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Chapter 13
Due: 12:00am on Saturday, July 3, 2010
No t e: Y ou w il l r ec ei ve no c re di t f or l at e s ub mi ss io ns . To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

Period of a Mass-Spring System Ranking Task


Description: Conceptual question on relating mass and spring constant to determine the period of a simple harmonic
system. (ranking task)
Different mass crates are placed on top of springs of uncompressed length and stiffness . The crates are released and
the springs compress to a length before bringing the crates back up to
their original positions.

Part A
Rank the time required for the crates to return to their initial positions from largest to smallest.

Hint A.1 Formula for the period


The period is defined as the time it takes for an oscillator to go through one complete cycle of its motion. Therefore,
the time for each crate to return to its initial position is one period. The period of a mass-spring system is given by

Therefore, if can be determined from the provided information, a ranking can be determined. If cannot be
determined, the ranking cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Hint A.2 Determining the mass


At equilibrium, the force of the spring upward is equal to the force of gravity downward:

Solving for the mass we get

Since the crate oscillates with equal amplitude above and below the equilibrium position, the compression of the spring
at equilibrium is one-half the total distance the crate falls before beginning to move back upward; that is,

Combining these two ideas results in

Expressing in terms of known quantities, and substituting mass into the period formula, will allow you to
determine the correct ranking.

Hint A.3 Determining


As defined in the problem, is the uncompressed length of the spring and is the maximum compression of the spring.
The total distance the crate falls before beginning to move back upward is given by

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Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

ANSWER:

View

Matching Initial Position and Velocity of Oscillator


Description: Find the constants in the general equation for simple harmonic motion (C*cos(w*t)+S*sin(w*t)) in terms of
the given initial position and velocity of an oscillator

Learning Goal: Understand how to determine the constants in the general equation for simple harmonic motion, in terms of
given initial conditions.
A common problem in physics is to match the particular initial conditions - generally given as an initial position and
velocity at - once you have obtained the general solution. You have dealt with this problem in kinematics, where
the formula

1.

has two arbitrary constants (technically constants of integration that arise when finding the position given that the
acceleration is a constant). The constants in this case are the initial position and velocity, so "fitting" the general
solution to the initial conditions is very simple.

For simple harmonic motion, it is more difficult to fit the initial conditions, which we take to be

, the position of the oscillator at , and


, the velocity of the oscillator at .

There are two common forms for the general solution for the position of a harmonic oscillator as a function of time :

2. and
3. ,

where , , , and are constants, is the oscillation frequency, and is time.

Although both expressions have two arbitrary constants--parameters that can be adjusted to fit the solution to the initial
conditions--Equation 3 is much easier to use to accommodate and . (Equation 2 would be appropriate if the initial
conditions were specified as the total energy and the time of the first zero crossing, for example.)

Part A
Find and in terms of the initial position and velocity of the oscillator.

Hint A.1 The only good way to start


Which of the following procedures would solve this problem in the most straightforward manner?

ANSWER: Differentiate twice to find . Then integrate it twice. Plug in and as the constants of
integration.
Differentiate once to find . Evaluate and and then solve for the desired
quantities.
Dimensional analysis suffices since and have different dimensions.
Use Equation 1. Plug in where .

Hint A.2 Using kinematic relationships


Find , the velocity as a function of time from Equation 3.

Hint A.2.1 Derivative of a trig function

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From the chain rule of calculus, find the derivative of with respect to time.

ANSWER:
=

ANSWER:
=

Hint A.3 Initial position


Now you have general expressions for and . Find the position at .

ANSWER:

Note that is by definition equal to the initial position of the oscillator, .

Hint A.4 Initial velocity


Find the velocity at time .

ANSWER:

Note that is by definition equal to the initial velocity of the oscillator, .

Give your answers in terms of , , and . Separate your answers with a comma.

ANSWER:
, =

Problem 13.44
Description: A physics student, bored by a lecture on simple harmonic motion, idly picks up his pencil (mass 9.2 g,
length 17 cm) by the tip with his frictionless fingers, and allows it to swing back and forth with small amplitude. (a) If
the pencil completes...
A physics student, bored by a lecture on simple harmonic motion, idly picks up his pencil (mass 9.2 , length 17 ) by the
tip with his frictionless fingers, and allows it to swing back and forth with small amplitude.

Part A
If the pencil completes 6279 full cycles during the lecture, how long does the lecture last?
Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:
=

Problem 13.74
Description: A disk of radius R is suspended from a pivot somewhere between its center and edge . (a) For what pivot
point will the period of this physical pendulum be a minimum?
A disk of radius is suspended from a pivot somewhere between its center and edge .

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Part A
For what pivot point will the period of this physical pendulum be a minimum?

ANSWER:
=

Problem 13.53
Description: A pendulum consists of a 320-g solid ball 15.0 cm in diameter, suspended by an essentially massless string
L0 cm long. (a) Calculate the period of this pendulum, treating as a simple pendulum. (b) Calculate the period of this
pendulum, treating as ...
A pendulum consists of a 320- solid ball 15.0 in diameter, suspended by an essentially massless string 50.0 long.

Part A
Calculate the period of this pendulum, treating as a simple pendulum.
Express your answer using four significant figures.

ANSWER:
=

Part B
Calculate the period of this pendulum, treating as a physical pendulum. Hint: Remember the parallel-axis theorem.
Express your answer using four significant figures.

ANSWER:

Part C
How much error is introduced by the simple pendulum approximation?

ANSWER:
=

Problem 13.65
Description: A meter stick is suspended from a frictionless rod inserted through a small hole at the ##-cm mark. (a) Find
the period of small-amplitude oscillations about the stick's equilibrium position.
A meter stick is suspended from a frictionless rod inserted through a small hole at the 23- mark.

Part A
Find the period of small-amplitude oscillations about the stick's equilibrium position.
Express your answer using two significant figures.

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ANSWER:

Problem 13.70
Description: A m-g block on a frictionless surface is attached to a rather limp spring of constant k = 8.7 ( N/m). A
second block rests on the first, and the whole system executes simple harmonic motion with a period of ## s. When the
amplitude of the motion ...
A 480- block on a frictionless surface is attached to a rather limp spring of constant . A second block rests
on the first, and the whole system executes simple harmonic motion with a period of 1.7 . When the amplitude of the motion
is increased to 35 , the upper block just begins to slip.

Part A
What is the coefficient of static friction between the blocks?
Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 0%.
You received 0 out of a possible total of 53 points.

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