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Application Note

Hamid KHAN

2008

ABSTRACT

AC induction motors of different power ratings and sizes can be utilized in

applications ranging from consumer to automotive goods. A few of these applications

from the multitude of possible scenarios demand for high speeds while high torque at

low speeds only. A common everyday example with these mechanical requirements

is of the motor installed in a washing machine. This requirement can be addressed

through Field Oriented Control or the FOC of an Induction machine.

Field Oriented Control (FOC) algorithm that could be implanted on Renesas SH7125

microcontroller to control the speed and torque of three phase asynchronous motors

more effectively and efficiently.

FOC: Field Oriented Control principles applied to an asynchronous motor are based

on the decoupling between the current components used for generating magnetizing

flux and torque. The decoupling allows the induction motor to be controlled as a

simple DC motor. The field oriented control implies the translation of coordinates

from the fixed reference stator frame to the rotating synchronous frame. This

translation makes possible the decoupling of the stator current into two components,

which are responsible for the magnetizing flux and the torque generation.

Hamid KHAN

2

CONTENTS

Introduction ................................................................................................................. 5

1. Background .......................................................................................................... 6

1.1. AC Induction motor ........................................................................................ 6

1.1.1. Induction Machine Electrical Equations .................................................... 7

1.2. Three Phase Induction Motor ......................................................................... 7

2.1. Introduction .................................................................................................... 8

2.2. FOC ............................................................................................................... 8

2.2.1. FOC Theory ............................................................................................. 9

2.3. The FOC Algorithm ...................................................................................... 11

3.1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 12

3.2. System Overview ......................................................................................... 12

3.3. Block FOC .................................................................................................... 12

3.3.1. Flux Estimator ........................................................................................ 13

3.3.2. Calculation ........................................................................................ 13

3.3.3. Park Transformation ............................................................................... 13

3.3.4. Inverse Park Transformation .................................................................. 13

3.3.5. Calculation ........................................................................................ 13

3.3.6. Flux PI .................................................................................................... 13

3.3.7. Current Regulator ................................................................................... 13

3.4. SIMULINK model of FOC ............................................................................. 15

3.4.1. SIMULINK Block FOC ............................................................................ 16

3.5. SIMULINK sub FOC bocks .......................................................................... 16

3.6. FOC Simulation Results ............................................................................... 18

4.1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 20

4.2. MATLAB simulation of FOC Speed Regulator ............................................. 20

4.2.1. Speed Controller .................................................................................... 20

4.2.1.1. Flux Table ............................................................................................ 21

4.3. FOC Speed Regulator Simulation Results ................................................... 22

Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 24

Reference.................................................................................................................. 25

Hamid KHAN

3

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 : Classification of Electrical Motors................................................................ 6

Figure 2 : Phasor Diagram describing FOC Scheme .................................................. 9

Figure 3 : Complete Schematic Diagram................................................................... 12

Figure 4 : Block FOC ................................................................................................. 12

Figure 5 : Operational Principle of Hysterysis Modulation ......................................... 14

Figure 6 : Typical Hysterysis Current Controller ........................................................ 14

Figure 7 : Current Controller Bandwidth Hysterysis ................................................... 15

Figure 8 : Simulink Model of FOC ............................................................................. 15

Figure 9 : Block FOC ................................................................................................. 16

Figure 10 : Flux Estimator ......................................................................................... 16

Figure 11 : Flux Orientation Calculation .................................................................... 17

Figure 12 : Flux PI ..................................................................................................... 17

Figure 13 : i Calculation .......................................................................................... 17

Figure 14 : Current Regulator .................................................................................... 17

Figure 15 :Result FOC 1 ........................................................................................... 18

Figure 16 :Result FOC 2 ........................................................................................... 18

Figure 17 :Result FOC 3 ........................................................................................... 19

Figure 18 : FOC with Speed Controller ..................................................................... 20

Figure 12 : Speed Controller Block............................................................................ 21

Figure 21 : Result Speed Regualation 1 .................................................................... 22

Figure 22 : Result Speed Regualation 2 .................................................................... 22

Figure 23 : Result Speed Regualation 3 .................................................................... 23

Figure 24 : Result Speed Regualation 3 .................................................................... 23

Hamid KHAN

4

Introduction

robustness, reliability and ease of control; are extensively used in various

applications ranging from industrial motion control systems to home appliances.

Until a few years ago the AC motor could either be plugged directly into the mains

supply or controlled by means of the well-known scalar V/f method. When power is

supplied to an induction motor at the recommended specifications, it runs at its rated

speed. With this method, even simple speed variation is impossible and its system

integration is highly dependent on the motor design (starting torque vs. maximum

torque, torque vs. inertia, number of pole pairs). However many applications need

variable speed operation. The scalar V/f method is able to provide speed variation

but does not handle transient condition control and is valid only during steady state.

This method is most suitable for applications without position control requirements or

the need for high accuracy of speed control and leads to over-currents and over-

heating, which necessitate a drive which is then oversized and no longer cost

effective.

The last few years have seen rapid growth in the field of electrical drives. This

growth can be attributed mainly to the advantages offered by semiconductors in both

power and signal electronics; hence giving rise to powerful microcontrollers and

DSPs. These technological improvements have allowed the development of very

effective AC drive controls marked with lower power dissipation hardware and

increasingly accurate control structures. Using three phase current and voltage

sensing has made the electrical drive controllers even more accurate.

This application note describes the efficient scheme of vector control - the Field

Oriented Control (FOC). On application of this control structure to an AC machine,

with a speed/position sensor coupled to the shaft, the AC machine acquires every

advantage of a DC machine control structure i.e. a very accurate steady state and

transient control along with higher dynamic performance.

Hamid KHAN

5

1 Background

Electric Motors

AC DC

Asynchronous Synchronous

Brushless DC

Induction

Sinewave

Wound Motor

Step

Reluctance

The AC induction motor is a rotating electric machine designed to operate from a 3-

phase source of alternating voltage. Asynchronous motors are based on the

induction principle. The extreme simplicity and ruggedness of the squirrel cage

construction are outstanding advantages of this type of induction motor which make

it by far the most commonly used type of motor. In these types of induction motors

aluminium conductors or bars are cast into slots in the outer periphery of the rotor.

These conductors or bars are shorted together at both ends of the rotor by cast

aluminium end rings. For variable speed drives, the source is normally an inverter

that uses power switches to produce approximately sinusoidal voltages and currents

controllable in terms of frequency and magnitude.

Like most motors, an AC induction motor has a fixed outer portion, called the stator

and a rotor that spins inside, with a well-optimized air gap between the two. All

electrical motors except a three phase induction motor use magnetic field rotation to

spin their rotors. In a three phase AC induction motors the rotating magnetic field is

generated in the stator by virtue of the nature of the supply.

supply connected to the stator windings. As per the Lenzs law the alternating nature

of the supply voltage induces an Electromagnetic Force (EMF) in the rotor (just as

voltage is induced in the secondary transformer), thus generating another set of

electromagnets; hence the name induction motors. Interaction between the

magnetic fields produced by these two electromagnets a revolving force or torque is

generated, causing the motor to rotate in its own direction.

Hamid KHAN

6

1.1.1 Induction Machine Electrical Equations

= + +

= +

0 = + + ( )

0 = + ( )

3

= ( )

2

Where

= +

= +

= +

= +

Three-phase AC induction motor are widely used in many fields. They are classified

in two categories:

Wound-rotor motor

90% of the three-phase AC Induction motors are squirrel cage motors because of

their lower cost and higher capability of starting heavier loads in comparison with

wound-rotor motors. Induction motors with power ratings ranging from one-third to

hundred horsepower can be commonly found.

The wound-rotor motor is a variation of the squirrel cage induction motor. While the

stator construction is same as that in the squirrel cage type motor, the rotor has a set

of windings on the rotor which are not short circuited, but are terminated to a set of

slip rings. These are helpful in adding external resistors and contactors.

Hamid KHAN

7

2 Vector Control of Induction Machines

2.1 Introduction

The construction of a DC machine is such that the field flux is perpendicular to the

armature flux. Being orthogonal, these two fluxes don not interact with each other.

Hence by adjusting the field current the DC machine flux can be controlled and

independent to this the torque can be controlled by varying the armature current. But

the control of an AC machine is not as simple because of the interactions between

the stator and the rotor fields owing to their non orthogonal orientations to each other

and varying orientations as per the operating conditions. A DC machine-like

performance can be attained by maintaining a fixed orthogonal orientation between

the field and armature fields in the AC machine. This can be achieved by orienting

the stator current with respect to the rotor flux in a manner such that independent

control of flux and torque is established. Flux Oriented Control or the Vector Control

works on this principle. Vector control can be applied on both induction and

synchronous motors. In this document the application of flux oriented vector control

on induction motors has been elaborated.

Vector control entails varying not only the magnitude but also phase of the variables.

Control quantities have been expressed in terms of matrices and vectors. This

method takes into account not only successive steady-states but real mathematical

equations that describe the motor itself, so that the obtained results have a better

dynamic for torque variations in a wider speed range.

The Field Oriented Control (FOC) offers a solution to circumvent the need to solve

high order equations with a large number of variables and nonlinearities and achieve

an efficient control with high dynamic.

This approach needs more calculations than other standard control schemes but has

the following advantages:

full motor torque capability at low speed

better dynamic behaviour

higher efficiency for each operation point in a wide speed range

decoupled control of torque and flux

short term overload capability

four quadrant operation

2.2 FOC

FOC involves controlling the components of the motor stator currents, represented

by a vector, in a rotating reference frame (with a d-q coordinate system). In a special

reference frame, the expression for the electromagnetic torque of the smooth-air-gap

machine is similar to the expression of torque in a separately excited DC machine. In

the case of induction machines, the control is normally performed in a reference

frame aligned to the rotor flux space vector. To perform the alignment on a reference

frame revolving with the rotor flux requires information about the modulus and the

space angle (position) of the rotor flux space vector.

Hamid KHAN

8

In order to estimate the rotor flux vector either of the below mentioned strategies can

be adopted:

In this strategy rotor flux vector is either measured by means of a flux sensor

mounted in the air-gap or by using the voltage equations starting from the

electrical machine parameters.

In this strategy rotor flux vector is estimated using the field oriented control

equations (current model) requiring a rotor speed measurement.

devices are used.

Considering the d-q model of the induction machine in the reference frame rotating

at synchronous speed ,

The field-oriented control implies that the component of the stator current would

be aligned with the rotor field and the component would be perpendicular to .

This can be accomplished by choosing as speed of the rotor flux and locking the

phase of the reference frame system such that the rotor flux is aligned precisely with

the d axis, as illustrated in Figure 2 below.

e dr = r

q-axis qr = 0 e

iqs

r d-axis

is r

r

ids

Rotor Reference Frame

sl

f = r + sl

r f

Stator Reference

= 0 =0

Hamid KHAN

9

And =

Lm

r = (ids ) (Equation used for estimating the flux.)

1 + Tr s

= ( )

3

= ( )

2

= , this equation is used to calculate the stator current torque component i*qs.

keeping the flux constant. The electric torque is found proportional to the

component, and the flux and component of current can be related through a

first-order linear transfer function with a time constant .

easily. It can be only estimated from terminal measurements. An alternative way is to

use the slip relation derived above to estimate the flux position relative to the rotor,

as shown.

The IFOC technique is described in this application note. Indirect vector control of

the rotor currents can be implemented using the following data:

Instantaneous stator phase currents, ia, ib, and ic

Rotor mechanical speed

To monitor the three-phase stator currents and speed, the motor must be equipped

with sensors and a speed feedback device such as a tachometer respectively.

Hamid KHAN

10

2.3 The FOC Algorithm

below:

1. Measure the stator phase currents ia, ib and ic. If only the values of ia and ib are

measured ic can be calculated as for balanced current ia + ib + ic = 0.

2. Transform the set of these three-phase currents onto a two-axis system. This

conversion provides the variables i and i from the measured ia , ib and ic values

where i and i are time-varying quadrature current values, as viewed from the

stators perspective. This conversion is popularly known as Clarke

Transformation.

4. Rotate the two-axis coordinate system such that it is in alignment with the rotor

flux, using the transformation angle calculated at the last iteration of the control

loop. This conversion provides the id and iq variables from i and i. This step is

more commonly known as the Park Transformation.

5. Flux error signal is formed using flux reference and estimated flux value. A PI

controller is then used to calculate i*d using this error signal. i*q is generated using

the reference torque value and the estimated flux value.

6. i*d and i*q are converted to a set of three phase currents to produce i*a, i*b, i*c.

7. i*a, i*b, i*c and ia, ib, ic are compared using hysterysis comparator to generate

inverter gate signals.

Hamid KHAN

11

3 MATLAB Simulation of FOC

3.1 Introduction

SIMULINK, a powerful simulation software with many inbuilt blocks which proved

very helpful in forming a complete model.

The motor to be controlled is in a close loop with the FOC block which generates

inverter switching commands

command to achieve the desired electromagnetic torque at the

motor shaft. ud

r*

Gate

* FOC Signal ASIM

s

m

iabc

Fig

Figure 3: Complete Schematic Diagram

r* PI *

i

ds *

r Flux Controller i

Inverse Park abc

* Transformation

*

i

Current

Gate

dq

r Signal

Calculation Regulator

f

i qs

i abc Park f

Transformation

r Calculation

i ds Flux Estimator

f m

Hamid KHAN

12

3.3.1 Flux Estimator

This block is used to estimate the motor's rotor flux. This calculation is based on

motor equation synthesis.

Lm

r = (ids )

1 + Tr s

3.3.2 Calculation

This block is used to find the phase angle of the rotor flux rotating field using the

following equations.

= +

Which can also be written as? = +

Therefore,

= ( + ) With =

This block performs the translation of the a,b and c phase variables into dq

components of the rotor flux rotating field reference frame.

This block performs the conversion of the dq component of the rotor flux rotating

field reference frame into a,b and c phase variables.

3.3.5 Calculation

This block uses the calculated rotor flux and the torque reference to compute the

stator current quadrature component required to produce the electromagnetic torque

on the motor's shaft.

3.3.6 Flux PI

This block compares the estimated rotor flux and the reference rotor flux as the input

to a Proportional Integrator which calculates the flux to be applied to the motor which

in turn is used to compute the stator current direct component required to produce

the required rotor flux in the machine.

Hamid KHAN

13

3.3.7 Current Regulator

band width.

The hysteresis modulation is a feedback current control method where the motor

current tracks the reference current within a hysteresis band. Figure 5 elaborates the

operation principle of the hysteresis modulation. The controller generates sinusoidal

reference current of desired magnitude and frequency which then is compared to the

actual motor line current. If current exceeds the upper limit of the hysteresis band,

the upper switch of the inverter arm is turned off and the lower switch is turned on.

As a result, the current starts to decay. If the current passes the lower limit of the

hysteresis band, the lower switch of the inverter arm is turned off and the upper

switch is turned on. As a result, the current gets back into the hysteresis band.

Hence, the actual current is forced to track the reference current within the

hysteresis band.

Figure 6 details the hysteresis current control modulation scheme, consisting of three

hysteresis comparators, one for each phase.

Hamid KHAN

14

Current controller hysteresis band

symmetrically around the current set point. Figure 7 illustrates a case where the

current set point is and the current hysteresis bandwidth is set to .

2

2

The green colour represents the already existing SIMULINK models of the

hardware used to implement the FOC scheme namely the motor and the

inverter.

Blocks in orange represent probes used for current acquisition and to

observe the electromagnetic Torque.

The blue block is the software i.e. the FOC algorithm to be implanted in the

microprocessor.

The reference values of torque and flux are in red.

The file paramfoc.m contains all the machine and control parameters used in the

FOC block, namely:

Machine Parameters:

Lm - Mutual Inductance

Rs - Stator Winding Resistance

Lls - Stator Leakage Inductance

Rr - Rotor Winding Resistance

Llr - Rotor Leakage Inductance

Hamid KHAN

15

FOC Parameters:

kp - Proportional Gain (flux PI)

ki Integral Gain (flux PI)

csat - Flux output limits

h - hysteresis band of the Current Regulator

freq_max - Maxing Switching frequency

fc - low pass - filter cut-off frequency used in Flux PI block to filter the

estimated flux

Tfc - sampling time of the FOC block which must be a multiple of the

simulation time step.

These machine and control parameters can be modified for different machines to

achieve desirable performance.

In addition to the different blocks discussed above which make up the complete FOC

block, other blocks have also been used to discretize it. The switching control

block is used to limit the inverter commutation frequency to a maximum value

specified by the user.

Figures 10 - 13 represent the SIMULINK version of various FOC blocks explained

earlier i.e. blocks used for coordinate transformation namely the Park and Inverse

Park transformations.

Hamid KHAN

16

Figure 11: Flux Orientation Calculation

Before being compared to its reference value the estimated flux value is filtered by

passing it through a low pass filter.

This block uses the relation = ( ) to calculate i*qs.

Hamid KHAN

17

3.5 FOC Simulation Results

The results elaborated below were obtained on varying the sampling times (Ts) while

maintaining the reference torque and reference flux constant at 30N-m and 0.3wb

respectively and the hysteresis comparator bandwidth set to 0.1A. The initial

conditions as specified below and simulation time of 2 seconds was kept the same.

Motor Initial Conditions:

Initial Current, phase A = 0

Initial Current, phase B = 0

Initial Current, phase C = 0

Slip Initial value = 1

Initial Rotor Position = 0

1) For Ts=1s

Torque (N-m)

Time (seconds)

Figure 15: Result FOC 1

An error of 2% is observed.

2) For Ts=10s

Torque (N-m)

Time (seconds)

Figure 16: Result FOC 2

Hamid KHAN

18

3) For Ts=100s

Torque (N-m)

Time (seconds)

Figure 17: Result FOC 3

For this case the error ranges from -50% to +13%, but for most of the time it

oscillates between -25% to -5%.

Hamid KHAN

19

4 FOC Speed Regulation

4.1 Introduction

The final objective of this application is to enable the control of the motor speed by

applying desired torque. To achieve this objective a speed controller is added to the

existing system in a closed loop with the motor. This Speed Controller then provides

the flux and torque reference values to the FOC Block.

Figure 17 details the complete SIMULINK model of the speed regulation system

using the FOC scheme (as explained earlier).

In addition to the machine and FOC parameters, the file paramspeed.m contains all

the control parameters of the Speed Controller block.

nf - nominal Machine Flux.

ctrl_sat Defines the torque output limits in N-m.

ramp Limits the acceleration and deceleration to the defined value in rpm/s.

Skp - Proportional gain of the speed controller PI regulator.

Ski - Integral gain of the speed controller PI regulator.

Sfc - Speed measurement low pass filter cut-off frequency in Hz

Tsc - Speed Controller Sampling time.

Hamid KHAN

20

Figure 19: Speed Controller Block

The speed controller block contains Speed PI block and the Flux table block. The

Speed PI block is an ordinary PI regulator with the speed error signal calculated from

the comparison of the Speed Reference value and the actual speed as its input. The

torque reference value is its output which is then provided to the FOC block as input.

The Flux Table contains the flux values corresponding to different speeds, which is

based on the fact that at low speed high torque is required and at high speed low

torque is required. Since torque is proportional to the machine flux, so at high speed

a fraction of the nominal machine flux is used while at very low speed the machine is

magnetized at the nominal flux to induce high torque.

Hamid KHAN

21

4.2 FOC Speed Regulator Simulation Results

parameters such as maximum permissible torque and loads applied are discussed.

All results discussed are based on a 1400 rpm Speed Reference and a sampling

time of 100 s.

1) Simulation result # 1

Speed (rpm)

Time (seconds)

Figure 20: Result Speed Regulation 1

Motor at No-Load with,

Maximum permissible

issible torque = 20 N-m

Maximum Permissible Acceleration

cceleration = 1500rpm/s.

Observations:

Steady state error 1%

Rise Time 0.8s.

2) Simulation result # 2

Speed (rpm)

Motor Load = 5Nm.

Maximum

aximum permissible torque = 20 N-m

Maximum Permissible Acceleration

cceleration =1500rpm/s.

Observations:

Steady state error 1%

Hamid KHAN

22

Rise time 1.2s

3) Simulation Result # 3

Speed (rpm)

Time (seconds)

Figure 22: Result Speed Regulation 3

Maximum

aximum permissible torque = 25 N-m

Maximum Permissible Acceleration = 1500rpm/s.

Observations:

Steady state error 1%

Rise time 0.6s.

4) Simulation Result # 4

Speed (rpm)

Time (seconds)

Figure 23:

2 Result Speed Regulation 4

Maximum

aximum permissible torque = 25 N-m

Maximum Permissible Acceleration = 1500rpm/s

Observations:

Steady state error 1%

Rise time 0.8s.

Hamid KHAN

23

CONCLUSION

The simulation results validate FOC as a very powerful machine torque control

scheme with exceptional dynamics. Not only is the reference torque attained in less

than 8m seconds; a good torque control for both sampling times of the order of 1s

and 10s are also achieved. The degraded performance for a sampling time of

100s order can be justified as the rotor time constant is no longer very small in

comparison to the sampling time.

The results obtained for the Speed Regulator; the speed regulators minimal error

margin of 1%, under both loaded and unloaded condition, for a sampling time as

large as 100s bears further testimony to the capability of vector control technique.

The low speed error can be attributed to the machine shaft inertia which filters out

any sharp impact on the speed caused by an oscillating torque.

By redefining the maximum torque and acceleration limit parameters the rise time

could also be modified easily.

This application note elaborates how by using the developed SIMULINK model of the

FOC Speed Regulator can be adapted to the various application requirements by

simply modifying the control parameters in the MATLAB file paramspeed.m.

Hamid KHAN

24

REFERENCE

1. Contrle des machines tournantes, Jean-Pierre Plumey.

2. Commande des machines ELT7, 4 November 2008, R. Chapuis.

3. EE8412 Advanced AC Drive Systems ABB.

4. Field Orientated Control of 3-Phase AC-Motors Texas Instruments.

5. http://www.mathworks.com/ Electric Drives.

6. Bose, B. K., Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives, Prentice-Hall, N.J.,

2002.

Hamid KHAN

25

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