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# Chapter 15: Control of A.C.

Drives

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Example 15.1 A 3-phase, star connected, 50 Hz, 4-pole induction motor has
the following parameters in ohms per phase referred to the stator:
R 1 = R 2 = 0.034 and X 1 = X 2 = 0.18
The motor is controlled by the variable frequency control with a constant (V /f ).
Determine the following for an operating frequency of 15 Hz:
(a) The breakdown torque as a ratio of its value at the rated frequency for motor-
ing and braking.
(b) The starting torque and rotor current in terms of their values at the rated
frequency.

15
Solution: From Eq. (15.34) of the book, K = = 0.3
50
(a) From Eq. (15.52) of the book, the ratio of breakdown torques for K = 0.3 and K = 1, is
2
Tmax ( K = 0.3) 0.034 ± (0.034 ) + (0.36)2
= 2
Tmax ( K = 1) 0.034 Ê 0.034 ˆ
± Á + (0.36)2
0.3 Ë 0.3 ˜¯

Tmax ( K = 0.3)
For motoring, = 0.806
Tmax ( K = 1)
Tmax ( K = 0.3)
For braking, = 1.24.
Tmax ( K = 1)
(b) Substitution of s = 1 in Eq. (15.51) of the book gives an expression for the starting
torque T 2. Thus,
È ˘
Í 2 ˙
3 Í Vrated ( R2 / K ) ˙
Ts = (i)
w s Í Ê R1 + R2 ˆ 2 2
˙
ÍÁ ˜ + ( X1 + X 2 ) ˙
ÍÎ Ë K ¯ ˙˚
From Eq. (136), of the book the ratio of starting torques for K = 0.3 and K = 1 is,
(0.034 0.3)
Ts ( K = 0.3) (0.068 0.3) 2 + (0.36) 2
= = 2.472
Ts ( K = 1) 0.034
2 2
(0.068) + (0.36)
The starting rotor current is given by

Vrated
I2 = (ii)
2
Ê R1 + R2 ˆ 2
ÁË ˜ + ( X1 + X 2 )
K ¯

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Power Electronics

The ratio of starting currents for K = 0.3 and 1 is
2 2
I 2 ( K = 0.3) (0.068) + (0.36)
= = 0.86
I 2 ( K = 1) 2
Ê 0.068 ˆ
+ (0.36)2
ËÁ 0.3 ¯˜
The above calculations of the ratios of starting torques and starting rotor currents
show that the constant (V/f ) control provides a high starting torque with a reduced
motor current.
Example 15.2 For the motor Example 15.1, if the rated slip is 4% then determine
the motor speed for rated torque and f = 25 Hz. The motor is controlled with a
constant (Vf ) ratio.
25
Solution: K = = 0.5
50
From Eqs (15.49) of book for rated torque and f = 50 Hz,

È Ê 0.034 ˆ ˘
2
Í Vrated Á ˜ ˙
2
3 Í Ë 0.04 ¯ ˙ 3Vrated
T rated = Í 2 ˙ = (0.933) (i)
ws Ê ws
Í 0.034 + 0.034 ˆ + (0.18 + 0.18)2 ˙
ÍÎ ÁË 0.04 ˜¯ ˙˚
and for 25 Hz from Eq. (15.51) of the book,
È Ê 0.034 ˆ ˘
2
Í Vrated Á ˜ ˙
3 Í Ë 0.5 S ¯ ˙
T rated = Í 2 ˙ (ii)
w s Ê 0.034 0.034 ˆ
Í + + (0.36) 2˙
ÍÎ ÁË 0.5 0.5 S ˜¯ ˙˚
Equating Eqs (i) and (ii) gives,
(0.034 0.5 S )
= 0.933
2
Ê 0.034 0.034 ˆ 2
ÁË 0.5 + 0.5 S ˜¯ + (0.36)

or
(0.034 0.5 S )
= 0.933
2 2
Ê 0.034 ˆ Ê 0.034 0.034 ˆ Ê 0.34 ˆ 2
ÁË 0.5 ˜¯ + 2 ÁË 0.5 ¥ 0.5 S ˜¯ + ÁË 0.5 S ˜¯ + (0.36)

or S 2  0.4742 S + 0.0344 = 0

0.4742 ± ( 0.4742) 2  4 ¥ 0.0344
or S= = 0.384 or 0.089
2
The slip on the stable part of the speedtorque curve will be 0.089.
Now, synchronous speed for
2 ¥ 50
25 Hz = = 25 rps = 1500 rpm.
4
Therefore, the motor speed = 1500 (1  0.089) = 1366.5 rpm.

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Control of A.C. Drives  !

Example 15.3 A three-phase, 460 V, 50 Hz, 4-pole, 1420 rpm, star-connected
induction motor has the following parameters per phase referred to the stator:
R 1 = 0.66 W, R 2 = 0.38 W, X 1 = X 2 = 1.14 W, X m = 32 W.
The motor is controlled by a variable frequency control at a constant flux of rated
value. Determine the following:
(a) The motor speed and the stator current at half the rated torque and 25 Hz.
(b) By assuming the speedtorque curves to be straight lines, solve for part (a),
for S < S m .
(c) The frequency, the stator current, and voltage at a rated braking torque and
1200 rpm.
Solution: From the rated conditions of operation:
120 f 120 ¥ 50
Synchronous speed, Ns = = = 1500
P 4
1500 ¥ 2 p 1500  1420
ws = = 157.08 rad/s and \ S = = 0.05
60 1500
R2 0.38
Rotor impedance, Z2 = + j¥2= + j 1.14 = 7.6 + j1.14 = 7.69 – 8.53°.
S 0.05
Stator impedance, Z 1 = 0.66 + j 1.14 = 1.32 – 59.93°
Z2 Zm
\ Machine impedance, Z in = Z i +
Z2 + Z m

(7.6 + j 1.14) ( j 32)
= (0.66 + j 1.14) + = 6.91 + j3.01 = 7.54 – 23.54° W
(7.6 + j 1.14 + j 32)
460 3
\ Stator current, I1 = = 66.4 A
4

Zm j 32 Ê 32 ˆ
\ I2 = I1 = 66.4 = Á ˜ (66.4) = 62.49 A
Zm + Z2 j 32 + 7.6 + j 1.14 Ë 34 ¯
\ E = I2 |Z 2| = 62.49 (7.69) = 480.55 V
3 2 R2 3 2 0.38
\ Rated torque = I2 = ¥ (62.49 ) ¥ = 566.81 N-m
ws S 157.08 0.05
25
(a) At 25 Hz, K== 0.5
50
Substituting the known values in Eq. (15.41) of the book yields
2
566.81 3 È (480.55) ¥ (0.38 0.5 S ) ˘
= Í ˙ = S = 0.0535
2 157.08 ÍÎ (0.38) (0.5 S )2 + (1.14)2 ˚˙
2

From Eq. (15.39) of the book, w r = Kws (1  s)
or N = K Ns (1  s) = 0.5 ¥ 1500 (1  0.0535) = 709.88 rpm
At 25 Hz, E = 0.5 ¥ 480.55 = 240.28 V

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5 ¥ 480. Hence. Z 2 7. taking E as a reference vector. N = N s  N ss2 = 750  37. taking E as a reference vector.02 – 90° A.p65 124 9/27/07.6 + j0.05 Ns 750 R2 Z2 = + jk X2 = 7.29 E 240. N= ¥ 1500 = 750 rpm.28 \ Im = = = 15.29° W s Now. \ Therefore slip speed. I 1 = 38 A (b) Slip speed in rpm at the rated torque and frequency N ss = sNs = 0. Ê 1125 ˆ 37.28 I2 = = = 31.5 rpm = 712.02 – 90°A Hence.72 – 4. 4:24 PM .125 –4.59° A Z 2 7.02 – 90° = 35.28 V.29° + 15.28 I2 = = = 33.92 A (c) Now.29° A.05 ¥ 1500 = 75 rpm.5 rpm.  " Power Electronics R2 0. N ss2 37.72 – 4.59° + 15. Motor speed.14 = 7. Since the speedtorque curve is a straight line.125–4.5 Hz. \ S = = = 0. slip speed at half the rated torque. Now. the slip speed will be the negative of the slip speed at rated motoring torque.5 Frequency = Á ¥ 50 = 37. N ss3 =  75 rpm.0535 Now. Synchronous speed π N + N ss3 = 1200  75 = 1125 rpm.62–4. at 25 Hz.59∞ E 240. at the rated braking torque. \ K= = 0. E 240.5 rpm.92 – 28. Hence I1 = 35.55 = 240.5 E = 0.102 + j0.62 –4.75. Ë 1500 ˜¯ 50 Power-15 OLC. E 240. N ss2 = 0.5 ¥ 32 \ I1 = I 2 + I m = 33.59° S 0. 25 At 25 Hz. for a constant flux. the (V /f ) ratio must be constant.93°.02–90°A jKX m j 0. jKX m j16 \ I1 = I 2 + I m = 31.28 Im = = = 15. 50 Since the slip speed remains constant for a given torque.53 – 4.53 – 4.57 = 7.5 ¥ 75 = 37.57 = 7.5 ¥ 1.38 Z2 = + jKX2 = + j 0.

T= Í 2 2˙ ws ÎÍ ( R2 / s ) + X 2 ˚˙ Power-15 OLC. (b) (i) As the flux is constant for a given torque.81 N-m. Example 15. Slip speed at rated torque = 75 rpm.5 Hz. the slip speed can be obtained from the rated frequency operation.3) is fed by a variable frequency current source.3).41 + (0.4 The motor in Example (15.42° W s E 360.02 A Xm 32 Substituting the known values in Eq. N s = 1500 rpm.02)2 = Í ˙ ¥ (80) 2 \ S = 0.9 – 171.75 At 37. 4:24 PM . Hence.55 = 360.51° Since the phase-angle between V and I1 is more than 90°. the slip speed will also be constant for all frequencies.73 –171.42° A Z 2 5. S = =  0.02 – 90° =  62. Rated torque = 566. for 50 Hz operation. The motor is made to operate at the rated flux at all operating points.14) ¥ 66.73–171.4 = 66.061 Í Ê 0. (15.81 – 158.22  j69. therefore. I1 = 62. Ë 50 ˜¯ 1125 R2 Z2 = + jkX2 =  5. ws = 157.41 V. obtain the solution of b(ii) assuming speedtorque curves to be straight lines in the region of interest.67 + j 0.42∞ I m remains the same as the foregoing. 2 È Erated 3 ◊ R2 / s ˘ Now. Determine the following: (a) Slip speed for I1 80 A (b) The frequency and stator current for operation at 750 rpm for the following torque values: (i) 520 N-m (ii)  566.14)2 ˙ ÎÍ Ë s ¯ ˚˙ Slip speed in rpm = S N s = 0.p65 125 9/27/07.38 ˆ 2 ˘ ÍÁ ˜ + (1.66) of the book gives: È Ê 0. (c) Also. taking E as a reference vector.067. \ V = E + Z1 ◊ I1 = 360. I 2 = = = 62.55 V E 480. Solution: From Example (15.061 ¥ 1500 = 91.66 + j0.75 ¥ 1.58° or V = 340. E =Á ¥ 480.9 – 171.42° + 15.2  j24. Drives  # Ê 37.14) 2 ˙ Ë s ¯ (15. power flows from the motor to the source.28 = 347.C. Control of A.5 ˆ .5 rpm.2 – 11.855 = 5.81 –158.81 N-m.58°.41 Now. E at rated conditions = 480.38 ˆ 2 ˙ ÍÁ ˜ + (33.08 rad/s.55 (a) Im = = = 15.

Î (0.084 Ë 1500 ˜¯ N s 818. \ N ss2 =  75 rpm.5 = 817. substitute all the determined values in Eq.28 A. 1/ 2 È ( 0. K s = 0.5 Now.38) 2 /( .25 Hz K = = 0.38) /(0.02 Í 2 2 2 ˙ or I1 = 60. substituting all the determined values in Eq.045) 2 + (32 + 1. k s =  0.045 157 ◊ 08 ÎÍ (0.05) + (1. 566.045) + (1.11. (15.545 Ë 1500 ˜¯ 50 N ss1 67. K = = 0.38) 2 + (1.45 A Î (0. (15. Therefore. synchronous speed. Now. therefore.045) 2 + (32 + 1.38) 2 /(0.14) ˚ (ii) The given torque value is the rated braking torque. speedtorque curve for different frequencies are straight lines at a constant flux. N s = N + N ss3 = 750 + 68. 520 N ss3 = ¥ 75 = 68. N s = N + N ss2 = 750  75 = 675 rpm.29 K= = 0.38) /( . Ê 817. slip speed. synchronous speed.28 A Î (0.045 ¥ 1500 = 67.55)2 ¥ 0.5 ˆ 27. S = = = 0. substitute all the determined values in Eq.045 Ns 817.14) ˚ Power-15 OLC.045 50 Now.45 1500 50 N ss2 .25 Frequency = Á ¥ 50 = 27. N ss1 = 0.5 Hz.68) of the book.0.68) of the book.02 Í 2 2 2 ˙ = 60.5 rpm.5 S= = = 0. 1/ 2 È (0..38) 2 /(0.14) 2 ˘ \ I1 = 15.0825 = 0. (15.0. 4:24 PM .  \$ Power Electronics Substituting the given values yields 3 È (480.75 \ S= = =  0.29 Hz.14) 2 ˘ \ I 1 = 15.68) of the book yields 1/ 2 È (0.02 Í 2 2 2 ˙ = I1 = 66..81 rpm Ê 818.5 rpm. N s = N + N ss1 = 750 + 67.045) + (1.5 Frequency = ¥ 50 = 22. for operation at 750 rpm.81 27.p65 126 9/27/07.545 ¥ 0.14) 2 ˚˙ Slip speed.0825.05) 2 + (32 + 1.14) 2 ˘ I 1 = 15. 675 22.545 \ S k = 0.38) /(0.81 = 818.81ˆ N ss3 68. the slip-speed will be the same as for the rated motor torque but of the opposite sign.14) ˚ (c) As.05 Ns 675 Now.81 rpm.81 Frequency = Á ¥ 50 = 27.81 Hence.38/ s ˘ 520 = Í ˙ S = 0.

Determine. 60 50 1500 ¥ 2 (iii) f= = 50 Hz.5 W. 60 1800 ¥ 2 220 (iv) f= = 60 Hz \ V = ¥ 60 = 264 V. R 2 = 1.5 = (37.736.p65 127 9/27/07. the voltage/frequency ratio = 220/50. Hence.61  57. (iv) 1800 rpm. j 130 (37. R 1 = 0. 60 50 Example 15. at each condition. \ Voltage. Control of A. 4:24 PM .6 A three-phase.72 sin (w t  57. Drives  % Example 15.5 400 Fundamental RMS current = = 60.5 + j 2. X 1 = X 2 = 2.5 W.625 + j 5.71°) A.5) W. 0.625 + j5.04.5) Z t = 0.5 + = 3. approximately with the output inverter frequency related to synchronous speed. (iii) 1500. 37.71° A 3. (ii) 1200. f = (speed ¥ pairs of poles)/60 Also.5 + j 2. the required inverter outputs are 900 ¥ 2 220 (i) f= = 30 Hz. X m = 130 W.5 W. three-phase cage induction motor rated at 220 V. This motor is fed from a square-waved inverter. 400 V. \ V = ¥ 40 = 176 V. The voltage waveform is such that its fundamental is equal to the rated voltage of the motor. 1. 60 50 1200 ¥ 2 220 (ii) f= = 40 Hz. delta connected induction motor has the following parameters at 50 Hz. 50 Hz.C. slip S = 2/50 = 0. V = ¥ 30 = 132 V.5 + j 2.04 Mutual reactance = 130 W. = 85. \ V = 220 V. What waveform do you expect at 10 Hz if the voltage is varied to keep air gap flux constant? Solution: (i) Voltage proportional to frequency At 50 Hz. input current waveform corresponding to a rotor frequency of 2 Hz when the supply frequency is 50 Hz and 10 Hz and the voltage applied is proportional to frequency.736 Instantaneous value of fundamental current = 2 ¥ 60. Solution: The slip may be neglected. Power-15 OLC. Determine the approximate output required of the inverter for motor speeds of (i) 900. V = 400 V.71°) A.5 Secondary impedance at this slip = + j 2. \ Frequency.5 An inverter supplies a 4-pole.61 sin (w t  57. Total impedance of the motor.5 + j 132.

258 + j 662.35°) A. Slip = 2/10 = 0.5) W.863 Ë j 910(1.72 sin (w t  57.35°) A Thus the total armature current.  5 ¥ 50  48 S5 = = 1. Z t = 0.5 + 1.5) \ Total impedance.5) W 0.863 350 Ê 1.5 = (1.5 Á ohms Ë 0.5 + = 1.5) Total impedance = 0.2 15 .192 j 650 (1. Secondary impedance = + j 0.35° W 57.223 – 85.99°) = 4.5 = (7.258 + j 12.223 sin (5 w t  85. 1. S 7 = = 0.  & Power Electronics Slip for fifth harmonic.p65 128 9/27/07.5 Secondary impedance = + j12.5) Total impedance.99°) A 350  48 Slip for seventh harmonic.5 = (2.326 sin (7 w t  86.738 + j 927.71°) + 3.53 – 67.76 = 24.99° 24.82 – 85. = 85.143 RMS value of seventh harmonic = – 86.67 = 34.5 + j 0.2 X m = 130/5 = 26 W j 26(7.326 sin (7 w t  86.258 + j12.5 + W 7.5 + j 0.172) = 7.99∞ Instantaneous value of fifth harmonic current = 2 ¥ 3.82° Power-15 OLC.206 + j 34.557 sin (5 w t  85.5 + j12. 4:24 PM .192  5 ¥ 50 400 Voltage applied = = 80 V 5 1.99° ) + 2.99°.5 Ê Secondary impedance =  Á + j17.645 A 34.5 + j 26.5 = 2.74 – 186. 1.5 80 Fifth harmonic rms current = = 3.738 + j 17. Z t = 0.5 + j 17.82 – 85.926 + j 7.223 sin (5 w t  85.734 + j 24.74 Instantaneous value of current = 2.35° = 1.5 + j 0. (ii) Current waveform at 10 Hz: Fundamental voltage at 10 Hz = 80 V.

343) = 4. 1450 rpm.693 + j 185.343° W.22 sin (7 w t  72. Control of A.09 W. we get the same current waveforms both at 50 Hz and 10 Hz for a rotor frequency of 2 Hz.293 + j 132. R 2 = 0. Z t = 0.c.62) 7. X 1 = 0. The d. 50 Hz. star-connected squirrel-cage induction motor has the following parameters per phase referred to the stator: R 1 = 0.p65 129 9/27/07.16.266 = 2.343) A 5.02 sin (10 p L  67.259 Seventh harmonic: Voltage of seventh harmonic = 11.53 Fifth harmonic voltage = 16 V  5 ¥ 10  8 Slip for fifth harmonic = = 1.5 + j3.c.5 Instantaneous value of fifth harmonic. The motor is controlled by a six-step inverter.3 sin (5 w t  70.82°) 7. X 2 = 0. source of 400 V.62°) If the voltage is varied to keep air gap flux constant. 50 Hz.11 W. Power-15 OLC.5 + = 5.C.293 + j 2.266 – 72.259 – 70.343) + 2.82°) = 15. 4:24 PM . 4-pole.5 + 1. Instantaneous value of seventh harmonic 2 ¥ 11. Drives  ' Instantaneous value of fundamental current 80 = 2 sin (10 p t  67.4286 = sin (7 w t  72.62) The total armature current = 15.  5 ¥ 10 Secondary impedance = (1. (a) What should be the rectifier firing angle for getting the rated fundamental voltage across the motor if the rectifier is fed by an a. input to the inverter is provided by a six-pulse.5 + j2. Example 15.934 = 7.6 W. and X m = 12 W.62°.693 + j 3.886. fully-controlled rectifier.82°) + 4. 400V.5) Total impedance. X m = 182 W 7 ¥ 10 j 182(1.428 V 7 ¥ 10  8 Slip for seventh harmonic = = 0.293 + j2.5) W X m = 13 W j 130(1. 1.02 sin (w t  67.3 sin (5w t  70. 16 i5 = 2¥ sin (5w t  70.22 sin (7 w t  72.5) \ Total impedance = 0.171 + j 6.7 A three-phase.5 = 2.4 W.

Ê 610 ˆ The inverter frequency = ÁË ˜ ¥ 50 = 20.09 ˆ 2 2 ˘ Erated = 76.25° 3 6 ¥ 400 2 (b) (i) As discussed in previous sections that for a given torque the motor operates at a fixed slip speed for all frequencies when the flux is maintained constant. S= = 0.033 1500 400 / 3 \ I2 = = 76. Also determine the motor current Solution: The fundamental RMS line voltage of a six-step inverter is given by 6 E1 = Edc (i) p 3 where.6) ˙ = 214. \ Slip speed in rpm at the rated torque.99 V Ë Î 0. 3 6 E1 p 2 \ E1 = 2 Em cos a . 120 ¥ 50 N ss = N s  N =  1450 = 50 rpm. and rated torque (ii) the inverter frequency at 460 rpm and half the rated torque. \ cos a = (iii) p Em 3 6 Here.1450 Also. Em = 400 2 V. Edc = Em cos a (ii) p Em is the peak of a. E1 = 400 V.c. p 2 ¥ 400 cos a = .11 + ˜ + (0.98 A 2 Ê 0. 4:24 PM . synchronous speed at 560 rpm N s = N + N ss = 560 + 50 = 610 rpm.98 ÍÁ ˜¯ + (0.p65 130 9/27/07. source line voltage.033 ˚ Power-15 OLC.033 ¯ 1/ 2 ÈÊ 0.4 + 0. ! Power Electronics (b) If the machine is operated at a constant flux then determine (i) the inverter frequency at 560 rpm.6) 0.33 Hz 1500 ¯ (ii) The back emf at the rated operation Erated = I2 [(R 2 /S )2 + X 22]1/2 E1 / 3 where I2 = ( R1 + R2 / S ) 2 + ( X1 + X 2) 2 1500 . 4 Hence.09 ˆ 2 ÁË 0. \ a = 18.

98)2 ÁË ˜ = 308.p65 131 9/27/07.08 0.048 ¯ ˚ Power-15 OLC. Î Ë 0. Control of A.75) 2 + (0.09) (62.6)2 = KS ¯ KS 2 Ê 1 ˆ Ê 1 ˆ or ÁË ˜ .09 ˆ ˘ (214.75 (v) KS wr 460 0.S ) which gives S = 0.S ) Substituting from Eq.048 \ From Eq.75 S (1 .09 ˆ ˘ = 37. Substituting the known value in Eq. k = 0.38) of the book yields 214.19 V. 2 1/ 2 ÈÊ R ˆ ˘ V 1 = I2 ÍÁ R1 + 2 ˜ K 2 ( X 1 + X 2) 2 ˙ ÎË S¯ ˚ 2 1/ 2 ÈÊ 0. for K.4 + 0. (v). gives 1 0. K= = = w s (1 . (15.332 Thus.C.09 ˆ 2 ˙ Í ËÁ KS ¯˜ + (0. Drives ! Now.S ) (1 .514 or ÁË ˜ + (0.41) of the book 2 3 È Erated R2 ( KS ) ˘ \ T= Í 2 ˙ (iv) w s Í R ( KS )2 + X 2 ˙ Î 2 2 ˚ Note that ws and X 2 in this Eq. 157.99 I2 = = 37.09 ˆ \ T= (76.332) 2 (0.86 A (0.033 ¯ Equation (iv) becomes È Ê 0.63.6) 2 ˙ = 76.6) 2 2 Machine fundamental phase voltage.332 ¥ 50 = 16.86 ÍÁ 0.31 Now.44 = 0 KS ¯ KS ¯ 1 which gives = 62.08 rad/s ws 60 3 Ê 0.66 N-m.S ) 1500(1 .6 Hz.31 \ = 62.66 3 Í Ë KS ˜¯ ˙ \ = Í 2 ˙ 2 157. frequency = 0. (v).09 ˆ 0. are for rated frequency 3 2 1500 where T= I2 R 2/S but ws = ¥ 2p = 157.08 Í Ê 0. 4:24 PM . torque at a constant flux is given by Eq.11 + ˜ + (0. (15.6) ˙ Î ˚ 2 Ê 0.99) 2 Á 308.46 ÁË ˜ + 44.

and X m = 10.86 – 9. (c) The motor speed.4 = 6 + j 0.4 + 0.81° W 0. (b) The inverter frequency and d.14A RMS harmonic current is given by 12 Ê • 1ˆ V1 In = Á K ( X 1 + X 2 ) ÁË h Â ˜ h4 ˜¯ = 5.332(0. Compute the following: (a) The stator current and d. when the machine operates at rated torque and 50 Hz.4 = 6. ! Power Electronics Now.4 + 0.6) \ The RMS input current = (I1 + I4) 1/2 = [(45. Solution: At the rated operations.18 W.c. 4:24 PM .02 Power-15 OLC. Ns = = = 1000 rpm = 104.332 ¥ 12 = 19.86 – ( R1 + R2 / S ) (0. I1 = I 2 + I m = 31.36 A Example 15. X 2 = 0.20 W.12 – 90° Now. and d.12 – 9 0 ° or I1 = 45.046 V1 Ih = (vi) K ( X1 + X 2 ) 0. flux is maintained constant. P 6 1000  980 Rated slip = = 0.046 ¥ 76. link current for a speed of 500 rpm and rated torque.19 ** = – 90° = – 90° k Xm 0.c. X1 = 0.5° + 19.048) 9. star-connected.8 A three-phase.01 – 3.02 1000 0.7. stator current. At the rated value. taking V 1 as a reference vector.14)2 + (10.09 / 0. 980 rpm. 400 V. 120 f 120 ¥ 50 Synchronous speed.11. 50 Hz.p65 132 9/27/07.6) I2 = I2 –  tan 1 = 37. R 2 = 0.5° E1 76.332 (0.72 rad/s.12 W.3 W.13 Neglecting harmonics higher than 13 gives 0. squirrel-cage induction motor has the following parameters per phase referred to the stator: R 1 = 0.56)2]1/2 = 46.56 A. 0.12 Rotor impedance. link current for half of the rated torque and inverter frequency of 25 Hz. link current.86 –  tan1 = 37. The current source inverter controls the motor.11 + 0.c. six-pole.19 \ Ih = = 10. Z2 = + j 0. K ◊ ( X1 + X 2 ) 0.4 W.

T= Í 2 2˙ ws Î ( R2 S ) + X 2 ˚ 228.44)2 Á = 228.46 A (ii) (b) We know that when the motor is controlled at a constant flux for a given torque.41 –  33.41 = 55.01 – 3.4) ( j 10.98 V 2 È Erated 3 R2 S ˘ Now.44 –  4. (c) The slip-speed is constant at all frequencies as the flux is constant for a given torque.C.72 Ë 0.27 – 60.02 ˜¯ (a) For the three-phase current source inverter (six-step). Drives !! Z2 Zm (6 + j 0.12 S )2 + (0.3 = 218.p65 133 9/27/07. Erated = Im X m = 21.94 = 5.68 A 6 6 Also.26 ¥ 10.68) = 45.32 – 33.20 + j 0.98) 2 ¥ 0.57∞ = 36.02 ¥ 1000 = 20 rpm.72∞ 3 2 3 Ê 0. Therefore.27 – 60. the slip speed has a constant value.24 N-m. Irms = ( ) 2 3 Id = ( ) 2 3 (55. ws 104. at the motor speed of 500 rpm. Control of A.57∞ Zm 10. synchronous speed.12/ S ˘ = Í ˙ 2 104.32 – 33.18 + Z2 Zm 6 + j 10.3 – 90∞ I2 = I1 = ¥ 43. I 2 ( R2 S ) = (36.57° W 400 3 I1 = = 43. Therefore. 4:24 PM .4)2 ˙˚ Power-15 OLC.12 ˆ Torque = .41 –  33  57∞) = 21. Since the stator current is constant.43 + j2.24 3 È (218. for a given torque.72∞ Zm 6.c. slip speed at the rated torque and frequency is N ss = S N s = 0. RMS stator current is given by the relation. the stator current remains constant at all speeds. the fundamental RMS current is given by 6 I1 = Id (i) p p Id p \ Id = = ¥ 43.3) Machine impedance = Z1 + = 0.48° Zm + t2 12. the d.81∞ Im = I1 = (43.68 A.41 – 33.26 – 90.7 = 4.57 ° A 5. The slip speed for 25 Hz operation at half the rated torque can be determined from 50 Hz operation. For 50 Hz operation. Inverter frequency = (520/1000)50 = 26 Hz Also.72 ÍÎ (0. link current also remains constant at 55. when the motor is controlled at a constant flux.29° A Zm + Z2 12. N s = 500 + 20 = 520 rpm.

4) 2 From Eq.5 \ q1 = 84°.p65 134 9/27/07. \ The corresponding maximum value of output voltage is Emax 1 = 2 ¥ 41. i.3 or I1 = 28.44 or ÁË ˜ + (0.12 2 0. consider the operation at 25 Hz. RMS value of output voltage will also vary from 10% to 40% of rated value. link current Id can be given by the formula p I1 p ¥ 28.0144 x 2  1.16 = 0.02 N s 500 K Erated 0.e.51 = 29.e.81 A.47 Id = = = 36. since the output frequency only varies from 5 to 20 Hz.5 ¥ 0. d. 41.35 E cos q or 1. Example 15. N ss = S N s = 0.5 ¥ 1000 = 500 rpm. Load power factor is 0.4) = S ¯ S \ 0.4 1+ 1+ Xm 10.5 V to 166 V.01 ¥ 1000 = 10 rpm 25 Now. 50 Hz three-phase system and is controlling an induction motor in the speed range 5 to 20 Hz (non-reversible) using constant V /f control. Hence.5 and Emax 2 = 2 ¥ 166 Now.62).35 ¥ 415 cos q1 = Emax1 = 2 ¥ 41. Emax = 1.24 A ( R2 S ) + ( K X 2 ) (0. i. N s = 0. 4:24 PM . Slip speed.9 A cycloconverter is operating on 415 V. Determine (a) Range of variation of firing angle of cycloconverter (b) Worst value of input power factor (c) Highest value of distortion-factor.12 ˆ 2 1.5 50 \ Synchronous speed. V /f will be constant. of the book we have I12  I m2 I12  (21. !" Power Electronics 2 Ê 0.7. Power-15 OLC.44 x + 0. 10% to 40% of rated frequency.02 ) + (0.24)2 = 2¥2 2 ¥ 0.5 ¥ 218.8 and the input displacement factor is 0.26) 2 I22 = or (18. Solution: As the drive is operating in constant torque zone only. motor speed = 500  10 = 490 rpm N ss 10 \ S= = = 0. \ x = 100. where x = 1/S.51 A (iii) 6 6 The RMS stator current Irms = 2 3 ¥ 36.98 \ I2 = 2 2 = = 18. (15.47 A Also.01.c. which gives S = 0. K = = 0.

cos q cos f = cos f0 2 1.94 V. R 2 = 0.5 W.5 times the rated torque.e. The motor speed is controlled by the static rotor resistance control. X m = 35 W. the breakdown torque is obtained at standstill. Determine the following: (a) The value of the external resistance. V = 400 3 = 230.4178 0.339. 50 Hz. 1.7 SOLVED EXAMPLES Example 15. range of variation of firing angle is 65. 400 V.6 W.8 m= .8 = 0.0592 2 (c) Distortion factor is given by cos q cos f0 cos q m cos f0 0. for a = 0. stator-to-rotor turns ratio is 2.66 rad/s 50 1000  960 Full-load slip = = 0.C. Hence. lowest value will occur for lowest values of cos q.5 and 1.1044 Here.10 A three-phase.3 W.3°. P 6 1000 ¥ 2p ws = = 125. Control of A. star-connected. 960 rpm. The filter resistance is 0. Solution: 120 f 120 ¥ 50 Ns = = = 1000 rpm.5 times the rated torque. (c) The speed. cos f0 = ¥ 0. 2 cos fi 2 cos fi 2 0.04 1000 Without rotor resistance control. cos q = 0. 4:24 PM .p65 135 9/27/07. \ mm = ◊ = ¥ = 0. wound-rotor induction motor has the following parameter per-phase referred to the stator: R 1 = 0. The value of external resistance is chosen such that a = 0.35 ¥ 415 ¥ cos q2 = 2 ¥ 166 \ q2 = 65. Drives !# Similarly. six-pole. X 1 = X 2 = 1. (b) Input power factor is given by cos q cos f = cos q0 2 where cos f0 is load power factor.01 W. Hence. Neglect friction and windage loss. Worst value of input power factor i. 3 È V 2 ( R2 S ) ˘ T= Í 2 ˙ w s Í ( R1 + R2 S ) + ( X 1 + X 2 ) 2 ˙ Î ˚ Power-15 OLC.1044.3° to 84°. (b) a for a speed of 750 rpm at 1.

5 ˆ ˘ Í (230.04 ˜¯ ˙ Full load torque.5 ˆ 2 2˙ 0. for a = 0.2) Í ÁË 0. 2.69  0. (15.89) and (15.69 W aT21 From Eq.25 ) ˘ 1. = ˙ = 91. !\$ Power Electronics È Ê 0.0579 R¢m  10.8) gives (R¢m )2  9.33 = 0 \ R¢m = 3.28(b).90). of the book 3 È V 2 ( Rm¢ S ) ˘ T= Í 2 2 ˙ w s Í ( R1 + Rk¢ + Rm¢ S ) + ( X 1 + X 2 ) ˙ Î ˚ From Eq.76 W.04 ˜¯ ˙ Î ˚ (a) From Fig.01 = 1. (15.9906 R¢m 2  0. 4:24 PM . 15. Ê p2 ˆ R¢k = Á  1˜ R¢m = 0. 15.p65 136 9/27/07.43 = Í 2 2˙ 125.3 + + (3. (iii. R¢k = 0.66 ÍÍ Ê 0. (i).0579 R¢m  0. R = 2 R e*  R d = 2 ¥ 0.24 = 0 0.09  10.66 ÎÍ (0.25) + (3.927 Rm¢ + 0.0966 Rm¢ + Rm¢ /0.2) ˚˙ or 0.0966 R¢m (ii) Ë 9 ¯ Substituting from Eq. of the book Rm¢ = [(R 1 + R k¢ )2 + (X 1 + X 2)2]1/2 S when the breakdown torque occur at standstill. Ex.26 W and \ R¢k = 0.90) of the book. from Eq.94)2 Á ˙ 3 Í Ë 0.25 1000 \ Substituting all known values in above equation yields 3 È (230.3 + 0.0966 R¢m 1000  750 S= = 0. (15.26  0. (R ¢m)2 = (R 1 + R¢k )2 + (X 1 + X 2)2 or (R¢m)2 = R¢2k + 2 R¢k R1 + R 21 + (X 1 + X 2)2 (i) From Eqs (15.504 R¢m2  0.43 N-m 125.95).37 W (b) With rotor resistance control.33 ¥ 103 (R¢m)2  0.315 W From Eq. R¢e* = R¢m  R¢2 = 3.94) 2 ( Rm¢ 0. (i) and known values in Eq.31 = 0 Power-15 OLC.81) of the book.5 ¥ 91.5 = 2.76 R e* = = 0.

Control of A. When T ON/T OFF = 1. The speed of the motor at this slip = (1  0. È ˘ Í 2 ˙ 3 Í (230. 1.23.9/ S ) ˙ 1. \ a = 0. Determine the ratio T ON/T OFF to give an average torque of 25 Nm. 2 Power-15 OLC.9 ˆ 17.24 = S S which gives S = 0.35 = 1. From Eq. the complete resistance is included in the circuit.01 + (1  0.9 = 0. Drives !% which gives Rm¢= 1. \ N = N s (1  S) = 100 (1  0.9 ˆ 2 ˙ Í Á 0.225  0. T av = = 27.28) = 720 rpm Example 15.35 W Rm¢= R 2 + aT12 R e* = 0.2) ˙ ÎÍ Ë S¯ ˚˙ 2 Ê 1. 2 Re *  Rd 2 ¥ 0. Rm¢ = 1. Load torque is w2.4  0.5 + 4 ¥ 0.11 A three-phase.484 + ˜¯ + 10.66 Í Ê 1.37] = 0.23 value is not feasible. Hence.37 (c) From Eq. 30 ¥ 1 + 24 ¥ 1 the average torque. 50 Hz induction-motor has a chopper- controlled resistance in the rotor circuit for speed control.43 = 2 125. The 1. compute the average torque and speed.81) of the book R e* = 0.64 or ÁË 0.68 R 1. Solution: The synchronous speed = 1500 rpm. When the thyristor chopper is OFF. The motor develops a torque of 80 per cent of ON torque when the thyristor is OFF.225 W (2)2 From Eq. The speed variation ranges down to 1200 rpm from synchronous speed. four-pole.03. the torque is 30 N-m at a slip of average 0. (15. S = 0.4 W. (15.4 W or 0.3 + 0.9 W R¢k = 0.5 ¥ 91. (15.03) 1500 = 1465 rpm.01 (1  a) = = .28 or 1.81) of the book. 4:24 PM .03.C.90) of the book.184 + ˜ + (3.p65 137 9/27/07. When the thyristor is ON. If T ON/ T OFF = 1.5 [0.5 R e* = ( Rm¢  R2¢ aT21 = = 0.0966 ¥ 1.44 W The latter value is not feasible because it is less than R 2.50) 1.94) (1.184 W Substituting all known values in torque equation.

4:24 PM . therefore.C. flexibility. The software control algorithms can easily be altered or improved without changing the hardware. repeatability of parameters for many drives applications.13 TOFF T 25 = \ ON = 0. In a power- electronic system. To meet these requirements. the microcomputer functions can in general be categorized as follows:  Control of feedback loops  Gate firing control of phase-controlled converters  PWM or square-wave signal generation of inverters  Optimal and adaptive control  Estimation of feedback signals  General sequencing control  Protection and fault overriding control  Signals monitoring and warning  Data acquisition  Diagnostics  Miscellaneous computation and control. use of microprocessors have become imperative.p65 138 9/27/07. 27 N2 = ¥ (1465)2 = 1390 rpm. ease of operation.97 TON + TOFF TOFF I MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLED A. The digital control has inherently improved noise immunity which is particularly important here because of large power switching transients in the converters. The simplification of hardware saves control electronics cost and improves the system reliability. The complex computation and decision Power-15 OLC.13 N-m (1405) 2 Average-torque = 25 N-m 30 ¥ TON + 20. torque would be (1200) 2 ¥ 30 = 20. = 2 (1465) 2 N 2 Speed when T ON/T OFF = 1 is. DRIVES Todays industry places high demands on control accuracies. 30 When the speed is 1200 rpm for chopper OFF. !& Power Electronics 30 27 Since T a N 2. Another important feature is that the structure and parameters of the control system can be altered in real time making the control adaptive to the plant characteristics. The superiority of microcomputer control over the conventional hardware based control can easily be recognized for complex drive control system.

Microcomputer technology is moving at such a fast rate that the use of efficient high level language with large hardware integration already is possible. Modern PWM a. 1 Control of Induction Motor Drive It is essential to keep ratio of voltage to frequency (V /f ) constant for any motor if constant torque is required throughout the speed range. and even robotics.c. drives are widely used in the following industrial applications:  Fans and pumps  Compressors  Travel and hoist drives in cranes and conveyors. Interest has been growing in microprocessor-based PWM schemes for a. remains a challenge because of the time critical performance requirement of the microcomputer. the problems can be solved by multi-microprocessor control. powerful diagnostics can be written in the software. the slow computation capability may pose serious problems in executing the fast control loops. However. In addition. i. control. precision PWM wave generation in real time. Power-15 OLC. However. the wave can be fabricated precisely in the transition region controlling the harmonics and voltage jump. This task is achieved through pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique. A basic block diagram of the control is shown in Fig. As the linear PWM region is exceeded into the transition region.c. where judicious partitioning of the task can significantly enhance the execution speed.p65 139 9/27/07. drive systems in recent years. numerical machine control. In a conventional hardware modulator. the PWM waveforms are generated by comparing the sine reference wave with the triangular carrier wave by the natural sampling process. the harmonic quality of the waves deteriorates seriously with the introduction of the lower order harmonics. drive systems are continually seeking improvement of performance and reliability with reduction of control and power conversion cost. the dropping of pulses near the middle of the wave causes a current surge problem. a microcomputer executes control in serial fashion. Control of A. In a microprocessor-based modulator. 15. The microprocessor performs all the functions of closed-loop control using software. instrumentation. A suitable software and digital logic are used to develop the necessary PWM waveform. In addition.  Paper machines  Write drawing machines in metal industry etc. as required by the drive system operation.C. data acquisition. and the nonlinearity problem can be easily overcome. and possibly VLSI implementation of the controller is the next goal.  Roller tables in rolling mills. As a result. multitasking operations are performed in time multiplexed method. Microcomputers are having a major impact on industrial applications. including the areas of testing.1. Unlike dedicated hardware control. Drives !' taking capabilities of microcomputer make possible to apply the modern optimal and adaptive control theories to optimize the drive system performance. 4:24 PM .c.e. The microprocessor controlled a.

This includes selection and Fig. The real time aspects of the processor ADCs. (b) The analog signal of measured signal is processed after conversion to digital signal by ADC. However. (c) The microprocessor controller must be capable of performing control tasks as it interacts with the system. This may be overcome by a hard wired digital logic. The system can be designed with a flexibility to provide monitoring functions to change the parameters such as sampling rates of ADCs. Comparing this with set speed in a controller and to provide an output of current based on the speed error (speed controller program).p65 140 9/27/07. This is compared with the output of speed con- troller in current controller. it can be accomplished using a suitable hardware. DAC.1 Block-diagram of microprocessor based speed control of induction motor Power-15 OLC. The output of this controller determines the firing instants of the inverter which gives the desired voltage waveform. The functions of a microprocessor in a PWM control are: (a) Processing of speed signals obtained from a shaft encoder. the necessary lim- iting may also be accomplished. the speed of microprocessor may set a limit on the maximum frequency of operation. " Power Electronics The uniform sampling techniques are used to develop the necessary PWM waveforms. A microprocessor system may be evolved to provide the real time simulation besides implementing the control programs. Wherever the speed of a microprocessor is not sufficient to per- form a given task. parallel interfaces and the capability of the system to provide control and other functions are taken to advantage. 15. 4:24 PM .

The inverter triggering pulses are synchronized to the rotor position reference signals with a delay angle determined by an 8-bit control input. The control tasks to be performed simultaneously may be recognized and separate processors be used to execute these. the control may not be accurate because some input measurements may be missed or false timing of signals may be generated. versatility of the controller. Drive System A block diagram of the microprocessor-controlled synchronous motor drive is shown in Fig. 1. which is a pulse train of frequency proportional to the motor speed. The synchronous machine is fed from a current source d. supply lines. These trends in microprocessor hardware and software may be applied to power electronic controls. would become relatively simple. motor (also known as self-controlled synchronous motor) which consists of a synchronous machine fed from a current-source inverter or cycloconverter.c. The advent of microprocessor has raised interest in the digital control of power- converter systems and electronic motor drives since the microprocessor provides a flexible and low-cost alternative to the conventional approach. 4:24 PM . The trends in the design and development of microprocessor based controllers for induction motors operating on PWM inverters include 16-bit processors. source through a chopper which is under the microprocessor control. reduced components count and reduced development and manufacturing cost.p65 141 9/27/07. 15. 2 Control of Synchronous Motor Drive In recent years. principally improved performance and reliability. mathematical computation to implement control. Power-15 OLC. providing rotor speed and position signals. faster processor. The input rectifier is powered from three-phase a. The task may be executed in parallel almost simulta- neously by developing algorithms which may be performed indepen- dently by a multiprocessor system. Control of A. as in the case of harmonic elimination. which consists of a thyristor bridge rectifier connected to a three-phase thyristor inverter through a smoothing inductor. is fed to a programmable counter used for speed sensing. For motor drive systems. The optical encoder which is composed of a coded disk attached to the motor shaft and four optical sensors. the necessary A/D and D/A conversion. The inverter thyristors are naturally commutated by the machine voltages during normal operation.c. Here.c.c. link converter system. Drives " sampling of signals. if the execution speed of the microprocessor is slow. The multi-task requirement of a microprocessor may lead to reduced reliability.2. The speed signal.C. special purpose processors with on board data conversion and additional hardware functions. and its gating signals are provided by a digitally controlled firing circuit. more efficient algorithms may be developed and applied which require computer implementation. The machine field current is supplied by a d. increasing interest has been shown for the commutatorless d. microprocessor control offers several interesting features.

15. and amplified by optically-isolated amplifiers. commands are fetched from the input-output terminal. The output signals are multiplexed and converted to digital form by a high speed analog-to-digital converter. and system variables (the d. In normal operation. so as to provide the programmed drive characteristics. After processing. diagnosis and display. the machine inverter and the field chopper. It can also perform various auxiliary tasks. The principal functions of the microprocessor are monitoring and control of the system variables for the purpose of obtaining desired drive features. Fig. the rotor position and speed) are sensed and fed to the CPU. the microprocessor has to ensure forced-commutation of the inverter from standstill up to speeds about 10 per cent of the nominal speed.p65 142 9/27/07.2 Block diagram of micropocessor synchronous motor drive Since the self-controlled synchronous motor is unable to start by itself.c. " Power Electronics The stator and field currents are detected by current sensors. 4:24 PM . such as protection. the microprocessor issues control signals to the input rectifier. when the machine voltages are sufficient to commutate the thyristors. the field-current.-link current. Power-15 OLC.

(b) Rotor Position Sensing and Inverter Firing Angle Control In order to obtain self-control feature. Phase-locked loop principle is used to synchronize control signals to line-to-line voltages and the desired delay angle with respect to the a. (a) Input Rectifier Firing Angle Control The d. input is provided by a digital comparator. Digital Control of Power Circuits The digital control of the power converters requires suitable interface circuits between the CPU and the power stages. Drives "! 2.c. with a view to save the CPU time for monitoring and control tasks.c.3 Schematic diagram of digitally control firing circuit It consists essentially of three delay control circuits and a pulse distributing circuit.p65 143 9/27/07. The schematic diagram of the digital firing circuit which is used as interface between the microprocessor and the thyristor bridge rectifier is shown in Fig. 15. This angle is determined by the 8-bit control input. 15.7° over the range 0°180°. providing a resolution of 0. signals must be synchronized to the rotor position. This can be achieved by using as reference.C. the inverter firing.3. Fig. either the machine Power-15 OLC. These circuits convert the CPU commands to appropriate triggering pulses for the converters. Pulse generation is accomplished by hardware logic circuits. 4:24 PM . Control of A. link current is controlled by varying the input rectifier firing angle.

the number of pulses generated for every 360° of rotation is equal to 256. The phase reference signals (P1.4 Optical-Encoder. P2 and P3) are produced by three sensors positioned at 120° intervals. Idealized motor voltage and current waveforms are shown in Fig. Here. Linear digital ramp technique is applied to convert the digital control input to corresponding delay angle for the inverter triggering pulses. "" Power Electronics voltages for the signals provided by a position sensor. As both rising and falling edges of this signal are deleted. The fourth sensor produces a higher frequency square wave (S 4) of frequency proportion to the motor speed. 4:24 PM . (a) Encoder disk (b) Output Power-15 OLC. This pulse train is used in inverter firing angle control and speed sensing.p65 144 9/27/07. motoring or generation operation is selected with a delay angle equal to f or (180° f). Figure 15. Each of the four sensors consists of light emitting diode and a phototransistor mounted in a moulded housing. a simple optical encoder is used to produce both speed and position reference signals necessary for starting and normal operation. a thyristor address register. The 8-bit input control word contains mode operation and delay angle informations. 15.5. The schematic diagram of the inverter firing angle control circuit is shown in Fig.5 with the waveforms for one phase. waveforms Fig. The encoder disk has 256 teeth on the outer perimeter and two 90° slots on the inner perimeter.4 shows details of the encoder construction and the output waveforms. It consists of three delay control circuits. Depending on the mode bit. which are defined respectively by the first bit and the remaining 7 bits. 15. and a pulse distributing circuit. 15.

4:24 PM . When the terminal count is reached. 3. link so that power can flow in both directions. the delay angle information f is loaded into the counter. source through a transistor chopper which is controlled by a 010 V input voltage. The obtained resolution for the control voltage is 40 mV. with a delay angle f or (180° f) with respect to the phase reference signals.4 electrical degrees.C. a pulse is generated and applied to the clock input of the D-type flip-flop. System Operation The characteristic of the drive depends on the d.c. making regeneration operation possible. are combined in the decoder to produce six modulated triggering pulse trains. Power-15 OLC. These pulse trains are 120° wide with 60° of phase-angle between each other. (c) Field-chopper control The machine field current is supplied by a d. 15. The three-output signals . The bit command from the microprocessor is converted to corresponding analog signal by a digital-to-analog converter. These variables are independently controlled by the microprocessor to provide the desired features for all operation conditions. If a higher resolution is desired. Drives "# Fig.p65 145 9/27/07.5 Idealized motor voltage and current waveforms (a) Motoring (b) regeneration At the beginning of each half-cycle of the phase-reference signal. The maximum count for each half-cycle is 127 so that the resolution in delay angle is about 1. the field current. and the count is incremented or decremented by the speed pulses from the encoder. a more elaborate encoder is required to generate a higher rate speed signal. and the inverter firing angle. The converter system is symmetrical about the d.c. link current. Control of A.c.

The firing angle of the machine inverter is between 90° and 180°. the average torque is a function of the inverter firing angle. Therefore. some margin is required to ensure reliable commutation. "\$ Power Electronics (a) Motoring During motoring operation. link voltage. and a positive torque is developed.c. the maximum value obtained for f = 180°.p65 146 9/27/07. supply lines to motor. 15. the power flow is from the a. and it is naturally commutated by the motor terminal voltages.c. it is desirable that the inverter delay angle is maintained as close as possible to 180° so as to develop maximum torque. Desired torquespeed characteristic is obtained by varying the field current in terms of the stator current.c.6(a) The relation between the inverter firing angle and the stator current is stored in a look-up table in the memory. A separately excited d. If the field current is Power-15 OLC. 4:24 PM . The firing angle of the input rectifier is between 0° and 90°. resulting in a positive d. For constant stator and field currents. motor is provided if the air-gap flux is kept constant. Fig. However.

a series d. the relation between the field current and the stator current is provided by a function generator in the form of a look-up table stored in the memory. the motor operates as an alternator. the braking torque is determined by the inverter firing angle and the field current. link current diction is fixed. the microprocessor is required to commutate the inverter to start and accelerate the motor until the Power-15 OLC.c. the machine terminal voltage is not available so that the synchronous motor is unable to start itself. link voltage.c. Their functions are then reversed. As for the delay angle. power flow reversal is achieved by reversing the d. In this case. The firing angles must be consequently changed to be in the 90°180° range for the input rectifier. As in the motoring mode.6 (b) and (c) Inverter delay angle control circuit various waveforms (c) Starting At standstill. The developed torque is negative with the effect of reducing the motor speed.c. Consequently. Since the d. Control of A. 15. (b) Regeneration During regenerative braking.p65 147 9/27/07. Drives "% made proportional to the stator current.C. and in the 0°90° range for the machine converter. motor characteristic results.c. supplying power to the a. lines. the commutation is improved as the machine voltage increases with increased motor current. 4:24 PM . Fig.

p65 148 9/27/07. "& Power Electronics terminal voltage is sufficiently large to ensure reliable commutation. The rectifier is forced into inverter operation so as to reverse the d. the inverter delay angle is precisely fixed at 180°. Thus. The phase-reference signals available at standstill are used to determine the initial rotor position with a precision of ± 30 electrical degrees. the forced commutation is executed by microprocessor. and the thyristor pairs are addressed directly by the CPU through the thyristor address register. An appropriate thyristor pair is triggered to create a motor torque in the desired direction. full four-quadrant operation of the drive is obtained.9 A. 15. Speed Control System Example In the proposed microprocessor- based synchronous motor drive. providing maximum starting torque. field current 2. the delay counters are disabled.c. Power-15 OLC. Therefore. At each change of state of the phase-reference signals.c. Natural commutation begins when the motor speed has reached a value which produces sufficiently large terminal voltage to ensure reliable commutation. link current prior to each commutation. a 4-pole 10 kVA synchronous motor with the parametera mature current 27 A. The forced commutation can be accomplished either by an auxiliary commutating circuit or by interrupting the d. During starting operation. link voltage until the current becomes zero. by reversal of the triggering sequence of the inverter thyristors as the frequency goes through zero value. Triggering pulses are directed to the following thyristor pair by the CPU which writes an appropriate 3-bit address into the thyristor address register. as well as the controller characteristics are defined by software. speed 1500 rpm. 4:24 PM . The latter solution is used in the present system for simplicity. they can be readily modified without change in hardware to provide various drive characteristics in order to satisfy particular applications requirements. the feedback configuration. The delay counters are then enabled. This is accomplished by a simple selection logic circuit added to the inverter pulse distributing circuit. Immediately at the first change of state of the phase-reference signals. Fig. (a) System hardware: Here.7 Idealized relation between average torque and inverter firing angle (d) Reversing Reversal of rotation direction is achieved without any change in power connections. and the thyristors are triggered with a delay angle determined by an 8-bit control word from the CPU. 4.

8 Microprocessor based speed control system consists of a main speed control loop including an inner current control loop. It Fig. resulting in 0. 4:24 PM .C. a high speed inputoutput module was built using an 8-bit. therefore. X md = 5. Control of A. Drives "' X m L = 3. R a = 0. The inverter firing angle is determined by a 7-bit control word. and 8-bit microcomputer based on the 8080 CPU is used. A d.8. which provides 1. Power-15 OLC. 220 V line-to-line supply providing maximum d. 15. This system is a non-linear sampled data one. The load torque is. R f = 41 W.c. and a field current control loop.5 W. In order to provide fast current acquisition. Motor speed information is provided by a counter which is clocked by speed pulses from the optical encoder. 15. Its firing angle is determined by an 8-bit control word. However.c. The thyristor input rectifier is powered from a three-phase. generator supplying a resistor bank is used as a load for the motor.4 W.9 W. and R d = 0. The smoothing inductor parameters are L d = 40 mH. (b) Control scheme and software implementation: The feedback configuration of the speed control system under consideration is depicted in Fig.p65 149 9/27/07.7° angle resolution.4° of resolution. 50 Hz.113 W. link voltage equal to 297 V. proportional to the motor speed. 6 ms analog to digital converter. it can be considered as a constant for small speed variations.

1) where Ir(k) is the link current reference value at the k-th point. Tsn is the speed sampling period. precise study of which requires hybrid or digital simulation. respectively. The motor speed is sampled and processed every 20 ms on interrupt signals generated by a programmable timer. These routines are executed on interrupt signals provided by the real-time clocks. system behaviour can be predicted with acceptable accuracy using linearized models for system components. 15. 4:24 PM . The motor speed is sensed and compared with the speed command provided by the CPU. Simplified control diagrams of the current regulating routine and speed regulating routine are shown in Fig. and k p and k i are.p65 150 9/27/07. en(k) is the speed error value at k-th point. 15. Nevertheless.9 Simplified control diagrams The digital proportional integral algorithm executed by the speed controller is defined by the differential equation: Ir(k) = Ir(k  1)  k pen(k  1) + (k p + k i Tsn )en(k) (15. Speed error is processed by the speed controller which generates link current command. # Power Electronics with multi-rate sampling. Fig. Power-15 OLC.9. Current limiter feature is provided by the limiter incorporated in the speed controller. and classical Z- transform analysis (or statespace analysis). the proportional and integral control gains.

Current error is processed by the current controller. input voltage.C. Drives # Inverter and field current commands are derived from the link current command by two function generators stored in the memory in the form of look up tables. that is 3.33 ms for 50 Hz supply. Control of A. 15. Therefore. the link current is sampled and processed every one-sixth of the a. The reason for this sampling rate is that the thyristor rectifier firing angle can be modified only at discrete instants with average period equal to one-sixth of the a.11 Current regulating routine Power-15 OLC.c. The proportional integral algorithm executed by the current controller is defined by the difference equation: a(k) = a (k  1)  K p ei (k  1) + (k p + k i T Si)ei(k) (15.c. An interrupt signal for the current regulating routine is generated on each zero-crossing of the three-phase a.2) Fig. 15. producing firing angle command for the thyristor input rectifier. The link current is sensed and compared to the reference value provided by the speed regulating routine. input period.c. 4:24 PM . input period.10 Speed regulating routine Fig.p65 151 9/27/07.

and T si is the current sampling period. ei(k) is the current error at k-th point.10.p65 152 9/27/07. are shown respectively in Figs 15.11 and 15.12. 4:24 PM . # Power Electronics Fig. The flow charts of speed regulating routine.12 Starting routine where a (k) is the firing angle at k-th point. current regulating routine and starting routine. Power-15 OLC. 15. 15.