5 views

Uploaded by Adriana_Torres

ZEERCO Air Heater tHERMAL AND FLOW PROFILE ANALYSIS

- 205 Heater Trip Curves p481-482
- Untitled
- Belimo CRK24-B1_1_1_en
- Department of Labor: bc news04feb
- FANCOILS SELECTOR
- Chapter 3
- Hotel Case Study-grp 1
- 41-How to Calculate Air Temp in Unconditioned Spaces
- Unknown Author - PWB_102cpdf
- JBS Newsletter - 10/12
- Cv_denny Firmansyah - Epc o&g
- Thermodynamics
- act._tipos_de_oraciones
- Circulators
- Doc1.docx
- _Retrocommissionings Greatest Hits
- Mechanical Report
- West Bend Express News 122113
- Kaset tipi - D Şasi Servis
- Multifunctional, Adaptable Facades

You are on page 1of 11

Contents

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2

Flow Distribution Grid Design ....................................................................................................................... 3

Thermal Analysis ........................................................................................................................................... 3

Method ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

Results ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

2

Introduction

This report outlines the thermal analysis and airflow distribution model as part of an air heater package

produced by Zeeco. The first section includes design details of the flow distribution grid applied in the

inlet of the heater, located below the duct burners. The grid design was based on a CFD analysis.

The second section includes an analysis performed by Zeeco to determine the final temperature

distribution at the exit of the heater. This was accomplished using a program to perform a thermal

balance based on flow and temperature on each element. These elements are created by cutting the

heater into a number of cross sections at different elevations and overlaying a grid on each section.

3

The flow distribution grid is a device inserted into the inlet of the heater to create a uniform velocity

distribution for combustion. In this particular case, air enters the heater after a 90 bend from a

horizontal to vertical direction. This change in direction causes a low static pressure region on the inside

of the bend, resulting in a variance of velocity and turbulent flow.

The flow distribution grid utilizes five zones with different percentages of open areas that restrict flow

in high pressure areas and create a uniform velocity distribution across the outlet of the grid. The design

goals are as follows:

Redistribute the air to ensure a velocity distribution of 5% at the exit of the grid

Ensure the total pressure drop across the vessel is less than 1 PSI

Thermal Analysis

The objective of the thermal analysis was to determine the final temperature distribution at a cross

section located at the outlet of the air heater and controlled heat release (drilling pattern. This ensures

that the temperature variance was minimized to meet the specification. Calculations were performed by

dividing each cross section into 6x6 square elements in a grid pattern. This determined the

temperatures performed for each element at cross sections every 6 in elevation above the burners,

starting at the level of fuel injection. The provided drilling was used to find the heat released at each

cell. Calculations were performed until a satisfactory temperature variance was indicated or the top of

the heater was reached. The temperature calculations process included taking three iterations at each

cross section before the final temperatures were recorded.

Method

The following list outlines each step of the calculation process to find the final temperature

distribution in order:

1. Initial temperature

The initial temperature listed for each cell is the final temperature from the

cross section 6and below. This temperature is used to calculate the specific

heat, Cp. The amount of heat added to the cell will generate a temperature rise.

This will be added to this initial temperature to find the 0th iteration final

temperature.

4

2. Cp calculation

The specific heat is used to calculate the 0th iteration final temperature. Cp was

tabulated based on the initial air temperature for each cell.

3. Heat Released

The heat released varies for each cell and elevation. The tip drilling pattern

defines the total heat release over the entire flame height for each cell. Once

this was determined, the heat released for a particular cell at each elevation

was calculated using the following equation:

= 6

Z= height of cross section

Zmax = total flame length for the cell in question

Note: the heat released is the heat added between the previous elevation to the

current elevation.

The temperature at this point for each cell is the initial temperature including

the rise due to the heat added by the flame. The formula used is the simplified

steady-flow thermal equation as shown below:

= = ( )

This formula assumes all heat entering a cell results in a change of internal

energy in the form of higher temperature. If there is no heat added to a cell, the

initial temperature is simply carried over.

5

Cell 1 Cell 30

Note the grid numbering system. Due to the symmetry of the velocity contour

plot, calculations were only performed for the east portion of the heater.

To model the transfer of heat from hot to cooler grids, cells were combined and

averaged, creating a grid of larger squares (12x12 maximum in Iteration 1). To

account for cells around the perimeter with smaller areas and cells with

different mass flows, the average was weighted accordingly.

This method assumes the grids have approximately the same compositions and

specific heats so that only the cell areas, flow rates, and temperatures factor

into the rate of heat transfer to adjacent cells.

To find the mass flow rates through each cell, the velocity contour plot was

mapped and entered into each cell. This contour plot was taken at a cross

section 14 below the runners in order to avoid localized airflow effects. The

velocities for each cell were then averaged and weighted by area to find the

overall average velocity. The percentage variance from the average velocity was

then obtained from each cell to create a mass flow correction factor. This factor

is multiplied by the average mass flow per cell to find the actual mass flow

through each cell.

LBS

2,491,200 HR

688 Total cells

6

The formula to obtain the final temperature for Cell 2, Iteration 1 (Cell 1.2) is as

follows:

,2 2 2 + ,3 3 3 + ,32 32 32 + ,33 33 33

,1.2 =

,2 2 + ,3 3 + ,32 32 + ,33 33

In this case, since the areas are equal they cancel out.

Calculation of the final temperature of this iteration follows the same procedure

as the previous iteration but with the grid now being spaced 18 apart.

7

In this case, the grid is 24x24, so the grid from the first iteration was used as

the basis to average in order for simplifying calculations. Iteration 3 was the

final iteration, yet adjacent cells still were not able to transfer heat to each

other. To solve this, Iteration 3b was created, which shifts the grid south 6 and

east 6. The method of calculation was switched at every cross section, i.e.:

cross section 1 used 3a, cross section 2 used 3b, cross section 3 used 3a, etc.

The final temperature from Iteration 3 or 3b was the final calculation for a cross

section.

8

Results

After the thermal analysis and airflow distribution model results have been reviewed, the heater

temperature distribution is reported is sufficiently uniform (less than 1% variance from average)

when the heater begins to neck down at the outlet. This result is due to the increased air mixing

and time to reach equilibrium.

The following charts take the temperatures along several chords parallel to the North-South line

of symmetry at several elevations. The elevations chosen are all at 12 apart so that all charts

utilize the same formula for the 3rd Iteration. Z=264 is the final elevation shown, just below the

point where the heater begins to neck down at the outlet.

1400

1380

1360

1340

Temperature (F)

1320 Z=48"

1300 Z=84

1280 Z=120

Z=156

1260

Z=192

1240

Z=264

1220

1200

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Cell #

9

Temperature profile

1400

1380

1360

1340

Temperature (F)

1320 Z=48"

1300 Z=84

1280 Z=120

Z=156

1260

Z=192

1240

Z=264

1220

1200

119 124 129 134 139 144

Cell #

Temperature profile

1400

1380

1360

1340

Temperature (F)

1320 Z=48"

1300 Z=84

1280 Z=120

Z=156

1260

Z=192

1240

Z=264

1220

1200

227 232 237 242 247

Cell #

10

Temperature profile

1400

1380

1360

1340

Temperature (F)

1320 Z=96"

1300 Z=84

1280 Z=120

Z=156

1260

Z=192

1240

Z=264

1220

1200

311 313 315 317 319 321 323 325

Cell #

1400

1350

Average Temperature (F)

1300

1250

1200

1150

1100

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Elevation above runners (IN)

11

1344 1344 1343 1343 1343 1343 1343 1343 1343 1343 1344 1344

1344 1344 1344 1344 1343 1343 1343 1343 1343 1343 1343 1343 1344 1344 1344 1344

1349

1349

1349

1346

1346

1346

1346

1346

1346

1346

1346

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1344

1346

1346

1346

1346

1346

1346

1346

1346

1349

1349 1349

N

1349 1349 1349 1346 1346 1346 1346 1344 1344 1344 1344 1344 1344 1344 1344 1346 1346 1346 1346 1349 1349 1349

1349 1349 1349 1349 1346 1346 1346 1346 1344 1344 1344 1344 1344 1344 1344 1344 1346 1346 1346 1346 1349 1349 1349 1349

1353 1351 1351 1351 1351 1348 1348 1348 1348 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1348 1348 1348 1348 1351 1351 1351 1351 1353

1353 1351 1351 1351 1351 1348 1348 1348 1348 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1348 1348 1348 1348 1351 1351 1351 1351 1353

1353 1353 1351 1351 1351 1351 1348 1348 1348 1348 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1348 1348 1348 1348 1351 1351 1351 1351 1353 1353

1353 1353 1351 1351 1351 1351 1348 1348 1348 1348 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1346 1348 1348 1348 1348 1351 1351 1351 1351 1353 1353

1353 1353 1352 1352 1352 1352 1349 1349 1349 1349 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1349 1349 1349 1349 1352 1352 1352 1352 1353 1353

1353 1353 1353 1352 1352 1352 1352 1349 1349 1349 1349 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1349 1349 1349 1349 1352 1352 1352 1352 1353 1353 1353

1353 1353 1353 1352 1352 1352 1352 1349 1349 1349 1349 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1349 1349 1349 1349 1352 1352 1352 1352 1353 1353 1353

1353 1353 1353 1352 1352 1352 1352 1349 1349 1349 1349 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1347 1349 1349 1349 1349 1352 1352 1352 1352 1353 1353 1353

1352 1352 1352 1351 1351 1351 1351 1348 1348 1348 1348 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1348 1348 1348 1348 1351 1351 1351 1351 1352 1352 1352

1352 1352 1352 1351 1351 1351 1351 1348 1348 1348 1348 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1348 1348 1348 1348 1351 1351 1351 1351 1352 1352 1352

1352 1352 1352 1351 1351 1351 1351 1348 1348 1348 1348 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1348 1348 1348 1348 1351 1351 1351 1351 1352 1352 1352

1352 1352 1351 1351 1351 1351 1348 1348 1348 1348 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1345 1348 1348 1348 1348 1351 1351 1351 1351 1352 1352

1351 1351 1347 1347 1347 1347 1344 1344 1344 1344 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1344 1344 1344 1344 1347 1347 1347 1347 1351 1351

1351 1351 1347 1347 1347 1347 1344 1344 1344 1344 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1344 1344 1344 1344 1347 1347 1347 1347 1351 1351

1351 1347 1347 1347 1347 1344 1344 1344 1344 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1344 1344 1344 1344 1347 1347 1347 1347 1351

1351 1347 1347 1347 1347 1344 1344 1344 1344 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1342 1344 1344 1344 1344 1347 1347 1347 1347 1351

1344 1344 1344 1344 1340 1340 1340 1340 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1340 1340 1340 1340 1344 1344 1344 1344

1344 1344 1344 1340 1340 1340 1340 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1340 1340 1340 1340 1344 1344 1344

1344 1344 1340 1340 1340 1340 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1340 1340 1340 1340 1344 1344

1344 1340 1340 1340 1340 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1337 1340 1340 1340 1340 1344

1336 1336 1336 1336 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1336 1336 1336 1336

1336 1336 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1336 1336

Largest 1353.199 F

Smallest 1335.492 F

Average 1346.098 F

10.60529 F (variance from average)

- 205 Heater Trip Curves p481-482Uploaded byAdam Laskar Ikhwani
- UntitledUploaded byapi-77087024
- Belimo CRK24-B1_1_1_enUploaded bypitanje1991
- Department of Labor: bc news04febUploaded byDepartment of Labor
- FANCOILS SELECTORUploaded byUnilab
- Chapter 3Uploaded byBedewi Bilal
- Hotel Case Study-grp 1Uploaded byAlisha Nisar
- 41-How to Calculate Air Temp in Unconditioned SpacesUploaded byalmig200
- Unknown Author - PWB_102cpdfUploaded bygreatgenius
- JBS Newsletter - 10/12Uploaded bysequoiaims
- Cv_denny Firmansyah - Epc o&gUploaded byDenny Firmansyah
- ThermodynamicsUploaded byMuhammadAhmad
- act._tipos_de_oracionesUploaded byGilberto Isea Delmoral
- CirculatorsUploaded byRobert Nixon
- Doc1.docxUploaded byMurugan Kj
- _Retrocommissionings Greatest HitsUploaded byM1234b
- Mechanical ReportUploaded bymortezarasoulian
- West Bend Express News 122113Uploaded byHometown Publications - Express News
- Kaset tipi - D Şasi ServisUploaded byaydintarak
- Multifunctional, Adaptable FacadesUploaded byMohammed Gism Allah
- Energy Efficency In Hospitals part 1.pdfUploaded byHM5
- surface heat experimentUploaded byapi-239568747
- Sika Unitherm - 19010.pdfUploaded bymihaisradu
- BS-5720_1979-MVAC IN BUILDING.pdfUploaded byVũ Vu Vơ
- Green BuildingUploaded byShweta Raina
- Energy Management Licensed Trade BrochureUploaded byHeatandEnergy.Org
- grant proposal 39 1Uploaded byapi-459913637
- Thermodynamics Test PaperUploaded byKrishnaKishoreReddy
- General Wattage ChartUploaded bysaidarao2012
- Duplex House ConceptUploaded byKhristine Lerie Pascual

- 0064865.pdfUploaded byYordi edward Quispe garcia
- Aspen Plus TutorialUploaded bygpcshf
- Emissions Testing of Sonic Velocity FlaresUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- 2534815-Curso-de-ingles-BBC-English-01.pdfUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- capitulo6.pdfUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- Modulo ViiUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- 01h_1530_377.pdfUploaded byLIBIO ESTEPA
- tablas y diagramas.pdfUploaded byQuinteros Rodolfo
- ds-28291_dgnr.pdfUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- Flare Gas Recovery RGBUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- tuberia REVISADAUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- 1358339961.116_pdfsam_El_Refino_del__Petroleo_Vol_1_Wauquier.pdfUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- CARCAZATUBUploaded byLeonardo Méndez Sánchez
- 9.00TrepanosimpregnadosyturbinasIAPG.pptUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- 008.Anexo 1 - Manual de Operación y Mantenimiento Parte 7.pdfUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- Sec12 Anclaje y Manejo de Cemento a GranelUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- 07e_1535_188Uploaded byAdriana_Torres
- 7 Distribucion de La Renta Bolivia Celica Hernandez JUBILEOUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- TNA Guidebook OvercomingBarriersTechTransfer 10Uploaded byAdriana_Torres
- Sec8 Cementacion ForzadaUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- Sec5Uploaded byJoao Cristofer Tarqui Flores
- Sec7 TaponamientoUploaded byAdriana_Torres
- RESOLUCIÓN MINISTERIAL 222/12Uploaded byAdriana_Torres
- Sec3_Cementos_y_Aditivos[2]Uploaded byAdriana_Torres
- Sec1-2.pdfUploaded byJoao Cristofer Tarqui Flores
- Sec10.pdfUploaded byJoao Cristofer Tarqui Flores
- Define CementUploaded byelio_tola
- 0001_IPM_IFM_IVM_V100_41_70_Specs_PU (1)Uploaded byFelipe Consuegra
- MANEJO del CAMBIOUploaded byAdriana_Torres

- CMakeListsUploaded bynunoxic
- InstruAire Brochure MD 6.6.14Uploaded byermusat
- PS1_2012723g28_Part1Uploaded byRawlinson Tolentino
- e18546Uploaded bythangbom8008
- Assignment2-3 MMW Case Answer KeyUploaded bysandeshtuladhar
- Reciprocal PronounsUploaded byRithik Visu
- 2008BuildingEnrgyEfficiencyStdUploaded byjahosolaris5512
- Penetration of Microwaves into AluminumUploaded byJohn Michael Williams
- causal inferenceUploaded byaswilson078000
- PolystyreneUploaded byclcontact15
- Samsung CAC (Ceiling Unit) Service ManualUploaded bysonic8659
- Pqc.road ConcreteUploaded bymangeshshinde124
- ERD TutorialUploaded bybhuvangates
- Rr211001 Electrical TechnologyUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- book_example_hw_dataset (2).xlsxUploaded bymarcelo bueno
- Ditch Witch FX20 SpecsUploaded byEdwin Harris
- STOMATAL OPENINGS LAB 3 BIO 316.docxUploaded byKoketso Mogwe
- Core Java With SCJP OCJP Notes by DurgaUploaded bymuralikrishna221
- Virtual Bio instrumentation Lecture 01Uploaded byDIm
- 3300 Setup for Connecting to NuPointUploaded byAmil Alexander
- 1746-NI8Uploaded byJepo Dussan
- Robust Ensemble ClusteringUploaded bylogu1234
- ECEN325 Lab ManualUploaded byIrwan Ramli
- SAJC BT2 Paper 1 Solutions 2012Uploaded byTurfy Yan
- mattervocabularyUploaded byapi-264004571
- GTF-XtraUploaded byjilf
- EMV v4.3 Book 1 ICC to Terminal Interface 2012060705394541Uploaded bySunil Shenava
- ComparisonUploaded byhram_phd
- Survey of LTE Downlink Schedulers Algorithms in Open Access Simulation Tools NS-3 and LTE-SIMUploaded byJohn Berg
- Examination Format Answer 2Uploaded byRosmini Abdul Rahman