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University of Louisville

TOPIC: PID Closed Control Loop of a
Knudsen Pump

STUDENT: Felipe Ramos

MAJOR: Electrical and Computer

Spring 2011


1. Introduction

a. Knudsen Gas Pump
b. Control Systems
c. PID Closed Loop Control Theory

2. System Development

a. Read output voltage from the flow sensor
b. Attach a radial Knudsen pump to the flow sensor
c. Test analog output from the DAQ NI USB 6009
d. Integrate a Knudsen pump with the I/O device
e. Implement a PID controller and circuit simulation

3. Summary & Conclusion

4. References

it does not have moving parts [2]. Knudsen Gas Pump In the last few years. Figure 1: Bidirectional Knudsen Pump Control System The idea behind a control system is to be able to manage. The temperature difference and pressure difference cause molecules to move from one chamber to the other one through the nano channel which has to be less or equal to 100 nm. as well as at different pressures. The graphic interface also includes a wave chart and voltage meter which show the voltage being read. This input is processed by a PID control and generates an output signal to perform a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) to control the thermoelectric temperature which increases or decreases the flow. A graphic interface was also design to provide the user with tools which can be used to increase and decrease the flow. There are two types of controllers: open loop controller and closed loop controller. the speed of the car can be set but if the speed changes. if the car is going . and the output is the car’s speed. In this case the controller is the cruise control. Thermal transpiration consists of two chambers connected to each other through nano channels. Figure 1 shows two chambers connected to each other by a nano channel. Introduction Abstract: The development of the PID closed loop controller is to facilitate the flow control through a Knudsen pump as well as measuring the flow through the pump. command. If the system is an open loop controller. or regulate the behavior of other devices or systems. In 1910 Martin Knudsen demonstrated that the principle of thermal transpiration could be used for gas pumping [1]. consider a car’s cruise control which is a device designed to maintain vehicle speed at a desired speed provided by the driver. The PID design is based on a flow sensor voltage which is connected to an analog input in the NI USB 6009 DAQ. Some of the benefits that a Knudsen pump offers are: It can be easy integrated into many other microfluidic platforms. direct. the Knudsen pump has been used at micro level for pumping gases. as well as a control icon which shows the flow in standard cubic centimeters (sccm). However. These chambers have to be at different temperatures. For example.

A power supply generates 10 V and 0. The controller develops an error signal that initiates corrective actions and drives the final output device to the desired value [4]. and a source of constant flow as show in figure 3. NI USB 6009 DAQ. in an open loop controller no feedback loop is employed and system variations which cause the output to deviate from the desired value are not detected or corrected. while the output is coming from a flow sensor AWM3150 which is connect to an analog input in the NI USB 6009 DAQ. then the PID controller computes the desired output using the P.uphill or downhill and its speed changes. multimeter. PID controller consists of three gains P. power supply. A PID controller is mainly used to read a sensor (flow. So a Closed Loop controller utilizes feedback to measure the actual system operating parameter being controller. if the system is a closed loop control system. The system consisted of a flow sensor. On the other hand. PID Closed Loop Controller Theory PID stands for Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. I. These gains are varied to obtain the most efficient response in a system. Figure 2 shows us a diagram of a Closed Loop Controller. In other words. In this project. D gains. Figure 2: Closed loop controller System Development A.) Read output voltage from the flow sensor The challenge for this section was to use the NI USB 6009 DAQ to measure the voltage coming out of the flow sensor as result of air flow going through the sensor. etc. in order to maintain the desired system output [3]. LabVIEW (Laptop). and use the output to adjust the system input signal so we can obtain the desired flow. The input signal will be Pulse Width Modulation signal coming from an output digital port in the NI USB 6009 DAQ which is connected to a Laptop running LabVIEW. it will not affect the controller. its voltage . It is the most popular control algorithm used in the industry due to its robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and its simplicity. a sensor is used to monitor the car speed which feeds the controller with the car’s speed to adjust the amount of gas send to the engine. This feedback signal is sent back to the controller where it is compared with the desired system setpoint. Depending on the amount of air flow.005 A in order to power the flow sensor. temperature. The flow sensor is an AWM3150V capable of measure an air flow from 0 sccm to 30 sccm. I. and D.). the goal is to use a PID controller to measure the output coming from a flow sensor.

a Waveform Chart was first placed in the front panel. To set the LabVIEW program. In figure 5. it is also possible to see the air inlet into the flow sensor. and it is being control by a stove valve. and the acquisition mode is set for Continuous Samples. A Median PtByPt was added to smooth the signal out. Figure 5 shows a better picture of how the flow sensor has been wired. A value of 5 was used in the sample length so it only takes the median value of the last five points.varies as show in table 1 [5]. shown in figure 6. in the Block Diagram a DAQ Assistant is set up for analog input 0. shown in figure 4a and 4b. The air inlet is coming from the air lab pipe. A multimeter was used to measure the voltage to verify that the DAQ and LabVIEW program were functioning properly. Figure 3: System Overview . Then. This program. The voltage is acquired by the NI USB 6009 DAQ and displayed in a wave chart in LabVIEW. was enclosed in a while loop so it runs until the stop button is pushed. the terminal configuration is RSE.

00 0.45 10 1.07 1 1.75 0.20 5 1. Nominal Tolerance Flow Scan (VDC) (VDC) 30 3.30 0.95 0.10 4 1.90 0.08 2 1.06 0 1.40 0.05 Table 1: Relationship between air flow and output voltage in the flow sensor [1] Figure 4a: Wave chart with a constant flow of 0 sccm equivalent to 1.20 0.05 v in the Y axis .50 0.10 0.70 20 2.09 3 1.

Figure 4b: Change in voltage in the Y axis as the flow increases in function of time in the X axis Figure 5: AWM 3150V air flow sensor .

one thermoelectric which has an out diameter of 24 mm. and a heat sink which is attached to the bottom part of the pump to increase the temperature difference between the top layer and the bottom layer. Figure 6: LabVIEW code B.) Attach a radial Knudsen pump to the flow sensor A radial Knudsen pump with different sizes of the membrane channels. The radial pump consists of a membrane. Figure 7 shows an overview of the system. was connected to the flow sensor and the flow sensor to the NI USB 6009 DAQ in order to accurately measure the air flow created by the pump and display it on LabVIEW. Figure 7: System Overview .

Once the system was fully set up. In these experiments. The relationship between flow and voltage is show in table 1 in the previous section. If there is a flow of 1 sccm. 9. . The membranes used in the experiment were of a diameter of 5/16” and the nano pore diameter of the membranes was of 25 nm. and 10. Figure 8: The diameter of the nano channel in the membrane is of 25 nm. and the “Max Read Volt” is the voltage read by the DAQ. The “Given Volt” is the voltage supplied to the pump.76 sccm. and 100 nm. we proceeded to obtain measurements regarding the pump flow with different nano pores membranes. the voltage read by the DAQ is 1.05V. For example if there is not flow. The maximum flow obtained was 1. the voltage is 1.10V. the flow is represented by the voltage measure by the DAQ. The results of these experiments are showed in figure 8. 50 nm.

Figure 9: The diameter of the nano channel in the membrane is of 50 nm. The maximum flow obtained was 2. Figure 10: The diameter of the nano channel in the membrane is of 100 nm. The maximum flow obtained was 1.1s sccm.63 sccm. .

The results are showed in figure 11. two 200 ohms resistors in series to control the current going to the transistor. One of the experiments consisted in adding a piece of foam to the top part of the pump. we proceeded to elaborate an electric circuit which consisted of LabVIEW.5 ohms resistors in parallel. but unfortunately the maximum flow on this pump is just of 1.18 sccm while in the pump with no foam was of 1. and a multimeter in order to measure the voltage through the resistors. As we can see in the chart. a Darlington transistor.21sccm.From the results. Due to the low flow of this pump some experiments took place to try to increase the flow so the PID application will eventually be of more use. the next step was to be able to use and test the analog output coming from the DAQ NI USB 6009 to the circuit.) Test the analog output from the DAQ NI USB 6009 Once we were able to read through the analog input and we decided that the best nano membrane was the 100 nm one. This means that the foam lets us increase its flow faster. However. Therefore. The foam was used to allow the heat to stay for a longer time and concentrate more at the top part. but it is obvious that the 100 nm channel membrane is able to give us a higher flow which is consistent with Kunal’s results [6]. Figure 11: Voltage measured by using the foam on top of the pump C. DAQ NI USB 6009. a power supply of 6 V. the results of this experiment were not as good as expected because we were able to increase the flow a lot faster but its maximum flow was still lower than the 100 nm one. the flow at 3V is higher in the pump with the foam. two 2. . it is concluded that the flow from the 25 nm and 50 nm channel membrane are really similar.

25 ohms resistor. The resistors are used to measure that the power going through the resistors does not exceed the maximum power given in the datasheet [7] for the thermoelectric. Figure 12: Analog Output 0 circuit . Figure 14 also shows the LabVIEW code used for this test. The setup of the circuit and a circuit diagram are show in figure 12 and figure 13 respectively.5 resistors in parallel which is equivalent to a 1.The 2. Table 2 shows how the current and voltages through the resistors change as the voltage changes in AO0. The thermoelectric resistance is approximately 1 ohm that is why we are using two 2. The resistance was obtained from the thermoelectric datasheet.5 ohms resistors in this circuit are replacing the thermoelectric to let us measure the current going through them.

Figure 13: Analog Output circuit diagram Figure 14: LabVIEW code used to test Analog Output 0 .

85 A 5V 3. These changes consisted of adding a DAQ assistant in order to be able to read the voltages from the flow sensor. which are the units for the flow.38 V 2. we decided that it would be safe to put a thermoelectric instead of the 2.5 ohm resistors. Figure 15 shows how the pump was integrated to the circuit and figure 16 shows us a system overview.99 A Table 2: Power going through the 2.) Integrate a Knudsen pump with the I/O device Once we found out the current and the voltage going through the resistors. The formula was obtained by looking at the relationship between volts and flow given in table 1 in section 1.55 V 2.73 A 2. We also made some changes in the LabVIEW program.5 V 3. we can also see the voltages and the flow read by LabVIEW while the pump is running. Figure 15: Knudsen pump integrated to Analog Output circuit . two wave charts that would show us graphically how the voltage and flow are changing respectively as well as a formula to convert from volts to sccm.24 V 2. In figure 17b. Analog Output Voltage Voltage through Resistor Current through Resistor 1. The thermoelectric can tolerate up to 4.7 V and 5.1.5 V 3. Figure 17a and 17b show us how the new code and the interface look respectively.5 ohms resistors D.8 A according to the information given in the datasheet.

Figure 16: System Overview Figure 17a: LabVIEW code for AO0 and AI0 integrated together .

the virtual channel for the input stayed as an analog signal. i. then we did some experiments in order to come up with the best values for the PID gains. This library features different variables such as p. and d gains to prove that the code worked. while the virtual channel for the output was replaced by a digital signal. However. We decided to replace the DAQ assistant with virtual channels for the input and the output signals. Once we had the code written. a process variable which is the system parameter that needs to be controlled. and a maximum and minimum controller which are the maximum and minimum values that the PID can output. The reason to make the output digital was the fact that we are outputting a pulse wave. It also has a set point which is the desired output of the system.) Implement a PID controller and circuit simulation With the analog input and analog output properly working. Once the code was fully working. . i. Figure 17b: LabVIEW interface with results of real data E. d gains. which outputs either a 1 or a 0 and its duty cycle depends on the PID output. The PID library is shown in figure 18. random values were set for the p. d which are the variables for the p. we proceeded to download the library from the National Instrument website. Figure 19 shows the new code. At the beginning we try to use the old code but quickly we came to realize that some major changes needed to take place in order to have a faster and more accurate control of the pump. Therefore. i. the only step left to take was the implementation of the PID controller.

d is the gain in charge to reduce the overshoot. however. the tutorial describes that i and d have to be set to 0.To come up with the PID gains. and how to obtain the PID . First we tried setting i and d to 0 but the program would crash or give an error message. we were able to run the program. After having p and i working. Once we assigned the small values for i and d. Once the flow changed.0001 and 0. I increase d until the overshoot was small enough. Unfortunately in our system it was not that easy. we follow a PID Theory Explained [8] tutorial obtained from the National Instruments web site. Figure 18: simplepid. Due to this circumstance. I started to increase the value of i until the change was fast enough. however. how to set it up. So we proceeded to set i and d to very small values such as 0. To obtain the PID gain.5. as the tutorial said. d is increased until the system reaches the set point quickly. increasing d can caused the system to become vulnerable to noise.1 based on some experiments found in the internet. Finally. At this point. Once the output is oscillating. In other words. I decided to set p to a value of 0. I was able to see the flow changing in the system. no matter how big the gain of p was it will not change our flow fast enough. This tutorial describes what a PID controller is. we proceeded to increase i until the oscillations stop. and the p is increased until the output oscillates.00001. and i and d to a value of 0.

Figure 20 shows us the circuit design with its different currents and voltages. . They results were also similar to the values expected from manual calculations. Figure 21 shows a transient analysis of the current. As a result of the simulation. It also shows us a 50% duty cycle wave signal which act as the digital output coming from the NI USB 6009 DAQ. The results of the current from the simulation match the value measured by our power supply. Figure 19: PID controller code In this section. The results of the simulation are in showed in figure 20 and figure 21. We were also able to compare this values to the experimental values measured in the circuit. we also designed and implemented a circuit simulation using Multisim. we were able to characterize the current and voltage going through the circuit. more specifically the power being used by the thermoelectric. voltage and power going through R1 which is used as the thermoelectric.

Figure 20: Circuit design and implementation in Multisim Figure 21: Transient Analysis of the thermoelectric in the Multisim .

Figure 22: LabView Interface .

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