You are on page 1of 12

Integrating High-Speed

Treadmills Into a
Traditional Strength and
Conditioning Program for
Speed and Power Sports
Mitchell D. Hauschildt, MA, ATC, CSCS
Athletic Training Services, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri

SUMMARY a means of sports performance en- programs as a valuable training tool
hancement for speed and power sports. within a more traditional strength and
HIGH-SPEED TREADMILLS HAVE
This is evidenced by the increase in conditioning model to improve linear
BECOME VALUABLE TOOLS FOR
treadmill companies producing units speed, acceleration, and sport-specific
INCREASING SPEED AND SPORTS
capable of high speeds and/or eleva- power for athletes participating in
PERFORMANCE OVER THE PAST 2 speed and power sports (i.e., football,
tions. The concept dates back to the
DECADES. TRADITIONALLY, THEY basketball, soccer, baseball, softball,
late 1980s when Frappier first began
HAVE BEEN PART OF NARROWLY and so on). Obviously, coaches and
implementing overspeed training and
FOCUSED CLINIC-BASED PRO- athletes should embrace and use new
incline running with professional foot-
GRAMS DESIGNED TO INCREASE technologies as they become available.
ball players in Fargo, ND, on large
SPEED SOLELY WITH THE USE OF However, one should use caution
treadmills, which were capable of
TECHNOLOGY. THIS HAS LED TO because it is tempting to use every
speeds of 28 miles per hour (mph)
QUESTIONS ABOUT SURFACE
and elevations reaching 40% grade. new item or technology that becomes
TRANSFER, HIGH INJURY RATES, Traditionally, many programs that use available. But, as many new trends fade
AND HOW THIS TECHNOLOGY high-speed treadmills (treadmills that over time, such a mind-set can lead to
FITS INTO A COMPREHENSIVE long-term frustration for both the
are capable of 20+ mph and 25%+
STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING coach and athlete. This article will also
grade) have been designed as intense
PROGRAM. HERE, WE WILL NOT highlight supportive research for the
6-week programs narrowly focused
ONLY ADDRESS THESE ISSUES use of high-speed treadmill program-
on speed development by way of
BUT ALSO DEMONSTRATE THAT ming as an effective long-term training
the treadmill, with little thought
WHEN PROPERLY INTEGRATED, modality.
into the integration of the treadmill
HIGH-SPEED TREADMILLS ARE EX- modality into a more traditional BACKGROUND
CEPTIONAL TOOLS THAT CAN BE strength and conditioning program to Speed can be defined as stride fre-
USED IN A VARIETY OF SETTINGS develop the well-rounded athlete. Such quency 3 stride length. To increase
TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE FOR a narrow mentality can lead to ques- speed performance, we must improve
THE SPEED AND POWER ATH- tions about the transfer from one 1 or both of these 2 variables. Although
LETES WHILE ALL BUT ELIMINAT- running surface to another (4,26,37,55, it can be difficult to improve both
ING SPRINT-RELATED INJURIES. 68,69), concerns of injury rates, and stride length and stride frequency
leaves us wondering about integrating
these short intense cycles into a larger KEY WORDS:
INTRODUCTION
strength and conditioning program. high-speed treadmill; speed training;
igh-speed treadmill training

H has seen a steady increase in
popularity over recent years as
In this article, emphasis will be placed
on using high-speed treadmill
periodization; metabolic training; sprint
mechanics

Copyright Ó National Strength and Conditioning Association Strength and Conditioning Journal | www.nsca-lift.org 21

ment for overspeed training. the revealed within research involving speed training have been shown to be running gait cycle should be reviewed. Mann and Hagy (29) during sprinting movements (35). stance the running cycle (38).44.43.e. Additionally.28).57).59).35). With trained spotting techniques 34. the traditional means of over- and ends back at initial contact. an athlete can be placed of techniques. ham.. maintaining pelvic 22 VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2010 . Such differences may be running is effective when performed where neither foot is in contact with advantageous for the long-term health at the right elevation under supervision the ground (38). muscle fiber type. It is after DOMS because of the decrease in support the need for increased power likely individualized to each athlete running efficiency and power output output during sprinting by demonstrat- based on factors such as strength.70).40. The focus with regards contact with the ground (initial con. body (3. most athletes have In the initial 2–5 weeks of training. to heel strike unnaturally. teaching decreased braking forces dur- flexors because they are primarily ing the act of running (5. quadriceps.31).7. downhill task (3. A good number of other research also be effective. good-quality running validates this concept.34. kinematics while being towed (8. This of muscle firing responsible for moving surement when analyzing the gait (38).e. initial improvements with over- As part of the speed discussion. showing that used with these techniques because mechanics should be a priority (38). but following the early adaptation period. wasting valuable training time. efficiency.56. increasing Increasing stride length is achieved by braking forces when performing the increasing speed strength. both electromyogram (EMG) and speed training has been performed by individualized. of the athlete. thus causing periods running (4. of time spent in the recovery phase of demonstrated an increase in propulsive For the purposes of this article. Downhill spent in stance.57. The research onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after (2). and so on. mechanics when towing an object. cerns.32.47). more They also observed that this occurred ground. greater activation of motor units. gastrocnemius/ faster than normal (6).67.31). and magnetic resonance imaging (39. This increase in activity especially under high loads (1.High-Speed Treadmills in Sports Performance simultaneously. increased power development in the some research has shown a likelihood The high-speed treadmill is a tool that lower extremities and force production of an athlete using poor running solves a great deal of the above con- improve running speed (5. Similar results have been Again. the an unusual running gait and tend INCREASED STRIDE LENGTH changes in propelling forces are pri. shown to increase muscle activation formed by moving the ground leg but not limited to. all of which are considered developing speed strength is tow train. Simply put. As forces and joint torques while running speed training includes tow training running speed increases. less time is uphill as compared with flat ground and/or downhill running. hypertrophy) are taking tric nature.25. (12). Others have also initiates the recovery (or flight) phase shown favorable differences in impact As stated. after the initial adapta- while running at 9 degrees of elevation. This can For the sake of running economy and (10). and hip flexors on overspeed training. Several researchers recom- lower body if they hope to increase place after the initial adaptation period mend a recovery period of 2–5 days stride length. one must increase the is not clear as to exactly what muscular downhill workouts because of its eccen- power output and explosiveness of the changes (i.57. this article will provide and power output within the gluteal through the same range of motion evidence to support the enhancement muscles. tow training does not muscle activity in the quads. ing that with a magnification of gait speed. and posterior muscles of the The most traditional method used for research shows a decrease in running calf. Historically. the basis of of both variables concurrently when soleus complex. 64.. varied speeds of locomotion while on largely neurological. Toe off then affect (18.71). downhill running or being towed (47). primary accelerators of body mass ing (i. but caution should be injury prevention. Unfortunately. As with power peak force rates by as much as 75% is the portion of the running cycle development. The cycle can be divided into 2 distinct responsible for decreasing the amount Gottschall and Kram (17) actually components: stance and recovery (38). which is marily neurological in nature. It begins with initial contact permanent muscular changes will take with little to no vertical impact forces and ends at toe off. increasing the rate It is defined as the basic unit of mea. offer much of an alternative because strings. including. neurological Unfortunately.13. an uphill slope (27. through the leg.71). over- an athlete is placed into a quality. the legs through the running cycle The cycle begins as one foot comes in coupled with increased efficiency in more quickly.34. comprehensive. while the efficiency and strength of the hip returns back to the ground again. intramuscular coordination.13. INCREASED STRIDE FREQUENCY into a safe and an appropriate environ- Uphill running at high speeds has been Increasing stride frequency is per.11. periodized program.22. the body showed an increase in type.24. (Figure 1) and the proper running can be accomplished by using a variety mechanics. when the foot is in contact with the tion of the nervous system.60). sled and parachute). leads to to improving stride frequency shifts to tact) and ends when the same foot improved propelling forces. defined as ‘‘the explosiveness produced athletes tend to experience delayed by the muscles during athletic events’’ more permanent muscular changes become present (25.

Core strength. mary. this may running at elevation (41). tion. and Belliveau (50) theorized that this athlete that enters your door. PROGRAM DESIGN eliminates the need for video analysis day’s speed and power athletes (16. Roberts and getting the most out of every running workout. largely because of the increase recovery phase at a higher rate than (27. INDIVIDUALIZED PROGRAM because the athlete is running. they will not be able to the hill. and neuromuscular educa. and the actual oxygen consumption cnemius/soleus complex (38).56. elevation with speeds that are taxing not always occur with every athlete. and rate of recovery athlete is placed in. fatigue (7. increase in mechanical work is because allowing the athlete to run at speeds ing is that running uphill (at elevation) of the heightened activation of the hip that are slightly higher than the athlete is a ‘‘self-limiting exercise. toe up’’ position at the end of to 20%).21).neutral and good knee drive. developing neuromuscu. The most likely area of the speed and power athletes. quadriceps. introducing varying levels of lactate duration of a run while maintaining tion is their postural positioning (43). the controlled environment that the threshold (AT). The elevation forces the ‘‘knee up. which can lead to flexibility.61. As the athlete runs increase in lactate production with Swanson and Caldwell confirmed the uphill. the body will develop an ing the overspeed training effect. This triple flexion position in the muscle mass involved in the normal (63). Pyne et al. In sum- of a harness system. if and leg musculature responsible for is accustomed to. This is especially true the athlete cannot perform the activity propelling the body under the load of of spotting an athlete while running at correctly.30. Using forward while running uphill. a spotting technique (Figure 1) in the an anterior tilt of the pelvis.65. A With this in mind. This heel up. in one spot. teal group. increased during treadmill running (up than when running on flat ground. Several others have shown an elevation. He further explains lar adaptations within the muscles lower body because of the stored that cumulative oxygen deficit (the primarily responsible for accelerating energy and prestretch placed on the difference between his mathematically the lower extremity through the musculotendinous junction of the glu. athletes trained at high speeds poor mechanics and exposure to injury. and it can be attaining the overspeed effect is elevation will have a tendency to improved over time with training while through a combination of running at improve running mechanics.71). and increasing aerobic and anaerobic normal running mechanics and invok. perform it at all. Increased impact treadmill training has on stride have a tendency to improve their final lactate production has been correlated frequency by showing that while recovery position with very little to anaerobic capacity (closely related running on a treadmill at high eleva. so did cumulative oxygen forces the legs to move through the the recovery phase of the cycle deficit. they will running at elevation (3.54). while Another advantage of treadmill train.49). coaching because the body attempts to AT) (21). tion are all items to consider when while running uphill will likely find addressing this issue. Individualization is an important fea- after cycle.nsca-lift. Spotting the athlete by technique is still needed to identify and an excellent avenue to achieving new lightly supporting them with a hand fix problem areas within an athlete’s levels of sport-specific conditioning for at the base of their sacrum when they mechanics. will help them extend the concern for athletes running at eleva. ture of a good strength and condition- closeness for ease in cuing the athlete bically on a treadmill. Many athletes have a tendency to lean fitness. Using a shotgun during the act of sprinting. By fatigue. (48) ing program (49). Strength and Conditioning Journal | www. cycle Research reveals that there are a num.org 23 . themselves possessing the ability to IMPROVED TECHNIQUE METABOLIC FACTORS compete at higher levels of intensity for The treadmill makes motion analysis Metabolic markers such as maximum longer durations with less recovery and motor learning simple because of oxygen consumption. the athlete tends to spend a greater to avoid stumbling while climbing the Olesen demonstrated that as elevation time in the stance phase of the leg cycle hill. An anterior which will improve the rate of move- manner described seems to be more tilt will effectively shorten their stride ment of lactate out of muscle cell tissue effective and safer than running at very length by limiting their ability to reach via the lactate shuttle. it are also differentiating factors for to.42. determined estimate of energy demand recovery phase of the leg cycle. In most cases.15. causing increased buffering capacity to lactate. high-speed running to the athlete (9–13 mph at 15–35% good coach with knowledge of sprint with varying degrees of elevation is elevation). and gastro. rather than demonstrated an increase in oxygen approach to training. during running) can be used as a marker Clinical experience demonstrates that the most effective and safe means of Although sprinting on a treadmill at for anaerobic capacity.66). This also allows ber of advantages to training anaero. This will thereby high speeds (20+ mph) with little to no maximal hip extension at the terminal restore intracellular pH and prevent elevation for short bursts with the aid phase of stance (14. even at slow speeds. hoping to hit the watching the athlete run and then uptake and lactate levels with interval majority of your athlete’s needs is trying to make corrections during a uphill running as compared with insufficient when developing talent moment of recovery within their running on a near level surface. is the most explosive position for the running process. anaerobic time between intense bouts of exercise.’’ That is.

after the spotted run in an effort to based on the ratio of AT HR to Without first understanding an ath. The formation. but it will give you valuable informa. the recovery rate that will be used ence. rapidly improv- intense runs for a relatively constant Each piece of equipment has their own ing fitness levels. taking into account speed. Run with a spot. available by means of expensive and Keep in mind that the mark of a quality time-consuming metabolic carts. as well as athlete based on the coach’s experi- athlete is initially placed in an appro. needed for the athlete as prescribed uct of the athlete’s 2-minute recovery tial. Whatever your program. With this in- One of the keys to individualizing a evaluation is the metabolic test. and like). maximum HR achieved. position. classified into a program based on rate (HR). nutrition needs. Also understand that if an athlete is using the coach’s best judgment. The recovery lete’s needs. by MicroMed. treadmill running performance. not biomechanically and functionally sound. HR to be used between treadmill runs prescribing the quality of program an priately overload the lactate system as within each running workout is a prod- athlete needs to reach their full poten. As the athlete successfully recommendations and protocols for have an appropriate screening tool completes runs without a spot. it should time frame. 24 VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2010 . you can truly individu- performance. but program and trainer is the constant TREADMILL PRETEST in recent years. HR at AT. volume. a coach will have difficulty tensity of the initial workout to appro. treadmill pretest and the metabolic test. maturity level. accurate numbers on a group setting. iMETT HR recovery. HR as compared with their AT HR. By should take into account an athlete’s can be obtained using any one of classifying the athlete by treadmill demographics (age. status. a host of metabolic units commercially running performance. If. the athlete can be placed treadmill speed program is using a metabolic test defines the volume used into an appropriate program for the quality pretest to ensure that the in the training program. the smaller relatively inexpensive equip. they arriving at the most accurate data set to not only assess performance but progress through the workout to more using their equipment. volume. and a 2-minute duce the athlete’s likelihood of injury. New Leaf. which is fast and user friendly. ever-changing needs (i. and so on) and running available (Metabolic Cart. and so on).. the athlete thing is that the coach is able to biomechanics. they will then be determine an accurate maximum heart movement patterns will not only re. technology has evolved ability to evaluate the athlete’s progress The pretest starts at 0% elevation and to allow us to collect numbers with and adapt it accordingly to fit their relatively slow speeds. The important also functional movement skills and intense runs. achieve the desired volume and in. This test between runs. there.High-Speed Treadmills in Sports Performance Figure 1. alize each program while training in mance is determined with a 2-part Traditionally. The running perfor. The training sessions evaluation tool that consists of the metabolic markers have only been should be challenging but tolerable. several runs can be performed Running volume for later workouts is tion to plan exercise prescription. and recovery factors. From recovery HR while walking. recovery athlete progresses to increasingly more ment. at any point.e. Metabolic markers tion. and sport. METABOLIC TEST completed their initial treadmill session The second component of the initial is shown in Figure 2. they should not be permitted to An example of an athlete who has train on a high-speed treadmill unit. eleva- priate program for them. Understanding basic requires a spot. From there.

make it very difficult for them to than the details. mance enhancement.Figure 2. To further promote desirable athletes. The sample pretest (Figure 2) shows PERIODIZATION athlete would necessitate more than 3 both the treadmill and metabolic Based on clinical experience. It may be counterproductive pretest can be confusing. (Figure 3). It is most effective to have not allow for proper recovery and will a pretest procedure is more important one mesocycle as a preseason prepa. you can then begin to work on the The remaining speed training cycles new stimulus is needed on a consistent details of a training pretest. As discussed earlier. The sample appropriate for most athletes to in. understanding the concept of macrocycle. occurring approximately continually respond to the treadmill concepts and ability to individualize. Equipped with the ration period.org 25 . which fits would then take place in the athlete’s basis to promote neurological adapta- the needs and demands of your off-season for general athletic perfor. It is rare that an training adaptations. Sample pretest. tions (18). each mesocycle is Strength and Conditioning Journal | www. 8–12 weeks before preseason practice.nsca-lift. it is programs within a yearly macrocycle portions of the pretest. training stimulus. but keep in corporate 2–3 treadmill mesocycles (8– to perform more than 3 mesocycles mind that for the purposes of this 10 weeks long each) within a yearly during a training year because it may article.

excellent opportunity for the athlete to Drills. ankling. mechanics. and single leg cycles. for improving sprint performance creasing intensity throughout the 8. (36. Basic speed drills should be apply skills learned on the ground to When running on level surfaces. the ham- string group does not experience the same activation because of the de- creased stretch placed upon them and thus the decreased demand for work. designed using a nonlinear periodization consistently reinforce proper running The integration of treadmill and model (33) containing 3 microcylces. may have a tendency to develop an tional ground-based workout. While running at elevation. arm swings. ical sprint drills such as A skips. hamstring kicks. Other drills (i. searched. Yearly macrocycle for a football athlete. and vertical power as needed on an individual basis. a heighted activation of the quadriceps 26 VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2010 . ground-based setting. EMG performed with every workout to treadmill training and vise versa. It is important to during an uphill run (56. These should include typ. acceleration athletes performing treadmill training days per week to enhance linear speed. The compared with those training on a flat agility training.23. and increased rate of hamstring strains as day 2 should include plyometrics and Ground-based speed workout. ground-based training is important allowing for 3 distinct peaks of in. and thus the hamstrings do not likely experience the same stretch.to high knee running. although not yet re- 10-week program (Figure 4).e. This infers that while running uphill. technique. Intensity level variation during an 8-week treadmill mesocycle. demonstrates that the hamstrings ex- perience the highest activation during the final 20% of the swing phase of recovery to decelerate the lower leg just before the beginning of the stance phase of the leg cycle (64).. This is likely because of the focusing on the use of the treadmill of choice should be in a traditional decreased activation of the hamstrings to improve linear speed and power. with the third day entry level speed training technique surface. harness running. While running at elevation.46). The concept of reciprocal inhibition states that as one muscle contracts (agonist).57) and integrate ground-based training with a combination of differing hill running treadmill training. In the situation of uphill running. lunge to the rate of hamstring strains for those typically train their movement skills 3 run. the opposing muscle relaxes (antagonist) (9. This provides an EXERCISE SELECTION kinematics and reciprocal inhibition. it has been discussed previously that uphill running causes Figure 4. and like) can be integrated at high speeds and elevations.51) and. athletes development. nonlinear speed. is likely a key to decreasing Within the 8-week mesocycle. Day 1 should be a tradi. athletes A march. an athlete will experience a decreased shin angle as compared with running flat (44). B skips.High-Speed Treadmills in Sports Performance Figure 3.

there is a propensity to get neuromuscular development will be. there is no accurate way to objectively Longer runs (10–20 seconds) with Ground-based sprint workouts are an quantify sprinting intensity while on slower speed (8–10 mph) and lower opportunity to use traditional speed a treadmill at elevation with or without elevation (10–20%) are a useful tool development techniques. This period should be A simple tool to use while in the to tolerate the intensity well enough very technically oriented and allow for learning process of developing pro. low elevations will allow the athlete starting drills. Conditioning should take exertion (RPE). Shorter workouts can make it difficult for proper motor learning to take place and energy system development but may allow an athlete to spend more time training other areas of need within their total regime. me- ground-based speed development 1–2 15-second run at 15% elevation and dium-to-high intensity runs can be days per week to ensure that the 10 mph is less difficult than an performed depending on what the hamstrings maintain efficiency during 8-second run at 30% elevation and training goals are for that specific the last 20% of the swing phase of the 9 mph. elevations. recovery times. this is best solved with speed). and over. Using holds (athlete running learning.org 27 . odization model described earlier as a relaxation and deactivation of the come increasingly more difficult as the a guideline for varying the intensities of hamstring group. workout progresses (62). These 8–15 runs typically take a total of 20–35 minutes to complete. Strength and Conditioning Journal | www. where the workout is in the training cycle. The slower speeds and conjunction with acceleration and overall workout. tunities for technique corrections at Clinically. a lower rate while running uphill. and what the coach is attempting to achieve with that athlete. but they may Figure 5. depend- ing upon the individual needs of the athlete. Short sprints a spot. Unfortunately. as it is today. Following that. and may have a tendency to become less is allowed to recover to their target techniques should be incorporated into efficient while running. The duration will vary. Volumes can be very to refamiliarize themselves with the previously). Refer to the nonlinear peri- inhibition. not including the warm-up and running drills. running cycle. they seconds in length. With experience. and thus because of reciprocal fatigue the body to the extent that workouts. Treadmill training sessions usually contain 8–15 runs of varying intensities and durations.nsca-lift. athlete to tolerate runs of greater not be performed while training speed but RPE can show trends within your intensity for longer durations as well development.muscles. then the hamstrings may difficult to judge because there are so transition on and off of the belt while it develop difficulties with firing sequen. what light intensity to allow the athlete nent muscular changes (as discussed ating the next run. followed by for quantifying workouts because a system is fresh. the stimuli persists and the neurological metabolic testing information at the first several runs should be of some- adaptations shift toward more perma. (elevation. Medium-intensity run at elevation. initiation of the program) before initi. to complete the full duration without proper recovery to encourage motor grams is the use of rating of perceived a spot. Typically. This is not always while holding onto the bar) allows the place after strength training and should reliable and can be individually specific. If this training recovery HR (determined with the each training session. session (Figure 5). Intensity is a much better term lower intensities while the nervous quality drill work. many variables with treadmill training is moving and provide ample oppor- ces when running on flat ground. Treadmill workout. Longer workouts can provide greater opportunity for energy system development and neu- rological adaptations. it becomes for increasing a general fitness base (less than 100 yd) should be used in easier to judge the intensity of an for the athlete. duration. speed. the workouts over the course of Because the hamstrings are used at Most runs are between 4 and 20 a mesocycle (Figure 4). and each athlete A variety of speeds.

AT. a sample workout. and the high-intensity workout core stability with the assistance of the hamstrings (19). 10– variables (i. ing the athlete’s metabolic test at the 9–11 mph.High-Speed Treadmills in Sports Performance (Figure 6).5%) should comprise onset of training. and spur motor unit activa. program is very important. the strates a very good aerobic capacity each workweek contains a low-level athlete is placed at risk for a hamstring will be able to focus more time and workout (agility day). Clinical experience dem- are important for incorporating an for lifting. As an example. energy systems to new levels. Several runs within a workout can easily be modified to address these variations between athletes for a cus- tom workout while staying within a group setting. the metabolic com. a moderate- attention to other deficiencies in their athleticism (strength. Just as athlete’s V_ O2max. most athletes perform a ‘‘standard’’ metabolic program. Other training High-intensity runs (4–6 seconds. the tolerable. ture. but with a variation of just 2–4 runs in a workout. Runs of this Metabolic component. You can also create a low metabolic variation for those who need to spend less time on fitness and more time in other areas of their training (strength. Simply mesocycle. you can easily create a version to train lactate tolerance for those needing more fitness. pelvic position and good overall pos. and like). consequently their aerobic capacity. paring the AT HR with the maximum the treadmill and supporting the pelvis of the athlete as they drift backward A comprehensive understanding of HR achieved during their metabolic because of fatigue or high speeds that energy system development is beyond test. and so on) should be if they are continuously training the component of the training program. see Table 1 for recovery rates are dictated by evaluat- Medium-intensity runs (6–10 seconds. 27. 20–27. an athlete who demon- In the 3-day split example (Table 2). The body adapts and learns ing sessions (Table 2). If the pelvis is not kept neutral. and HR re- good running mechanics. While many periodization model discussed earlier. power. same energy system at the same adjusted to accommodate these train- These runs are intended to be very intensity. Safety can be a concern take home here is that variation of creased aerobic capacity and thus because the athlete must rely on the training intensity and duration is the necessitate large amounts of anaerobic trainer’s expertise to help them stay key to improving fitness because it conditioning to improve their AT and on the treadmill unit with a neutral relates to treadmill training. Spotting is intensities and loads for the body’s determining aerobic fitness is by com- performed by standing to the rear of energy systems. Run with a hold. and so on). the treadmill workouts. Recommendations for these variations are shown in the ‘‘volume’’ portion of the ‘‘metabolic test’’ at the bottom of Figure 2. Holds will also allow the strain because they may rock their intensity workout (ground-based speed trainer to teach proper hip position and pelvis anteriorly and elongate the day). agility. Figure 6. Using the nonlinear the bulk of the workout. All 3 versions are 28 VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2010 .. incorporate proper mechan. but because of the variables ics at speeds that are intense but running to ‘‘get into shape’’ does very involved in treadmill training. little to appropriately propel the body’s treadmill workout will frequently be tion. overall intensity levels of the treadmill the envelope of the athlete’s fitness ponent of a strength and conditioning workouts will vary during the 8-week capacity. intensity level allow the trainer to push times overlooked. Athletes the most intense workout of the of almost all levels of fitness will weekly microcycle. difficult and require a spot for part of to perform an activity with the least the run to stay on the treadmill with An indication of aerobic capacity is an energy expenditure possible. flexibility. To better understand (treadmill day). strength training. Olym- struggle to improve their conditioning 13 mph. Specific volumes and bar in front of the athlete. Conversely.e.5–35%) must also be a major pic lifting. we should consider altering onstrates that an easy means of overspeed training effect. These runs we periodize sets and repetitions covery (49). The important imum HR will likely possess a de- (Figure 1). thus increasing power output. An athlete with a low AT/max- they are not accustom to running the scope of this article.

test’’ at the bottom Figure 2. HR recovery is established with the ratio of 2-minute recovery HR to AT HR. Recommendations based on clinical experience are presented in the ‘‘re- covery’’ section at the bottom of Figure 2. Within the treadmill training workouts.and four-day split workout recommendations Strength and Conditioning Journal | www. thus bet- ter fitness. An athlete with a good HR recovery (less than 85% of AT) will need less time between runs to recover. The lower the athlete’s HR at 2 minutes after maxi- mum effort. A lower ratio indicates improved recovery. their of intensity and duration of several runs. their personal HR recovery is estab- lished at 82% of their AT. the better they will tolerate decreases in recovery time between running bouts. their recovery HR will have a tendency to improve as well (49). during an similar. Table 1 a good aerobic capacity and a decreased Sample treadmill running workout need for extensive fitness training. If. Recommenda. Thus. but with the minor modification the ‘‘volume’’ portion of the ‘‘metabolic athlete’s initial metabolic test. As the athlete’s fitness improves. Recommended recovery rates are de- termined by looking at the athlete’s ability to actively recover for 2 minutes after a maximal effort.org 29 . tolerate the work loads because of the tions for these variations are shown in which indicates that this athlete has fatigue created by increased lactate Table 2 Three. an AT to maximum HR ratio of 94%. The recovery HR to AT HR ratio is higher.nsca-lift. a coach can provide individual attention example shown presents an athlete with it is unlikely that they will be able to within a group setting.

Strength for your athletes. J Physiol 389: 163–185. Blazevich AJ. and Clewien RW. Baur H. Cond J 5: 12–20. Rosen M. it could Cond J 22: 22–27. 1997. Eur J Appl Physiol 105: 749– high the recovery HR to AT HR ratio whether the mechanics of movement 757. Sports in a setting in which speed and agility training. Effect of elastic- between average and elite athletes. 2003. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol are warranted on an individual basis. Ebben WP. Freund H. 1987. ankle flexors and extensors in man. This is especially Conditioning and cycle. quality tool to increase speed and 10. J Strength Cond Res and Miyamura M. should be reduced by approximately Hauschildt is 13. Wilt F. Cond Res 23: 480–485. Mann R. Link between Strength training. J Strength is the fundamental basis for all athletic a controlled environment in hopes of Cond Res 17: 72–75. Ohkuwa T. Riley PO. Yamamoto T. quency and stride length. Lactate. The 10–20% while keeping intensities fairly the Prevention. in collaboration with treadmill training. monitor recovery. the bench Med 37: 341–343. Dutto DJ and Braun WA. Med Sci Sports adaptation that they are establishing Exerc 36: 560–566. DOMS- This will likely allow an athlete to individualized strength and condition. In this scenario. Using testing results and HR monitors treadmill training because of the lack of 5. Fujitsuka N. impact the athlete’s performance on maximum strength.45. Delecluse C. The most intense lifting Missouri State and Kerrigan DC. Coaches that they need. synchronization of muscle activity and body high to maintain and/or improve Physical segment movements during a running strength and power. Alcaraz PE. which are deemed as advantageous Nielsen J. ver. CONCLUSION muscle loading influences the pacing lar fatigue (62). and Mayer F. 2009. 2007. Baron B. Crone C. Paylo KW. 2008. sprint training with sled towing. Optimizing hip musculature will allow you to individualize training scientific consensus on this issue. Verkindt C. Elliot BC and Blanksby BA. Dalleau G. Asci A and Acikada C. Peak blood lactate after the treadmill. high. the bench press is a staple 7. 1983. short periods of maximal treadmill running. workout during a treadmill mesocycle Mitchell D. The eccentric 48: 289–296. power output under conditions not on sprint running performance: Current ity and core stability exercises will tend seen in other environments. Brittanham DR. 12. 30 VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2010 . 2009. Muller S. in acceleration phase of sprinting. Strength experiences during a blocking maneu. J Appl Physiol 73: 2580– tensity of the lower extremity lift 2. 1992. associated changes in ankle and knee joint continue to reinforce the neurological ing program using a variety of tools to dynamics during running. Lactate linear speed counterparts (see Table 2 Determining the optimal load for resisted exchange and removal abilities in sickle cell for explanation of weekly workouts). getting the energy system development necessarily produce the same neuro. Hirschmuller A. and ensure that your athletes are be argued that a bench press does not 6. produce loads in excess of what they cord towing on the kinematics of the we must keep in mind that strength may be able to experience otherwise. Lonsdorfer S. Jespersen B. 9. 2004. and Noakes TD. mechanics of ground-based running Gollhofer A. Yet. Hultborn H. Palao JM. and Bogui P. If an athlete is not strong. J Strength Cond Res 22: 898–902. Gait Posture cause the movement portion of this 29: 494–498. true of the lifting workout. the 21: 10–16. 2007.55. 1. and they will not be fast.53) and/or neuromuscu. Brooks GA. have been quick to dismiss high-speed Isokinetics Exerc Sci 15: 165–171. Deruelle R. REFERENCES workout is typically less intense than its 15. session. coach can determine if modifications 3. Strength training should be performed speed treadmills can provide a good. have become the dominant factors press is typically used as a tool to 8. Results are findings and implications for training. and Elvira JLL.68. Franz JR. an athlete will need to recover to while on a treadmill matches the either 80% or 77% of AT HR between 4. Influence of strength training Performing closed-chain lower extrem. and Yessis M. 2009. Hart C. causes muscle soreness. grams are properly integrated into the 11. simultaneously improve stride fre- within their speed training workouts. healthy humans. Davies JA.69). Many in treadmill and overground running. Moullan F. movement. with treadmill training at elevation.High-Speed Treadmills in Sports Performance levels (20. which is Rehabilitation 1979. 2007. Corn RJ and Knudson D. Oyono-Enguelle S. Changes in the workout should be performed on the University. logic responses that a football lineman roundtable: Speed development. Power production 2587. Muscular activity runs during their treadmill training or walking (4. Lonsdorfer A. coordination of hip and pelvis kinematics plyometrics/agility training day be. Med Sci Sports 11: 322–327. Hay JG. If soreness is present. mill workout. creating neurological adaptations. for greater sprint running speed. Coordinator at 14. Although it is difficult to study. with mode of locomotion. Depending on how Conflicting research exists as to strategies during repeated downhill spring intervals. performed on the same day as a tread.37. to activate similar muscles as shown typically best when the treadmill pro- Sports Med 24: 147–156. Effect of the degree of hill slope on acute The volume of the strength training downhill running velocity and acceleration. J Strength patients and in untrained and trained Judgment should be used if the in.52. Dicharry J. is. 1982. which may among different sports with similar 16. Although we work exercise within American football glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. Reciprocal Ia inhibition between for the football athlete. 2000. Saito M.26. Similarly.

Weidermann MJ. reports. 583–602.org 31 . 1989. Effect of inclination on the results resistance training. inclined treadmill training. Penicaud A. and Conference and Exhibition. Yamazaki Y. Aoki MS. Van Den Tillaar R. and Gomez AL. Impaired forces during downhill and uphill running. Heitz A. Baker MS. Hammett JB and Hey WT. Moritani T and deVries HA.17. injury. Proceedings of the NSCA National 45. J Appl Physiol 83: 262–279. Gottschall JS and Kram R. 2009. Accumulated oxygen deficit Relation of anterior pelvic tilt during running Schuit D. Las Vegas. 1995. Comparison of rearfoot motion in increases with inclination of uphill running. Mann RA and Hagy J. J Strength Cond Res contraction. 2007. Successful Ugrinowitsch C. Kang J. 43. 2003. resistance training on maximal running 24. Hultman E. 1980. Int J Sports Med 28: 655–661. Nagoya J Med Sci 58: 115–130. and Gregor RJ. Morin J. J Strength Cond Res Mazzetti SA. 1979. 2003. Podiatr Med Assoc 85: 243–248. 26. Am J sprint running training on sloping surfaces. 1996. Pyne DB. the Meridian shoe on vertical jump and running. Ohkuwa T. treadmill running. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl combined plyometrics/sprint and Rusko H. Oyono-Enguelle S. A 51. Am J Sports and mechanical stress of exercise. Myer GD. Chiropr Osteopat 13: 4–9. Nummela A. and Bennell KL. Ratamess NA. McPoil TG. Hoskins WT and Pollard HP. NV. and 35. Leroux A. Nummela A. Rhea MR. eds. game. 2000. Schache AG. and 57. A review. 21. Sahlin K. pp. pp. IL: Human Australian rules footballers: Two case training routines. Clin Biomech mechanics in field-sport athletes. Komi PV. Alveno DA. Jacobs R and Van Ingen Schenau GJ. Metabolic ammonia levels after supramaximal uphill muscle strength gain. Ploeg L. J Strength Cond Res 556: 83–91. and 54. 1987. Ross RE. Hoffman JR. 1992. Electromyographic overground walking in healthy older adults. Pink M. and speed- J Strength Cond Res 17: 556–560. Anaerobic capacity and muscle 6–9 July 2005. and Fisher V. Divine JG. and 2005. 1995. and Rossi A. and endurance development. Med Sci 46. 1998. 1995. Volek JS. 41. 2001. A treadmill protocol to 20. Nonlinear periodization Strength and Conditioning. 2006. and contraction capacity to metabolic changes 40. 23: 1321–1326. 1986. Elite long walking. Evangelista AL. Sources of Intermuscular coordination in a sprint push. 34. activity in sprinting at speeds ranging from Clin Biomech 24: 95–100. Kinematic. J Strength Cond Res Kinetics. 27. 48. 19: 149–159. DeBoer RW. 32. and Murphy AT. Pape A. sprint running: A comparison between Sports Med 8: 345–350. Sports Med 17(S2): S103–S108. Med Sci 30. Novacheck TF. Plisk SS. Sloniger MA. Predictors of sprint start speed: 50. 2009. 2009. Res 21: 831–836. 1997. 42. Baechle TR management of hamstring injuries in maximizes strength gains in split resistance and Earle RW. and accumulation. 1992. Postural adaptation to walking on Freund H. Montgomery WH III. J Biomech 25: 953–965. and Spinks CD. Neuromuscular Biomechanics of spring running. The effects of Fournel V. Mero A and Komi PV. Biomed musculature during running. Monteiro AG. Kristensen GO. graded exercise in humans. extension. The biomechanics of 23: 385–394. Ground reaction sub-maximal to supra-maximal. Sports Exerc 19: 266–274. J Strength Cond Res 20: 767–777. Med Sci Sports Exerc The effects of treadmill sprint training and 27: 98–105. and Mikkelsson LO. running. Telford RD. incline and level training sessions. 68: 905–911. and Hultgren TL. Keranen T. Sahlin K and Ren JM. Brouwer B. Cureton KJ. Roberts TJ and Belliveau RA. economy. Kraemer WJ. 59: 135–142. 2003. Perez MA and Field-Fote EC. mechanical power for uphill running in off. sprint performances following short-term 52. Reciprocal Ia inhibition between elbow 37. Aust J Biochim Acta 45: S97–S106. J Strength Cond Res 23: 800–806. Prior BM. running on sloping surfaces. Esteve- Miyamura M. Couturier A. Ott C. Blanch PD. posture-dependent modulation of J Biomech 38: 445–452. Nigg BM. Am J Phys Med conditioning among soccer players. Lactate removal ability and inclined surfaces: I. 2005. Champaign. 2001. and downhill running. Speed. Int J 14: 228–238. 1997. and sprinting. Olney SJ. Electromyographic analysis of hip and knee investigate independently the metabolic Biochemistry of muscle fatigue. McNeely E. during recovery from a fatiguing Ettema GJC. Monteiro GA. 36. Hakkinen K. J Sports Sci 16: 667–680. Lockie RG. 53. and Hanon C. running. Schache AG. velocity and power. Relationship of 25. agility. 2005. Sports Exerc 40: 1157–1164. Slawinski J. of the maximal anaerobic running test. kinematic comparison of overground and Faigenbaum AD. J Appl Physiol 67: 648–654. Hewett TE. Rath DA. individuals with incomplete spinal cord adaptation to short-term (4 weeks) ballistic Sports Med 13: 376–392. 47. and Perry J. 1986. running for measuring the three- 28. 1996. Marbach J. Med 22: 272–278. 2009. Katz R. 23. Sci Med Sport 29: 77–82. and Soderlund K. Starr R. Maintaining speed late in the 2006. 2007. 2008. Ford KR. Andersson N. In: Essentials of 19. Spriet LL. Paradisis GP and Cooke CB. J Exp Biol 208: 1963–1970. Kinematic dimensional kinematics of the lumbo- Effects of resisted sled towing on sprint and postural characteristics of sprint pelvic-hip complex. 29. Ratamess NA. J Appl Physiol A comparison of overground and treadmill Posture 15: 64–74. Olesen HL. J Strength Cond humans. Lemke K. Paradisis GP and Cooke CB. Dorel S. 2008. disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition in 18. and 55. J Am to clinical and kinematic measures of hip J Appl Physiol 73: 1130–1134. Hug F. Cornwall MW. Brent JL. Neurosci Lett 341: 225–228. Muscle fatigue and lactic acid 39. Gait Wrigley TV. 20: 833–837. Robbins P. Gartner M. 1994. metabolic parameters of treadmill versus activation during horizontal and uphill 31. Blanch PD. overground versus treadmill walking. 33. Neural factors 49. Br J Sports Med 34: 279–283. Biomechanics of 44. Itoh H. Velocity specificity in early. Picxarro IDC. 2000. Vollmer JC. and 22. 56. The effect of 38. The effects of resistive ground-based vs. J Strength Cond Res 17: 760–767. Mero A. Gait Posture 7: 77–95. 482. Murphy AJ. 1990. Lavinge DM. 2002. training in trained high school athletes. J Physiol 437: 269–286. 1991. kinetic and Evans EM. Factors related to top running speed and phase sprint training. Normal strategies. Parvataneni K. Human blood lactate and versus hypertrophy in the time course of Lanao J. and Chilakos A. Strength and Conditioning Journal | www.nsca-lift. flexors and extensors in the human.

Greece: University of running. dissertation]. Pfeifer K. Sirvent P. and Mercier J. and Mercier J. Swanson SC and Caldwell GE. Wank V. and Banzer W. An 67. J Appl Physiol 83: 2073–2079. training on acceleration performance and 65. Hugon G. rugby union. and 61. 17: 162–165. 1998. Swanson SC. Weyand PG. Prior BM. Athens. 32 VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2010 . Hamstring muscle pelvis kinematics during treadmill and Res 6: 135–141. and Comparison of angular lumbar spine and performance: A review. Sternlight DB. Thomas C. Int J Sports Med 66. Murphy AJ. supramaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 2: 160–165. and Med Sci Sports Exerc 37: 108–114. J Appl Physiol 98: 804–809. 2000. Hoerth DM. Faster top running speeds are Schnabel A. Stegmann H. 69. Raynaud E. Athens. uphill running. J Strength transporters. and in humans. Frick U. Thelen DG. 1998. 2007. 2007. Effects of training methods in Evans EM. Cond Res 21: 77–85. Kinematics and electromyography of lower kinematics in soccer. 68. Thomas C. Young M. 2004. Kindermann W. Li L. 1991. 1981. Monocarboxylate limb muscles in overground and treadmill Australian football players. Neuromuscular maximal muscle oxidative capacity and 71. Lockie RG. Lambert K. 1992. Perrey S. Bellizzi MJ. J Appl Physiol 84: 344– exercise and fatigue indexes in humans. Wright S. Yokozawa T. and Schmidtbleicher D. Lower extremity muscle integrated biomechanical analysis of high sprinting performance [doctoral activation during horizontal and uphill speed incline and level treadmill running. and fatigue indexes 70. 2000. overground locomotion. soreness and the impact on athletic Best TM. kinematics during treadmill sprinting. J Appl Sport Sci Heiderscheit BC. 62.High-Speed Treadmills in Sports Performance 58. and Ae M. and Sports Science. J Appl Physiol 97: 2132–2138. 2002. Sloniger MA. Relationship between 89: 1991–1999. Department of Physical Education 1997. Muscle fatigue after maximal stretch-shortening blood lactate removal after supramaximal activities of the lower limb during level and cycle exercise. Smith LL. Spinks WL. Vogt L. The effects of resisted sprint 2005. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32: 1146–1155. 59. and 63. Spinks CD. Causes of delayed onset muscle 64. Tziortzis S. Perrey S. Lactate kinetics and individual 2005. achieved with greater ground forces not anaerobic threshold. J Biomech 40: 3467–3475. Cureton KJ. blood lactate removal after running. 350. and Mornet D. Fujii N. Chumanov ES. Int J Sports Med 19: 455–461. Strojnik V and Komi PV. more rapid leg movements. Clin Biomech 60.