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Mastering Physics Chapter 13

Mastering Physics Chapter 13

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Chapter 13

Due: 12:00am on Saturday, July 3, 2010

No t e: Y ou w il l r ec ei ve no c re di t f or l at e s ub mi ss io ns . To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

Description: Conceptual question on relating mass and spring constant to determine the period of a simple harmonic

system. (ranking task)

Different mass crates are placed on top of springs of uncompressed length and stiffness . The crates are released and

the springs compress to a length before bringing the crates back up to

their original positions.

Part A

Rank the time required for the crates to return to their initial positions from largest to smallest.

The period is defined as the time it takes for an oscillator to go through one complete cycle of its motion. Therefore,

the time for each crate to return to its initial position is one period. The period of a mass-spring system is given by

Therefore, if can be determined from the provided information, a ranking can be determined. If cannot be

determined, the ranking cannot be determined based on the information provided.

At equilibrium, the force of the spring upward is equal to the force of gravity downward:

Since the crate oscillates with equal amplitude above and below the equilibrium position, the compression of the spring

at equilibrium is one-half the total distance the crate falls before beginning to move back upward; that is,

Expressing in terms of known quantities, and substituting mass into the period formula, will allow you to

determine the correct ranking.

As defined in the problem, is the uncompressed length of the spring and is the maximum compression of the spring.

The total distance the crate falls before beginning to move back upward is given by

15 2009/11/14 11:08

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrint...

ANSWER:

View

Description: Find the constants in the general equation for simple harmonic motion (C*cos(w*t)+S*sin(w*t)) in terms of

the given initial position and velocity of an oscillator

Learning Goal: Understand how to determine the constants in the general equation for simple harmonic motion, in terms of

given initial conditions.

A common problem in physics is to match the particular initial conditions - generally given as an initial position and

velocity at - once you have obtained the general solution. You have dealt with this problem in kinematics, where

the formula

1.

has two arbitrary constants (technically constants of integration that arise when finding the position given that the

acceleration is a constant). The constants in this case are the initial position and velocity, so "fitting" the general

solution to the initial conditions is very simple.

For simple harmonic motion, it is more difficult to fit the initial conditions, which we take to be

, the velocity of the oscillator at .

There are two common forms for the general solution for the position of a harmonic oscillator as a function of time :

2. and

3. ,

Although both expressions have two arbitrary constants--parameters that can be adjusted to fit the solution to the initial

conditions--Equation 3 is much easier to use to accommodate and . (Equation 2 would be appropriate if the initial

conditions were specified as the total energy and the time of the first zero crossing, for example.)

Part A

Find and in terms of the initial position and velocity of the oscillator.

Which of the following procedures would solve this problem in the most straightforward manner?

ANSWER: Differentiate twice to find . Then integrate it twice. Plug in and as the constants of

integration.

Differentiate once to find . Evaluate and and then solve for the desired

quantities.

Dimensional analysis suffices since and have different dimensions.

Use Equation 1. Plug in where .

Find , the velocity as a function of time from Equation 3.

25 2009/11/14 11:08

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrint...

From the chain rule of calculus, find the derivative of with respect to time.

ANSWER:

=

ANSWER:

=

Now you have general expressions for and . Find the position at .

ANSWER:

Find the velocity at time .

ANSWER:

Give your answers in terms of , , and . Separate your answers with a comma.

ANSWER:

, =

Problem 13.44

Description: A physics student, bored by a lecture on simple harmonic motion, idly picks up his pencil (mass 9.2 g,

length 17 cm) by the tip with his frictionless fingers, and allows it to swing back and forth with small amplitude. (a) If

the pencil completes...

A physics student, bored by a lecture on simple harmonic motion, idly picks up his pencil (mass 9.2 , length 17 ) by the

tip with his frictionless fingers, and allows it to swing back and forth with small amplitude.

Part A

If the pencil completes 6279 full cycles during the lecture, how long does the lecture last?

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

=

Problem 13.74

Description: A disk of radius R is suspended from a pivot somewhere between its center and edge . (a) For what pivot

point will the period of this physical pendulum be a minimum?

A disk of radius is suspended from a pivot somewhere between its center and edge .

35 2009/11/14 11:08

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrint...

Part A

For what pivot point will the period of this physical pendulum be a minimum?

ANSWER:

=

Problem 13.53

Description: A pendulum consists of a 320-g solid ball 15.0 cm in diameter, suspended by an essentially massless string

L0 cm long. (a) Calculate the period of this pendulum, treating as a simple pendulum. (b) Calculate the period of this

pendulum, treating as ...

A pendulum consists of a 320- solid ball 15.0 in diameter, suspended by an essentially massless string 50.0 long.

Part A

Calculate the period of this pendulum, treating as a simple pendulum.

Express your answer using four significant figures.

ANSWER:

=

Part B

Calculate the period of this pendulum, treating as a physical pendulum. Hint: Remember the parallel-axis theorem.

Express your answer using four significant figures.

ANSWER:

Part C

How much error is introduced by the simple pendulum approximation?

ANSWER:

=

Problem 13.65

Description: A meter stick is suspended from a frictionless rod inserted through a small hole at the ##-cm mark. (a) Find

the period of small-amplitude oscillations about the stick's equilibrium position.

A meter stick is suspended from a frictionless rod inserted through a small hole at the 23- mark.

Part A

Find the period of small-amplitude oscillations about the stick's equilibrium position.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

45 2009/11/14 11:08

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrint...

ANSWER:

Problem 13.70

Description: A m-g block on a frictionless surface is attached to a rather limp spring of constant k = 8.7 ( N/m). A

second block rests on the first, and the whole system executes simple harmonic motion with a period of ## s. When the

amplitude of the motion ...

A 480- block on a frictionless surface is attached to a rather limp spring of constant . A second block rests

on the first, and the whole system executes simple harmonic motion with a period of 1.7 . When the amplitude of the motion

is increased to 35 , the upper block just begins to slip.

Part A

What is the coefficient of static friction between the blocks?

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 0%.

You received 0 out of a possible total of 53 points.

55 2009/11/14 11:08

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