], participants
demonstrated an inverse relationship between
prosthetic and residual limb stiffness (Fig. 1).
Moreover, with increased running speed the
influence of prosthetic stiffness was reduced for
stance average vertical GRF (p<0.001), residual
limb stiffness (p=0.020), contact time (p<0.001),
step frequency (p=0.004) (Fig. 2), contact length
(p=0.019), the angle swept by the leg spring (theta)
(p=0.001), and peak center of mass displacement
(p<0.001). No other prosthetic stiffness and running
speed interactions achieved significance.

Figure 2. Average elicited step frequency across
prosthetic models and running speeds while using
running-specific prostheses at the recommended and
± 1 stiffness category (Cat) for a 70 kg subject. Step
frequency = 0.315 speed + 0.042 stiffness (kN/m) -
0.005 speed · stiffness (kN/m) + 1.258.

CONCLUSIONS

Prosthetic stiffness, height, and running speed affect
the biomechanics of athletes with bilateral
transtibial amputations. Furthermore, the effect of
prosthetic stiffness on biomechanics is reduced at
faster running speeds, indicating that prosthetic
stiffness has a greater influence on distance running
than on sprinting performance for athletes with
Figure 1. Average (±SE) overall leg (kleg), bilateral transtibial amputations.
prosthetic (kRSP), and residual limb (kres) stiffness at
each running speed and across all prosthetic REFERENCES
configurations. Some error bars are hidden behind 1.Arellano CJ, et al. Plos One 10, e0115637, 2015.
symbols. 2.McGowan CP, et al. J R Soc Interface 9, 1975-
1982, 2012.
We reject our initial hypothesis because both 3.Weyand PG, et al. J Appl Physiol 107, 903-911,
prosthetic stiffness and height influenced 2009.
biomechanics across running speeds. We accept our 4.IPC Athletics Rules and Regulations, 2014-2015.
second hypothesis since faster running speeds 5.Beck ON, et al. J Appl Physiol, in press, 2017.
mitigated the effect of prosthetic stiffness on 6.Weyand PG et al. J Appl Physiol, 108, 950-961,
biomechanics. Furthermore, our participants 2010.
generally increased both stride length and frequency
to achieve faster running speeds. However, for a ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
few trials, some participants improved speed We thank Mike Litavish, Angela Montgomery,
beyond 7 m/s by decreasing stride length and Rodger Kram, Freedom Innovations, Össur,
rapidly increasing stride frequency. Ottobock, and the BADER Consortium, a DoD
CDMRP cooperative agreement.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
POWER AND WORK GENERATED THROUGHOUT THE RUNNING-SPECIFIC PROSTHESIS
KEEL DURING RUNNING AFTER AMPUTATION
1
Brian S. Baum, 1 Holly Johnson, 2 Hiroaki Hobara, and 3 Jae Kun Shim
1
Regis University, Denver, CO, USA
2
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
3
University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
email: bbaum@regis.edu

INTRODUCTION speed would not affect keel power and work
performance.
The ankle joint is the primary power generator for
able-bodied runners [1,2]. After amputation this METHODS
joint is replaced with a mechanical prosthesis that
may not fully replace the biological limb’s function. Eight males with unilateral transtibial amputation
Running-specific prostheses (RSPs) are usually wore their own RSPs to run overground at 2.5, 3.0,
modeled as a two-segment rigid body model where and 3.5 m/s.
the ankle joint is defined by a single point on the
keel, which is assumed to be rigid [3]. 10 motion capture cameras (Vicon) captured
Consequently, mechanical energy analyses using kinematic data at 200 Hz while 10 force platforms
such a model assume that all of the RSP power and (Kistler) captured ground reaction force data at
work would be generated at that single point. 1000 Hz. A 6-segment RSP model with 5 joints
(Fig. 1) was used to estimate mechanical energy
However, the RSP most likely does not generate its throughout the RSP keel. Joint powers and work
power and perform work at one point as the keel were calculated at each joint (Fig. 2-3) via inverse
flexes throughout its length. Oversimplifying a dynamics using Visual3D (C-Motion).
biomechanical model can induce errors in the
analysis and any interpretations drawn from such A two-factor (Joint x Speed) repeated measures
analysis. A multi-segment model can estimate ANOVA determined peak power and total work
power and work generation at various points differences with α=0.05.
throughout the RSP keel, providing a more
comprehensive understanding of RSP keel
dynamics during running. Identifying how and
where the RSP keel generates power and performs
work will improve modeling techniques for
biomechanical analyses and can inform on
prosthesis alignment, training, and RSP designs. 1
2
The purpose of this study was to improve our
understanding of mechanical energy production in 3
RSPs. We aimed to identify whether RSPs absorb
and generate power and perform work throughout 4 5
the keel at different running speeds. We
hypothesized that (1) RSPs absorb and generate Figure 1: Marker placement on RSP keel and
power and perform work throughout the keel, (2) resulting 6-segment model. Power and work were
RSPs do not absorb and generate power or perform calculated at points 1-5.
work evenly throughout the keel, and (3) running

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Figure 3. Total work performed at each keel point
(P1-P5) across speeds. Average percent of work
Figure 2: Average peak joint powers at each keel performed by each point across all speeds is shown.
point (P1-P5) across speeds. Error bars represent *, ‡, and ^ indicate points that significantly differ
±1SD. Percentages represent average percent of from each other (P<.05).
peak power generated (green) and absorbed (red) by
each point across all speeds. Symbols (*, ^, †, ‡) point. Modeling RSPs with a single “ankle” joint
indicate points that differ from each other (P<.05). s could induce errors in inverse dynamics analyses
indicates significant speed effects (P<.03). and lead to misinterpretations of RSP function.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Altering RSP designs to generate power and work
evenly throughout the keel or optimize power
Hypothesis 1 Accepted: RSPs absorb and generate generation at one point may lead to greater overall
power throughout the keel, not at one point. Each performance. Additionally, different prosthetic
point on the keel performed work during each alignments may allow runners to optimize RSP
running speed condition. power and work generation throughout the keel.
Hypothesis 2 Accepted: RSPs do not absorb and CONCLUSIONS
generate power or perform work evenly throughout
the keel. Points significantly differed from each Different RSP keel regions absorb and generate
other in their power absorption and generation (see different magnitudes of power and perform
Fig. 2) and total work performed (see Fig. 3). Points differing amounts of work. Understanding RSP
2, 3, and 4 absorbed and generated 85-90% of the mechanics requires knowledge of kinematics and
keel power and performed 90% of the total work. kinetics throughout the keel, not at only one point.
Hypothesis 3 Accepted: Total work did not change REFERENCES
with speed; No interaction effect (Point x Speed)
was observed for either power or work indicating 1. Novacheck TF. Gait Posture 7, 77-95, 1998.
the relative power and work output for each keel 2. Winter DA. J Biomech 16, 91-97, 1983.
point did not change with speed. 3. Buckley JG. Clin Biomech 15, 352-358, 2000.
4. Bruggemann G et al. Sports Tech 1, 220-227,
Hypothesis 3 Rejected: Peak power absorption and 2009.
generation increased with speed (see Fig. 2).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Past data conflict on whether RSP “ankle” joints
produce less or more power and work compared to This work was funded by the NIAMS R03 Award
intact ankle joints [3,4]. Our data indicate that RSPs #1R03AR062321 and the University of Maryland
generate power throughout the keel, and not at one Department of Kinesiology GRIP awards.
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
DYNAMIC BALANCE DURING RUNNING USING RUNNING-SPECIFIC PROSTHESES
1
Lauren A. Sepp, 2 Brian S. Baum, 2 Erika Nelson-Wong, and 1 Anne K. Silverman
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA
2
School of Physical Therapy, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA
email: lsepp@mines.edu, web: fbl.mines.edu

INTRODUCTION prescribed RSP. RSP mass and inertial properties
were measured for each participant [7]. Participants
The regulation of angular momentum is important ran continuously along a 100m track at 3.0 m/s.
for maintaining balance during gait [1]. For example, Speed was monitored using laser sensors during a
individuals who have a history of falling have 25m straightaway. Kinematics were collected at
difficulty controlling angular momentum during fall 200Hz using a ten-camera motion capture system
recovery as compared to those without a history of and a full-body marker set.
falling [2]. In addition, the ankle plantarflexors are
critical in the regulation of angular momentum [3,4] Kinematics were filtered using a fourth-order
and fallers have a reduced peak ankle moment during Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 6 Hz.
fall recovery [2]. Whole-body angular momentum (𝐻 ⃗ ) was calculated
from body kinematics using a 15-segment model in
Individuals with a transtibial amputation (ITTA) are Visual3D using the following equation:
characterized by the functional loss of the ankle 𝑛
plantarflexors and have greater ranges of angular ⃗ = ∑[(𝑟𝑖𝐶𝑂𝑀 − 𝑟𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦
𝐻 𝐶𝑂𝑀
) × 𝑚𝑖 (𝑣𝑖𝐶𝑂𝑀 − 𝑣𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦
𝐶𝑂𝑀
) + 𝐼𝑖 𝜔
⃗ 𝑖]
momentum during walking [5], which helps explain 𝑖=1
their greater risk of falling [6] and altered movement where 𝑟𝑖𝐶𝑂𝑀 , 𝑣𝑖𝐶𝑂𝑀 , and 𝜔
⃗ 𝑖 are the position, velocity,
strategies. However, whole-body angular momentum and angular velocity of the ith segment respectively;
has not been examined in ITTA during running. 𝐶𝑂𝑀 𝐶𝑂𝑀
𝑟𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 and 𝑣𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 are the position and velocity of the
center of mass of the whole body respectively; and
Understanding movement coordination to provide
propulsion, support and balance during running is 𝑚𝑖 and 𝐼𝑖 are the mass and inertia matrix of the ith
segment respectively. 𝐻 ⃗ was normalized by
important in evaluating running performance. Thus,
the purpose of this study was to quantify whole-body participant height, mass, and running speed.
Comparisons for overall range of 𝐻 ⃗ (peak-to-peak
angular momentum in people with and without
transtibial amputations during running. We amplitude) between AB and ITTA were calculated
hypothesized that ITTA using running-specific using t-tests (α=0.05).
prostheses (RSPs) would have greater ranges of
whole-body angular momentum in all three RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
anatomical planes during running compared to able-
bodied individuals. Sagittal and frontal plane 𝐻⃗ ranges for ITTA were
significantly greater (p < 0.001 and p = 0.038,
METHODS respectively) compared to AB individuals (Fig. 1),
which is consistent with prior studies of walking [5].
Five male runners with a unilateral transtibial Range of 𝐻 ⃗ in the transverse plane was not
amputation (mean ± SD: height = 1.78 ± 0.09m, mass significantly different between groups (p = 0.131).
= 82.9 ± 16.5 kg) and five able-bodied (AB) male
runners (mean ± SD: height = 1.83 ± 0.06m, mass = The net external moment equals the time rate of
81.3 ± 9.39 kg) participated in the study. Each ⃗ . Thus, greater values of 𝐻
change of 𝐻 ⃗ suggest that
participant with an amputation ran with their ITTA may have difficulty recovering from

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
unexpected perturbations in the sagittal and frontal
planes during running, as a greater external moment
is required to restore the 𝐻 ⃗ of the body to zero. In
addition, ITTA have reduced muscular control at the
ankle due to the loss of the plantarflexors, which are
critical for balance regulation [3,4]. Thus, ITTA have
a reduced capability to quickly modulate the external
moment in response to a perturbation.

Figure 2. Average frontal plane whole-body angular momentum (± 1
standard deviation indicated by the shaded area) for the ITTA and AB
participant groups running at 3.0 m/s

to uneven surfaces like natural trails, where frontal
plane balance is more challenging to maintain.

CONCLUSIONS

Greater ranges of whole-body 𝐻 ⃗ in the frontal and
sagittal planes for ITTA during running highlight
altered running strategies for ITTA due to the loss of
Figure 1: Normalized whole-body angular momentum range ± one
standard deviation in ITTA and AB individuals during running at 3.0 the plantarflexors and subsequent changes in GRFs.
m/s. ‘*’ indicates a significant difference between groups Regulating 𝐻 ⃗ in the frontal plane by altering
prosthesis design to better incorporate mediolateral
Mediolateral ground reaction forces (GRFs) and force control may improve the ability of ITTA to
vertical GRFs factor into frontal plane 𝐻 ⃗ through regulate dynamic balance during running.
their contributions to the external moment about the
body center of mass. A reduction in mediolateral REFERENCES
GRFs in the affected limb of ITTA [8] resulted in a
reduction in its negative external moment generation 1. Herr H, et al. J Exp Biology 211, 467–81, 2008.
toward the affected limb. Thus, the frontal plane 2. Pijnappels M, et al. Gait Posture 21, 388–94, 𝐻
⃗ trajectory had a greater positive slope (toward the 2005.
intact limb) during prosthetic limb stance (~0-33% of 3. Neptune RR, et al. J Biomech 44, 6-12, 2011.
the gait cycle, Fig. 2). Larger vertical GRFs during 4. Neptune RR, et al. J Biomech 49, 2975-81, 2016.
intact limb stance (~50-83% of the gait cycle) [8] 5. Silverman AK et al. J Biomech 44, 379-85, 2011.
contribute to a larger negative external moment 6. Miller WC, et al. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
(toward the affected limb). These asymmetric GRFs 82,1031-7, 2001.
in ITTA result in a greater range of frontal plane 𝐻 ⃗ 7. Baum BS, et al. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 94, 1776-
relative to AB participants. 83, 2013.
8. Baum BS, et al. J Appl Biomech 32, 287-94, 2016.
Reduced mediolateral GRFs resulting in an increase
in frontal plane 𝐻⃗ range may provide rationale for ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
prosthetic design considerations. RSPs are typically
designed for sagittal plane motion on flat surfaces This work was funded by DoD Award #W81XWH-
(like a track). However, restoring mediolateral GRF 15-1-0518.
generation in RSPs could improve their application

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Soft Tissue Increases Stability and Propulsion During Human Running

Samuel Masters and John Challis

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
email: sem361@psu.edu

INTRODUCTION

Soft tissue moves relative to the skeleton during
human locomotion. This motion affect the energetics
of human motion [1]. However, the effects of soft
tissue motion have not been quantified on the whole-
body center-of-mass (COM) control and stability
during human running.
Figure 1: Two-mass SLIP model of running with a
A two-body spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) stance and flight phase. This figure does not include
controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG) can the soft tissue mass.
mimic the whole-body COM trajectory and ground
reaction force (GRF) during running or hopping [2]. Vertical stance phase kinematics and GRFs from 10
With finely tuned model parameters, this system is college-aged male subjects running at 3.1 m.s-1 were
asymptotically stable with minimal control feedback. averaged and used to tune the parameters of the
It was hypothesized that adding a soft tissue mass model. The COM vertical position and velocity were
will increase stability and the running velocity of the fitted with a sine wave to enforce smoothness and
SLIP model. cyclical kinematics. All values of force were
normalized with respect to body weight (BW). The
METHODS weight of the lower and upper bodies were 0.165
BWs and 0.835 BWs, respectively. The soft tissue
The SLIP model contained three masses, a spring weight was approximately 61% (0.1 BW) of the
connecting the upper body to the lower body, a lower BW.
spring-damper (S-D) connecting the lower body to
the ground (Fig. 1), and a S-D connecting the lower A particle swarm optimization was utilized to
body to a soft tissue mass. All S-D values were determine the best set of parameters. The S-D
constant excluding the ground-spring interface. The parameters were systematically incremented
ground-spring dampening was a function of the between 100-1000 BW.m-1 and 0-50 BW.s.m-1, and
dampening coefficient, spring compression and the SLIP was simulated until its step cycle converged
velocity. to a period-one gait cycle. These simulations
contained minimal control feedback. The angle of
The SLIP was powered by an external moment at the the leg increased or decreased proportional to
spring-ground interface and a propulsive force (PF) horizontal running velocity.
that accelerated the whole-system COM. The
propulsive phase of the gait cycle started when the Stability was measured by two methods. The first
SLIP was past vertical and ended when the spring method measured the level of noise that induced
connecting the ground to the lower leg approached failure in the SLIP. The magnitude of noise in the
its resting length. A tanh function was utilized in spring-ground stiffness was gradually increased until
order to enforce a zero PF and external moment the SLIP fell over. Stability was also measured by
before and after the propulsive phase. increasing the lower spring stiffness value by 100%
for a single step and counting the number of steps
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
until the COM velocity kinematics converged to 10-3 The S-D values of the soft tissue had a large effect on
m.s-1 of its period-one gait cycle. the propulsion dynamics of the period-one gait cycle.
The SLIP running velocity was proportionally and
The running speed of the period-one gait cycle for all inversely related to the soft tissue stiffness and
S-D combinations were used as a measure of dampening, respectively. The horizontal running
efficiency. The propulsion dynamics were the same speed ranged between 1.9 m.s-1 and 3.6 m.s-1. The
for all S-D combinations, thus greater running speed control SLIP ran at a horizontal speed of 2.2 m.s-1.
was indicative of greater efficiency. The PF of the control SLIP would have to increase in
order to match the running speed of the SLIP with
All measurements of performance were compared to soft tissue for most S-D combinations. This
a control SLIP. The control SLIP did not have soft indicated that the SLIP with soft tissue was more
tissue. efficient than the control SLIP.

Following a perturbation to the leg-ground stiffness,
the SLIP with soft tissue performed better than the
control SLIP for 94% of the S-D combinations (Fig.
2). The control SLIP took 29 steps before its gait
velocity was within 10-3 m.s-1 of its period-one gait
cycle. The number of steps that the SLIP with soft
tissue took was between 9 steps and 52 steps (Fig. 3).
The bottom of that range occurred at high stiffness
and dampening values.

About 98% of the S-D combinations resulted in a
SLIP model that could withstand 2x the magnitude
of noise relative to that of the control SLIP. The low
and high end of the range occurred at zero dampening
Figure 2: A contour plot of the number of steps the in the soft tissue. This indicated that a small amount
SLIP model took for each S-D combination of soft tissue dampening would be sufficient to
following a perturbation to the spring-ground guarantee greater robustness to noise in the terrain.
interface. Dark and light colors indicate greater and
lesser stability, respectively. The SLIP with soft tissue performed better by all
standards measured in this study. It was more stable
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION and ran at greater speeds with the same CPG
propulsion dynamics.
The spring stiffness values for the lower and upper
springs were 217.9 BW.m-1 and 211.1 BW.m-1, REFERENCES
respectively. The dampening coefficient for the
ground-spring interface was 23.6 BW.s.m-1. The PF 1. Zelik KE, et al. J Exp Biol 218, 876-886, 2015.
and external moment magnitudes were 4.15 BW and 2. Blickhan R. J Biomech 22, 1217-1227, 1989.
2.57 BW.m.

Figure 3: Center of mass position during a simulated trial. Some of the recovery steps have been removed.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
DIFFERENTIAL LEG JOINT FUNCTION DURING HUMAN RUNNING
1
Devin L. Jindrich, 2 Mu Qiao, and 3 James J. Abbas
1
California State University, San Marcos, CA, USA
2
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
3
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
Email: djindrich@csusm.edu, web: http://faculty.csusm.edu/djindrich/

INTRODUCTION age=27.1±5.7yrs., leg length (greater trochanter to
ground)=0.98±0.02m, mean±S.D.) participated.
Functional differences among joints may help to
coordinate overall leg function during locomotion. To categorize leg joint (i.e., hip, knee, and ankle)
The leg may exhibit a proximal-distal gradient in function, we developed strut, spring, motor, and
joint mechanical function from power production to damper indices (Fig. 1) [2, 3].
spring-like behavior [1]. During walking, human
hips produce energy (like motors) and ankles absorb
and produce energy (like springs) [2]. The knee
exhibits several functions, including motor, energy-
absorbing damper, and energy-transferring strut.
Distinct joint functions sum together to result in the
overall strut-like function of the leg during walking.
When running, legs exhibit overall spring-like
function. Spring-like leg function can provide a Figure 1: Diagram of a leg joint modeled by a strut,
degree of intrinsic dynamic stability, contributing to motor, spring, and damper in parallel.
locomotion control. However, the contribution of
joint functional differences to running leg function The strut index is the dimensionless ratio between
and stability is not well understood. We investigated the power, Pjoint, and moment (Mjoint). A strut index
the role of functional differences among leg joints of 100% means a joint has no angular movement
on stability during running maneuvers by testing while only passing/bearing the moment between
two hypotheses: (1) that humans exhibit a proximal- two segments; a strut index of 0 means that
distal gradient in joint function during both moments are associated with energy production or
constant-average-velocity (CAV) running and absorption. The motor, spring and damper indices
during sagittal-plane running maneuvers (stepping characterized the nature of mechanical joint work:
up and down); and (2) that humans select leg energy production, absorption followed by
parameters (e.g., stiffness and damping) that production, and absorption, respectively.
optimize intrinsic dynamic stability. We used experimental data to construct and
constrain a dynamic 2D Motor-Damper-Spring
METHODS model (MDS) with alternate stance and flight
We used a 3-D motion tracking system with 10 phases [3]. The MDS is planar, with three segments:
cameras (VICON® 612, Oxford Metrics Ltd., a proximal motor (analogous to the hip), an element
Oxford, UK) to track whole body kinematics with spring and damper in parallel (knee analog),
(120Hz, plug-in Gait marker set, 39 markers). We and a distal spring (ankle/foot analog; Fig. 2).
used three stationary force platforms embedded in
the ground to record GRFs (3000Hz, 600×400mm, We used forward dynamic simulations to estimate
FP4060-NC, Bertec Corp., Columbus, OH, USA). the number of steps achieved by the MDS model
We asked participants to run at a comfortable speed before falling on the ground. We quantified stability
and asked them to perform three tasks (stepping up, as the number of steps (# steps) before falling. We
CAV running, and stepping down,). Nine males performed a sensitivity analysis over a wide
(body mass=74.0±8.2kg, height=1.78±0.06m,
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
parameter space, and also constrained the model consistent across conditions rather than chosen to
using parameters used by humans. maximize stability.
A stepping down

dMDS (Ns m-1)

# steps
B CAV level running

dMDS (Ns m-1)

# steps
C stepping up

dMDS (Ns m-1)
Figure 2: Schematic of MDS model. k is spring

# steps
constant, and d is damping constant.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
kMDS (kN m-1)
Consistent with our hypothesis, the hip acted as a
Figure 4: Sensitivity analysis of MDS performance
“motor,” the knee as a “damper,” and the ankle as a relative to stiffness (kMDS) and damping (dMDS)
“spring” (Fig. 3) during CAV running and parameters. Superimposed symbols and STDEV lines
maneuvers. represent parameters selected by humans (different
Hip Knee Ankle symbols represent different participants).
A B C
100 Motor index CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Spring index
80
index (%)

During constant-average-velocity running and
Damper index
Strut index
60
40 sagittal plane maneuvers, legs showed a proximal-
20 distal gradient in function. The hip, knee and ankle
0 acted as a motor, damper, and spring, respectively.
Humans may not optimize intrinsic dynamic
st run wn

up
st run wn

st run wn
up

up
pi ing
pi ing

pi ing

stability alone, but may instead choose mechanical
o
o

o
ng
ng

ng
ep n
ep n

ep n
ve d
ve d

ve d
le ng
le ng

le g

and behavioral parameters appropriate for both
n
V pi
l
V pi

V pi
l

l
CA step
CA step

CA step

CAV locomotion and maneuvers. Understanding
the contribution of differential joint function to
Figure 3: Joint functional indices during CAV level
running and sagittal-plane maneuvers.
overall leg and body mechanics is an important
neuromechanical question with potential
Maneuvers were associated with modest functional implications for athletic training, rehabilitation,
changes at the hip and knee joints, with small prosthetics, and legged robotics.
changes at the ankle joint (Fig. 3). The overall
REFERENCES
mechanical behavior of leg joints suggests that the
1. Daley, M.A., G. Felix, and A.A. Biewener, Running
MDS model (Fig. 2) is a reasonable representation stability is enhanced by a proximo-distal gradient in
of leg joint function during running. joint neuromechanical control. Journal of Experimental
Biology, 2007. 210(Pt 3): p. 383-94.
The intrinsic dynamics of the MDS model resulted
2. Qiao, M. and D.L. Jindrich, Leg Joint Function during
in sustained locomotion on level ground within Walking Acceleration and Deceleration. Journal of
narrow parameter ranges (Fig. 4; black regions). Biomechanics, 2016. 49(1): p. 66-72.
However, using parameters experimentally derived 3. Qiao, M., J.J. Abbas, and D.L. Jindrich, A Model For
from humans, the model showed only short-term Differential Leg Joint Function During Human Running.
stability (Fig. 4; symbols). Parameters were Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2017. 12(1): p. 016015.
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
The energetics of the human foot across a range of running speeds
Luke A Kelly, Glen A Lichtwark, Andrew G Cresswell, Dominic J Farris

The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences,
Centre for Sensorimotor Performance, Brisbane, Australia, email: l.kelly3@uq.edu.au

INTRODUCTION Therefore the aim of this study was to quantify the
The longitudinal arch (LA) of the human foot energetic profile of the foot during running and to
behaves in a spring-like manner during running. determine if the foot can indeed be described as
Compression of the LA during early stance allows spring-like in nature when considering the
mechanical energy to be stored in the stretched combined influence of the LA and MTP joints in
elastic ligamentous and tendonous tissues that span additional to the other soft tissue structures. We also
this structure. In late stance the LA recoils and the sought to determine if this energetic profile
elastic structures shorten to return stored remained constant across a range of running speeds.
mechanical energy to the body. It has been
suggested that this mechanism delivers between 8-
17% of the mechanical energy required for each METHODS
stride [1]. Eight healthy participants ran on a force-
instrumented treadmill at 2.2, 3.3 and 4.4 m.s-1 in a
In contrast to the LA, the metatarso-phalangeal counter-balanced order. Three-dimensional motion
(MTP) joints are known to absorb mechanical of fourteen reflective markers attached to the foot,
energy during late stance. Thus it is possible that a electromyography (EMG) and ground reaction force
proportion of the energy returned via LA recoil is (GRF) data were captured synchronously during
actually absorbed at the MTP joints, rather than each running trial, with motion data collected at 200
returned to the body [2]. Hz and GRF and EMG data captured at 2000 Hz via
a 14-bit analogue to digital converter.
The notion that positive work is performed about
the LA simultaneously with negative work being Marker trajectories and GRF data were filtered with
performed about the MTP joints is somewhat a recursive 20 Hz low pass, second order
problematic, as the same structures (ie plantar fascia Butterworth filter, while EMG signals were high-
and intrinsic foot muscles) are considered to be the pass filtered at 35 Hz using a recursive second order
primary source of the mechanical work being Butterworth filter.
performed at both of these joints. Although the
same tissue may have a localized effect of A previously described multi-segment foot model
performing negative work about a distal joint whilst was applied in order to describe rear-, mid- and
performing positive work about another proximal forefoot motion during running [3]. Foot power was
joint, it is the net behavior that will contribute to the calculated using a unified deformable (UD) segment
overall energetics of the system. With this in mind, analysis [2] with the calcaneus applied as the
we suggest it may be more appropriate to consider reference segment. Thus foot power reflects the net
the energetic function of the LA and MTP joints as power contribution of all structures acting distal to
part of an entire ‘foot’ system. Under this scenario the calcaneus segment, including the plantar fascia,
the net-work performed by muscles and ligaments intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles and the plantar
acting across both the LA and MTP joints, as well fat pads. Negative and positive work performed
as the contributions of other soft tissues (plantar fat during stance phase was calculated by applying a
pads etc.) may be adequately captured to reflect the trapezoidal integration of joint power curves across
energetics of the foot as an entire system. the stance phase. In order to describe the spring-like
qualities of the foot, a work ratio was calculated at
each running speed by dividing the positive work
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
done by the absolute value of negative work during
the stance phase.

Intramuscular EMG was recorded from the two
largest intrinsic foot muscles, abductor hallucis
(AH) and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) using
previously described techniques [4] to provide
further insight into the active muscular
contributions to the foot spring function. An EMG
root mean square (RMS) signal envelope was
calculated using a moving window of 50 ms and Figure 1. Group mean ± SD foot power time series
each signal was normalized to its peak RMS data calculated during stance when participants ran
amplitude found across all conditions. Normalised at 2.2 (green) 3.3 (red) and 4.4 m.s-1 (blue). Both
mean EMG RMS amplitude was calculated during negative and positive work increased with running
the stance phase for each stride cycle, allowing speed. Foot contact (FC) and toe off (TO)
comparisons in magnitude of stance phase muscle Both AH and FDB muscles were active for the
activation between running velocities. entire duration of stance phase, with the FDB
muscle displaying a distinct peak in activation
For each individual, the kinetic and EMG data was during late stance. Mean stance phase activity
averaged across a minimum of 10 stride cycles to increased significantly with running speed for both
form individual means for each condition. A one- AH (21.8 ± 11.6 %max, 31.1 ± 13.7 %max, 40.0 ±
way repeated measures analysis of variance 17.2 %max) and FDB (22.5 ± 8.4 %max, 34.8 ±
(ANOVA) was used to describe the influence of 12.4 %max, 46.9 ± 16.2 %max) indicating that the
running velocity on foot energetics and intrinsic contribution of these muscles to power absorption
foot muscle activation. and generation increases with running speed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS
The foot underwent a phase of negative work from As previously proposed, the foot does behave in a
early stance through to mid-stance, followed by spring-like manner, although it appears that distal
positive work in late stance (Figure 1). The structures such as the plantar fad pads and
magnitude of negative work (-0.19 ± 0.03 J.Kg-1 2.2 metatarso-phalangeal joints may act to dampen a
m.s-1, -0.29 ± 0.04 J.Kg-1 3.3 m.s-1, -0.42 ± 0.11 substantial proportion of the energy that is absorbed
J.Kg-1 4.4 m.s-1) and positive work (0.18 ± 0.06 within the foot, especially at higher running speeds.
J.Kg-1 2.2 m.s-1, 0.23 ± 0.10 J.Kg-1 3.3 m.s-1, 0.26 ±
0.10 J.Kg-1 4.4 m.s-1) increased with running The underlying mechanism for why the foot
velocity (P < 0.05). Although a greater amount of behaves like a spring-damper at higher running
negative and positive work was performed about the speeds requires further investigation. However, we
foot when participants ran faster, work ratio suggest that damping energy in mid- to late- stance
significantly declined with running speed (P < may act to slow centre of pressure velocity and thus
0.05). When running at the slower speed the foot possibly improve the gear-ratio of the ankle plantar
behaved like a spring, returning 98% of the energy flexors.
stored during early stance (work ratio 0.98 ± 0.25).
As running speed increased, the foot behaved REFERENCES
increasingly like a spring-damper, returning 81% at 1. Stearne ET. al. SciRep 19 (6) 19403. 2016
3.3 m.s-1 (work ratio of 0.81 ± 0.29) and 64% of the 2. Takahashi et. al. Gait Posture. 38 818-23 2013
energy absorbed during early stance when running 3. Leardini et al. Gait Posture 25 453-62. 2007
at 4.4 m.s-1 (work ratio 0.64 ± 0.25). 4. Kelly et al. J R Soc Interface 12 20141076 2015

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
HIP ALIGNMENT, POSITION AT FOOT STRIKE AND PEAK HIP ADDUCTION ANGLE IN
FEMALE RUNNERS
1
Richard A. Brindle, 1Clare E. Milner
1
Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Email: brindle@drexel.edu

INTRODUCTION of serious lower extremity injury were excluded.
Each participant gave written informed consent.
The peak hip adduction angle is a risk factor for the
most frequently reported overuse injuries in female An eight camera motion capture system and a
runners. Specifically, a large peak hip adduction synchronized force plate recorded marker position at
angle is a risk factor for patellofemoral pain 200 Hz and ground reaction forces at 1000 Hz.
syndrome [1] and iliotibial band syndrome [2] in Initially, runners were screened for a rearfoot foot
female runners. strike pattern. Participants changed into shorts and
wore laboratory footwear. Retro-reflective markers
Peak hip adduction angle differences between groups were attached to both feet and shoes. Running
of female runners are often coincident with an offset velocity was standardized to 3.7m/s (±5%), and
in angle throughout the stance phase [2]. This offset monitored by two photocells connected to a timer. A
in hip adduction angle throughout stance may be due static trial and five good running trials were
to biomechanical differences at foot strike, or collected, and then foot strike pattern was determined
anatomical differences between runners. using strike index [3]. Of 37 runners screened, 30
Specifically, a larger pelvis width to femoral length were rearfoot strikers and continued in the study.
ratio (PW:FL) has been hypothesized to influence the Retro-reflective markers were then attached to the
peak hip adduction angle during running [3]. participants’ pelvis and right thigh and running gait
Additionally, the frontal plane position of the pelvis analysis procedures were repeated.
or thigh at foot strike during running may influence
the hip adduction angle throughout stance. Hip joint angles and pelvis and thigh segment angles
were determined using the joint coordinate system
Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if and segment coordinate systems, respectively. Foot
anatomical or biomechanical differences exist strike was the point when vertical ground reaction
between women with large or small peak hip force surpassed 20N. Anatomical measures were
adduction angle during running. We hypothesized determined from the static trial. Pelvis width (inter-
that female runners with a large peak hip adduction trochanteric distance) was divided by right thigh
angle would have a greater PW:FL, and different length (greater trochanter to lateral epicondyle) to
frontal plane hip, pelvis, and thigh angles at foot calculate each participant’s PW:FL.
strike than those with a small peak hip adduction
angle. For analysis, all thirty runners were ranked by their
peak hip adduction angle. Dependent variables were
METHODS averaged for ten runners with the largest peak hip
adduction angles (large peak angle group) and ten
As part of an ongoing study, thirty-seven uninjured runners with the smallest peak hip adduction angles
female runners between 18 and 45 years old (small peak angle group). Between-group
participated (28 ±8yr, 1.66 ±0.06m, 62.2 ±7.4kg, 23 differences were interpreted using Cohen’s d effect
±10 miles per week). Participants ran at least 10 size. Moderate (≥ 0.5) or large effects (≥ 0.8) which
miles a week for a year or more. Those with a history exceeded minimal detectable difference (MDD)
were considered meaningful.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
The large peak angle group had a moderate effect for
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION greater PW:FL than the small peak angle group. A
previous study reported no difference in a similar
The purpose of this study was to determine if measure between female runners with different peak
anatomical or biomechanical differences exist hip adduction angles [4]. The large difference in peak
between female runners with large or small peak hip hip adduction angle between groups in this study
adduction angles. We hypothesized that the large may explain why we found a difference in this ratio.
peak angle group would have a greater PW:FL and The PW:FL may be useful to clinicians as a simple
different frontal plane hip, pelvis, and thigh angles at screening tool for the likely presence of a large peak
foot strike than the small peak angle group. Our hip adduction angle in female runners. These results
hypotheses were partially supported by the results. are part of an ongoing study of determinants of the
peak hip adduction angle in female runners.
The large peak angle group had a larger peak hip
adduction angle and adduction angle at foot strike CONCLUSION
than the small peak angle group (Table 1). This was
expected as comparisons between groups with Women with large peak hip adduction angles during
different peak hip adduction angles found an offset running have a more adducted hip and thigh at foot
between the frontal plane hip angle ensemble curves strike, and greater PW:FL than women with small
throughout the stance phase of running, e.g. [2]. peak hip adduction. Decreasing thigh adduction at
However, frontal plane hip angle at foot strike has foot strike could be a component of treatment for
not been reported previously in female runners. large peak hip adduction angles in female runners.
Thus, reducing hip angle at foot strike may be a way PW:FL may be a useful clinical tool to screen for
to decrease large peak hip adduction angles in female female runners who may have large peak hip
runners. adduction angles.

The larger hip adduction at foot strike in the large REFERENCES
compared to the small peak angle group came from
thigh adduction and not contralateral pelvic drop. [1] Noehren, et al. Clin Biomech 22, 951-956, 2007.
Pelvis and thigh angle at foot strike have not been [2] Noehren, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45, 1120-
reported previously in female runners. These 1124, 2013.
findings suggest that large peak hip adduction angle [3] Ferber, et al. Clin Biomech 18, 350-357, 2003.
in female runners is due to thigh rather than pelvis [4] Cavanagh and LaFortune. J Biomech 13, 397-
position at foot strike. Thus, reducing thigh angle at 406, 1980.
foot strike may decrease large peak hip adduction [5] Willson and Davis. Clin Biomech 23, 203-211,
angles in female runners. 2008.

Table 1: Hip joint and segment angles at foot strike (FS), peak adduction during running, and pelvis width to
femoral length ratio during standing in large and small angle groups; mean (SD).
Minimal
Small peak Large peak Effect
Difference detectable
angle group angle group size
difference
Peak hip adduction angle () 12.1 (1.1) 19.3 (2.7) 7.2 3.4 3.9
Hip adduction at FS () 8.5 (2.6) 12.9 (2.6) 4.4 2.9 1.7
Contralateral pelvic drop at FS () 0.5 (2.4) 1.3 (2.2) 0.8 2.4 0.4
Thigh adduction at FS () 4.9 (1.8) 7.4 (1.4) 2.5 1.7 1.6
Pelvis width/Femoral length 0.86 (0.06) 0.92 (0.08) 0.06 0.05 0.7

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11th, 2017
Influence of Stride Frequency on Knee Joint Stiffness and Anterior Tibial Shear Forces in Female
Runners.

Bhushan Thakkar, Kathryn Harrison, Jacqueline Morgan, Gregory Crosswell, Robert Tickes and
DS Blaise Williams III
VCU RUN LAB, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA
email: thakkarbs2@vcu.edu, web: khs.vcu.edu/about/vcu-run-lab/

INTRODUCTION participants ran at a matched pace 2.98m/s. Visual
The overall incidence of running-related injuries has 3D motion analysis software (C-Motion,
been found to be 19.4% to 79.3% of recreational or Germantown, MD) was used to process data. Joint
competitive runners who run a minimum of 5 km angles were calculated as Cardan angles between
per training, race, or both. [1] Approximately 50% adjacent local segments. The knee joint moments
of all running-related injuries occur at the knee with were calculated through inverse dynamics and
nearly half of those involving the patellofemoral transferred into the segment coordinate system and
joint.[1] During running, peak shear stress at the expressed as internal moments and normalized to
knee occurs around midstance and is tangential to body mass and height. Torsional stiffness at the
the vertical component of the ground reaction force. knee (TK) was calculated as the slope of the line
Increases in shear forces can potentially alter through the moment-angle curve from the point of
muscle activation patterns and impact joint stability. initial contact to maximum knee flexion during the
[5] High shear has been reported to be detrimental stance phase. Tibial shear (TS) at the knee was
to bone health. [5] During human running, the defined as the anterior component of the peak forces
individual stiffness values of the ligaments, bones, in the sagittal plane during stance normalized to
muscles and other musculoskeletal elements are body mass and height. Three groups of stride
typically integrated together as a simple spring- frequencies were created: low (≤164), middle(166-
mass model.[2-3] Running velocity influences 174), high(176-186) steps per minute. Differences
vertical stiffness and knee joint stiffness but its in sagittal plane TK and TS were compared utilizing
relationship with stride frequency (SF) has not been ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests were performed
completely understood.[2-4] Luedke et al. in a study for analyzing differences between the three stride
on high school runners revealed that runners with frequency groups. SAS®software, Version 9.3 for
SF≤166 steps/min were more likely to experience Windows. Copyright © [2014] SAS Institute Inc.,
anterior knee pain than those with SF≥178 Cary, NC, USA was used for all statistical analysis
steps/min.[6] The purpose of this study was to with an alpha level of 0.05 being considered
compare knee joint torsional stiffness and anterior statistically significant.
tibial shear forces in recreational female runners
with different stride frequencies. RESULTS
Fifty-four subjects were included in the analysis.
METHODS (Mass: 61.98±8.62kg, Height:1.65±0.06m, BMI:
Sixty-four healthy female recreational runners who 22.65±2.62, Age35.07±10.47 years). Ten subjects
ran at least 10 miles per week volunteered to were removed from the analysis as their values of
participate in the study. Subjects were provided either SF, TS or TK were outside of three standard
with standard neutral footwear (New Balance, deviations from the mean. There were significant
Boston, MA). Gait analysis was conducted on an differences between the SF groups when evaluating
instrumented treadmill (Treadmetrix, ParkCity, TS (p=0.03) with the low SF group demonstrating
UT). Retroreflective markers were placed on the largest shear (9.06±1.41N) compared to the
bilateral lower extremities using the modified middle (8.95±0.95N) and high (8.06±1.19N) SF
Cleveland clinic marker set. A 30 second trial was groups. Post hoc testing revealed that the low group
collected using a 5-camera motion analysis system was significantly different from the high group. A
(Qualisys, Goteborg, Sweden) at 120 Hz as significant difference was also seen with TK

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
(p<0.01) between the three SF groups with the low torsional stiffness could be the result of either
group exhibiting the highest TK (0.08±0.013 Nm/°) increased moment or decreased knee ROM which
compared to the middle (0.075±0.01Nm/°) and high results in an overall stiffer gait pattern, as the knee
(0.076±0.01Nm/°) SF groups respectively. is a major contributor to leg stiffness during
Further testing showed that the low SF group was running.[2,4]Given that the pace was fixed between
different from the middle and high SF groups. subjects in the current study, the current study was
R E L A T IO N S H IP B E T W E E N S F G R O U P S A N D T S
able to differentiate changes in stiffness and shear
based on different stride frequencies. Given the
primary role that stiffness plays in the
*P < 0 .0 5
12 *
10 neuromuscular control of movement as well as
8
injury and performance, it is important to note
factors that can contribute to its change. Joint
T S (N ) 6 stiffness at the knee has been implicated in overuse
4 injuries and degenerative diseases. [3] For example,
a more compliant knee joint will attenuate the load
placed on the joint to a greater extent than a stiffer
2

0 joint. Running with a more flexed knee (higher
excursion) results in a more compliant knee and
)
)

)

6
4

4

8
6

7

-1
1

-1

increased energy absorption. On further analysis,
6
6

7
6
W

(1
(1
O

H
E
L

L

IG

the current study also showed that the highest
D

H
ID
M

S F G R O U P S ( s t e p s p e r m in u t e ) stiffness value of the knee joint was due to a
relatively greater knee moment in the low SF group
Figure1: Bar graph demonstrating relationship between the
three SF groups and TS. (1.92Nm/kg) compared to the middle(1.67Nm/kg)
and high(1.65Nm/kg) SF groups. This is likely to
place increased compressive forces on the
R E L A T IO N S H IP B E T W E E N S F G R O U P S A N D T K

*
0 .1 5
*P < 0 .0 5 patellofemoral joint as well as on the tibiofemoral
* joint, thus partially explaining the increases in
0 .1 0 anterior shear forces. Lack of differences in knee
T K ( N m /° )

flexion excursion could be attributed to a greater
stride length especially in the low SF group which
0 .0 5
could alter the moment arm ,orientation of the
ground reaction force and muscle activation. We did
0 .0 0 not assess the role of muscle contraction and
activation, which contributes to the joint moment.
)

)
)
4

6
4

Future studies should investigate the role of
6

8
7
1

-1
-1

6
6
W

7
6

increasing stride frequency on the ability to alter
(1
(1
O

H
E
L

L

IG

stiffness and shear in individuals with tibiofemoral
D

H
ID
M

S F G R O U P S ( s t e p s p e r m in u t e ) joint pathology such as meniscus injuries or knee
Figure2: Bar graph demonstrating relationship between the osteoarthritis.
three SF groups and TK.
REFERENCES
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 1.Taunton,J.E.BJSM, 2002;36(2):95–101.
A low stride frequency of less than 166 steps per 2.Farley et al, J Biomech,1996;29(2):181-186
minute results in an increase in tibial shear forces 3.Hamill et al,EurJSpoSci,2014;14(2):130-136
and concomitant increase in torsional stiffness at the 4.Butler et al,Clin.Biomech,2003;18:511-517
knee joint. This correlates with previous studies 5.Shelburne et al, MSSE,2005;37(11):1948-1956
which have suggested that low stride frequency 6.Luedke et al,MSSE,2016;48(7):1244-1250
leads to increased loading in the knee. Changes in

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
MULTISCALE ENTROPY OF CENTER OF MASS ACCELERATION AS A MEASURE FOR
CUMULATIVE RUNNING FATIGUE
1
Allison H. Gruber, 2 Max R. Paquette, 2 Kris Camelio, 2 Douglas W. Powell, and 1Jacob E. Vollmar
1
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
2
University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA
email: ahgruber@indiana.edu, web: http://iubiomechanicslab.weebly.com/

INTRODUCTION prolonged running training period can be identified
by a reduction in COM movement complexity. It was
The high prevalence of running related overuse hypothesized that COM acceleration complexity
injury (RROI) can be attributed largely to rapid would decline after a 30-min submaximal run and
increases in training load and inadequate recovery. A after three-weeks of increased running volume.
healthy runner may not recognize when
modifications to a current training program are METHODS
necessary until after they the feel the pain and
discomfort associated with “overtraining.” This pain To date, 12 novice runners who have been running
and discomfort may cause a runner to inadvertently for less than two years, run a minimum average of 10
alter their running mechanics, causing abnormal miles per week, and complete at least three runs per
loading on the joints and tissues that can eventually week were included in this study. All participants
lead to injury. Therefore, we suggest that provided informed consent to participate in the study
overtraining induces ‘cumulative fatigue’ that results protocol approved by the IRB. Participants were
in measurable changes in running gait mechanics instructed to reduce their training volume by at least
prior to the onset of RROI. 80% (i.e. training taper) the week prior to the first
testing session. During the first testing session,
Deviations in running mechanics resulting from participants completed a 30-min treadmill run at their
acute fatiguing bouts have been suggested to cause preferred pace. A 3D accelerometer was secured to
abnormal loading on the joints and tissues and the proximal sacrum for which the Z-axis was
eventually, lead to injury [1]. To date, changes to aligned with the body’s longitudinal axis. The
running gait patterns resulting from fatigue have only proximal sacrum was used as the estimated location
been investigated during or after acute intense runs of the participants COM and provided a bony
to exhaustion. Runners in these studies adopted gait landmark with low soft tissue artifact to mount the
characteristics associated with injury development as accelerometer. Acceleration data were recorded for
they reached volitional exhaustion. These 30 sec at 200 Hz during the 3rd min (pre-run) and 29th
characteristics may include increased ground min (post-run) of the run. Participants rated their
reaction forces, tibial shock, joint stiffness [2, 3], and lower limb fatigue on a visual analog scale (FVAS;
a decline in center of mass (COM) acceleration 10 = most fatigued) before and after the baseline
complexity [4]. A decline in movement complexity treadmill run.
has been suggested to represent an unhealthy system
that has a reduced capacity to respond to Participants were given a progressive three-week
environmental perturbations [5]. It is unknown if training program scheduled to begin the day after the
injury-causing gait patterns observed after acute baseline treadmill run performed in the lab. The
exhaustive runs also occur after more typical sub- program increased weekly mileage by 25% per week
maximal, recreational running bouts or after for three-weeks and was based on 3–6 runs per week.
prolonged training periods of many submaximal Participants were encouraged to run at their preferred
running bouts. The purpose of this pilot study was to training pace as long as the prescribed weekly
begin establishing a proof of concept that cumulative running volume was met. A shoe-worn GPS pod was
fatigue following a submaximal run and following a used to monitor the training adherence by recording

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
pace and distance per run. Participants returned to the training program induced a cumulative effect on
lab the week following the conclusion of the training lower-body fatigue as indicated by greater FVAS
program to rate their lower-body fatigue and perform post-train than pre-run (d=0.79; Table 1). Contrary to
a five minute treadmill run at the same speed as the the hypothesis, post-train Cr was moderately greater
first testing session. COM acceleration was collected than that of pre-run and post-run (d>0.41). There are
during the 5th minute of this run (post-train). two possible explanations for greater COM
complexity after the training protocol: (1) running
The resultant value of the raw COM acceleration data skill of these novice runners improved, increasing the
was calculated for each instant then filtered with a capacity to respond to environmental constraints; or
Butterworth low-pass filter with a 60Hz cut-off. (2) the combination of a novice running pattern and
Complexity of the resultant COM acceleration signal cumulative fatigue following three weeks of intense
was calculated by multiscale entropy (MSE) [6]. The running training cause COM complexity to increase
radius of similarity (r= 0.001) was determined by outside the threshold for optimal health, a continuum
calculating 15% of the standard deviation of the that has been proposed by other authors [e.g. 7]. We
original signal. Parameter m was set to a value of 2 are currently collecting data on more novice runners,
and scale factors 1–8 were examined. The a group of experienced runners, and a control group
complexity index (Cr) was calculated from the area to provide support for either of these or other
under the MSE curve (sample entropy vs. time scale). explanations. In addition, COM acceleration data is
Given the small sample size, Cohen’s d effect sizes being collected for more than one minute of running
were used to determine if the differences in Cr and to assess complexity over scale factors ≥ 20.
FVAS between time points were meaningful.
CONCLUSIONS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The implementation of an intense, three-week
Two participants did not complete the training running training program increased perceived lower
protocol: one due to injury and illness, the other due limb fatigue and may also be supported by a change
to noncompliance. Three other participants in COM acceleration complexity. Monitoring COM
experienced an injury and two others experienced complexity during prolonged running training may
illness but were able to adhere to the training help to identify when rest or modifications are
protocol. The effect of pre-run vs. post-run FVAS needed to avoid RROI development.
was large (d=1.41; Table 1) indicating meaningful
fatigue perceived by the participants following the REFERENCES
30-min treadmill run. However, mean post-run
FVAS was less than 5 on a 1–10 scale which suggests 1. Gerlach KE, et al. PMed Sci Sports Exerc, 37, 657-
that the treadmill run did not elicit high degrees of 63, 2005.
lower limb fatigue. Therefore, despite a meaningful 2. Dierks TA, et al. J Biomech, 43, 2993-8, 2010.
change in FVAS, the similarity in pre-run and post- 3. Clansey AC, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 44, 1917-
run Cr was expected (d<0.01; Table 1) given that the 23, 2012.
magnitude of the perceived fatigue was low. 4. McGregor SJ, et al. Chaos, 19, 26109, 2009.
5. Lipsitz LA. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 57,
The training protocol was designed to systematically B115-25, 2002.
increase the distance of individual sub-fatiguing runs 6. Costa M, et al. Phys Rev Lett, 86, 068102, 2005.
as much as possible without causing injury. This 7. Hamill J, et al. Clin Biomech, 14, 297-308, 1999.

Table 1: Lower-body fatigue (FVAS) and complexity index (Cr) of the center of mass acceleration pre- and
post- the baseline run and after a three-week running training program (post-train) (mean±SD).
Pre-Run Post-Run Post-Train Pre-Run vs Post-Run Pre-Run vs Post-Train Post-Run vs Post-Train
FVAS 2.19±1.69 4.70±1.87 3.60±1.86 d = 1.41 d = 0.79 d = 0.59
Cr 4.71±0.99 4.71±0.96 5.14±1.10 d = 0.001 d = 0.41 d = 0.42

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
CHANGES IN MECHANICS ACROSS A MARATHON
1,2
Matthew C. Ruder, 1,2 Steve T. Jamison, 1,2 Adam S. Tenforde, 3 Marian T. Hannan and 1,2 Irene S. Davis
1
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2
Spaulding National Running Center, Cambridge, MA, USA
3
TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
email: matthew.ruder@gmail.com, web: http://runsnrc.org/

INTRODUCTION and tension the IMU with a strap around the lower
leg. A mark placed on the strap was used as a guide.
Most biomechanics research is conducted within a
Each subject's device number was written on the
laboratory setting, either overground or on a
outside of their right lower leg in order to identify
treadmill. The recent introduction of wearable
them on videos taken in the field.
devices has allowed biomechanics research to move
from the lab to the field. However, since most
runners run outside, it is more ecologically valid to
measure mechanics in natural environments. Figure 1: Example of
IMU placement
Increased tibial shock (TS) has been associated with
running injuries such as stress fractures. [1] It has
Prior to the race, two areas where the course was
also been shown that TS increases with fatigue
level and would allow for optimal camera viewing
during treadmill running. [2] However, these studies
were identified. Video data (240 Hz) were collected
were conducted under tightly controlled conditions
continuously at approximately the 10k and 40k
in terms of speed, surface, grade, etc. In addition,
marks in the race. During post-processing, the
environmental influences, such as temperature and
videos were assessed by study staff to identify
wind, are also controlled. These factors may
subjects’ FSP, when possible, at each location.
contribute to the relationship between fatigue and
TS. Fatigue also appears to play a role in strike Acceleration data were sampled in 3 dimensions at
pattern. Larson has reported that runners who used a 1,000 Hz during the entirety of the race. The
midfoot (MFS) and forefoot strike (FFS) early in a resultant acceleration was calculated from the three
race (10 km) changed to a rearfoot strike (RFS) axes. Tibial shock (TS) was measured as the peak
pattern later in the race (32 km). [3] resultant acceleration from each right step during
running. TS was averaged for each subject over the
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to
5k period surrounding each video capture point, as
determine if there is an association between
5k split times were made available after the race.
footstrike pattern (FSP) changes and TS during a
Acceleration due to gravity [g=9.81m/s2] was
marathon. It was expected that FSP would shift
subtracted from TS resultant accelerations and used
posteriorly over the course of the race and that this
to normalize TS to units of gravity [g].
shift would be associated with a larger TS increase
rather than remaining at a given FSP. To avoid the confounding effect of pain on
mechanics, subjects reporting pain >3/10 on a
METHODS
numeric rating scale prior to the 40th kilometer of
254 runners enrolled in a marathon were recruited. the race were excluded (n=16). Additionally,
Each subject was provided an inertial measurement runners without complete tibial shock data for the
unit (IMU) to be worn on their right leg during the race were excluded (n=61). Finally, those who were
marathon. Prior to the race, a mark was placed on not identified in the videos at both race points were
the subject's distal, medial tibia, just above the excluded (n=150). This left 37 subjects with
ankle. (Figure 1) The subjects were instructed to complete data which could be analyzed [24 males,
place the device over that mark on race day. 13 females; age=44.4±12.15 yr].
Additionally, they were taught how to properly affix

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
Paired t-tests were used to compare TS early Only five runners shifted to a more posterior strike
(TS_10k) and late in the course (TS_40k). As TS pattern as we had hypothesized (all 5 MFS to RFS).
has previously been associated with speed This posterior shift in FSP was associated with a
𝑔
(5.26 𝑚/𝑠), [4] TS_40k was adjusted for speed 6.59% increase in TS after adjusting for speed, the
largest increased observed in our cohort. Two
differences between the two points (TS_40k_ADJ)
runners changed from a RFS to a MFS. On average
and compared to early in the race as well. Changes
these runners demonstrated a decrease in speed-
in FSP between the 10k and 40k locations were also
adjusted TS, but only one runner decreased while
tabulated.
the other increased. Interestingly, all three runners
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION who maintained a FFS or MFS demonstrated lower
TS_40k was 13.4% lower than TS_10k (Figure 2, speed-adjusted TS later in the race than they did
left; p<0.001). However, speed at the 40k location early in the race.
was 13.7% lower than speed at the 10k location Previous research utilizing a treadmill has shown an
(Figure 2, right; p<0.001). After adjusting for speed, increase in TS after a period of exhaustive running,
TS_40k_ADJ was 5.6% higher than TS_10k, [2] consistent with our results within runners out in
though this difference did not reach significance the field during an overground marathon race who
(Figure 1, left; p=0.16). started with, and maintained, a RFS. Further, the
subset of runners that shifted to a more posterior
* * FSP during the race demonstrated an increase in TS.
This is also consistent with literature showing that a
more posterior strike pattern is related to an increase
in loading rates and impacts. Our smallest groups
were the most interesting, demonstrating decreases
in speed-adjusted TS. More data is needed to
understand if this group truly represents what
happens under these FSP conditions.
Figure 2: Left: Average tibial shock at 10k and 40k race
points. Right: Average speed at 10k and 40k race points. Error It should be noted that determination of FSP was
bars represent standard deviations. * indicate significant restricted to one foot contact due to capture volume
differences (p<0.05). limitations. It is possible that the captured FSP may
A summary of FSP and TS changes can be seen in not accurately categorize the runner at each point.
Table 1. 78% of the runners analyzed were RFS, CONCLUSIONS
19% were MFS and 3% were FFS at the 10km race
point. Most RFS runners (33/37) retained their FSP Tibial shock reduced over the course of the
throughout the race. These runners experienced a marathon, as did running speed. However, no
3.35% increase in speed-adjusted TS. difference was found when tibial shock was
adjusted for speed. In most cases, runners either
Table 1: Footstrike Pattern at 10k and 40k race points. Total
number of observations of each change, if any, recorded.
maintained footstrike angle or shifted posteriorly.
Heavy shading indicates a posterior FSP shift. Light shading REFERENCES
indicates an anterior shift. No shading indicates no shift.
1. Milner CE, et al., MSSE 38(2), 323-28, 2006.
Average Average Percent
10k 40k n
TS_10k[g] TS_40k_adj[g] Diff. 2. Verbitsky O, et al, J Appl Biomech 14(3), 300-11,
FFS FFS 1 13.51 12.90 -4.66% 1998.
3. Larson P, et al, J Sports Sci 29(15), 1665-73, 2011
MFS MFS 2 19.91 19.70 -1.01%
4. Jamison ST, et al. ACSM2017, Denver, CO, 2017.
MFS RFS 5 17.15 18.32 6.59%
5. Jamison ST, et al. ASB2017, Boulder, CO, 2017.
RFS MFS 2 22.66 22.04 -2.75%
RFS RFS 27 16.22 16.77 3.35%

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
INFLUENCE OF ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME ON PELVIS – THIGH COUPLING AND
COUPLING VARIABILITY DURING RUNNING
1
Eric Foch, 2David Ebaugh, and 2Clare E. Milner
1
Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA, USA
2
Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
email: eric.foch@cwu.edu
INTRODUCTION (0.03) m; mass: 61.7 (9.9) kg), and controls (age:
25.3 (7.0) yrs; height: 1.71 (0.05) m; mass: 59.6 (5.2)
Healthy running involves inter-segmental coupling kg) [3]. A secondary analysis of an existing running
variability. However, too much or too little data set was performed [3]. The two vector coding
variability may result in abnormal soft tissue strains approaches computed the coupling angle from 0° –
resulting in overuse running injuries [1] such as 90° (VC90) [4] or 0° – 360° (VC360) [5]. The stance
iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). Typically, iliotibial phase was normalized to 100%. Pelvis – thigh
band mechanics during running are inferred from the coupling angles were determined from relative
peak hip adduction angle [2, 3]. Yet, discrete analysis motion plots. Relative motion plots were divided into
does not indicate if contralateral pelvic drop or thigh four periods: Period 1 (0-20%), Period 2 (~20-50%),
adduction contributes more to hip adduction and how Period 3 (~50-75%), and Period 4 (75-100%). At
pelvis – thigh coupling varies during stance. each percent of stance for the five trials, the coupling
angle was computed. Coupling angles were averaged
Vector coding provides a continuous measure of across trials, and the mean coupling angle was
pelvis – thigh coupling angles. Coupling angles and determined for each period of stance. Coupling
coupling variability can be determined via two vector variability was computed as the standard deviation of
coding approaches [4, 5]. However, it is unknown if the pelvis – thigh coupling angles for each percent of
the two approaches yield similar results. Therefore, stance across the five trials [4, 5]. For VC90, a
the purpose of this study was to determine if coupling angle <45° indicated greater pelvis motion
contralateral pelvis drop/elevation – thigh relative to the thigh. Whereas a coupling angle >45°
abduction/adduction coupling and coupling indicated greater thigh motion relative to the pelvis.
variability differed among female runners with In-phase coupling (pelvis and thigh move equal
current ITBS, previous ITBS, and controls according amounts) was exactly 45°. [4] VC360 defines pelvis
to the vector coding approach used. We hypothesized phase (337°-22.5° and 157.5°-202.5°), thigh phase
that contralateral pelvis drop/elevation – thigh (67.5°-112.5° and 247.5°-292.5°), and in-phase
abduction/adduction coupling would be similar couplings (22.5°-67.5° and 202.5°-247.5°) on the
among groups with both vector coding methods. entire unit circle. Additionally, VC360 defines anti-
Second, we hypothesized that runners with current phase coupling relationships (pelvis and thigh move
ITBS would exhibit less variability than runners with in opposite directions; 112.5°-157.5° and 292.5°-
previous ITBS and controls regardless of the vector 337.5°), whereas VC90 cannot define this pattern. [5]
coding approach. Two multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
were performed: 1) coupling angles for each period
METHODS of stance; 2) coupling variability for each period of
stance. Post hoc Fisher’s test was used when a main
The Institution’s Human Subjects Review Board effect was found (α = 0.05).
approved all procedures prior to beginning the study.
Twenty-seven female runners between the ages of 18 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
and 45 provided written informed consent. Runners
comprised three equal groups: current ITBS (age: Contralateral pelvis drop/elevation – thigh
26.2 (7.9) yrs; height: 1.64 (0.04) m; mass: 53.3 (3.7) abduction/adduction coupling angles were similar
kg), previous ITBS (age: 24.7 (5.2) yrs; height: 1.68 among groups during each period of stance for VC90
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
and VC360 (Table 1). However, coupling variability and VC360 ranged from 0.3° to 1.7° and 2.4° to 8.6°,
was different among groups via the VC90 approach respectively. Thus, small mean differences may
during initial loading (Period 1; P = 0.004) and late indicate the greater variability demonstrated by
stance (Period 4; P = 0.002). During initial loading runners with previous ITBS via VC90 but not VC360
and late stance, runners with previous ITBS was due to chance. No previous ITBS study has
demonstrated greater coupling variability compared reported VC360 coupling variability. However, the
to the current ITBS (P = 0.002 and P = 0.003, patellofemoral pain literature indicates VC360 knee
respectively) and control (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, – rearfoot coupling variability differences between
respectively) groups. Coupling variability was women with and without patellofemoral pain is the
similar among groups via the VC360 approach. exception rather than the norm [1].

No pelvis – thigh coupling differences among groups CONCLUSIONS
suggests ITBS injury status does not affect frontal
plane inter-segmental motion during stance. Contralateral pelvis drop/elevation – thigh
Similarly, hip adduction/abduction – hip abduction/adduction coupling angles were similar
internal/external rotation coupling angles did not among runners via VC90 and VC360 approaches.
differ between women with current ITBS and However, VC360 provided additional detail
controls during stance via the VC90 approach [2]. compared to VC90 by classifying two additional
Differences in frontal plane pelvis – thigh coupling phases: in-phase and anti-phase pelvis – thigh
and transverse – frontal plane hip coupling may not coupling. Greater pelvis – thigh coupling variability
be associated with ITBS. However, the pelvis – thigh in the previous ITBS group identified via VC90 but
phase relationships differ between VC90 and VC360 not VC360 should be interpreted with caution.
approaches. The average coupling angle computed
via VC90 indicated a pelvis phase throughout stance. REFERENCES
Whereas all groups exhibited in-phase pelvis – thigh
coupling from ~50-75% of stance via VC360. During 1. Cunningham T, et al. Clin Biomech 29, 317-322,
late stance, the average coupling angle indicated anti- 2014.
phase pelvis – thigh coupling among groups. 2. Brown A, et al. Clin Biomech 39, 84-90, 2016.
3. Foch E, et al. Gait Posture 41, 706-710, 2015.
During initial loading and late stance, absolute mean 4. Ferber R, et al. J Biomech 38, 477-483, 2005.
variability differences across groups between VC90 5. Needham R, et al. J Biomech 47, 1020-1026, 2014.

Table 1: The mean (standard deviation) for contralateral pelvis drop/elevation – thigh abduction/adduction
coupling angles and variability for the four periods of stance. The P value indicates the multivariate effect.
Vector Coding 90° Vector Coding 360°
Pelvis – Stance Current Previous Controls P Current Previous Controls P
Thigh Period ITBS ITBS ITBS ITBS
Coupling 1 21.9 30.5 16.5 0.370 183.1 206.9 183.0 0.369
Angle (14.7) (12.7) (10.7) (15.3) (29.2) (18.4)
(°) 2 36.7 40.7 38.2 183.5 178.1 186.7
(20.8) (13.8) (12.0) (61.0) (44.4) (41.5)
3 23.0 29.7 19.7 216.1 206.1 216.2
(9.5) (16.9) (4.1) (80.0) (90.1) (111.2)
4 25.5 31.5 21.0 128.5 130.6 113.6
(13.1) (8.9) (12.8) (90.5) (83.8) (113.4)
Coupling 1 8.4(5.6)α 15.9(4.3)αβ 9.3(3.8)β 0.004 10.1(6.4) 16.9(5.6) 9.0(3.5) 0.100
Angle 2 13.9 (6.2) 16.8(7.6) 16.2(4.9) 24.4(10.9) 27.1(11.6) 22.3(10.1)
Variability 3 10.4 (5.1) 12.4(6.5) 8.5(4.1) 13.5(9.4) 17.0(12.8) 9.9(6.4)
α αβ β
(°) 4 9.8(4.1) 17.1(5.9) 8.7(3.7) 12.4(6.1) 25.3(14.7) 11.1(5.9)
α, β
Significant difference between the groups indicated.
41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
COASTING TO A SUB-2-HOUR MARATHON USING AN OPTIMAL DRAFTING APPROACH
1
Christopher J. Arellano and 2 Wouter Hoogkamer
1
University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
2
University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA
email: carellano@uh.edu, web: http://uh.edu/class/hhp/people/cjarellano

INTRODUCTION and 0 being no shielding which yields the following
equation:
In the Berlin 2014 marathon, Dennis Kimetto
established the current world record of 2:02:57 V̇O2 (ml O2/kg/min) = 2.209+11.39V+0.02724(1–n)V3 (Eq. 1)
(hr:min:sec), reviving a long-standing controversy
as to whether it is possible to break the magical sub- Eq. 1 predicts that without any benefits of drafting,
2-hour marathon barrier. Kimetto’s overall time a marathon runner with a typical economy requires
translates to an average running velocity of 5.72 72.46 ml O2/kg/min to sustain a velocity of 5.72
m/s, indicating that he needs to increase his velocity m/s. According to Daniels and Gilbert [4], an
to 5.86 m/s, just 2.5% faster to break the sub-2-hour intensity of 84% V̇O2max can be sustained for a 2-
marathon barrier. hour race (Fig. 1).
100

Recently, we outlined several biomechanical 95
approaches that could be exploited to improve 84% VO2 max
% VO2 max

90
Kimetto’s running economy to a level that would
break the 2-hour marathon barrier [1]. The most 85
promising approach would be to reduce the cost of
80
forward propulsion by using a “cooperative
drafting” approach, similar to the team trial strategy 75
adopted by cyclists [3], where the runners would 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
take turns in the lead, essentially alternating leading Race duration (min)
and drafting positions. Figure 1: Daniels and Gilbert [4] suggest a runner’s sustainable
%VO2 max exponentially declines as race duration increases.

Here, we compare improvements in marathon For both our drafting scenarios, we consider the
performance time between a “cooperative drafting” ideal case that 4 runners work together for a sub-2-
and “traditional drafting” approach, where hour marathon (e.g., personal best time: Kimetto
sacrificial runners lead as long as they can while 2:02:57, Bekele 2:03:03, Kipchoge 2:03:05, and
maintaining the target velocity. Kipsang 2:03:13). Note that our calculations assume
that these 4 runners are all capable of running these
METHODS times without benefitting from drafting, which is
very unlikely.
To determine how much metabolic energy an
athlete needs to save to run 2.5% faster, we use the In the traditional drafting approach, the lead runner
empirical relation characterizing gross metabolic maintains a high velocity at a higher % V̇O2max for
cost and running velocity originally reported by [2] as long as possible, eventually dropping out when
and adjust the equation to account for the projected he can no longer sustain the higher % V̇O2max.
frontal area of elite African runners, as described in During this time, the 3 runners behind the lead
[1]. Following Kyle and Caiozzo [3], we introduce a runner exploit the benefit of drafting and thus can
shielding factor, n, with 1 being complete shielding run at the faster velocity while still sustaining 84%
V̇O2max. For this “traditional drafting” scenario, we

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
assume the first runner sustains an intensity of 90% and 3rd runner drop out 50 min, 84 min, and 102
V̇O2max for as long as possible (90% of 84 ml min, respectively. To finish the race, the last runner
O2/kg/min [5] = 75.6 ml O2/kg/min), then the next slows down to 5.72 m/s to sustain 84% V̇O2max as
runner continues at the same velocity but he can a result of the additional cost of overcoming air
only sustain that for a shorter period of time, since resistance. This results in a total marathon time of
he has already been running at 84% V̇O2max. This 1:58:59.
process continues until only one runner is left, who
then is required to slow down to sustain 84% With the cooperative drafting approach, the runners
V̇O2max. would be able to sustain a velocity of 6.02 m/s
throughout the full marathon. This results in a total
We use the equation by Daniels and Gilbert [4] to marathon time of 1:56:49.
predict how long the initial lead runner can sustain
90% V̇O2max; then use an iterative method (Eq. 2) CONCLUSIONS
to solve for how long the next lead runner can
sustain that velocity under the constraint that he has Our calculations show that “cooperative drafting” is
been running at 84% V̇O2max. substantially faster than a “traditional drafting”
approach where sacrificial runners lead as long as
(!! × !"%!"!!"# )!(!! × !"%!"!!"# )

!" !! !!!
(Eq. 2) they can to maintain the target velocity. In our ideal
(!! ! !! ) !
scenario, a superfast marathon performance time of
In the “cooperative drafting” approach, the only 1:56:49 is possible.
requirement is that on average, the runners consume
72.46 ml O2/kg/min, the rate needed to run 5.72 m/s REFERENCES
without drafting. While leading, a runner would be
1. Hoogkamer, Kram, Arellano, Sports Med, 2017.
using metabolic energy faster than this sustainable
2. Léger and Mercier, Sports Med, 1, 270-277, 1984.
rate, but while drafting he would be using less
3. Kyle and Caiozzo, Med Sci Sports Exerc, 18, 509-
metabolic energy, allowing him to recover from the
more intense effort. As described in [1], we solve 515, 1986
4. Daniels and Gilbert, Tempe, AZ, 1979.
Eq. 1 for the maximum speed, using a shielding
5. Joyner, J Appl Physiol, 70, 683-687, 1991
factor of 93%.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As illustrated in Fig. 2, the three lead runners can We thank our friend Rodger Kram for insightful
cover a total distance (before dropping out) of 32.8 discussions and for inspiring this collaboration.
km at a velocity of 5.94 m/s. Overall, the 1st, 2nd,
Traditional Drafting Approach Dennis Kimetto
Current World Record
84% VO2 max 84% VO2 max 84% VO2 max 90% VO2 max 84% VO2 max 84% VO2 max 90% VO2 max 84% VO2 max 90% VO2 max 84% VO max 2:02:57

1:58:59

v = 5.94 m/s v = 5.94 m/s v = 5.94 m/s v = 5.72 m/s

0 km 17.8 km 29.9 km 36.4 km 42.2 km

Cooperative Drafting Approach

1:56:49
v = 6.02 m/s v = 6.02 m/s

0 km 21.1 km 42.2 km

Figure 2: Our calculations show that “cooperative drafting” is substantially faster than a “traditional drafting” approach.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
ACCURACY OF A SHOE-WORN DEVICE TO MEASURE RUNNING MECHANICS
1
Jessica G. Hunter, 1 Ross H. Miller, and 2 Stephen Suydam
1
University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
2
Milestone Sports, Columbia, MD, USA
email: jghunter@umd.edu, web: http://sph.umd.edu/neuromechanics

INTRODUCTION extremity of the dominant leg and non-dominant
foot. The Pod (mass ~ 13 g) was attached to the
Commercial availability of wearable fitness trackers shoe on the dominant foot by a small rubber
has grown in recent years, and devices to track carriage. Kinematic data was captured using a 13-
variables relating to physical activity have become camera VICON motion capture system sampling at
popular. Some running-specific devices are able to 200 Hz. Ten embedded force plates recorded
collect sophisticated information relating to running ground reaction forces (GRF) at 1000 Hz. Subjects
injury and performance variables that have been ran around a 50-m indoor track for 3 laps each at 3
identified in biomechanics research literature, such speeds: self-selected “normal”, “slow”, and “fast”
as cadence, ground contact time, and vertical paces to capture a range of the subject’s typical
oscillation. Additionally, running speed, step length, running mechanics. Running trials were conducted
and loading rates have been associated with running while subjects wore their own running shoes (RS)
performance, injury, or both [1,2,5]. The general and standard lab shoes (LS) (New Balance 780v5).
population of runners does not have regular access
to instrumented gait analysis, in which cases Kinematic and GRF data were processed using
running-specific devices can provide an affordable Visual3D and MATLAB to determine average
and portable alternative for those interested in VEL, CAD, GCT, KA, and VALR. Data were
measuring, tracking, and improving these variables averaged over all speeds and both shoes to represent
to reduce the high incidence of running-related intra-subject variance in running training. Raw data
injuries and improve performance. were filtered using a Butterworth low-pass filter at 6
Hz for kinematic and 50 Hz for GRF. VALR was
Accuracy of measurement is an important factor of calculated as the change in force over the change in
a device and may increase its use, in turn improving time between 20-80% of the time period between
outcomes for users [3]. The purpose of this study initial contact and impact peak and scaled by body
was to compare the accuracy of running metrics weight [4].
from a shoe-worn accelerometer for fitness tracking
(the Milestone Pod) to analogous running data from A paired-samples t-test compared the measurement
instrumented gait analysis. We specifically tested difference between the Pod and Lab data to zero for
the accuracy of the Pod for running velocity (VEL), all variables (α = 0.05). Additionally, a paired-
cadence (CAD), ground contact time (GCT), peak samples two one-sided test (TOST) of equivalence
knee angle in swing (KA), and vertical average was done between Pod and Lab data (α = 0.05). The
loading rate (VALR). TOST allows a specified range of difference
between variables known as the practical difference
METHODS (PD). The within trial standard deviation was
calculated for both the Pod and Lab system. The
Institutional approval was obtained and each average standard deviation of Pod data was used for
participant gave written consent. Thirty-nine VEL, CAD, and GCT, and the average standard
healthy adults participated in the study (12 males, deviation of Lab data for KA and VALR. Finally,
27 females, age 29 ± 13 yrs). Subjects were fitted the percent of subjects whose measurement
with 33 reflective markers on the pelvis, lower difference fell within the PD was determined.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
variance in running mechanics. Although there was
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION no significant difference between the measurement
difference and zero for KA, the percentage of
Results of the t-test revealed: subjects whose average KA fell within the practical
• No significant difference between Pod and Lab difference was low. The means of Pod and Lab data
measurements for GCT (p = 0.235, ES = 0.12) were very similar which led to good performance in
and KA (p = 0.770, ES = 0.11). the t-test (93.7 ± 9.1 deg. and 95.1 ± 16.0 deg.,
• Significant differences for VEL (p = 0.001, ES respectively). However there was a fairly large
= 0.41), CAD (p = 0.001, ES = -0.25), and (10.3 degree) average within subject difference
VALR (p < 0.001, ES = -0.51). between Pod and Lab measurements compared to
relatively low individual standard deviation within
The TOST between Pod and Lab data showed
speed and shoe conditions from the Lab data that
equivalence for all variables tested:
defined the practical difference (3.03 deg.).
• VEL, PD = 0.25 m/s (p < 0.001)  
• CAD, PD = 7.83 steps/min (p < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS
• GCT, PD = 20.0 ms. (p < 0.001)
• KA, PD = 3.03 deg. (p < 0.005) The Milestone Pod is effective for measuring
• VALR, PD = 8.51 BW/s (p < 0.001) kinematic and kinetic running variables. However,
Representative scatterplots of the variables that refinement of the Pod’s capabilities to estimate
VEL, CAD and VALR are necessary to improve its
showed the smallest and greatest differences
between Pod and Lab are shown in Fig. 1. The versatility and applicability to a greater percentage
of users.
percentage of subjects whose difference between
Pod and Lab measurements fell within the practical
REFERENCES
difference is shown in Figure 1c. The practical
difference of KA captured the least number of 1. Boyer, E, et al. Am J of Sports Med, 43, 2310-
subjects (17.1%), followed by VEL (52.1%) and 2317, 2015.
VALR (40.6%). CAD and GCT both captured the 2. Clansey, AC, et al. Med & Sci in Sport & Ex, 36,
highest percentage of subjects (both 69.8%). 1917-1923, 2012.
3. Rupp, MA, et al. Proceedings of Human Factors
These results support the general accuracy of the and Erg Soc, 1434-1438, 2016.
device. The Pod estimates of GCT and KA were 4. Milner, CE, et al. Med & Sci in Sport & Ex, 38,
most accurate, showing no significant difference 323-328, 2006.
from zero. Pod estimates of VEL, CAD, and VALR 5. Tartaruga, MP, et al. Res Quarterly for Ex and
were equivalent, showing significant differences Sport, 83, 367-374, 2012.
between Pod and Lab, but the size of the difference
was on average smaller than natural within-subject
a b c
. . .

Figure 1: a. Pod GCT vs. Lab GCT with a line of perfect fit. b. Pod VALR vs. Lab VALR with a line of perfect
fit. c. Percentage of subjects whose difference between Pod and Lab measurements was within the practical
difference.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
USING INERTIAL SENSORS FOR ASSESSING PERFORMANCE DURING STAIR RUNNING
1
Lauro Ojeda, 2Antonia Zaferiou, 1Stephen Cain, and 1Noel Perkins
1
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
2
Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
email: lojeda@umich.edu

INTRODUCTION climbing speed since the swing phase duration is
We present a method for using inertial measurement largely dictated by the the physical constraints of the
units (IMUs) to estimate stair climbing kinematics stair case (height of risers and width of treads).
during running. Running on stairs can provide METHODS
important insight into individual's athletic We tested 11 healthy volunteer participants (3F, 8M;
performance and health. In-depth biomechanical age: 25.6/3.7 years; mean, SD) The University of
analysis of stair running is challenging using Michigan IRB approved the study and all subjects
traditional optical-based motion capture systems, provided informed consent. Subjects were instructed
which are limited to relatively small capture volumes. to run up a long stair case at maximum speed, without
Most studies that analyze stair climbing focus on skipping treads. After pausing for for about 10
functional walking pace [1]. In contrast, we propose seconds, the subjects ran down the same flight of
using foot-mounted IMUs to capture the foot stairs at maximum speed returning to the starting
kinematic motion (acceleration and rotation) during position. The subjects wore two IMU data loggers
stair running and over large climbing distances. Using (Opals, APDM, 128Hz), one mounted on each shoe by
this technology, we capture a relatively large number attaching it with athletic tape to the top of the laces.
of steps to understand steady state running on stairs. Estimated foot trajectories were derived from IMU
Doing so further provides data essential for within- data according to an algorithm previously validated
subject statistical analysis. [2]. The method uses gyroscope and accelerometer
IMUs are portable, unobtrusive, and unconstrained data to estimate spatial orientation, and then integrates
(e.g. do not need external references) motion tracking translational accelerations twice to yield foot
devices. However, IMUs also suffer from several velocities and position. Drift (and other inertial sensor
sources of error (e.g. bias instability, scale factor errors) were reduced by applying the ZUPT algorithm
errors, g-sensitivity, temperature sensitivity) that must [2]. Because the riser and tread dimensions of the
be accounted for motion tracking applications. When stairs are known, we added a additional correction to
IMUs are mounted on feet, velocity drift error can be our estimates. In particular, we designed a Kalman
estimated using the fact that the foot is essentially filter that uses the riser height as a measurement value
stationary during specific times in the stance phase. that the filter uses to correct the vertical foot position,
This velocity error is used to compensate for other which is updated by the filter whenever the foot
system states using a process known as zero velocity reaches a new tread during the foot fall. After the
update (ZUPT) [2]. We employ this strategy in correction is computed, we used smoothing
custom-developed algorithms to accurately reproduce techniques to provide backward corrections to obtain
the foot trajectories during stair climbing (see Fig. 1). the complete foot trajectory for each stride. All
From these trajectories, we determine important calculations were performed using custom software
events. Specifically, we estimate stride, swing and developed using MATLAB (MathWorks).
stance durations, which reveal climbing speed. In Using the computed foot trajectory and orientation
addition, we estimate foot velocity, orientation and estimations, we determined foot-strike and toe-off
position during the entire gait cycle. times. Foot-strike was defined as the time the foot
The objective of this study is to analyze stair climbing first contacts a tread. For running on stairs, the toe is
performance while running on stairs. We hypothesize more likely to contact the tread first, whereas during
that the stance duration will determine overall normal walk the heel contacts the ground first. Toe-off
41 st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11 th , 2017
time is defined as the time when the foot first loses
contact with the tread. Using these foot contact events,
the stride duration was estimated as the time between
consecutive foot-strike events. The stance time
follows from the time between a foot-strike and the
subsequent toe-off. Finally, the swing time follows
form the time between a toe-off and the subsequent
foot-strike (see Fig 1).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
We computed the stance, swing and total stride time
for all eleven subjects. We assume left-right symmetry
and we combined the results from the left and right
feet. During our analysis, we eliminated the first and
Figure 1: Foot trajectory estimated using IMU sensor data.
the last step from each stair run, as we consider them Close up of a steady state section showing events times, foot
to be transition steps that differ from the steady state orientation, and gait phases.
stepping that is the focus of our study. In particular,
the stair case provided 16 strides total during steady
state (eight left and eight right).
Our data analysis shows that in either direction
(running up or down the stairs), the stride time was
mainly determined by the stance time (see Fig. 2)
showing high correlation (R2 value: up stairs 0.84,
down stairs 0.92). During running up stairs, the swing
phase time was loosely correlated with the stride time
(R2 value: 0.24), which can be explained by the fact
that regardless of the subject speed, the feet must
travel approximately the same distance between steps
(imposed by the stair design). Subjects make fine
adjustments to provide just enough speed to reach the
next thread (see Fig. 1). When running down stairs,
we found that faster subjects chose to use higher
speed during the swing phase at the expense of
suffering higher impacts during the foot-strike, as
shown by the correlation between the swing phase and
stride time (R2 value: 0.58). Overall, we conclude that
stride time is highly correlated with stance time and
therefore speed is determined largely by stance time.
In addition to the above conclusion, estimates of foot
attitude angles, velocity, and position reveal provide
many additional performance metrics that can yield
valuable insights into athletic performance such stride
variability, ankle flexion and foot clearance.
REFERENCES Figure 2: Stance and stride time correlation, each dot represents
one stride, and each color represents one subject. Top: Running
1. Reid SM et al. Gait Posture 31(2), 197-203, 2010. upstairs. Bottom: Running downstairs.
2. Ojeda L and Borenstein J, J of Navigation 60(3),
391-407, 2007.
41 st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8 th – 11 th , 2017
AN ADAPTIVE FILTERING ALGORITHM TO ESTIMATE SPRINT VELOCITY USING A SINGLE
INERTIAL SENSOR
1
Reed D. Gurchiek, 2 Ryan S. McGinnis, 1Alan R. Needle, 1 Jeffrey M. McBride, 1 Herman van Werkhoven
1
Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA
2
University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
email: gurchiekrd@appstate.edu

INTRODUCTION
The quaternion is used to describe the IMU
Measuring an athlete’s sprint velocity in the field is orientation and to express sensor referenced
important for evaluating performance and guiding acceleration in the inertial track frame. The initial
training interventions [1]. Inertial measurement orientation is estimated during a standing static trial
units (IMUs) are becoming increasingly popular for using the on-board accelerometer and magnetometer
field-based human movement analyses and may have [2]. The algorithm follows the following steps:
the means to estimate sprint velocity in the field. 1. Estimate instantaneous IMU orientation via
Velocity estimates made via integration of the gyroscope integration [3].
accelerometer signal alone may be subject to error 2. Decompose the composite quaternion to estimate
due to a biased signal and/or inaccurate orientation the sensor’s heading and attitude.
estimates. In this study, we develop and validate a 3. Linearly detrend the heading estimate to force the
velocity estimation algorithm that uses data from a mean zero correction of assumption (i).
single sacral worn IMU independent of any external 4. Time integrate the forward acceleration to provide
measurement systems. an a priori estimate of sprint velocity (𝑣𝑣 − ).
5. Find foot contacts using the forward acceleration
METHODS signal as described in [4].
6. Fit 𝑣𝑣 − data at each foot contact to eq. (1) and
IMU data may be used to estimate sprint velocity by determine the associated error (E) in the curve-
first expressing the sensor referenced acceleration fitting.
vector in the world frame and then time integrating 7. Beginning with the foot contact where 𝐸𝐸 was a
the forward component. Error in an estimate minimum, determine the correction (𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣 ) provided by
obtained this way may originate in the integration of the modeled velocity obtained from the curve fitting
a biased angular rate signal from the gyroscope, and the trust factor (𝐺𝐺) to be given to this correction
integration of a biased acceleration signal from the according to,
accelerometer, or an inaccurate estimate of the IMU
initial orientation. To compensate for these potential 𝐸𝐸𝑘𝑘 (2)
𝐺𝐺 =
errors, which are expected to increase with time, the 𝐸𝐸𝑘𝑘 + 𝐸𝐸𝑘𝑘−1
algorithm we developed seeks to force constraints on
the estimate given the following two assumptions: where 𝐸𝐸𝑘𝑘 and 𝐸𝐸𝑘𝑘−1 are the curve fitting errors
(i) the runner’s heading during the sprint is expected associated with 𝑣𝑣 − at foot contact 𝑘𝑘 and 𝑘𝑘 − 1
to be mean zero and respectively.
(ii) we expect the following velocity-time 8. Correct the a priori velocity estimate (𝑣𝑣 − )
relationship as suggested by Furusawa et al. [1]: according to,
𝑡𝑡 (1) 𝑣𝑣 = 𝑣𝑣 − + 𝐺𝐺(𝑑𝑑𝑣𝑣 ) (3)
𝑣𝑣(𝑡𝑡) = 𝑣𝑣𝑚𝑚 �1 − 𝑒𝑒 −𝜏𝜏 �
9. Time integrate 𝑣𝑣 to estimate position (p) and
where 𝑣𝑣 is the velocity at time 𝑡𝑡 and 𝑣𝑣𝑚𝑚 and 𝜏𝜏 repeat step 6 and 7 if 𝑝𝑝 < 40 m (sprint distance).
describe the sprint running capabilities of the runner.
The validity of the velocity estimates from the
proposed IMU method was determined by
comparison to a previously validated position-time
method using photocell data [1]. IMU and photocell
data were collected on twenty-eight subjects (male
and female sprinters and non-sprinters) for three
maximal effort 40 m sprints. Each subject’s best
sprint was used for analysis.

The velocity measures used for comparison were
average interval velocity (0 – 10 m, 10 – 20 m, 20 –
30 m, and 30 – 40 m), maximal velocity, and
instantaneous velocity. Error in the IMU velocity Figure 1: Comparison of velocity estimates from
estimates was quantified using relative error reference photocell method (blue dashed line), raw
(absolute percent difference), root mean square error velocity estimate from IMU (solid black line), and
(RMSE), and Pearson’s product moment correlation velocity estimate from proposed IMU algorithm.
coefficient (r).
The results of this study suggest IMUs may provide
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION an appropriate means by which to assess sprint
velocity. IMUs have been used to measure other
Comparison of IMU and photocell estimates of variables that may be of interest in evaluating sprint
average interval and maximal velocity is shown in performance (e.g. ground reaction force, joint angles,
Table 1. The validity of the IMU estimates may be step frequency, etc.). Future research should
suggested by significant (p < 0.01) correlations with investigate the use of IMUs to estimate these other
photocell measures, relative error less than 8%, and performance variables during sprinting to be used
RMSE between 0.34 m/s and 0.67 m/s. The RMSE along with sprint velocity in a performance
of the IMU estimate of instantaneous velocity was evaluation.
0.70 ± 0.26 m/s and showed strong correlations (r =
0.97 ± 0.01) with photocell estimates. REFERENCES

Fig. 1 shows an example of the result of the filter on 1. Samozino, P, et al. Scand J Med Sci Sports 26,
the estimated velocity for a single subject. The 648-658, 2015.
sinusoidal nature of the true center of mass velocity 2. Jurman, D, et al. Sens Actuators A Phys 138, 411-
(due to braking and propulsive impulse at each foot 420, 2007.
contact) is not expressed in eq. (1) nor in the 3. Sabatini, AM. Sensors 11, 1489-1525, 2011.
photocell estimate, which may underlie some of the 4. Wixted, AJ, et al. Sports Eng 12, 207-212 (2010).
observed error.

Table 1: Comparison of average interval and maximal velocity estimates from IMU and photocell methods. All
units m/s except relative error and r.
IMU Photocell
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Relative Error (%) RMSE r (p value)
Average Interval Velocity: 0m - 10m 4.71 ± 0.35 4.94 ± 0.43 5.09 ± 4.08 0.34 0.81 (< 0.01)
10m - 20m 7.48 ± 0.72 7.79 ± 0.85 5.51 ± 4.54 0.56 0.83 (< 0.01)
20m - 30m 8.05 ± 0.93 8.17 ± 0.97 6.11 ± 5.50 0.6 0.80 (< 0.01)
30m - 40m 8.33 ± 1.06 8.27 ± 1.02 7.02 ± 4.16 0.66 0.79 (< 0.01)

Max Velocity 8.42 ± 1.07 8.29 ± 1.02 7.13 ± 4.42 0.67 0.80 (< 0.01)
PREDICTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING WALKING AND RUNNING USING NOVEL
PIEZOELECTRIC FOAM SENSORS: A PILOT STUDY

Alyssa Evans1, Noelle Tuttle1, Steven Morrin1, James Tracy1, Parker Rosquist1, A Jake Merell3, Gavin Collins2,
William Christensen2, David Fullwood3, Anton Bowden3, and Matthew Seeley1

Departments of Exercise Sciences1, Statistics2, and Mechanical Engineering3
Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA
email: alyssa7evans@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION METHODS

By 2030, it is estimated that 1.92 billion people, Six recreational runners (3 males and 3 female, 24 ±
worldwide, will be overweight or obese [1]. 1 years, 170 ± 5 cm, and 61 ± 11 kg) participated in
Physical activity can help individuals maintain this study. We used a Cosmed K4b2 portable
healthy body mass and decrease risk of certain metabolic analyzer (Cosmed K4b2, Cosmed, Rome,
prevalent diseases (e.g., cancer and diabetes). Italy) to measure energy expenditure. Subjects first
Wearable devices that can measure activity-based provided informed consent, and then subject
outcomes (e.g., energy expenditure), in real time, demographics were measured. During data
can increase exercise motivation, physical activity collection, participants wore standardized running
levels, and weight loss [2]. The ability of shoes, and the right shoe was instrumented with our
commercially-available wearable devices to quasi-piezoelectric, nanocomposite foam sensors.
accurately predict energy expenditure, however, is Participants completed a 15-min warm-up, at 2.68
currently poor enough to have implications for m/s, and then completed 5 different trials in a
people who desire to use wearables to lose body randomized order. Each trial was 4 min of walking
weight [3]. or running, at one of the designated speeds: 1.34,
2.23, 2.68, 3.13, or 3.58 m/s. A 1-min walk (1.34
In our lab, we have developed quasi-piezoelectric, m/s) was completed before and after every trial.
nanocomposite, foam sensors that can be used to
sense impact energy in three orthogonal planes. Data from the foam sensors and energy expenditure
When inserted into the insole of a shoe (Figure 1), data were measured throughout the entire collection
data from these sensors strongly correlates to energy period (~50 min). Disregarding the transitory
expenditure with promising accuracy. These sensors periods (first 2 min of each trial), mean energy
are also robust and relatively inexpensive. The expenditure was measured for each trial. Using
purpose of this study was to test the ability of these participant weight, height, body mass index, and 8
sensors, placed in a shoe insole, to predict energy characteristics of the foam sensor signals (average
expenditure during walking and running. maximum voltage of the heel, arch, and toe sensor;
average minimum voltage of the heel, arch, ball and
toe sensor, and absolute integral of voltage curve
from the toe sensor), we created a predictive model
using a standard linear regression model.

To calculate the out-of-sample root mean square
error (RMSE), we performed a cross-validation
A B C process where we removed data representing one
subject (out-of-sample), fit our model using data
Figure 1: (A) the foam sensor; (B) locations of the
from the other five subjects (within-sample), and
foams sensors, within the insole; and (C) a
predicted energy expenditure for the out-of-sample
photograph of the instrumented athletic shoe. subject. We repeated this process six times, leaving

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
out each subject in turn, and computed the average Watch, the accuracies from our model are generally
RMSE for each walking/running speed, across all maintained at higher intensity levels. Additionally,
subjects. we expect RMSE, associated with our model, to
decrease, as we increase our sample size and add
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION other independent variables (e.g., gender and
accelerometer data, which is also collected from the
Mean RMSE for six within-sample predictions and shoe) to the model.
six out-of-sample predictions are shown in Table 1.
Figure 2 shows the distribution of measured and CONCLUSIONS
predicted energy expenditure for all six subjects
(within-sample subjects and out-of-sample). The ability to predict energy expenditure via our
novel piezoelectric sensors appears promising;
Two common wearable devices that are now used to however, more data is needed to create a more
predict energy expenditure during physical activity accurate model.
are the Fitbit Charge HR (Fitbit Inc., San Francisco,
USA) and Apple Watch (Apple Inc., California, REFERENCES
USA). Our predictive model, based off only 6
subjects, shows somewhat promising results, that 1. Kelly T, et al. Int J Obes 32, 1431-1437, 2008.
are comparable to the two aforementioned devices 2. Sullivan AN, et al. Front public Heal. 4, 2016.
[3]. On average, the Fitbit Charge HR, which is 3. Wallen MP, et al. PLoS One. 11, 2016.
more accurate than the Apple Watch [3],
underestimates energy expenditure by 0.93 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Kcal/min. On average, our within-sample RMSE is This work was supported by the National Science
0.78 Kcal/min, however, our out-of-sample RMSE Foundation: Grant #’s: CMMI-1235365 & CMMI-
is 2.88 Kcal/min. Unlike the Fitbit and Apple 1538447.

Figure 2: Observed and Predicted EEm measurements for within sample and out-of-sample subjects

Table 1: Average results for six within sample subjects, and one out-of-sample subject.
1.34 m/s 2.23 m/s 2.68 m/s 3.13 m/s 3.58 m/s
RMSE Within Sample (Kcal/min) 0.61 0.82 0.71 0.71 1.02
RMSE Out-of-Sample (Kcal/min) 1.81 3.05 2.65 2.78 3.36

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
THE EFFECTS OF A CARBON FIBER SHOE INSERT
ON SPEED AND POWER IN COLLEGIATE ATHLETES

Robert Gregory, Robert Axtell, Marc Robertson, and William Lunn

Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, USA
E-mail: gregoryr3@southernct.edu, Web: http://www.southernct.edu/running-clinic/

INTRODUCTION METHODS

Athletes often select equipment, such as running Twenty-eight male collegiate athletes (NCAA
shoes, that is designed to maximize energy storage Division II American football skill-position players;
and return. However, athletic footwear is typically age: 19.4 ± 1.1 yr, height: 178.7 ± 4.5 cm, mass
characterized by poor energy storage and return 85.9 ± 6.9 kg) participated in this study. Participants
(~1-2%) as a result of current technological provided informed consent according to the policies
limitations in the design of and material properties and procedures of the Institutional Review Board at
used in shoe midsole construction [1, 2]. As a result, Southern Connecticut State University.
most of the energy that is stored in a shoe midsole
when the foot contacts the ground is lost through The participants performed vertical jump and 40-
heat, friction, and vibrations and, thus, decreases the yard sprint tests while using a control shoe insert
efficiency of the athlete. and carbon fiber shoe inserts (VK Performance
Insoles; VKTRY Gear; Milford, CT). The vertical
There is limited research to date that has addressed jump was performed on the first day and the 40-yd
the role of orthotics/shoe insoles on performance sprint took place seven days later. Participants used
improvement. Increasing the stiffness of shoes (via three different stiffness (medium, stiff, and extra
the use of carbon fiber plates inserted into the shoe stiff) and two different stiffness (medium and extra
midsole or under the shoe sock liner) has resulted in stiff) carbon fiber shoe inserts during the vertical
a 1.7 cm increase in vertical jump height [3], a 0.7% jump and 40-yd sprint tests, respectively. The shoe
improvement in sprint performance [4], and a 1% insert conditions were presented in random order for
improvement in running economy [5]. While all both tests; all vertical jump trials (three for each
three of these studies demonstrated improvements shoe insert) and sprint trials (two for each shoe
in performance when using footwear enhanced with insert) were separated by a period of 2 min and 5
carbon fiber plates, these studies used a flat carbon min, respectively, to minimize the effects of fatigue.
fiber plate design with a uniform stiffness
distribution and limited optimization for the Vertical jump height was determined from takeoff
athletes. velocity using a force platform (QuattroJump;
Kistler Instrument Corp.; Winterthur, SUI), while
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects sprint times (0-10 yd split time and 40-yd total time)
of a carbon fiber shoe insert on athletic were determined using a laser timing system (Power
performance. The specific parameters related to Dash 3×; Zybek Sports; Broomfield, CO). Peak
athletic performance that were assessed in this study GRF, RFD, and peak P were measured during the
were speed and power. It was hypothesized that the vertical jump takeoff via the use of a single force
use of a carbon fiber shoe insert will result in platform and during the sprint start via the use of
improved linear speed (assessed by a 40-yd sprint) two force platforms (Type 9260AA; Kistler
and lower-body muscular power (assessed by a Instrument Corp.; Winterthur, SUI). A repeated-
vertical jump) through increases in peak ground measures MANOVA was used to compare changes
reaction force (GRF), rate of force development in performance across the shoe insert conditions; the
(RFD), and peak power (P). level of significance was set at p < 0.10.

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION GRF for the rear foot (p < 0.05), RFD for both the
The use of a carbon fiber shoe insert resulted in front foot and the rear foot (p < 0.05 and p < 0.10,
increased vertical jump height. There was no respectively), and peak P (p < 0.10) during the start
difference in vertical jump height across the four of the 40-yd sprint (see Table 1).
different shoe insert conditions. However, when
comparing the control shoe insert versus the optimal The use of a carbon fiber shoe insert did not appear
stiffness carbon fiber shoe insert for each individual to increase the amount of energy stored and
participant, there was a significant (p < 0.0005) returned during the propulsive phase of the vertical
increase in vertical jump height from 62.8 ± 9.4 cm jump takeoff and sprint start. Instead, a carbon fiber
to 65.4 ± 13.0 cm (a 4.1% increase). shoe insert reduced the amount of energy lost at the
metatarsophalangeal joint and resulted in a
The use of a carbon fiber shoe insert also resulted in corresponding improvement in performance in both
improved 0-10 yd split time during a 40-yd sprint. the vertical jump height and 10-yd sprint time.
There was no difference in 0-10 yd split time across
the three different shoe insert conditions. However, CONCLUSIONS
when comparing the control shoe insert versus the
optimal stiffness carbon fiber shoe insert for each Increasing footwear bending stiffness through the
individual participant, there was a significant (p < use of a carbon fiber shoe insert improved both
0.05) improvement in 0-10 yd split time from 1.72 ± vertical jump and sprint performance. The optimal
0.07 s to 1.69 ± 0.06 s (a 1.6% decrease). Even stiffness was subject-specific. To experience
though there was an improvement in 40-yd total benefits in performance improvement, an athlete
time from 5.06 ± 0.12 s to 5.05 ± 0.12 s when must choose the correct stiffness carbon fiber shoe
comparing the control shoe insert versus the optimal insert that matches his/her body weight and
stiffness carbon fiber shoe insert for each individual movement biomechanics.
participant, this difference was not statistically
significant (p = 0.26). REFERENCES

The increases in performance in both the vertical 1. Nigg BM, et al. Biomechanics and Biology of
jump and 40-yd sprint tests were associated with Movement, Human Kinetics, 2000.
improvements in the movement kinetics of both 2. Nigg BM. Biomechanics of Sport Shoes, Benno
tasks. The use of the optimal stiffness carbon fiber M. Nigg, 2010.
shoe insert resulted in significant increases in 3. Stefanyshyn DJ, Nigg BM. Med Sci Sports Exerc
propulsive (vertical) peak GRF (p < 0.05), RFD (p 32, 471-476, 2000.
< 0.005), and peak P (p < 0.005) during the vertical 4. Stefanyshyn D, Fusco C. Sports Biomech 3, 55-
jump takeoff (see Table 1). The use of the optimal 66, 2004.
stiffness carbon fiber shoe insert resulted in 5. Roy JPR, Stefanyshyn DJ. Med Sci Sports Exerc
significant increases in propulsive (horizontal) peak 38, 562-569 2006.

Table 1: A kinetic comparison of the control and optimal stiffness carbon fiber shoe inserts during the vertical
jump and 40-yd sprint tests (FF = sprint start/front foot, RF = sprint start/rear foot).
Kinetic Vertical Jump 40-Yd Sprint
Variables Control Carbon Fiber Control Carbon Fiber
1.03 ± 0.09 (FF) 1.05 ± 0.13 (FF)
Peak GRF (BW) 3.12 ± 0.34 3.20 ± 0.40
0.76 ± 0.19 (RF) 0.82 ± 0.15 (RF)
11.1 ± 4.2 (FF) 12.1 ± 3.8 (FF)
RFD (BW/s) 23.6 ± 4.5 25.4 ± 5.7
12.2 ± 3.6 (RF) 13.1 ± 4.4 (RF)
Peak P (W/kg) 85.7 ± 12.1 89.6 ± 14.8 25.1 ± 10.4 27.2 ± 11.3

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
LOWER EXTREMITY STIFFNESS WHEN RUNNING IN MINIMALIST, NEUTRAL, AND UNTRA-
CUSHIONING SHOES
1
Brianne Borgia, 2James Becker
1
California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA USA
2
Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA
email: james.becker4@montana.edu

INTRODUCTION free in the 6 months preceding testing. Participants
were provided 3 pairs of laboratory shoes in their
The effect of footwear on running mechanics has self-reported size (MIN shoe: New Balance 1400v3,
been a major topic of investigation over the last NEUT shoe: Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 32, ULTRA
forty years as changing footwear may impact shoe: Hoka One One Bondi 4, Figure 1).
running performance or alter risk of sustaining a
running related injury. Within the last ten years in
particular, there has been a substantial amount of
research on possible merits and risks associated
with using minimalist shoes [1, 2]. At the opposite Figure 1. Examples of the three shoes used in the study.
end of the spectrum, the last five years have seen Left to right: MIN, NEUT, and ULTRA.
rising popularity in ultra-cushioning shoes.
However, to date there have only been a handful of Running kinematics were recorded using a 12-
studies examining these shoes. These studies have camera motion capture system (Qualisys, Inc.,
reported basic kinematic and kinetic comparisons Gotheburg, Sweden) while participants ran on an
between minimalist and ultra-cushioning shoes [3], instrumented treadmill (Bertec Corp, Columbus,
as well as differences in internal loading between OH) at 3.0 m/s. Kinematics and ground reaction
the shoe types [4]. forces were sampled at 200 and 1000 Hz,
respectively. Participants ran for 10 minutes in each
One area which has not yet been examined is shoe, with data being collected during the last
whether lower extremity stiffness differs when minute. Ten consecutive strides were then extracted
running in minimalist or ultra-cushioning shoes. for analysis. The order in which participants wore
Stiffness plays a role in both injury and the shoes was randomized.
performance, and provides insight into how the
neuromuscular system controls movement [5]. As Raw marker trajectories and ground reaction forces
such, understanding how stiffness changes with were exported to a custom Matlab (Mathworks,
footwear would provide additional insight into the Natick, MA) program where they were filtered
biomechanical effects of different types of running using 4th order, zero lag, low pass Butterworth
shoes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to filters with cutoff frequencies of 8 Hz and 50 Hz,
evaluate changes in lower extremity stiffness when respectively. Sagittal plane joint angles and
running in minimalist (MIN), traditional (NEUT), moments at the ankle, knee, and hip were then
and ultra-cushioning (ULTRA) shoes. calculated using Cardan angle rotations and
standard inverse dynamics techniques. Leg stiffness
METHODS was calculated using a spring mass model and the
methods of McMahon and Cheng [6]. Joint
Fifteen recreational runners (age: 23.5 ± 2.2 years; stiffness was calculated by dividing the change in
height: 1.68 ± 0.19 m.; body mass: 76.5 ± 4.5 kg joint moment by the change in joint angle over the
participated in this study. All participants were absorption portion of stance phase, operationally
running at least 20 miles per week and were injury defined as the time from initial contact until the

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
ankle reached peak dorsiflexion [5]. To assess strategies used by the neuromuscular system to
whether participants changed their foot strike achieve that stiffness varies. The more pronounced
pattern when changing shoes the strike index was heel strike and higher ankle joint stiffness observed
calculated for each step. in the MIN condition means the ankle is not being
used to absorb energy in MIN shoes. This may be
One-way repeated measure ANOVAs were used to one reason why previous studies have reported
evaluate differences in strike indices, legs stiffness, greater tibial shock [7] and reduced shock
and joint stiffness between shoe conditions. When a attenuation [8] in ULTRA shoes compared to MIN
significant main effect was observed, post hoc shoes. If the ankle is not helping absorb energy
comparisons were performed using a Bonferroni then the other joints must become more compliant,
correction. A p < .05 was used for all comparisons. hence the lower joint stiffness in the knee and hip in
the ULTRA shoe. However, a more compliant joint
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION will absorb more energy. Whether this is good or
bad from an injury perspective remains unknown.
Strike indices were not different between the MIN But one of the few other studies on maximalist
(24.1 ± 15.8) and NEUT (20.9 ± 13.6, p = .565) footwear reported higher patellofemoral forces and
shoes. However they were smaller in the ULTRA pressures in ULTRA shoes compared to MIN shoes
shoe (12.1 ± 7.5) than in either the MIN or NEUT [4]. Given that the knee is the most common injury
shoes (p = .017, p = .033, respectively). Though not site in runners this suggests further studies on
indicative of a different foot strike pattern, this injuries associated with ULTRA shoes are needed.
means that there was a more pronounced heel strike
in the ULTRA shoes and that the initial contact CONCLUSIONS
point in this condition was closer to the ankle joint
center thereby reducing the ankles’ ability to absorb These results suggest that compared to MIN and
energy during the loading phase. NEUT shoes, running in ULTRA shoes results in
re-organization of how the neuromuscular system
There were no differences in leg stiffness between controls lower extremity stiffness. Implications for
the three shoe conditions (MIN: 12.0 ± 2.0 kN/m, this re-organization for injury and performance
NEUT: 12.3 ± 1.9 kN/m, ULTRA: 12.2 ± 2.3 kN/m, require further investigation.
p = .586). Compared to the MIN shoe, the ULTRA
shoe resulted in lower joint stiffness at the hip (p = REFERENCES
.006) and knee (p = .047) and higher joint stiffness
at the ankle (p = .026). There were no differences 1. Davis, I. J. Orthop. Sports. Phys. Ther. 44, 775-
between the MIN and NEUT shoe at any of the 785, 2014.
joints (Table 1). 2. Perkens, K., et al. Sports Health. 6, 475-480,
2014.
Table 1. Mean and standard deviations for hip, knee, and 3. Sinclair, J., et al. Footwear Science. 8, 33-39,
ankle stiffness (N*m/°) in the minimalist, neutral, and ultra- 2016.
cushioning shoes. * indicates significantly different than MIN
4. Sinclair, J. et al. J. Applied. Biomech. 32, 359-
condition.
364, 2016.
Hip Knee Ankle 5. Hamill et al., Europe J. Sport Science, 14, 130-
MIN 5.1 ± 2.7 6.0 ± 2.2 12.3 ± 1.2 136, 2014.
6. McMahon, T., et al. J. Biomech. 23, 65-78, 1990.
NEUT 4.3 ± 0.9 5.9 ± 1.7 13.0 ± 1.8
7. Ruder, M., et al. Proceedings of ASB Columbus,
ULTRA 3.7 ± 0.9* 5.3 ± 1.4* 14.8 ± 2.4* OH, 2015.
8. Sinclair, J., et al. Movement & Sport. Sci. 95, 59-
Our results suggest that while overall leg stiffness 64, 2017.
remains the same when changing shoe types, the

41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Boulder, CO, USA, August 8th – 11th, 2017
DIFFERENCES IN HAMSTRING MUSCLE QUALITY BETWEEN HIGHLY ACTIVE AND
SEDENTARY OLDER ADULTS

Erica Casto, Jocelyn Hafer, and Katherine Boyer

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
email: ecasto@kin.umass.edu

INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to assess differences
in hamstring muscle quality in vigorously active
Age-related decreases in muscular strength are (runners) and sedentary older adults. We
associated with increased mortality and decreased hypothesized that runners would have an increased
quality of life (1,2). Knee extensor function is a muscle mass, accompanied by an increase in muscle
well-documented determinant of mobility in older quality.
adults (1,2). The overall decline in strength with age
can occur not only due to loss of muscle mass METHODS
(sarcopenia), but also a decrease in muscle quality
(strength/unit of muscle) (2,3). Few studies account 14 healthy adults, 8 runners (running ≥ 15 miles/wk;
for the potential interaction of age and physical 4M, 4F, 62.9±3.8yrs, BMI 23.2±2.1) and 6
activity on alterations in muscle function with age. sedentary (exercising ≤ 2 times/wk; 2M, 4F,
While running has been shown to diminish the loss 62.6±4.7yrs, BMI 23.3±1.3) were recruited to
of muscle mass with age (4), the impact of running participate in this study. All participants had no
or high physical activity levels on muscle quality in history of lower extremity joint injury or surgery,
the aged is not well characterized. A greater chronic pain, neurological or musculoskeletal
understanding of the impact of physical activity on diseases. Participants completed two study visits.
muscle quality may be important as it could have The first visit was to complete a health-screening
implications for understanding and preventing the questionnaire, assign activity monitors and undergo
onset of age-related musculoskeletal disease. MRI for hamstring volume assessment. The second
visit, 10-14 days later, was to quantify hamstring
Poor knee extensor muscle quality has been muscle function. Written informed consent was
associated with increased prevalence of knee obtained from all participants as approved by the
osteoarthritis in men and women (6). Little work University of Massachusetts Amherst IRB.
has focused on the changes in hamstrings muscle
quality and function with age or disease. Initial Physical activity was quantitatively assessed using
work suggests that strengthening of knee flexors Actigraph GT3X triaxial accelerometers worn at the
may be equally as important as targeting the knee hip for 7-10 days. Muscle volume was assessed
extensors in rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis (8). using a 1.5T Siemens MRI. The scan included the
A relationship between thigh (knee extensor and length of the thigh from fibular head to greater
knee flexor) muscle strength and increased risk of trochanter with T1 weighted scan sequence (6mm
knee osteoarthritis in women has also been reported serial axial slice thickness). Hamstring area (cm2)
(8). There is a need to better understand differences was measured at 50% of the distance between the
in hamstring function and quality with age as it may femoral condyles and femoral head using custom
be a modifiable factor that influences age- related MATLAB code (Figure 1). Muscle tissue area was
mobility declines and/or onset of degenerative distinguished from other tissues based on pixel.
conditions such as knee osteoarthritis.
relationship between muscle quality and muscle
size. This suggests that although runners are able to
mitigate loss of muscle mass with age, they may not
maintain muscle quality within the hamstrings.

Muscle Quality: RUN vs. SED
0.6
RUN SED
0.5
Figure 1: Hamstring muscle area (cm2) in RUN vs

Muscle Quality (Nm/cm 2)
SED. 0.4

0.3
Hamstring function was assessed using a Humac RUN

Norm isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex, Medway, 0.2 SED

MA). The protocol included maximal knee flexion 0.1
isometric contractions and concentric contractions 0
at 90, 180, and 270°/sec throughout a 70° range of 0 90 180 270
motion (20-90°). Two sets of 3 reps were completed Contraction Velocity (º/sec)

at each contraction speed, with 30 seconds rest
between sets, and 2 minutes rest between speeds. Figure 2: Muscle Quality: RUN vs SED, p=0.057.
Peak torque was extracted from the isometric
contractions and calculated at the time of peak CONCLUSIONS
power for concentric contractions. Muscle quality
was then calculated as peak torque divided by the While running appears to be effective for limiting
hamstring muscle area for each contraction speed. decreases in muscle mass, it may not be effective in
maintaining overall muscle quality. Further
A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to investigation is needed to assess the mechanism for
compare muscle quality at each contraction speed in this unexpected impact of physical activity on
RUN vs SED (IBM SPSS software v24, Armonk, muscle function in older adults.
NY). An independent samples t-test was used to
compare the total hamstring muscle area in the REFERENCES
RUN vs. SED groups (α=0.05).
1. Newman et al., J Gerontol, 61 (1): 72-77, 2006.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2. Lexell, J Gerontol, 50:11-6, 1995.
3. Goodpaster et al., J Gerontol, 61: 1059-64, 2006.
The total hamstring area was 25% greater for the 4. Drey et al., Clin Physiol Funct imaging, 2014.
RUN group as compared to the SED group 5. Mitchell et al., Frontiers in physiol, 260(3), 2012.
(p=0.027). However, despite the increased muscle 6. Conroy et al., Arthritis Care & Research, 61(1):
mass, muscle quality in RUN (mean= 0.289) was 15-21, 2012.
lower than in SED (mean= 0.387) at each of the 7. Jale et al., Am J Phys Med & Rehab, 1995.
contraction speeds (p=0.057), shown in Figure 2. 8. Culvenor et al., Arthritis Care & Research, 2017.
The magnitude of the difference between groups 9. Hafer et al., MSSE, 48 (5S): 685, 2016.
was not different between contraction velocities.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Similar findings were reported for the differences in
muscle volume and quality of the knee extensors in ACSM Foundation Doctoral Student Grant, J.F.H.
this population (9). Similar to the knee flexors, for
the knee extensors there was also an inverse